(19)
(11)EP 3 080 123 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
17.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/25

(21)Application number: 14825109.3

(22)Date of filing:  08.12.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C07D 471/04(2006.01)
A61P 29/00(2006.01)
A61K 31/437(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2014/076848
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/086509 (18.06.2015 Gazette  2015/24)

(54)

IMIDAZOPYRIDINE DERIVATIVES AS MODULATORS OF TNF ACTIVITY

IMIDAZOPYRAZINDERIVATE ALS MODULATOREN DER TNF-AKTIVITÄT

DÉRIVÉS D'IMIDAZOPYRIDINE COMME MODULATEURS DE L'ACTIVITÉ DU TNF


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 09.12.2013 GB 201321741

(43)Date of publication of application:
19.10.2016 Bulletin 2016/42

(73)Proprietor: UCB Biopharma SRL
1070 Brussels (BE)

(72)Inventors:
  • DELIGNY, Michaël Louis Robert
    B-1070 Brussels (BE)
  • HEER, Jag Paul
    B-1070 Brussels (BE)
  • JACKSON, Victoria Elizabeth
    Slough Berkshire SL1 3WE (GB)
  • KROEPLIEN, Boris
    Slough Berkshire SL1 3WE (GB)
  • LECOMTE, Fabien Claude
    Slough Berkshire SL1 3WE (GB)
  • PORTER, John Robert
    Slough Berkshire SL1 3WE (GB)

(74)Representative: J A Kemp LLP 
14 South Square Gray's Inn
London WC1R 5JJ
London WC1R 5JJ (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 470 543
EP-A1- 2 298 731
WO-A1-94/21255
WO-A2-2013/144737
US-A- 5 102 880
EP-A1- 1 136 492
EP-A2- 0 706 795
WO-A1-2013/095761
JP-A- 2011 136 925
US-A- 5 332 744
  
  • DMYTRO OSTROVSKYI ET AL: "An Efficient Synthesis of 6-Nitro- and 6-Amino-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines by Cyclocondensation of 1-Substituted 1H-Imidazol-5-amines with 3-Nitro-4H-chromen-4-one", SYNLETT, vol. 2010, no. 15, 1 September 2010 (2010-09-01), pages 2299-2303, XP055176933, ISSN: 0936-5214, DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1258538
  • ZHE YU ET AL: "Energetic factors determining the binding of type I inhibitors to c-Met kinase: experimental studies and quantum mechanical calculations", ACTA PHARMACOLOGICA SINICA, vol. 34, no. 11, 5 November 2013 (2013-11-05), pages 1475-1483, XP055176949, ISSN: 1671-4083, DOI: 10.1038/aps.2013.85
  • SUNG-EUN YOO ET AL: "A comparative molecular field analysis and molecular modelling studies on pyridylimidazole type of angiotensin II antagonists", BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 7, no. 12, 1 December 1999 (1999-12-01), pages 2971-2976, XP055176981, ISSN: 0968-0896, DOI: 10.1016/S0968-0896(99)00245-X
  • ALKA KURUP ET AL: "Comparative QSAR: Angiotensin II Antagonists", CHEMICAL REVIEWS, vol. 101, no. 9, 1 September 2001 (2001-09-01), pages 2727-2750, XP055177140, ISSN: 0009-2665, DOI: 10.1021/cr000025g
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to a class of fused imidazole derivatives, and to their use in therapy. More particularly, this invention is concerned with pharmacologically active substituted 3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derivatives. These compounds are modulators of the signalling of TNFα, and are accordingly of benefit as pharmaceutical agents, especially in the treatment of adverse inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, pain and nociceptive disorders, cardiovascular disorders, metabolic disorders, ocular disorders, and oncological disorders.

[0002] TNFα is the prototypical member of the Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) superfamily of proteins that share a primary function of regulating cell survival and cell death. One structural feature common to all known members of the TNF superfamily is the formation of trimeric complexes that bind to, and activate, specific TNF superfamily receptors. By way of example, TNFα exists in soluble and transmembrane forms and signals through two receptors, known as TNFR1 and TNFR2, with distinct functional endpoints.

[0003] Various products capable of modulating TNFα activity are already commercially available. All are approved for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. All currently approved products are macromolecular and act by inhibiting the binding of human TNFα to its receptor. Typical macromolecular TNFα inhibitors include anti-TNFa antibodies; and soluble TNFα receptor fusion proteins. Examples of commercially available anti-TNFa antibodies include fully human antibodies such as adalimumab (Humira®) and golimumab (Simponi®), chimeric antibodies such as infliximab (Remicade®), and pegylated Fab' fragments such as certolizumab pegol (Cimzia®). An example of a commercially available soluble TNFα receptor fusion protein is etanercept (Enbrel®).

[0004] TNF superfamily members, including TNFα itself, are implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological functions that are believed to play a part in a range of conditions of significant medical importance (see, for example, M.G. Tansey & D.E. Szymkowski, Drug Discovery Today, 2009, 14, 1082-1088; and F.S. Carneiro et al., J. Sexual Medicine, 2010, 7, 3823-3834).

[0005] The compounds in accordance with the present invention, being potent modulators of human TNFα activity, are therefore beneficial in the treatment and/or prevention of various human ailments. These include autoimmune and inflammatory disorders; neurological and neurodegenerative disorders; pain and nociceptive disorders; cardiovascular disorders; metabolic disorders; ocular disorders; and oncological disorders.

[0006] In addition, the compounds in accordance with the present invention may be beneficial as pharmacological standards for use in the development of new biological tests and in the search for new pharmacological agents. Thus, in one embodiment, the compounds of this invention may be useful as radioligands in assays for detecting pharmacologically active compounds. In an alternative embodiment, certain compounds of this invention may be useful for coupling to a fluorophore to provide fluorescent conjugates that can be utilised in assays (e.g. a fluorescence polarisation assay) for detecting pharmacologically active compounds.

[0007] Co-pending international patent applications WO 2013/186229 (published 19 December 2013), WO 2014/009295 (published 16 January 2014) and WO 2014/009296 (also published 16 January 2014) describe fused imidazole derivatives which are modulators of human TNFα activity.

[0008] None of the prior art available to date, however, discloses or suggests the precise structural class of 3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derivatives as provided by the present invention.

[0009] The compounds in accordance with the present invention potently inhibit the binding of a fluorescence conjugate to TNFα when tested in the fluorescence polarisation assay described herein. Indeed, when tested in that assay, the compounds of the present invention exhibit an IC50 value of 50 µM or less, generally of 20 µM or less, usually of 5 µM or less, typically of 1 µM or less, suitably of 500 nM or less, ideally of 100 nM or less, and preferably of 20 nM or less (the skilled person will appreciate that a lower IC50 figure denotes a more active compound).

[0010] Certain compounds in accordance with the present invention potently neutralise the activity of TNFα in a commercially available HEK-293 derived reporter cell line known as HEK-Blue™ CD40L. This is a stable HEK-293 transfected cell line expressing SEAP (secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase) under the control of the IFNβ minimal promoter fused to five NF-κB binding sites. Secretion of SEAP by these cells is stimulated in a concentration-dependent manner by TNFα. When tested in the HEK-293 bioassay, also referred to herein as the reporter gene assay, certain compounds of the present invention exhibit an IC50 value of 50 µM or less, generally of 20 µM or less, usually of 5 µM or less, typically of 1 µM or less, suitably of 500 nM or less, ideally of 100 nM or less, and preferably of 20 nM or less (as before, the skilled person will appreciate that a lower IC50 figure denotes a more active compound).

[0011] EP 0706795 describes the use of a class of catechol diether compounds for use as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor(TNF), and for the treatment or alleviation of inflammatory conditions or diseases.

[0012] The present invention provides a compound of formula (IIB) or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a co-crystal thereof:

wherein

E represents -CH2- or -CH(CH3)-;

Q represents -CH2-, -CH(OH)- or -CH2O-;

Z represents hydrogen, methyl, phenyl, aminocarbonylphenyl or aminocarbonylpyridinyl;

V represents C-R22 or N;

R12 represents hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, trifluoromethyl, methyl or ethoxycarbonylethyl;

R15 represents hydrogen, halogen, C1-6 alkyl or difluoromethoxy;

R16 represents hydrogen, halogen or C1-6 alkyl;

R21 represents hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl or (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl; or R21 represents (C3-7)cycloalkyl, which group may be optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents independently selected from C1-6 alkyl and hydroxy;

R22 represents hydrogen, halogen or C1-6 alkyl; and

R23 represents hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl or C1-6 alkoxy.



[0013] Also described herein is a compound of formula (I) or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a glucuronide derivative thereof, or a co-crystal thereof:

wherein

E represents a covalent bond; or E represents -S(O)2- or -N(R4)-; or E represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain;

Q represents a covalent bond; or Q represents -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)(NR5)-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, -N(R5)C(O)-, -S(O)2N(R5)- or -N(R5)S(O)2-; or Q represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-6 alkylene chain optionally comprising one, two or three heteroatom-containing linkages independently selected from -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)(NR5)-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, -N(R5)C(O)-, -S(O)2N(R5)- and -N(R5)S(O)2-;

Y represents C3-7 cycloalkyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents;

Z represents hydrogen, halogen or trifluoromethyl; or Z represents C1-6 alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; or Z represents

-Z1-Z2 or -Z1-C(O)-Z2, either of which moieties may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents;

Z1 represents a divalent radical derived from an aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl or heteroaryl group;

Z2 represents aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl or heteroaryl;

R1, R2 and R3 independently represent hydrogen, halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, -ORa, -SRa, -SORa, -SO2Ra, -SFs, -NRbRc, -NRcCORd, -NRcCO2Rd, -NHCONRbRc, -NRcSO2Re, -N(SO2Re)2, -NHSO2NRbRc, -CORd, -CO2Rd, -CONRbRc, -CON(ORa)Rb, -SO2NRbRc or -SO(NRb)Rd; or C1-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, C2-6 alkynyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, C4-7 cycloalkenyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, aryl, aryl(C1-6)-alkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl, C4-9 heterobicycloalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaryl(C1-6)alkyl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylaryl-, heteroaryl(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-7)cycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)bicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl- or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents;

R4 and R5 independently represent hydrogen or C1-6 alkyl;

Ra represents C1-6 alkyl, aryl, aryl(C1-6)alkyl, heteroaryl or heteroaryl(C1-6)alkyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents;

Rb and Rc independently represent hydrogen or trifluoromethyl; or C1-6 alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, aryl, aryl(C1-6)alkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, heteroaryl or heteroaryl(C1-6)alkyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; or

Rb and Rc, when taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are both attached, represent azetidin-1-yl, pyrrolidin-1-yl, oxazolidin-3-yl, isoxazolidin-2-yl, thiazolidin-3-yl, isothiazolidin-2-yl, piperidin-1-yl, morpholin-4-yl, thiomorpholin-4-yl, piperazin-1-yl, homopiperidin-1-yl, homomorpholin-4-yl or homopiperazin-1-yl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents;

Rd represents hydrogen; or C1-6 alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; and

Re represents C1-6 alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.



[0014] The present invention also provides a compound of formula (IIB) as defined above or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a co-crystal thereof, for use in therapy.

[0015] Also described herein is a compound of formula (IIB) as defined above or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a co-crystal thereof, for use in the treatment and/or prevention of disorders for which the administration of a modulator of TNFα function is indicated.

[0016] In another aspect, the present invention provides a compound of formula (IIB) as defined above or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a co-crystal thereof, for use in the treatment and/or prevention of an inflammatory or autoimmune disorder, a neurological or neurodegenerative disorder, pain or a nociceptive disorder, a cardiovascular disorder, a metabolic disorder, an ocular disorder, or an oncological disorder.

[0017] Where any of the groups in the compounds of formula (IIB) above is stated to be optionally substituted, this group may be unsubstituted, or substituted by one or more substituents. Typically, such groups will be unsubstituted, or substituted by one or two substituents.

[0018] For use in medicine, the salts of the compounds of formula (IIB) will be pharmaceutically acceptable salts. Other salts may, however, be useful in the preparation of the compounds of use in the invention or of their pharmaceutically acceptable salts. Standard principles underlying the selection and preparation of pharmaceutically acceptable salts are described, for example, in Handbook of Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection and Use, ed. P.H. Stahl & C.G. Wermuth, Wiley-VCH, 2002. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds of use in this invention include acid addition salts which may, for example, be formed by mixing a solution of the compound of use in the invention with a solution of a pharmaceutically acceptable acid such as hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, methanesulphonic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid or phosphoric acid. Furthermore, where the compounds of use in the invention carry an acidic moiety, e.g. carboxy, suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof may include alkali metal salts, e.g. sodium or potassium salts; alkaline earth metal salts, e.g. calcium or magnesium salts; ammonium salts; and salts formed with suitable organic ligands, e.g. quaternary ammonium salts, and meglumine salts.

[0019] The present invention includes within its scope solvates of the compounds of formula (IIB) above. Such solvates may be formed with common organic solvents, e.g. hydrocarbon solvents such as benzene or toluene; chlorinated solvents such as chloroform or dichloromethane; alcoholic solvents such as methanol, ethanol or isopropanol; ethereal solvents such as diethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran; or ester solvents such as ethyl acetate. Alternatively, the solvates of the compounds of formula (IIB) may be formed with water, in which case they will be hydrates.

[0020] The present invention also includes co-crystals within its scope. The technical term "co-crystal" is used to describe the situation where neutral molecular components are present within a crystalline compound in a definite stoichiometric ratio. The preparation of pharmaceutical co-crystals enables modifications to be made to the crystalline form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient, which in turn can alter its physicochemical properties without compromising its intended biological activity (see Pharmaceutical Salts and Co-crystals, ed. J. Wouters & L. Quere, RSC Publishing, 2012). Typical examples of co-crystal formers, which may be present in the co-crystal alongside the active pharmaceutical ingredient, include L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, glutaric acid, urea and nicotinamide.

[0021] Prodrugs of the compounds of formula (IIB) above are also described herein. In general, such prodrugs will be functional derivatives of the compounds of formula (IIB) which are readily convertible in vivo into the required compound of formula (IIB). Conventional procedures for the selection and preparation of suitable prodrug derivatives are described, for example, in Design of Prodrugs, ed. H. Bundgaard, Elsevier, 1985.

[0022] Suitable alkyl groups which may be present on the compounds of use in the invention include straight-chained and branched C1-6 alkyl groups, for example C1-4 alkyl groups. Typical examples include methyl and ethyl groups, and straight-chained or branched propyl, butyl and pentyl groups. Particular alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, 2,2-dimethylpropyl and 3-methylbutyl. Derived expressions such as "C1-6 alkoxy", "C1-6 alkylthio", "C1-6 alkylsulphonyl" and "C1-6 alkylamino" are to be construed accordingly.

[0023] The expression "C1-4 alkylene chain" refers to a divalent straight or branched alkylene chain containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Typical examples include methylene, ethylene, methylmethylene, ethylmethylene and dimethylmethylene.

[0024] Suitable C2-6 alkenyl groups include vinyl and allyl.

[0025] Suitable C2-6 alkynyl groups include ethynyl, propargyl and butynyl.

[0026] The term "C3-7 cycloalkyl" as used herein refers to monovalent groups of 3 to 7 carbon atoms derived from a saturated monocyclic hydrocarbon, and may comprise benzo-fused analogues thereof. Suitable C3-7 cycloalkyl groups include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, benzocyclobutenyl, cyclopentyl, indanyl, cyclohexyl and cycloheptyl.

[0027] The term "C4-7 cycloalkenyl" as used herein refers to monovalent groups of 4 to 7 carbon atoms derived from a partially unsaturated monocyclic hydrocarbon. Suitable C4-7 cycloalkenyl groups include cyclobutenyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl and cycloheptenyl.

[0028] The term "C4-9 bicycloalkyl" as used herein refers to monovalent groups of 4 to 9 carbon atoms derived from a saturated bicyclic hydrocarbon. Typical bicycloalkyl groups include bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, bicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl and bicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl.

[0029] The term "aryl" as used herein refers to monovalent carbocyclic aromatic groups derived from a single aromatic ring or multiple condensed aromatic rings. Suitable aryl groups include phenyl and naphthyl, preferably phenyl.

[0030] Suitable aryl(C1-6)alkyl groups include benzyl, phenylethyl, phenylpropyl and naphthylmethyl.

[0031] The term "C3-7 heterocycloalkyl" as used herein refers to saturated monocyclic rings containing 3 to 7 carbon atoms and at least one heteroatom selected from oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen, and may comprise benzo-fused analogues thereof. Suitable heterocycloalkyl groups include oxetanyl, azetidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, dihydrobenzo-furanyl, dihydrobenzothienyl, pyrrolidinyl, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, oxazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, isothiazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, chromanyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, piperidinyl, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolinyl, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, piperazinyl, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalinyl, hexahydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazinyl, homopiperazinyl, morpholinyl, benzoxazinyl, thiomorpholinyl, azepanyl, oxazepanyl, diazepanyl, thiadiazepanyl and azocanyl.

[0032] The term "C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl" as used herein refers to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated monocyclic rings containing 3 to 7 carbon atoms and at least one heteroatom selected from oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen, and may comprise benzo-fused analogues thereof. Suitable heterocycloalkenyl groups include thiazolinyl, isothiazolinyl, imidazolinyl, dihydropyranyl, dihydrothiopyranyl and 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl.

[0033] The term "C4-9 heterobicycloalkyl" as used herein corresponds to C4-9 bicycloalkyl wherein one or more of the carbon atoms have been replaced by one or more heteroatoms selected from oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen. Typical heterobicycloalkyl groups include 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanyl, 6-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptanyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.1]heptanyl, 3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl, 2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl, quinuclidinyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, 8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]octanyl, 3-oxa-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanyl, 3-oxa-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanyl and 3,9-diazabicyclo-[4.2.1]nonanyl.

[0034] The term "C4-9 spiroheterocycloalkyl" as used herein refers to saturated bicyclic ring systems containing 4 to 9 carbon atoms and at least one heteroatom selected from oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen, in which the two rings are linked by a common atom. Suitable spiroheterocycloalkyl groups include 5-azaspiro[2.3]hexanyl, 5-azaspiro[2.4]-heptanyl, 2-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.4]-octanyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.5]nonanyl, 7-oxa-2-azaspiro[3.5]nonanyl, 2-oxa-7-azaspiro-[3.5]nonanyl and 2,4,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decanyl.

[0035] The term "heteroaryl" as used herein refers to monovalent aromatic groups containing at least 5 atoms derived from a single ring or multiple condensed rings, wherein one or more carbon atoms have been replaced by one or more heteroatoms selected from oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen. Suitable heteroaryl groups include furyl, benzofuryl, dibenzofuryl, thienyl, benzothienyl, thieno[2,3-c]pyrazolyl, thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxinyl, dibenzothienyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridinyl, pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridinyl, pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridinyl, pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinyl, indazolyl, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindazolyl, oxazolyl, benzoxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, benzothiazolyl, isothiazolyl, imidazolyl, benzimidazolyl, imidazo[2,1-b]thiazolyl, imidazo[1,2-a]pyridinyl, imidazo[4,5-b]pyridinyl, purinyl, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidinyl, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazinyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, triazolyl, [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]-pyrimidinyl, benzotriazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, naphthyridinyl, pyridazinyl, cinnolinyl, phthalazinyl, pyrimidinyl, quinazolinyl, pyrazinyl, quinoxalinyl, pteridinyl, triazinyl and chromenyl groups.

[0036] The term "halogen" as used herein is intended to include fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine atoms, typically fluorine, chlorine or bromine.

[0037] Where the compounds of formula (IIB) have one or more asymmetric centres, they may accordingly exist as enantiomers. Where the compounds of use in the invention possess two or more asymmetric centres, they may additionally exist as diastereomers. The invention is to be understood to extend to the use of all such enantiomers and diastereomers, and to mixtures thereof in any proportion, including racemates. Formula (IIB) and the formulae depicted hereinafter are intended to represent all individual stereoisomers and all possible mixtures thereof, unless stated or shown otherwise. In addition, compounds of formula (I) may exist as tautomers, for example keto (CH2C=O)↔enol (CH=CHOH) tautomers or amide (NHC=O)↔hydroxyimine (N=COH) tautomers. Formula (IIB) and the formulae depicted hereinafter are intended to represent all individual tautomers and all possible mixtures thereof, unless stated or shown otherwise.

[0038] It is to be understood that each individual atom present in formula (IIB), or in the formulae depicted hereinafter, may in fact be present in the form of any of its naturally occurring isotopes, with the most abundant isotope(s) being preferred. Thus, by way of example, each individual hydrogen atom present in formula (IIB), or in the formulae depicted hereinafter, may be present as a 1H, 2H (deuterium) or 3H (tritium) atom, preferably 1H. Similarly, by way of example, each individual carbon atom present in formula (IIB), or in the formulae depicted hereinafter, may be present as a 12C, 13C or 14C atom, preferably 12C.

[0039] Also disclosed herein is a compound of formula (I) as depicted above or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a glucuronide derivative thereof, or a co-crystal thereof, wherein
Q represents -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)(NR5)-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, -N(R5)C(O)-, -S(O)2N(R5)- or -N(R5)S(O)2-; or Q represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-6 alkylene chain optionally comprising one, two or three heteroatom-containing linkages independently selected from -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)(NR5)-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, -N(R5)C(O)-, -S(O)2N(R5)- and -N(R5)S(O)2-;
Z represents C3-7 cycloalkyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; or Z represents -Z1-Z2 or -Z1-C(O)-Z2, either of which moieties may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; and
E, Y, R1, R2, R3, R5, Z1 and Z2 are as defined above.

[0040] Also dislosed herein is a compound of formula (I) as depicted above or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a glucuronide derivative thereof, or a co-crystal thereof, wherein
R1 represents halogen or cyano; or C1-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, C2-6 alkynyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, C4-7 cycloalkenyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, aryl, aryl(C1-6)alkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl, C4-9 heterobicycloalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaryl(C1-6)alkyl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylaryl-, heteroaryl(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-7)cycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)bicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl- or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; and
E, Q, Y, Z, R2 and R3 are as defined above.

[0041] Where the compounds described herein comprise an optionally substituted straight or branched alkylene chain, typical values thereof include methylene (-CH2-), (methyl)methylene, ethylene (-CH2CH2-), (ethyl)methylene, (dimethyl)-methylene, (methyl)ethylene, propylene (-CH2CH2CH2-), (propyl)methylene and (dimethyl)ethylene, any of which chains may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents. Suitably, such chains are unsubstituted, monosubstituted or disubstituted. Typically, such chains are unsubstituted or monosubstituted. In one embodiment, such chains are unsubstituted. In another embodiment, such chains are monosubstituted. In a further embodiment, such chains are disubstituted.

[0042] Examples of typical substituents on the alkylene chain which may be present in a compound disclosed herein include halogen, cyano, trifluoromethyl, oxo, hydroxy, C1-6 alkoxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, amino, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, carboxy, benzyloxycarbonyl, tetrazolyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl and di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl.

[0043] Specific examples of suitable substituents on the alkylene chain which may be present in a compound disclosed herein include fluoro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, methoxy, carboxymethoxy, amino, acetylamino, carboxy, benzyloxycarbonyl and tetrazolyl.

[0044] Various embodiemnts and aspects of compounds of formula (I) disclosed herein are set out below.

[0045] In a first embodiment, E represents a covalent bond, whereby the integer Y is attached directly to the imidazole ring.

[0046] In a second embodiment, E represents -S(O)2- or -N(R4)-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, E represents -S(O)2-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, E represents -N(R4)-.

[0047] In a third embodiment, E represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain. In a first aspect of that embodiment, E represents an optionally substituted methylene (-CH2-) linkage. In a second aspect of that embodiment, E represents an optionally substituted (methyl)methylene linkage. In a third aspect of that embodiment, E represents an optionally substituted (ethyl)methylene linkage.

[0048] Generally, E represents a covalent bond; or E represents -N(R4)-; or E represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain.

[0049] Typically, E represents -N(R4)-; or E represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain.

[0050] Suitably, E represents a covalent bond; or E represents -N(R4)-; or E represents methylene (-CH2-), (methyl)methylene or (ethyl)methylene, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0051] Generally, E represents -N(R4)-; or E represents methylene (-CH2-) or (ethyl)methylene, either of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0052] Appositely, E represents -N(R4)-, or optionally substituted methylene.

[0053] Selected examples of typical substituents on the linkage represented by E include halogen, trifluoromethyl, oxo, hydroxy, C1-6 alkoxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, amino, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, carboxy, benzyloxycarbonyl and tetrazolyl.

[0054] Specific examples of typical substituents on the linkage represented by E include fluoro, trifluoromethyl, oxo, hydroxy, methoxy, carboxymethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, amino, methylamino, dimethylamino, acetylamino, carboxy, benzyloxycarbonyl and tetrazolyl.

[0055] Typical values of E include -N(R4)-, -CH2-, -C(O)-, -CH(OCH3)-, -CH(OCH2CO2H)-, -CH(NHCOCH3)-, -CH(CO2benzyl)-, -CH(CH3)- and -CH(CH2CH3)-; or E may represent a covalent bond.

[0056] Illustrative values of E include -CH2- and -CH(CH3)-.

[0057] Suitable values of E include -N(R4)- and -CH2-. In one embodiment, E represents -N(R4)-. In another embodiment, E represents -CH2-.

[0058] In another embodiment, E represents -C(O)-.

[0059] In another embodiment, E represents -CH(OCH3)-.

[0060] In an additional embodiment, E represents -CH(CH3)-. In a particular aspect of that embodiment, the -CH(CH3)- linkage represented by E is in the (R) stereochemical configuration.

[0061] In a further embodiment, E represents -CH(CH2CH3)-.

[0062] In a first embodiment, Q represents a covalent bond, whereby the integer Z is attached directly to the imidazole ring.

[0063] In a second embodiment, Q represents -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)(NR5)-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, -N(R5)C(O)-, -S(O)2N(R5)- or -N(R5)S(O)2-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -O-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -S-. In a third aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -S(O)-. In a fourth aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -S(O)2-. In a fifth aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -S(O)(NR5)-. In a sixth aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -N(R5)-. In a seventh aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -C(O)N(R5)-. In an eighth aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -N(R5)C(O)-. In a ninth aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -S(O)2N(R5)-. In a tenth aspect of that embodiment, Q represents -N(R5)S(O)2-.

[0064] In a third embodiment, Q represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-6 alkylene chain optionally comprising one, two or three heteroatom-containing linkages independently selected from -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)(NR5)-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, -N(R5)C(O)-, -S(O)2N(R5)- and -N(R5)S(O)2-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, Q represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-6 alkylene chain. In a second aspect of that embodiment, Q represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-6 alkylene chain comprising one heteroatom-containing linkage independently selected from -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)(NR5)-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, -N(R5)C(O)-, -S(O)2N(R5)- and -N(R5)S(O)2-. In a third aspect of that embodiment, Q represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-6 alkylene chain comprising two heteroatom-containing linkages independently selected from -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)(NR5)-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, -N(R5)C(O)-, -S(O)2N(R5)- and -N(R5)S(O)2-. In a fourth aspect of that embodiment, Q represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-6 alkylene chain comprising three heteroatom-containing linkages independently selected from -O-, -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -S(O)(NR5)-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, -N(R5)C(O)-, -S(O)2N(R5)- and -N(R5)S(O)2-. In a fifth aspect of that embodiment, Q represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-6 alkylene chain comprising one, two or three heteroatom-containing linkages independently selected from -O-, -S-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)- and -N(R5)C(O)-.

[0065] Typically, Q represents a covalent bond; or Q represents -S(O)- or -S(O)2-; or Q represents an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-6 alkylene chain optionally comprising one or two heteroatom-containing linkages selected from -O-, -S-, -N(R5)-, -C(O)N(R5)-, and -N(R5)C(O)-.

[0066] Selected examples of typical substituents on the linkage represented by Q include halogen, cyano, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, C1-6 alkoxy and amino.

[0067] Selected examples of suitable substituents on the linkage represented by Q include hydroxy.

[0068] Specific examples of typical substituents on the linkage represented by Q include fluoro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, methoxy and amino.

[0069] Specific examples of suitable substituents on the linkage represented by Q include hydroxy.

[0070] Suitably, Q represents a covalent bond; or Q represents -S(O)-, -S(O)2- or -N(R5)-; or Q represents -CH2-, -CH(F)-, -CF2-, -CH(CN)-, -CH(CH3)-, -CH(OH)-, -CH(CH2OH)-, -CH(OCH3)-, -CH(NH2)-, -CH2CH2-, -CH(OH)CH2-, -CH(OH)CF2-, -CH(OCH3)CH2-, -CH2O-, -CH(CH3)O-, -C(CH3)2O-, -CH(CH2CH3)O-, -CH(CF3)O-, -CH2S-, -CH2S(O)-, -CH2S(O)2-, -CH2N(R5)-, -CH2CH2CH2-, -CH(OH)CH2CH2-, -CH(OCH3)CH2CH2-, -CH2CH2O-, -CH2OCH2-, -CH2OCH(F)-, -CH2OCF2-, -CH2OCH(CH3)-, -CH(CH3)OCH2-, -CH2OC(CH3)2-, -C(CH3)2OCH2-, -CH2SCH2-, -CH2S(O)CH2-, -CH2S(O)2CH2-, -CH2CH2N(R5)-, -CH2N(R5)CH2-, -CH2N(R5)C(O)-, -CH2CH2OCH2-, -CH2CH2N(R5)C(O)-, -CH2OCH2CH2-, -CH2OCH2CF2-, -CH2OCH2CH(CH3)-, -CH2OCH(CH3)CH2-, -CH2OC(CH3)2CH2-, -CH2OCH2CH(CH3)CH2-, -CH2OCH2CH2O-, -CH2OCH2C(O)N(R5)- or -CH2OCH2CH2OCH2-.

[0071] Appositely, Q represents a covalent bond; or Q represents -CH2-, -CH(CN)-, -CH(OH)-, -CH(OCH3)-, -CH2O-, -CH2N(R5)- or -CH2OCH2-.

[0072] Appropriately, Q represents a covalent bond; or Q represents -CH2-, -CH(OH)- or -CH2O-.

[0073] Particular values of Q include -CH2-, -CH(OH)-, -CH2O-, -CH2S- and -CH2OCH2-. In a first embodiment, Q represents -CH2-. In a second embodiment, Q represents -CH(OH)-. In a third embodiment, Q represents -CH2O-. In a fourth embodiment, Q represents -CH2S-. In a fifth embodiment, Q represents -CH2OCH2-.

[0074] Generally, Y represents C3-7 cycloalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0075] Typically, Y represents aryl or heteroaryl, either of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0076] In a first embodiment, Y represents optionally substituted C3-7 cycloalkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Y represents unsubstituted C3-7 cycloalkyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Y represents monosubstituted C3-7 cycloalkyl. In a further aspect of that embodiment, Y represents disubstituted C3-7 cycloalkyl.

[0077] In a second embodiment, Y represents optionally substituted aryl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Y represents unsubstituted aryl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Y represents monosubstituted aryl. In a further aspect of that embodiment, Y represents disubstituted aryl.

[0078] In a third embodiment, Y represents optionally substituted C3-7 heterocycloalkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Y represents unsubstituted C3-7 heterocycloalkyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Y represents monosubstituted C3-7 heterocycloalkyl. In a further aspect of that embodiment, Y represents disubstituted C3-7 heterocycloalkyl.

[0079] In a fourth embodiment, Y represents optionally substituted heteroaryl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Y represents unsubstituted heteroaryl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Y represents monosubstituted heteroaryl. In a further aspect of that embodiment, Y represents disubstituted heteroaryl.

[0080] Suitably, Y represents benzocyclobutenyl, phenyl, thienyl, thiazolyl or pyridinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0081] Appropriately, Y represents phenyl, thienyl or thiazolyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0082] Appositely, Y represents phenyl, which may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0083] Examples of optional substituents which may be present on the moiety Y include one, two or three substituents independently selected from halogen, cyano, nitro, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, C1-6 alkoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulfinyl, C1-6 alkylsulfonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulfonyloxy, amino, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, arylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, C1-6 alkylsulfonylamino, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, C3-6 cycloalkylcarbonyl, C3-6 heterocycloalkylcarbonyl, carboxy, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, aminosulfonyl, C1-6 alkylaminosulfonyl and di(C1-6)alkylaminosulfonyl.

[0084] Suitable examples of optional substituents on the moiety Y include halogen, C1-6 alkyl and difluoromethoxy.

[0085] Typical examples of optional substituents on the moiety Y include halogen and C1-6 alkyl.

[0086] Examples of particular substituents on the moiety Y include fluoro, chloro, bromo, cyano, nitro, methyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, methoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, methylthio, methylsulfinyl, methylsulfonyl, methylsulfonyloxy, amino, methylamino, tert-butylamino, dimethylamino, phenylamino, acetylamino, methyl-sulfonylamino, formyl, acetyl, cyclopropylcarbonyl, azetidinylcarbonyl, pyrrolidinylcarbonyl, piperidinylcarbonyl, piperazinylcarbonyl, morpholinylcarbonyl, carboxy, methoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, methylaminocarbonyl, dimethylaminocarbonyl, aminosulfonyl, methylaminosulfonyl and dimethylaminosulfonyl.

[0087] Suitable examples of particular substituents on the moiety Y include fluoro, chloro, bromo, methyl and difluoromethoxy.

[0088] Typical examples of particular substituents on the moiety Y include chloro and methyl.

[0089] Typical values of Y include benzocyclobutenyl, phenyl, fluorophenyl (including 2-fluorophenyl, 3-fluorophenyl and 4-fluorophenyl), chlorophenyl (including 2-chlorophenyl, 3-chlorophenyl and 4-chlorophenyl), difluorophenyl (including 2,6-difluorophenyl), (chloro)(fluoro)phenyl (including 5-chloro-2-fluorophenyl and 2-chloro-5-fluorophenyl), dichlorophenyl (including 2,5-dichlorophenyl and 2,6-dichlorophenyl), methylphenyl (including 4-methylphenyl), dimethylphenyl (including 2,5-dimethylphenyl and 2,6-dimethylphenyl), (trifluoromethyl)phenyl [including 2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl], (chloro)(trifluoromethyl)phenyl [including 5-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl], (methyl)-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl [including 2-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl], bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl [including 2,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl], methoxyphenyl (including 2-methoxyphenyl), (difluoromethoxy)phenyl [including 2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl and 3-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl], (difluoromethoxy)(fluoro)phenyl [including 2-(difluoromethoxy)-5-fluorophenyl and 2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorophenyl], (chloro)(difluoromethoxy)phenyl [including 5-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl and 6-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl], (cyano)(difluoromethoxy)phenyl [including 6-cyano-2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl], (trifluoromethoxy)phenyl [including 2-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenyl], methylsulfonyloxyphenyl, (amino)(chloro)phenyl (including 5-amino-2-chlorophenyl), methylthienyl (including 3-methylthien-2-yl), methylthiazolyl (including 2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl), (chloro)(methyl)thiazolyl (including 5-chloro-2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl), dimethylthiazolyl (including 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-thiazol-5-yl) and pyridinyl (including pyridin-3-yl and pyridin-4-yl). Additional values include (bromo)(difluoromethoxy)phenyl [including 6-bromo-2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl] and (bromo)(difluoromethoxy)(fluoro)phenyl [including 5-bromo-2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorophenyl].

[0090] Selected values of Y include phenyl, dichlorophenyl, dimethylphenyl, (difluoromethoxy)phenyl, (difluoromethoxy)(fluoro)phenyl, methylsulfonyloxyphenyl, methylthienyl and dimethylthiazolyl.

[0091] Illustrative values of Y include phenyl, dichlorophenyl, dimethylphenyl, (difluoromethoxy)phenyl, (difluoromethoxy)(fluoro)phenyl, (bromo)(difluoromethoxy)-phenyl and (bromo)(difluoromethoxy)(fluoro)phenyl.

[0092] Suitable values of Y include phenyl, dichlorophenyl and dimethylphenyl.

[0093] In one embodiment, Y represents phenyl.

[0094] In another embodiment, Y represents 2,5-dichlorophenyl.

[0095] In another embodiment, Y represents 2,5-dimethylphenyl.

[0096] In a particular embodiment, Y represents 2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl.

[0097] In another embodiment, Y represents (difluoromethoxy)(fluoro)phenyl.

[0098] In another embodiment, Y represents (bromo)(difluoromethoxy)phenyl.

[0099] In another embodiment, Y represents (bromo)(difluoromethoxy)(fluoro)phenyl.

[0100] In another embodiment, Y represents 3-methylthien-2-yl.

[0101] In another embodiment, Y represents 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-thiazol-5-yl.

[0102] In one embodiment, Z represents hydrogen.

[0103] In another embodiment, Z is other than hydrogen.

[0104] In a selected embodiment, Z represents hydrogen; or Z represents C1-6 alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; or Z represents -Z1-Z2 or -Z1-C(O)-Z2, either of which moieties may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0105] In a further embodiment, Z represents C1-6 alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; or Z represents -Z1-Z2 or -Z1-C(O)-Z2, either of which moieties may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0106] Suitably, Z represents hydrogen; or Z represents C1-6 alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; or Z represents -Z1-Z2, which moiety may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0107] Appropriately, Z represents hydrogen; or Z represents C1-6 alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0108] Typically, Z represents hydrogen, fluoro or trifluoromethyl; or Z represents methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, phenyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, pyrrolidinyl, indolinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, piperidinyl, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolinyl, morpholinyl, azocanyl, thiazolinyl, furyl, thienyl, pyrazolyl, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindazolyl, benzoxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, benzothiazolyl, imidazolyl, benzimidazolyl, [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]-pyrimidinyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, phthalazinyl, pyrimidinyl or pyrazinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents; or Z represents -Z1-Z2 or -Z1-C(O)-Z2, either of which moieties may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0109] Appositely, Z represents hydrogen; or Z represents methyl, phenyl or pyridinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0110] The moiety Z1 represents a divalent radical derived from an aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl or heteroaryl group, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents. Typically, the moiety Z1 represents a divalent radical derived from a phenyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperazinyl, pyrazolyl, thiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl or pyridinyl group, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents. Typical values of the moiety Z1 include the groups of formula (Za), (Zb), (Zc), (Zd), (Ze), (Zf), (Zg), (Zh), (Zj) and (Zk):







wherein

the symbols # represent the points of attachment of the moiety Z1 to the remainder of the molecule; and

the asterisks (*) represent the site of attachment of optional substituents.



[0111] Particular values of the moiety Z1 include the groups of formula (Za), (Zc), (Ze), (Zf), (Zg), (Zh) and (Zj) as depicted above.

[0112] The moiety Z2 represents aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents. Typically, Z2 represents phenyl, pyrrolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, imidazolidinyl, morpholinyl, imidazolinyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, tetrazolyl or pyridinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0113] Examples of optional substituents which may be present on the moiety Z, Z1 or Z2 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from halogen, cyano, nitro, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, oxo, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, C1-3 alkylenedioxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulfinyl, C1-6 alkylsulfonyl, amino, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, C1-6 alkylsulfonylamino, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, aminosulfonyl, C1-6 alkylaminosulfonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminosulfonyl, aminocarbonylamino and hydrazinocarbonyl.

[0114] Examples of particular substituents on the moiety Z, Z1 or Z2 include fluoro, chloro, bromo, cyano, nitro, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl, oxo, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, methoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, methylenedioxy, methylthio, methylsulfinyl, methylsulfonyl, amino, methylamino, tert-butylamino, dimethylamino, dimethylaminomethyl, dimethylaminoethyl, acetylamino, methylsulfonylamino, formyl, acetyl, carboxy, methoxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, methylaminocarbonyl, dimethylaminocarbonyl, aminosulfonyl, methylaminosulfonyl, dimethylaminosulfonyl, aminocarbonylamino and hydrazinocarbonyl.

[0115] Typical values of Z2 include phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, oxopyrrolidinyl, dioxopyrrolidinyl, (hydroxy)(oxo)pyrrolidinyl, (amino)(oxo)pyrrolidinyl, (oxo)oxazolidinyl, oxoimidazolidinyl, morpholinyl, imidazolinyl, methylthiazolyl, formylthiazolyl, imidazolyl, tetrazolyl and pyridinyl.

[0116] Selected values of Z2 include oxopyrrolidinyl and (oxo)oxazolidinyl. In one embodiment, Z2 represents oxopyrrolidinyl. In another embodiment, Z2 represents (oxo)oxazolidinyl.

[0117] Typical values of Z include hydrogen, fluoro, trifluoromethyl, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, oxocyclohexyl, phenyl, bromophenyl, cyanophenyl, nitrophenyl, methoxyphenyl, difluoromethoxyphenyl, trifluoromethoxyphenyl, methylenedioxyphenyl, methylsulfonylphenyl, dimethylaminophenyl, acetylaminophenyl, methylsulfonylaminophenyl, carboxyphenyl, aminocarbonylphenyl, methylaminocarbonylphenyl, dimethylaminocarbonylphenyl, aminocarbonylaminophenyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, oxopyrrolidinyl, dimethylaminopyrrolidinyl, tert-butoxycarbonylpyrrolidinyl, indolinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, piperidinyl, ethylpiperidinyl, tert-butoxycarbonylpiperidinyl, aminocarbonylpiperidinyl, 2-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinolinyl, morpholinyl, azocanyl, oxothiazolinyl, furyl, hydroxymethylfuryl, thienyl, methylpyrazolyl, dimethylpyrazolyl, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindazolyl, benzoxazolyl, methylisoxazolyl, dimethylisoxazolyl, methylthiazolyl, aminothiazolyl, benzothiazolyl, methylbenzothiazolyl, aminobenzothiazolyl, imidazolyl, methylimidazolyl, methylbenzimidazolyl, dimethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinyl, dimethylaminoethyltetrazolyl, pyridinyl, fluoropyridinyl, chloropyridinyl, cyanopyridinyl, methylpyridinyl, (cyano)-(methyl)pyridinyl, trifluoromethylpyridinyl, oxopyridinyl, methoxypyridinyl, methylsulfonylpyridinyl, dimethylaminomethylpyridinyl, acetylaminopyridinyl, carboxypyridinyl, methoxycarbonylpyridinyl, aminocarbonylpyridinyl, (aminocarbonyl)(fluoro)-pyridinyl, methylaminocarbonylpyridinyl, dimethylaminocarbonylpyridinyl, hydrazinocarbonylpyridinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, (methyl)(oxo)phthalazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, oxopyrrolidinylphenyl, dioxopyrrolidinylphenyl, (hydroxy)(oxo)pyrrolidinylphenyl, (amino)(oxo)pyrrolidinylphenyl, (oxo)oxazolidinylphenyl, oxoimidazolidinylphenyl, imidazolinylphenyl, methylthiazolylphenyl, formylthiazolylphenyl, imidazolylphenyl, tetrazolylphenyl, phenylpyrrolidinyl, hydroxyphenylpiperazinyl, (methyl)-(phenyl)pyrazolyl, oxoimidazolidinylthiazolyl, hydroxyphenyltriazolyl, morpholinyltetrazolyl, oxopyrrolidinylpyridinyl, (oxo)oxazolidinylpyridinyl, oxoimidazolidinylpyridinyl, pyridinylthiazolyl, pyridinyltetrazolyl and morpholinylcarbonylphenyl.

[0118] Particular values of Z include hydrogen, methyl, phenyl, methylsulfonylphenyl, aminocarbonylphenyl, pyridinyl, methylsulfonylpyridinyl, aminocarbonylpyridinyl, oxopyrrolidinylphenyl, (hydroxy)(oxo)pyrrolidinylphenyl and (oxo)oxazolidinylphenyl.

[0119] Suitable values of Z include hydrogen, methyl, phenyl, aminocarbonylphenyl and aminocarbonylpyridinyl.

[0120] In a first embodiment, Z represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, Z represents methyl. In a third embodiment, Z represents phenyl. In a fourth embodiment, Z represents methylsulfonylphenyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Z represents 3-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Z represents 4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl. In a fifth embodiment, Z represents aminocarbonylphenyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Z represents 4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl. In a sixth embodiment, Z represents pyridinyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Z represents pyridin-4-yl. In a seventh embodiment, Z represents aminocarbonylpyridinyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Z represents 6-(aminocarbonyl)pyridin-3-yl. In an eighth embodiment, Z represents oxopyrrolidinylphenyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Z represents 3-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)phenyl. In a ninth embodiment, Z represents (hydroxy)(oxo)pyrrolidinylphenyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Z represents 3-(3-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)phenyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Z represents 3-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)phenyl. In a tenth embodiment, Z represents (oxo)oxazolidinylphenyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Z represents 3-(2-oxooxazolidinyl-3-yl)phenyl. In an eleventh embodiment, Z represents methylsulfonylpyridinyl.

[0121] Suitably, R1, R2 or R3 independently represent hydrogen, halogen, cyano, trifluoromethyl, -ORa or -CO2Rd; or C1-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkynyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl, heteroaryl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-aryl-, heteroaryl-(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylheteroaryl-, (C4-7)cycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)bicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl- or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0122] Examples of optional substituents which may be present on R1, R2 or R3 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from halogen, halo(C1-6)alkyl, cyano, cyano(C1-6)alkyl, nitro, nitro(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, difluoroethyl, trifluoroethyl, C2-6 alkenyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyloxy, C1-3 alkylenedioxy, C1-6 alkoxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphinyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonyl(C1-6)alkyl, oxo, amino, amino(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, hydroxy(C1-6)alkylamino, C1-6 alkoxyamino, (C1-6)alkoxy(C1-6)alkylamino, [(C1-6)alkoxy](hydroxy)(C1-6)alkylamino, [(C1-6)alkylthio](hydroxy)(C1-6)alkylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, di(C1-6)alkylamino(C1-6)alkylamino, N-[di(C1-6)alkylamino(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino,hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl-(C3-7)cycloalkylamino, (hydroxy)[(C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl]amino, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, oxo(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, (C1-6)alkylheteroarylamino, heteroaryl(C1-6)alkylamino, (C1-6)alkylheteroaryl(C1-6)alkylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[(C2-6)alkylcarbonyl]amino, (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, C3-6 alkenylcarbonylamino, bis[(C3-6)alkenylcarbonyl]amino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[(C3-7)cycloalkylcarbonyl]amino, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylamino, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkylamino, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonylamino, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[(C1-6)alkylsulphonyl]amino, bis[(C1-6)alkylsulphonyl]amino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[carboxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkylamino, carboxy-(C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, (C3-7)cycloalkylcarbonyl, phenylcarbonyl, (C2-6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-6)alkyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, morpholinyl(C1-6)alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, a carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moiety Ω, -(C1-6)alkyl-Ω, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl, hydroxy(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, aminocarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, aminosulphonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminosulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl and [(C1-6)alkyl][N-(C1-6)alkyl]-sulphoximinyl.

[0123] By the expression "carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moiety" is meant any functional group, structurally distinct from a carboxylic acid moiety, that will be recognised by a biological system as being similar to, and thus capable of mimicking, a carboxylic acid moiety, or will be readily convertible by a biological system in vivo into a carboxylic acid moiety. A synopsis of some common carboxylic acid isosteres is presented by N.A. Meanwell in J. Med. Chem., 2011, 54, 2529-2591 (cf. in particular Figures 25 and 26). An alternative carboxylic acid isostere is described by N Pemberton et al. in ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2012, 3, 574-578. Typical examples of suitable carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moieties represented by Ω include the functional groups of formula (i) to (xliii):





















wherein

the asterisk (*) represents the site of attachment to the remainder of the molecule;

n is zero, 1 or 2;

X represents oxygen or sulphur;

Rf represents hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl or -CH2CH(OH)CH2OH;

Rg represents C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, -CH2CH2F, -CH2CHF2, -CH2CF3 or -CF2CF3;

Rh represents hydrogen, cyano or -CO2Rd, in which Rd is as defined above; and

Rj represents hydrogen or halogen.



[0124] In one embodiment, n is zero. In another embodiment, n is 1. In a further embodiment, n is 2.

[0125] In one embodiment, X represents oxygen. In another embodiment, X represents sulphur.

[0126] In one embodiment, Rf represents hydrogen. In another embodiment, Rf represents C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl. In a further embodiment, Rf is -CH2CH(OH)CH2OH.

[0127] In one embodiment, Rg represents C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl. In another embodiment, Rg represents trifluoromethyl, -CH2CH2F, -CH2CHF2, -CH2CF3 or -CF2CF3. In a first aspect of that embodiment, Rg represents trifluoromethyl. In a second aspect of that embodiment, Rg represents -CH2CH2F. In a third aspect of that embodiment, Rg represents -CH2CHF2. In a fourth aspect of that embodiment, Rg represents -CH2CF3. In a fifth aspect of that embodiment, Rg represents -CF2CF3.

[0128] In one embodiment, Rh is hydrogen. In another embodiment, Rh represents cyano. In a further embodiment, Rh represents -CO2Rd, especially methoxycarbonyl.

[0129] In one embodiment, Rj represents hydrogen. In another embodiment, Rj represents halogen, especially chloro.

[0130] In a selected embodiment, Ω represents tetrazolyl, especially a C-linked tetrazolyl moiety of formula (xxiv) or (xxv) as depicted above, in particular a group of formula (xxiv) as depicted above.

[0131] In another embodiment, Ω represents C1-6 alkylsulphonylaminocarbonyl, i.e. a moiety of formula (iii) as depicted above wherein Rg represents C1-6 alkyl.

[0132] In another embodiment, Ω represents C1-6 alkylaminosulphonyl, i.e. a moiety of formula (x) as depicted above wherein Rg represents C1-6 alkyl.

[0133] In a further embodiment, Ω represents (C1-6)alkylcarbonylaminosulphonyl, i.e. a moiety of formula (v) as depicted above wherein Rg represents C1-6 alkyl.

[0134] Typical examples of optional substituents on R1, R2 or R3 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from C1-6 alkyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl and (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl.

[0135] Suitable examples of optional substituents on R1, R2 or R3 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from C1-6 alkyl.

[0136] Examples of particular substituents on R1, R2 or R3 include fluoro, chloro, bromo, fluoromethyl, fluoroisopropyl, cyano, cyanoethyl, nitro, nitromethyl, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, difluoroethyl, trifluoroethyl, ethenyl, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, hydroxyisopropyl, methoxy, isopropoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxycyclobutyloxy, methylenedioxy, ethylenedioxy, methoxymethyl, methoxyethyl, methylthio, methylsulphinyl, methylsulphonyl, methylsulphonylethyl, oxo, amino, aminomethyl, aminoisopropyl, methylamino, ethylamino, dimethylamino, hydroxyethylamino, hydroxypropylamino, (hydroxy)(methyl)propylamino, methoxyamino, methoxyethylamino, (hydroxy)-(methoxy)(methyl)propylamino, (hydroxy)(methylthio)butylamino, N-(hydroxyethyl)-N-(methyl)amino, dimethylaminoethylamino, (dimethylamino)(methyl)propylamino, N-(dimethylaminoethyl)-N-(hydroxyethyl)amino, hydroxymethylcyclopentylamino, hydroxycyclobutylmethylamino, (cyclopropyl)(hydroxy)propylamino, morpholinylethylamino, oxopyrrolidinylmethylamino, ethyloxadiazolylamino, methylthiadiazolylamino, thiazolylmethylamino, thiazolylethylamino, pyrimidinylmethylamino, methylpyrazolylmethylamino, acetylamino, N-acetyl-N-methylamino, N-isopropylcarbonyl-N-methylamino, acetylaminomethyl, ethenylcarbonylamino, bis(ethenylcarbonyl)amino, N-cyclopropylcarbonyl-N-methylamino, methoxycarbonylamino, ethoxycarbonylamino, tert-butoxycarbonylamino, methoxycarbonylethylamino, ethylaminocarbonylamino, butylaminocarbonylamino, methylsulphonylamino, N-methyl-N-(methylsulphonyl)amino, bis(methylsulphonyl)amino, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-methylamino, N-(carboxyethyl)-N-methylamino, carboxycyclopentylamino, carboxycyclopropylmethylamino, formyl, acetyl, isopropylcarbonyl, cyclobutylcarbonyl, phenylcarbonyl, acetoxyisopropyl, carboxy, carboxymethyl, carboxyethyl, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, n-butoxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylethyl, morpholinylethoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, methylsulphonylaminocarbonyl, acetylaminosulphonyl, methoxyaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, tetrazolylmethyl, hydroxyoxadiazolyl, aminocarbonyl, methylaminocarbonyl, hydroxyethylaminocarbonyl, dimethylaminocarbonyl, aminocarbonylmethyl, aminosulphonyl, methylaminosulphonyl, dimethylaminosulphonyl, methylsulphoximinyl and (methyl)(N-methyl)sulphoximinyl.

[0137] Typical examples of particular substituents on R1, R2 or R3 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from methyl, hydroxy, hydroxyisopropyl and methylsulphoximinyl.

[0138] Suitable examples of particular substituents on R1, R2 or R3 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from methyl.

[0139] Typically, R1 represents hydrogen, halogen, cyano, -ORa or -CO2Rd; or C1-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkynyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl, heteroaryl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-aryl-, heteroaryl(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-7)cycloalkenylheteroaryl-, (C4-9)bicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl- or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0140] Suitably, R1 represents halogen, cyano, -ORa or -CO2Rd; or C1-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkynyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl, heteroaryl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-aryl-, heteroaryl(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-7)cycloalkenylheteroaryl-, (C4-9)bicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl- or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0141] Generally, R1 represents halogen, cyano or -ORa; or C1-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkynyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl, heteroaryl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-(C1-6)alkyl-aryl-, heteroaryl(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-7)cycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)bicycloalkylheteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylheteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl- or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0142] More typically, R1 represents hydrogen, halogen or -ORa; or R1 represents heteroaryl or (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, either of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0143] More generally, R1 represents hydrogen, halogen or -ORa; or R1 represents heteroaryl, which group may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0144] In a first embodiment, R1 represents hydrogen.

[0145] In a second embodiment, R1 represents halogen. In one aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents bromo. In another aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents chloro.

[0146] In a third embodiment, R1 represents -ORa.

[0147] In a fourth embodiment, R1 represents -CO2Rd.

[0148] In a fifth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted ethyl.

[0149] In a sixth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted C2-6 alkynyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted butynyl.

[0150] In a seventh embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted aryl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted phenyl.

[0151] In an eighth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted C3-7 heterocycloalkyl.

[0152] In a ninth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl.

[0153] In a tenth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted heteroaryl. In selected aspects of that embodiment, R1 represents benzofuryl, thienyl, indolyl, pyrazolyl, indazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyridinyl, quinolinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl or pyrazinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0154] In an eleventh embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)-heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-aryl-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted pyrrolidinylmethylphenyl-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted piperazinylmethylphenyl-.

[0155] In a twelfth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted heteroaryl(C3-7)-heterocycloalkyl-. In one aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted pyridinylpiperazinyl-.

[0156] In a thirteenth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)cycloalkylheteroaryl-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylpyrazolyl-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylpyridinyl-. In a third aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted cyclopropylpyrimidinyl-. In a fourth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted cyclobutylpyrimidinyl-. In a fifth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted cyclopentylpyrimidinyl-. In a sixth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylpyrimidinyl-. In a seventh aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylpyrazinyl-.

[0157] In a fourteenth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C4-7)-cycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-.

[0158] In a fifteenth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)-heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted pyrrolidinylpyridinyl-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted tetrahydropyranylpyridinyl-. In a third aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted piperidinylpyridinyl-. In a fourth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted piperazinylpyridinyl-. In a fifth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted morpholinylpyridinyl-. In a sixth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted thiomorpholinylpyridinyl-. In a seventh aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted diazepanylpyridinyl-. In an eighth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted oxetanylpyrimidinyl-. In a ninth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted azetidinylpyrimidinyl-. In a tenth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted tetrahydrofuranylpyrimidinyl-. In an eleventh aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted pyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl-. In a twelfth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted tetrahydropyranylpyrimidinyl-. In a thirteenth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted piperidinylpyrimidinyl-. In a fourteenth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted piperazinylpyrimidinyl-. In a fifteenth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted morpholinylpyrimidinyl-. In a sixteenth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted thiomorpholinylpyrimidinyl-. In a seventeenth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted azepanylpyrimidinyl-. In an eighteenth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted oxazepanylpyrimidinyl-. In a nineteenth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted diazepanylpyrimidinyl-. In a twentieth aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted thiadiazepanylpyrimidinyl-. In a twenty-first aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted oxetanylpyrazinyl-. In a twenty-second aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted piperidinylpyrazinyl-.

[0159] In a sixteenth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)-heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted morpholinylmethylthienyl-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted morpholinylethylpyrazolyl-.

[0160] In a seventeenth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)-heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-.

[0161] In an eighteenth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C4-9)-heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-.

[0162] In a nineteenth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C4-9)-spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-.

[0163] In a twentieth embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)cycloalkyl-(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-. In one aspect of that embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylmethylpyrimidinyl-.

[0164] In a twenty-first embodiment, R1 represents optionally substituted (C4-9)-bicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-.

[0165] Appositely, R1 represents hydrogen, chloro, bromo, cyano, -ORa or -CO2Rd; or ethyl, butynyl, phenyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, benzofuryl, thienyl, indolyl, pyrazolyl, indazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyridinyl, quinolinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrrolidinylmethylphenyl, piperazinylmethylphenyl, pyridinylpiperazinyl, cyclohexylpyrazolyl, cyclohexylpyridinyl, cyclopropylpyrimidinyl, cyclobutylpyrimidinyl, cyclopentylpyrimidinyl, cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, cyclohexylpyrazinyl, cyclohexylmethylpyrimidinyl, cyclohexenylpyridinyl, cyclohexenylpyrimidinyl, bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridinyl, bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, bicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, bicyclo[2.2.2]octanylpyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinylpyridinyl, tetrahydropyranylpyridinyl, piperidinylpyridinyl, piperazinylpyridinyl, morpholinylpyridinyl, thiomorpholinylpyridinyl, diazepanylpyridinyl, oxetanylpyrimidinyl, azetidinylpyrimidinyl, tetrahydrofuranylpyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, tetrahydropyranylpyrimidinyl, piperidinylpyrimidinyl, piperazinylpyrimidinyl, hexahydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]-pyrazinylpyrimidinyl, morpholinylpyrimidinyl, thiomorpholinylpyrimidinyl, azepanylpyrimidinyl, oxazepanylpyrimidinyl, diazepanylpyrimidinyl, thiadiazepanylpyrimidinyl, oxetanylpyrazinyl, piperidinylpyrazinyl, morpholinylmethylthienyl, morpholinylethylpyrazolyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridinyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridazinyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.1]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyridinyl, 3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanylpyrimidinyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, 8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, 3-oxa-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanylpyrimidinyl, 3-oxa-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanylpyrimidinyl, 5-azaspiro[2.3]hexanylpyrimidinyl, 5-azaspiro-[2.4]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-azaspiro[3.3]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]-heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.4]octanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.5]-nonanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-7-azaspiro[3.5]nonanylpyrimidinyl or 2,4,8-triazaspiro[4.5]-decanylpyrimidinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0166] More particularly, R1 represents hydrogen, chloro or -ORa; or R1 represents pyrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl or cyclobutylpyrimidinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0167] Illustratively, R1 represents hydrogen, chloro or -ORa; or R1 represents pyrazolyl or pyridinyl, either of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0168] Typical examples of optional substituents on R1 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from halogen, halo(C1-6)alkyl, cyano, cyano(C1-6)alkyl, nitro(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, C2-6 alkenyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyloxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonyl(C1-6)alkyl, oxo, amino, amino-(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, (C1-6)alkoxy(C1-6)alkylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[(C1-6)alkylsulphonyl]amino, bis[(C1-6)alkylsulphonyl]amino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[carboxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkylamino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, (C2-6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-6)alkyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, morpholinyl(C1-6)alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, a carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moiety Ω as defined herein, -(C1-6)alkyl-Ω, aminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl and [(C1-6)alkyl][N-(C1-6)alkyl]sulphoximinyl.

[0169] Selected examples of optional substituents on R1 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from C1-6 alkyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl and (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl.

[0170] Suitable examples of optional substituents on R1 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from C1-6 alkyl.

[0171] Typical examples of particular substituents on R1 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from fluoro, chloro, fluoromethyl, fluoroisopropyl, cyano, cyanoethyl, nitromethyl, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, ethenyl, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, hydroxyisopropyl, methoxy, isopropoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxycyclobutyloxy, methylthio, methylsulphonyl, methylsulphonylethyl, oxo, amino, aminomethyl, aminoisopropyl, methylamino, dimethylamino, methoxyethylamino, N-(hydroxyethyl)-N-(methyl)amino, acetylaminomethyl, methylsulphonylamino, N-methyl-N-(methylsulphonyl)amino, bis(methylsulphonyl)amino, N-(carboxyethyl)-N-(methyl)amino, carboxycyclopentylamino, carboxycyclopropylmethylamino, formyl, acetyl, acetoxyisopropyl, carboxy, carboxymethyl, carboxyethyl, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, n-butoxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylethyl, morpholinylethoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, methylsulphonylaminocarbonyl, acetylaminosulphonyl, methoxyaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, tetrazolylmethyl, hydroxyoxadiazolyl, aminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl, methylsulphoximinyl and (methyl)(N-methyl)sulphoximinyl.

[0172] Selected examples of particular substituents on R1 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from methyl, hydroxy, hydroxyisopropyl and methylsulphoximinyl.

[0173] Suitable examples of particular substituents on R1 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from methyl.

[0174] In a particular embodiment, R1 is substituted by hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R1 is substituted by hydroxyisopropyl, especially 2-hydroxyprop-2-yl.

[0175] Selected values of R1 include hydrogen, chloro, bromo, cyano, -ORa, -CO2Rd, methoxycarbonylethyl, ethoxycarbonylethyl, hydroxybutynyl, chlorophenyl, hydroxyphenyl, methylsulphonylphenyl, aminomethylphenyl, aminoisopropylphenyl, acetylaminomethylphenyl, acetylphenyl, methoxycarbonylphenyl, aminocarbonylphenyl, aminosulphonylphenyl, acetylaminosulphonylphenyl, (methoxycarbonyl)(methyl)-pyrrolidinyl, oxopiperidinyl, ethoxycarbonylpiperidinyl, methylsulphonylpiperazinyl, morpholinyl, methylsulphonyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, acetyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, benzofuryl, thienyl, indolyl, pyrazolyl, methylpyrazolyl, dimethylpyrazolyl, (methyl)[N-methyl-N-(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyrazolyl, methylindazolyl, dimethylisoxazolyl, hydroxyisopropylthiazolyl, methylimidazolyl, dimethylimidazolyl, pyridinyl, fluoropyridinyl, cyanopyridinyl, methylpyridinyl, (cyano)(methyl)pyridinyl, dimethylpyridinyl, trifluoromethylpyridinyl, ethenylpyridinyl, hydroxyisopropylpyridinyl, methoxypyridinyl, (methoxy)(methyl)pyridinyl, isopropoxypyridinyl, trifluoroethoxypyridinyl, (methyl)(trifluoroethoxy)pyridinyl, methylsulphonylpyridinyl, oxopyridinyl, (methyl)(oxo)pyridinyl, (dimethyl)(oxo)pyridinyl, aminopyridinyl, methylaminopyridinyl, dimethylaminopyridinyl, methoxyethylaminopyridinyl, N-(hydroxyethyl)-N-(methyl)aminopyridinyl, methylsulphonylaminopyridinyl, [bis(methylsulphonyl)amino]pyridinyl, carboxypyridinyl, quinolinyl, hydroxypyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, fluoroisopropylpyrimidinyl, hydroxyisopropylpyrimidinyl, methoxypyrimidinyl, carboxycyclobutyloxypyrimidinyl, methylthiopyrimidinyl, methylsulphonylpyrimidinyl, oxopyrimidinyl, aminopyrimidinyl, dimethylaminopyrimidinyl, methoxyethylaminopyrimidinyl, N-(carboxyethyl)-N-(methyl)aminopyrimidinyl, carboxycyclopentylaminopyrimidinyl, carboxycyclopropylmethylaminopyrimidinyl, acetoxyisopropylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylethylpyrimidinyl, hydroxypyrazinyl, hydroxyisopropylpyrazinyl, pyrrolidinylmethylphenyl, piperazinylmethylphenyl, pyridinylpiperazinyl, carboxycyclohexylpyrazolyl, carboxycyclohexylpyridinyl, fluoromethylcyclopropylpyrimidinyl, acetylaminomethylcyclopropylpyrimidinyl, hydroxycyclobutylpyrimidinyl, carboxycyclopentylpyrimidinyl, carboxycyclohexylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(hydroxy)cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, carboxymethylcyclohexylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylcyclohexylpyrimidinyl, (methoxycarbonyl)(methyl)cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)-(methyl)cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, carboxycyclohexylpyrazinyl, carboxycyclohexylmethylpyrimidinyl, carboxycyclohexenylpyridinyl, carboxycyclohexenylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylcyclohexenylpyrimidinyl, carboxybicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridinyl, carboxybicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, carboxybicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, carboxybicyclo[2.2.2]octanylpyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinylpyridinyl, hydroxypyrrolidinylpyridinyl, hydroxytetrahydropyranylpyridinyl, piperidinylpyridinyl, acetylpiperidinylpyridinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)piperidinylpyridinyl, [(carboxy)(methyl)piperidinyl](fluoro)pyridinyl, [(carboxy)(methyl)piperidinyl](chloro)pyridinyl, piperazinylpyridinyl, (methyl)-(piperazinyl)pyridinyl, cyanoethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, trifluoroethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, methylsulphonylpiperazinylpyridinyl, methylsulphonylethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, oxopiperazinylpyridinyl, acetylpiperazinylpyridinyl, (tert-butoxycarbonylpiperazinyl)-(methyl)pyridinyl, carboxymethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, carboxyethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, ethoxycarbonylethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, morpholinylpyridinyl, thiomorpholinylpyridinyl, oxothiomorpholinylpyridinyl, dioxothiomorpholinylpyridinyl, oxodiazepanylpyridinyl, fluorooxetanylpyrimidinyl, hydroxyoxetanylpyrimidinyl, hydroxyazetidinylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)(methyl)-azetidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxyazetidinylpyrimidinyl, (tert-butoxycarbonyl)(hydroxy)-azetidinylpyrimidinyl, tetrazolylazetidinylpyrimidinyl, hydroxytetrahydrofuranylpyrimidinyl, hydroxypyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxypyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)pyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxymethylpyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylpyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, fluorotetrahydropyranylpyrimidinyl, hydroxytetrahydropyranylpyrimidinyl, difluoropiperidinylpyrimidinyl, (cyano)(methyl)-piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)(nitromethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)-(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)(trifluoromethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxymethyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, methylsulphonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, oxopiperidinylpyrimidinyl, (formyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxypiperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(fluoro)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(ethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(trifluoromethyl)-piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(hydroxy)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)-(hydroxymethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methoxy)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (amino)(carboxy)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxymethylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, methoxycarbonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(fluoro)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (methoxycarbonyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethyl)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (isopropyl)-(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (n-butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)-(trifluoromethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(hydroxymethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (methoxy)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)-(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (methyl)(morpholinylethoxycarbonyl)-piperidinylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, methylsulphonylaminocarbonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, acetylaminosulphonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, methoxyaminocarbonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, tetrazolylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, hydroxyoxadiazolylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, aminosulphonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, piperazinylpyrimidinyl, methylsulphonylpiperazinylpyrimidinyl, oxopiperazinylpyrimidinyl, carboxypiperazinylpyrimidinyl, carboxyethylpiperazinylpyrimidinyl, tert-butoxycarbonylpiperazinylpyrimidinyl, tetrazolylmethylpiperazinylpyrimidinyl, trioxohexahydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazinylpyrimidinyl, morpholinylpyrimidinyl, dimethylmorpholinylpyrimidinyl, hydroxymethylmorpholinylpyrimidinyl, carboxymorpholinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)morpholinylpyrimidinyl, carboxymethylmorpholinylpyrimidinyl, thiomorpholinylpyrimidinyl, dioxothiomorpholinylpyrimidinyl, carboxyazepanylpyrimidinyl, carboxyoxazepanylpyrimidinyl, oxodiazepanylpyrimidinyl, (oxodiazepanyl)(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidinyl, (oxodiazepanyl)(methoxy)pyrimidinyl, (methyl)(oxo)diazepanylpyrimidinyl, dioxothiadiazepanylpyrimidinyl, hydroxyoxetanylpyrazinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)piperidinylpyrazinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrazinyl, morpholinylmethylthienyl, morpholinylethylpyrazolyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo-[3.1.0]hexanylpyridinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridazinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, methoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.1.1]-heptanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyridinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, methoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl-pyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)(methyl)-(oxo)-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl-pyrimidinyl, methoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, oxo-8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylidenyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl-pyrimidinyl, 3-oxa-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, oxo-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]-nonanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-3-oxa-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-5-azaspiro [2.3]hexanylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)-5 -azaspiro [2.3]hexanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-2-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl-pyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.4]octanyl-pyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.5]nonanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-7-azaspiro[3.5]nonanyl-pyrimidinyl and (dioxo)(methyl)-2,4,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decanylpyrimidinyl. Additional values include methylsulphoximinylpyridinyl and (dihydroxy)(methyl)cyclobutylpyrimidinyl.

[0176] Typical values of R1 include hydrogen, chloro, -ORa, methylpyrazolyl, pyridinyl, methylsulphoximinylpyridinyl, hydroxyisopropylpyrimidinyl and (dihydroxy)(methyl)-cyclobutylpyrimidinyl.

[0177] Illustrative values of R1 include hydrogen, chloro, -ORa, methylpyrazolyl and pyridinyl.

[0178] Typically, R2 represents hydrogen, halogen, trifluoromethyl or -ORa; or R2 represents optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl.

[0179] Typical examples of optional substituents on R2 include C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl.

[0180] Typical examples of particular substituents on R2 include ethoxycarbonyl.

[0181] In a first embodiment, R2 represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, R2 represents halogen. In one aspect of that embodiment, R2 represents fluoro. In another aspect of that embodiment, R2 represents chloro. In a third embodiment, R2 represents trifluoromethyl. In a fourth embodiment, R2 represents -ORa. In a fifth embodiment, R2 represents optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R2 represents unsubstituted methyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, R2 represents unsubstituted ethyl. In a further aspect of that embodiment, R2 represents monosubstituted methyl or monosubstituted ethyl.

[0182] Typical values of R2 include hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, trifluoromethyl, -ORa, methyl and ethoxycarbonylethyl.

[0183] Typically, R3 represents hydrogen, halogen or C1-6 alkyl.

[0184] In a first embodiment, R3 represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, R3 represents halogen. In one aspect of that embodiment, R3 represents fluoro. In a third embodiment, R3 represents C1-6 alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R3 represents methyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, R3 represents ethyl.

[0185] Suitably, R4 represents hydrogen or methyl.

[0186] In a first embodiment, R4 represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, R4 represents C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl.

[0187] Suitably, R5 represents hydrogen, methyl or ethyl.

[0188] In a first embodiment, R5 represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, R5 represents C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl or ethyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R5 represents methyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, R5 represents ethyl.

[0189] Typical examples of suitable substituents on Ra, Rb, Rc, Rd or Re, or on the heterocyclic moiety -NRbRc, include halogen, C1-6 alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, C1-6 alkoxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphinyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, amino(C1-6)alkyl, cyano, trifluoromethyl, oxo, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyloxy, amino, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, phenylamino, pyridinylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylamino, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl and di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl.

[0190] Typical examples of specific substituents on Ra, Rb, Rc, Rd or Re, or on the heterocyclic moiety -NRbRc, include fluoro, chloro, bromo, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, methoxy, isopropoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, methoxymethyl, methylthio, ethylthio, methylsulphinyl, methylsulphonyl, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, hydroxyethyl, aminomethyl, cyano, trifluoromethyl, oxo, acetyl, carboxy, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl, acetoxy, amino, methylamino, ethylamino, dimethylamino, phenylamino, pyridinylamino, acetylamino, tert-butoxycarbonylamino, acetylaminomethyl, methylsulphonylamino, aminocarbonyl, methylaminocarbonyl and dimethylaminocarbonyl.

[0191] Suitably, Ra represents C1-6 alkyl, aryl(C1-6)alkyl or heteroaryl(C1-6)alkyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0192] Selected values of Ra include methyl, ethyl, benzyl and isoindolylpropyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0193] Selected examples of suitable substituents on Ra include C1-6 alkoxy and oxo.

[0194] Selected examples of specific substituents on Ra include methoxy and oxo.

[0195] In one embodiment, Ra represents optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Ra ideally represents unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Ra ideally represents substituted C1-6 alkyl, e.g. methoxyethyl. In another embodiment, Ra represents optionally substituted aryl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Ra represents unsubstituted aryl, especially phenyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Ra represents monosubstituted aryl, especially methylphenyl. In another embodiment, Ra represents optionally substituted aryl(C1-6)alkyl, ideally unsubstituted aryl(C1-6)alkyl, especially benzyl. In a further embodiment, Ra represents optionally substituted heteroaryl. In a further embodiment, Ra represents optionally substituted heteroaryl(C1-6)alkyl, e.g. dioxoisoindolylpropyl.

[0196] Specific values of Ra include methyl, methoxyethyl, benzyl and dioxoisoindolylpropyl.

[0197] In a particular aspect, Rb represents hydrogen or trifluoromethyl; or C1-6 alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, aryl, aryl(C1-6)alkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, heteroaryl or heteroaryl(C1-6)alkyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0198] Selected values of Rb include hydrogen; or C1-6 alkyl, aryl(C1-6)alkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl or C3-7 heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0199] Typical values of Rb include hydrogen and C1-6 alkyl.

[0200] Illustratively, Rb represents hydrogen or trifluoromethyl; or methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, 2-methylpropyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopropylmethyl, cyclobutylmethyl, cyclopentylmethyl, cyclohexylmethyl, phenyl, benzyl, phenylethyl, azetidinyl, tetrahydrofuryl, tetrahydrothienyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, homopiperidinyl, morpholinyl, azetidinylmethyl, tetrahydrofurylmethyl, pyrrolidinylmethyl, pyrrolidinylethyl, pyrrolidinylpropyl, thiazolidinylmethyl, imidazolidinylethyl, piperidinylmethyl, piperidinylethyl, tetrahydroquinolinylmethyl, piperazinylpropyl, morpholinylmethyl, morpholinylethyl, morpholinylpropyl, pyridinyl, indolylmethyl, pyrazolylmethyl, pyrazolylethyl, imidazolylmethyl, imidazolylethyl, benzimidazolylmethyl, triazolylmethyl, pyridinylmethyl or pyridinylethyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0201] Representative values of Rb include hydrogen; or methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, benzyl, pyrrolidinyl or morpholinylpropyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0202] Selected examples of suitable substituents on Rb include C1-6 alkoxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphinyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, hydroxy, cyano, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, di-(C1-6)alkylamino and C2-6 alkoxycarbonylamino.

[0203] Selected examples of specific substituents on Rb include methoxy, methylthio, methylsulphinyl, methylsulphonyl, hydroxy, cyano, tert-butoxycarbonyl, dimethylamino and tert-butoxycarbonylamino.

[0204] Specific values of Rb include hydrogen, methyl, methoxyethyl, methylthioethyl, methylsulphinylethyl, methylsulphonylethyl, hydroxyethyl, cyanoethyl, dimethylaminoethyl, tert-butoxycarbonylaminoethyl, dihydroxypropyl, benzyl, pyrrolidinyl, tert-butoxycarbonylpyrrolidinyl and morpholinylpropyl.

[0205] In one embodiment, Rb represents hydrogen. In another embodiment, Rb represents C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl.

[0206] Selected values of Rc include hydrogen; or C1-6 alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl or C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0207] In a particular aspect, Rc represents hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl or C3-7 cycloalkyl.

[0208] Representative values of Rc include hydrogen; or methyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, tetrahydropyranyl and piperidinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0209] Selected examples of suitable substituents on Rc include C2-6 alkylcarbonyl and C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl.

[0210] Selected examples of specific substituents on Rc include acetyl and tert-butoxycarbonyl.

[0211] Specific values of Rc include hydrogen, methyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, tetrahydropyranyl, acetylpiperidinyl and tert-butoxycarbonylpiperidinyl,

[0212] Suitably, Rc represents hydrogen or C1-6 alkyl. In one embodiment, Rc is hydrogen. In another embodiment, Rc represents C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl or ethyl, particularly methyl. In a further embodiment, Rc represents C3-7 cycloalkyl, e.g. cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl.

[0213] Alternatively, the moiety -NRbRc may suitably represent azetidin-1-yl, pyrrolidin-1-yl, oxazolidin-3-yl, isoxazolidin-2-yl, thiazolidin-3-yl, isothiazolidin-2-yl, piperidin-1-yl, morpholin-4-yl, thiomorpholin-4-yl, piperazin-1-yl, homopiperidin-1-yl, homomorpholin-4-yl or homopiperazin-1-yl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0214] Selected examples of suitable substituents on the heterocyclic moiety -NRbRc include C1-6 alkyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, amino(C1-6)alkyl, cyano, oxo, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, amino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylamino, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino and aminocarbonyl.

[0215] Selected examples of specific substituents on the heterocyclic moiety -NRbRc include methyl, methylsulphonyl, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, aminomethyl, cyano, oxo, acetyl, carboxy, ethoxycarbonyl, amino, acetylamino, acetylaminomethyl, tert-butoxycarbonylamino, methylsulphonylamino and aminocarbonyl.

[0216] Specific values of the moiety -NRbRc include azetidin-1-yl, hydroxyazetidin-1-yl, hydroxymethylazetidin-1-yl, (hydroxy)(hydroxymethyl)azetidin-1-yl, aminomethyl-azetidin-1-yl, cyanoazetidin-1-yl, carboxyazetidin-1-yl, aminoazetidin-1-yl, aminocarbonylazetidin-1-yl,pyrrolidin-1-yl, aminomethylpyrrolidin-1-yl, oxopyrrolidin-1-yl, acetylaminomethylpyrrolidin-1-yl, tert-butoxycarbonylaminopyrrolidin-1-yl, oxo-oxazolidin-3-yl, hydroxyisoxazolidin-2-yl, thiazolidin-3-yl, oxothiazolidin-3-yl, dioxo-isothiazolidin-2-yl, piperidin-1-yl, hydroxypiperidin-1-yl, hydroxymethylpiperidin-1-yl, aminopiperidin-1-yl, acetylaminopiperidin-1-yl, tert-butoxycarbonylaminopiperidin-1-yl, methylsulphonylaminopiperidin-1-yl, morpholin-4-yl, piperazin-1-yl, methylpiperazin-1-yl, methylsulphonylpiperazin-1-yl, oxopiperazin-1-yl, acetylpiperazin-1-yl, ethoxycarbonylpiperazin-1-yl and oxohomopiperazin-1-yl.

[0217] Suitably, Rd represents hydrogen; or C1-6 alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0218] Selected examples of suitable values for Rd include hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, 2-methylpropyl, tert-butyl, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, phenyl, thiazolidinyl, thienyl, imidazolyl and thiazolyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0219] Selected examples of suitable substituents on Rd include halogen, C1-6 alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, oxo, C2-6 alkylcarbonyloxy and di(C1-6)alkylamino.

[0220] Selected examples of particular substituents on Rd include fluoro, methyl, methoxy, oxo, acetoxy and dimethylamino.

[0221] In one embodiment, Rd represents hydrogen. In another embodiment, Rd represents optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Rd ideally represents unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl, e.g. methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, 2-methylpropyl or tert-butyl, especially methyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Rd ideally represents substituted C1-6 alkyl, e.g. substituted methyl or substituted ethyl, including acetoxymethyl, dimethylaminomethyl and trifluoroethyl. In another embodiment, Rd represents optionally substituted aryl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Rd represents unsubstituted aryl, especially phenyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Rd represents monosubstituted aryl, especially methylphenyl. In a further aspect of that embodiment, Rd represents disubstituted aryl, e.g. dimethoxyphenyl. In a further embodiment, Rd represents optionally substituted heteroaryl, e.g. thienyl, chlorothienyl, methylthienyl, methylimidazolyl or thiazolyl. In another embodiment, Rd represents optionally substituted C3-7 cycloalkyl, e.g. cyclopropyl or cyclobutyl. In a further embodiment, Rd represents optionally substituted C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, e.g. thiazolidinyl or oxothiazolidinyl.

[0222] Selected examples of specific values for Rd include hydrogen, methyl, acetoxymethyl, dimethylaminomethyl, ethyl, trifluoroethyl, isopropyl, 2-methylpropyl, tert-butyl, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, phenyl, dimethoxyphenyl, thiazolidinyl, oxothiazolidinyl, thienyl, chlorothienyl, methylthienyl, methylimidazolyl and thiazolyl.

[0223] Suitably, Re represents C1-6 alkyl or aryl, either of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0224] Selected examples of suitable substituents on Re include C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl.

[0225] In one embodiment, Re represents optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl, ideally unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl, e.g. methyl or propyl, especially methyl. In another embodiment, Re represents optionally substituted aryl. In one aspect of that embodiment, Re represents unsubstituted aryl, especially phenyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, Re represents monosubstituted aryl, especially methylphenyl. In a further embodiment, Re represents optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[0226] Selected values of Re include methyl, propyl and methylphenyl.

[0227] One sub-class of compounds disclosed herein is represented by the compounds of formula (IIA) and N-oxides thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and solvates thereof, and glucuronide derivatives thereof, and co-crystals thereof:

wherein

R11 represents hydrogen, halogen or -ORa; or R11 represents C1-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkynyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl, heteroaryl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-aryl-, heteroaryl(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-7)cycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)bicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl- or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents;

R12 represents represents hydrogen, halogen, trifluoromethyl or optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl;

R15 and R16 independently represent hydrogen, halogen, cyano, nitro, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, C1-6 alkoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulfinyl, C1-6 alkylsulfonyl, amino, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, arylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, C1-6 alkylsulfonylamino, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, C3-6 cycloalkylcarbonyl, C3-6 heterocycloalkylcarbonyl, carboxy, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, aminosulfonyl, C1-6 alkylaminosulfonyl or di(C1-6)alkylaminosulfonyl; and

E, Q, Z and Ra are as defined above.



[0228] Examples of optional substituents which may be present on R11 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from halogen, halo(C1-6)alkyl, cyano, cyano(C1-6)alkyl, nitro, nitro(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, difluoroethyl, trifluoroethyl, C2-6 alkenyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyloxy, C1-3 alkylenedioxy, C1-6 alkoxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphinyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonyl(C1-6)alkyl, oxo, amino, amino(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, hydroxy(C1-6)alkylamino, C1-6 alkoxyamino, (C1-6)alkoxy(C1-6)alkylamino, [(C1-6)alkoxy](hydroxy)(C1-6)alkylamino, [(C1-6)alkylthio](hydroxy)(C1-6)alkylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, di(C1-6)alkylamino(C1-6)alkylamino, N-[di(C1-6)alkylamino(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl-(C3-7)cycloalkylamino, (hydroxy)[(C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl]amino, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, oxo(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, (C1-6)alkylheteroarylamino, heteroaryl(C1-6)alkylamino, (C1-6)alkylheteroaryl(C1-6)alkylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[(C2-6)alkylcarbonyl]amino, (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, C3-6 alkenylcarbonylamino, bis[(C3-6)alkenylcarbonyl]amino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[(C3-7)cycloalkylcarbonyl]amino, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylamino, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkylamino, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonylamino, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[(C1-6)alkylsulphonyl]amino, bis[(C1-6)alkylsulphonyl]amino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[carboxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkylamino, carboxy-(C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, (C3-7)cycloalkylcarbonyl, phenylcarbonyl, (C2-6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-6)alkyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, morpholinyl(C1-6)alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, a carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moiety Ω as defined herein, -(C1-6)alkyl-Ω, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl, hydroxy(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, aminocarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, aminosulphonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminosulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl and [(C1-6)alkyl][N-(C1-6)alkyl]-sulphoximinyl.

[0229] Examples of particular substituents on R11 include fluoro, chloro, bromo, fluoromethyl, fluoroisopropyl, cyano, cyanoethyl, nitro, nitromethyl, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, difluoroethyl, trifluoroethyl, ethenyl, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, hydroxyisopropyl, methoxy, isopropoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxycyclobutyloxy, methylene-dioxy, ethylenedioxy, methoxymethyl, methoxyethyl, methylthio, methylsulphinyl, methylsulphonyl, methylsulphonylethyl, oxo, amino, aminomethyl, aminoisopropyl, methylamino, ethylamino, dimethylamino, hydroxyethylamino, hydroxypropylamino, (hydroxy)(methyl)propylamino, methoxyamino, methoxyethylamino, (hydroxy)-(methoxy)(methyl)propylamino, (hydroxy)(methylthio)butylamino, N-(hydroxyethyl)-N-(methyl)amino, dimethylaminoethylamino, (dimethylamino)(methyl)propylamino, N-(dimethylaminoethyl)-N-(hydroxyethyl)amino, hydroxymethylcyclopentylamino, hydroxycyclobutylmethylamino, (cyclopropyl)(hydroxy)propylamino, morpholinylethyl-amino, oxopyrrolidinylmethylamino, ethyloxadiazolylamino, methylthiadiazolylamino, thiazolylmethylamino, thiazolylethylamino, pyrimidinylmethylamino, methylpyrazolyl-methylamino, acetylamino, N-acetyl-N-methylamino, N-isopropylcarbonyl-N-methyl-amino, acetylaminomethyl, ethenylcarbonylamino, bis(ethenylcarbonyl)amino, N-cyclopropylcarbonyl-N-methylamino, methoxycarbonylamino, ethoxycarbonylamino, tert-butoxycarbonylamino, methoxycarbonylethylamino, ethylaminocarbonylamino, butylaminocarbonylamino, methylsulphonylamino, N-methyl-N-(methylsulphonyl)amino, bis(methylsulphonyl)amino, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-methylamino, N-(carboxyethyl)-N-methylamino, carboxycyclopentylamino, carboxycyclopropylmethylamino, formyl, acetyl, isopropylcarbonyl, cyclobutylcarbonyl, phenylcarbonyl, acetoxyisopropyl, carboxy, carboxymethyl, carboxyethyl, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, n-butoxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylethyl, morpholinylethoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, methylsulphonylaminocarbonyl, acetylaminosulphonyl, methoxyaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, tetrazolylmethyl, hydroxyoxadiazolyl, aminocarbonyl, methylaminocarbonyl, hydroxyethylaminocarbonyl, dimethylaminocarbonyl, aminocarbonylmethyl, aminosulphonyl, methylaminosulphonyl, dimethylaminosulphonyl, methylsulphoximinyl and (methyl)(N-methyl)sulphoximinyl.

[0230] Generally, R11 represents C1-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkynyl, aryl, C3-7 heterocycloalkyl, C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl, heteroaryl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-aryl-, heteroaryl-(C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-7)cycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9) bicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-, (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl- or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0231] More typically, R11 represents hydrogen, halogen or -ORa; or R11 represents heteroaryl or (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-, either of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0232] More generally, R11 represents hydrogen, halogen or -ORa; or R11 represents heteroaryl, which group may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0233] Various embodiments and aspects of compounds of formula (IIA) disclosed herein are set out below.

[0234] In a first embodiment, R11 represents hydrogen.

[0235] In a second embodiment, R11 represents halogen. In one aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents bromo. In another aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents chloro.

[0236] In a third embodiment, R11 represents -ORa.

[0237] In a fourth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted ethyl.

[0238] In a fifth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted C2-6 alkynyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted butynyl.

[0239] In a sixth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted aryl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted phenyl.

[0240] In a seventh embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted C3-7 heterocycloalkyl.

[0241] In an eighth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted C3-7 heterocycloalkenyl.

[0242] In a ninth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted heteroaryl. In selected aspects of that embodiment, R11 represents benzofuryl, thienyl, indolyl, pyrazolyl, indazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyridinyl, quinolinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl or pyrazinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0243] In a tenth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)-heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-aryl-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted pyrrolidinylmethylphenyl-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted piperazinylmethylphenyl-.

[0244] In an eleventh embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted heteroaryl(C3-7)-heterocycloalkyl-. In one aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted pyridinylpiperazinyl-.

[0245] In a twelfth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)cycloalkyl-heteroaryl-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylpyrazolyl-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylpyridinyl-. In a third aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted cyclopropylpyrimidinyl-. In a fourth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted cyclobutylpyrimidinyl-. In a fifth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted cyclopentylpyrimidinyl-. In a sixth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylpyrimidinyl-. In a seventh aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylpyrazinyl-.

[0246] In a thirteenth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C4-7)cycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-.

[0247] In a fourteenth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)-heterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted pyrrolidinylpyridinyl-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted tetrahydropyranylpyridinyl-. In a third aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted piperidinylpyridinyl-. In a fourth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted piperazinylpyridinyl-. In a fifth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted morpholinylpyridinyl-. In a sixth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted thiomorpholinylpyridinyl-. In a seventh aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted diazepanylpyridinyl-. In an eighth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted oxetanylpyrimidinyl-. In a ninth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted azetidinylpyrimidinyl-. In a tenth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted tetrahydrofuranylpyrimidinyl-. In an eleventh aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted pyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl-. In a twelfth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted tetrahydropyranylpyrimidinyl-. In a thirteenth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted piperidinylpyrimidinyl-. In a fourteenth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted piperazinylpyrimidinyl-. In a fifteenth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted morpholinylpyrimidinyl-. In a sixteenth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted thiomorpholinylpyrimidinyl-. In a seventeenth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted azepanylpyrimidinyl-. In an eighteenth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted oxazepanylpyrimidinyl-. In a nineteenth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted diazepanylpyrimidinyl-. In a twentieth aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted thiadiazepanylpyrimidinyl-. In a twenty-first aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted oxetanylpyrazinyl-. In a twenty-second aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted piperidinylpyrazinyl-.

[0248] In a fifteenth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)-heterocycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted morpholinylmethylthienyl-. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted morpholinylethylpyrazolyl-.

[0249] In a sixteenth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)-heterocycloalkenyl-heteroaryl-.

[0250] In a seventeenth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C4-9)-heterobicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-.

[0251] In an eighteenth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C4-9)-spiroheterocycloalkyl-heteroaryl-.

[0252] In a nineteenth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C3-7)-cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl-heteroaryl-. In one aspect of that embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted cyclohexylmethylpyrimidinyl-.

[0253] In a twentieth embodiment, R11 represents optionally substituted (C4-9)-bicycloalkyl-heteroaryl-.

[0254] Appositely, R11 represents hydrogen, chloro, bromo or -ORa; or R11 represents ethyl, butynyl, phenyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, benzofuryl, thienyl, indolyl, pyrazolyl, indazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyridinyl, quinolinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrrolidinylmethylphenyl, piperazinylmethylphenyl, pyridinylpiperazinyl, cyclohexylpyrazolyl, cyclohexylpyridinyl, cyclopropylpyrimidinyl, cyclobutylpyrimidinyl, cyclopentylpyrimidinyl, cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, cyclohexylpyrazinyl, cyclohexylmethylpyrimidinyl, cyclohexenylpyridinyl, cyclohexenylpyrimidinyl, bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl-pyridinyl, bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, bicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, bicyclo[2.2.2]octanylpyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinylpyridinyl, tetrahydropyranylpyridinyl, piperidinylpyridinyl, piperazinylpyridinyl, morpholinylpyridinyl, thiomorpholinylpyridinyl, diazepanylpyridinyl, oxetanylpyrimidinyl, azetidinylpyrimidinyl, tetrahydrofuranylpyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, tetrahydropyranylpyrimidinyl, piperidinylpyrimidinyl, piperazinylpyrimidinyl, hexahydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]-pyrazinylpyrimidinyl, morpholinylpyrimidinyl, thiomorpholinylpyrimidinyl, azepanylpyrimidinyl, oxazepanylpyrimidinyl, diazepanylpyrimidinyl, thiadiazepanylpyrimidinyl, oxetanylpyrazinyl, piperidinylpyrazinyl, morpholinylmethylthienyl, morpholinylethylpyrazolyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridinyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridazinyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.1]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyridinyl, 3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanylpyrimidinyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, 8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, 3-oxa-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanylpyrimidinyl, 3-oxa-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanylpyrimidinyl, 5-azaspiro[2.3]hexanylpyrimidinyl, 5-azaspiro[2.4]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-azaspiro[3.3]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.4]octanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.5]nonanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-7-azaspiro[3.5]nonanylpyrimidinyl or 2,4,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decanylpyrimidinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0255] More particularly, R11 represents hydrogen, chloro or -ORa; or R11 represents pyrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl or cyclobutylpyrimidinyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0256] Illustratively, R11 represents hydrogen, chloro or -ORa; or R11 represents pyrazolyl or pyridinyl, either of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0257] Typical examples of optional substituents on R11 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from halogen, halo(C1-6)alkyl, cyano, cyano(C1-6)alkyl, nitro(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, C2-6 alkenyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyloxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonyl(C1-6)alkyl, oxo, amino, amino-(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, (C1-6)alkoxy(C1-6)alkylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[(C1-6)alkylsulphonyl]amino, bis[(C1-6)alkylsulphonyl]amino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[carboxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyl-amino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, (C2-6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-6)alkyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, morpholinyl(C1-6)alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, a carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moiety Ω as defined herein, -(C1-6)alkyl-Ω, aminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl and [(C1-6)alkyl][N-(C1-6)alkyl]sulphoximinyl.

[0258] Selected examples of optional substituents on R11 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from C1-6 alkyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl and (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl.

[0259] Suitable examples of optional substituents on R11 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from C1-6 alkyl.

[0260] Typical examples of particular substituents on R11 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from fluoro, chloro, fluoromethyl, fluoroisopropyl, cyano, cyanoethyl, nitromethyl, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, ethenyl, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, hydroxyisopropyl, methoxy, isopropoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxycyclobutyloxy, methylthio, methylsulphonyl, methylsulphonylethyl, oxo, amino, aminomethyl, aminoisopropyl, methylamino, dimethylamino, methoxyethylamino, N-(hydroxyethyl)-N-(methyl)amino, acetylaminomethyl, methylsulphonylamino, N-methyl-N-(methylsulphonyl)amino, bis(methylsulphonyl)amino, N-(carboxyethyl)-N-(methyl)amino, carboxycyclopentylamino, carboxycyclopropylmethylamino, formyl, acetyl, acetoxyisopropyl, carboxy, carboxymethyl, carboxyethyl, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, n-butoxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylethyl, morpholinylethoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, methylsulphonylaminocarbonyl, acetylaminosulphonyl, methoxyaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, tetrazolylmethyl, hydroxyoxadiazolyl, aminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl, methylsulphoximinyl and (methyl)(N-methyl)sulphoximinyl.

[0261] Selected examples of particular substituents on R11 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from methyl, hydroxy, hydroxyisopropyl and methylsulphoximinyl.

[0262] Suitable examples of particular substituents on R11 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from methyl.

[0263] In a particular embodiment, R11 is substituted by hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R11 is substituted by hydroxyisopropyl, especially 2-hydroxyprop-2-yl.

[0264] Selected values of R11 include hydrogen, chloro, bromo, -ORa, methoxycarbonylethyl, ethoxycarbonylethyl, hydroxybutynyl, chlorophenyl, hydroxyphenyl, methylsulphonylphenyl, aminomethylphenyl, aminoisopropylphenyl, acetylaminomethylphenyl, acetylphenyl, methoxycarbonylphenyl, aminocarbonylphenyl, aminosulphonylphenyl, acetylaminosulphonylphenyl, (methoxycarbonyl)(methyl)pyrrolidinyl, oxopiperidinyl, ethoxycarbonylpiperidinyl, methylsulphonylpiperazinyl, morpholinyl, methylsulphonyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, acetyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl, benzofuryl, thienyl, indolyl, pyrazolyl, methylpyrazolyl, dimethylpyrazolyl, (methyl)[N-methyl-N-(methylsulfonyl)amino]pyrazolyl, methylindazolyl, dimethylisoxazolyl, hydroxyisopropylthiazolyl, methylimidazolyl, dimethylimidazolyl, pyridinyl, fluoro-pyridinyl, cyanopyridinyl, methylpyridinyl, (cyano)(methyl)pyridinyl, dimethylpyridinyl, trifluoromethylpyridinyl, ethenylpyridinyl, hydroxyisopropylpyridinyl, methoxypyridinyl, (methoxy)(methyl)pyridinyl, isopropoxypyridinyl, trifluoroethoxypyridinyl, (methyl)-(trifluoroethoxy)pyridinyl, methylsulphonylpyridinyl, oxopyridinyl, (methyl)(oxo)-pyridinyl, (dimethyl)(oxo)pyridinyl, aminopyridinyl, methylaminopyridinyl, dimethyl-aminopyridinyl, methoxyethylaminopyridinyl, N-(hydroxyethyl)-N-(methyl)amino-pyridinyl, methylsulphonylaminopyridinyl, [bis(methylsulphonyl)amino]pyridinyl, carboxypyridinyl, quinolinyl, hydroxypyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, fluoroisopropyl-pyrimidinyl, hydroxyisopropylpyrimidinyl, methoxypyrimidinyl, carboxycyclobutyloxy-pyrimidinyl, methylthiopyrimidinyl, methylsulphonylpyrimidinyl, oxopyrimidinyl, aminopyrimidinyl, dimethylaminopyrimidinyl, methoxyethylaminopyrimidinyl, N-(carboxyethyl)-N-(methyl)aminopyrimidinyl, carboxycyclopentylaminopyrimidinyl, carboxycyclopropylmethylaminopyrimidinyl, acetoxyisopropylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylethylpyrimidinyl, hydroxypyrazinyl, hydroxyisopropylpyrazinyl, pyrrolidinylmethylphenyl, piperazinylmethylphenyl, pyridinylpiperazinyl, carboxy-cyclohexylpyrazolyl, carboxycyclohexylpyridinyl, fluoromethylcyclopropylpyrimidinyl, acetylaminomethylcyclopropylpyrimidinyl, hydroxycyclobutylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-cyclopentylpyrimidinyl, carboxycyclohexylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(hydroxy)cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, carboxymethylcyclohexyl-pyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylcyclohexylpyrimidinyl, (methoxycarbonyl)(methyl)-cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(methyl)cyclohexylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-cyclohexylpyrazinyl, carboxycyclohexylmethylpyrimidinyl, carboxycyclohexenyl-pyridinyl, carboxycyclohexenylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylcyclohexenylpyrimidinyl, carboxybicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridinyl, carboxybicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, carboxybicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl-pyrimidinyl, carboxybicyclo[2.2.2]octanylpyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinylpyridinyl, hydroxypyrrolidinylpyridinyl, hydroxytetrahydropyranylpyridinyl, piperidinylpyridinyl, acetylpiperidinylpyridinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)piperidinylpyridinyl, [(carboxy)(methyl)-piperidinyl](fluoro)pyridinyl, [(carboxy)(methyl)piperidinyl](chloro)pyridinyl, piperazinylpyridinyl, (methyl)(piperazinyl)pyridinyl, cyanoethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, trifluoroethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, methylsulphonylpiperazinylpyridinyl, methyl-sulphonylethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, oxopiperazinylpyridinyl, acetylpiperazinylpyridinyl, (tert-butoxycarbonylpiperazinyl)(methyl)pyridinyl, carboxymethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, carboxyethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, ethoxycarbonylethylpiperazinylpyridinyl, morpholinylpyridinyl, thiomorpholinylpyridinyl, oxothiomorpholinylpyridinyl, dioxothiomorpholinylpyridinyl, oxodiazepanyl-pyridinyl, fluorooxetanylpyrimidinyl, hydroxyoxetanylpyrimidinyl, hydroxyazetidinyl-pyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)(methyl)azetidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxyazetidinylpyrimidinyl, (tert-butoxycarbonyl)(hydroxy)azetidinylpyrimidinyl, tetrazolylazetidinylpyrimidinyl, hydroxytetrahydrofuranylpyrimidinyl, hydroxypyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxypyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)pyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxymethylpyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylpyrrolidinylpyrimidinyl, fluorotetrahydropyranylpyrimidinyl, hydroxytetrahydropyranylpyrimidinyl, difluoropiperidinylpyrimidinyl, (cyano)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)(nitromethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)(trifluoromethyl)-piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxymethyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, methylsulphonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, oxopiperidinylpyrimidinyl, (formyl)(methyl)-piperidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxypiperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(fluoro)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(ethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(trifluoromethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(hydroxy)-piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(hydroxymethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)-(methoxy)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (amino)(carboxy)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, carboxymethylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, methoxycarbonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonyl-piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(fluoro)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (methoxy-carbonyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethyl)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinyl-pyrimidinyl, (isopropyl)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)-(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (n-butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(trifluoromethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)-(hydroxymethyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (methoxy)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinyl-pyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, (methyl)-(morpholinylethoxycarbonyl)piperidinylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylpiperidinyl-pyrimidinyl, methylsulphonylaminocarbonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, acetylaminosulphonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, methoxyaminocarbonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, tetrazolylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, hydroxyoxadiazolylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, aminosulphonylpiperidinylpyrimidinyl, piperazinylpyrimidinyl, methylsulphonylpiperazinylpyrimidinyl, oxopiperazinylpyrimidinyl, carboxypiperazinylpyrimidinyl, carboxyethylpiperazinylpyrimidinyl, tert-butoxycarbonylpiperazinylpyrimidinyl, tetrazolylmethylpiperazinylpyrimidinyl, trioxohexahydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazinylpyrimidinyl, morpholinylpyrimidinyl, dimethylmorpholinylpyrimidinyl, hydroxymethylmorpholinylpyrimidinyl, carboxymorpholinylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)morpholinylpyrimidinyl, carboxymethylmorpholinylpyrimidinyl, thiomorpholinylpyrimidinyl, dioxothiomorpholinylpyrimidinyl, carboxyazepanylpyrimidinyl, carboxyoxazepanylpyrimidinyl, oxodiazepanylpyrimidinyl, (oxodiazepanyl)(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidinyl, (oxodiazepanyl)(methoxy)pyrimidinyl, (methyl)(oxo)diazepanylpyrimidinyl, dioxothiadiazepanylpyrimidinyl, hydroxyoxetanylpyrazinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)piperidinylpyrazinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(methyl)piperidinylpyrazinyl, morpholinylmethylthienyl, morpholinylethylpyrazolyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyridazinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, methoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo-[2.2.1]heptanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.1.1]heptanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyridinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, methoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo-[4.1.0]heptanylpyrimidinyl, (hydroxy)(methyl)(oxo)-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl-pyrimidinyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, methoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, oxo-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylidenyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, 3-oxa-8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]octanylpyrimidinyl, oxo-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-3-oxa-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-5-azaspiro[2.3]hexanylpyrimidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)-5-azaspiro[2.3]hexanylpyrimidinyl, carboxy-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptanyl-pyrimidinyl, carboxy-2-azaspiro[3.3]heptanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl-pyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.4]octanylpyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.5]nonanyl-pyrimidinyl, 2-oxa-7-azaspiro[3.5]nonanylpyrimidinyl and (dioxo)(methyl)-2,4,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decanylpyrimidinyl. Additional values include methylsulphoximinylpyridinyl and (dihydroxy)(methyl)cyclobutylpyrimidinyl.

[0265] Typical values of R11 include hydrogen, chloro, -ORa, methylpyrazolyl, pyridinyl, methylsulphoximinylpyridinyl, hydroxyisopropylpyrimidinyl and (dihydroxy)(methyl)-cyclobutylpyrimidinyl.

[0266] Illustrative values of R11 include hydrogen, chloro, -ORa, methylpyrazolyl and pyridinyl.

[0267] Typical examples of optional substituents on R12 include C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl.

[0268] Typical examples of particular substituents on R12 include ethoxycarbonyl.

[0269] In a first embodiment, R12 represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, R12 represents halogen. In one aspect of that embodiment, R12 represents fluoro. In another aspect of that embodiment, R12 represents chloro. In a third embodiment, R12 represents trifluoromethyl. In a fourth embodiment, R12 represents optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R12 represents unsubstituted methyl. In another aspect of that embodiment, R12 represents unsubstituted ethyl. In a further aspect of that embodiment, R12 represents monosubstituted methyl or monosubstituted ethyl.

[0270] Typical values of R12 include hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, trifluoromethyl, methyl and ethoxycarbonylethyl.

[0271] Typically, R15 and R16 may independently represent hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, bromo, cyano, nitro, methyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, methoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, methylthio, methylsulfinyl, methylsulfonyl, amino, methylamino, tert-butylamino, dimethylamino, phenylamino, acetylamino, methylsulfonylamino, formyl, acetyl, cyclopropylcarbonyl, azetidinylcarbonyl, pyrrolidinylcarbonyl, piperidinyl-carbonyl, piperazinylcarbonyl, morpholinylcarbonyl, carboxy, methoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, methylaminocarbonyl, dimethylaminocarbonyl, aminosulfonyl, methylamino-sulfonyl and dimethylaminosulfonyl.

[0272] Typical values of R15 include hydrogen, halogen, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, C1-6 alkoxy, difluoromethoxy and trifluoromethoxy.

[0273] Suitable values of R15 include hydrogen, halogen, C1-6 alkyl and difluoromethoxy.

[0274] Illustrative values of R15 include hydrogen, halogen and C1-6 alkyl.

[0275] In a first embodiment, R15 represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, R15 represents halogen. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R15 represents fluoro. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R15 represents chloro. In a third aspect of that embodiment, R15 represents bromo. In a third embodiment, R15 represents C1-6 alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R15 represents methyl. In a fourth embodiment, R15 represents trifluoromethyl. In a fifth embodiment, R15 represents C1-6 alkoxy. In one aspect of that embodiment, R15 represents methoxy. In a sixth embodiment, R15 represents difluoromethoxy. In a seventh embodiment, R15 represents trifluoromethoxy.

[0276] Selected values of R15 include hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, methyl, trifluoromethyl, methoxy, difluoromethoxy and trifluoromethoxy. Additional values include bromo.

[0277] Representative values of R15 include hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, bromo, methyl and difluoromethoxy.

[0278] Particular values of R15 include hydrogen, chloro and methyl.

[0279] Typical values of R16 include hydrogen, halogen, cyano, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, difluoromethoxy and amino.

[0280] Suitable values of R16 include hydrogen, halogen, C1-6 alkyl and difluoromethoxy.

[0281] Illustrative values of R16 include hydrogen, halogen and C1-6 alkyl.

[0282] In a first embodiment, R16 represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, R16 represents halogen. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R16 represents fluoro. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R16 represents chloro. In a third aspect of that embodiment, R16 represents bromo. In a third embodiment, R16 represents cyano. In a fourth embodiment, R16 represents C1-6 alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R16 represents methyl. In a fifth embodiment, R16 represents trifluoromethyl. In a sixth embodiment, R16 represents difluoromethoxy. In a seventh embodiment, R16 represents amino.

[0283] Selected values of R16 include hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, cyano, methyl, trifluoromethyl, difluoromethoxy and amino.

[0284] Representative values of R16 include hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, bromo, methyl and difluoromethoxy.

[0285] Particular values of R16 include hydrogen, chloro and methyl.

[0286] In a particular embodiment, R16 is attached at the para-position of the phenyl ring relative to the integer R15.

[0287] The present invention provides compounds of formula (IIB) as defined above. Also disclosed herein are compounds of formula (IIB) below and N-oxides thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and solvates thereof, and glucuronide derivatives thereof, and co-crystals thereof:

wherein

V represents C-R22 or N;

R21 represents hydrogen, halogen, halo(C1-6)alkyl, cyano, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, C2-6 alkenyl, C2-6 alkynyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, (C1-6)alkoxy-(C1-6)alkyl, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyl-oxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonyl(C1-6)alkyl, amino, amino-(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, (C1-6)alkoxy(C1-6)alkylamino, N-[(C1-6)-alkyl]-N-[hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino-(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[carboxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkylamino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, (C2-6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-6)alkyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, morpholinyl(C1-6)alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl, C1-6 alkylaminosulphonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminosulphonyl, (C1-6)alkyl-sulphoximinyl or [(C1-6)alkyl][N-(C1-6)alkyl]sulphoximinyl; or R21 represents (C3-7)cycloalkyl, (C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl, (C4-7)cycloalkenyl, (C4-9)bicycloalkyl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents;

R22 represents hydrogen, halogen or C1-6 alkyl;

R23 represents hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl or C1-6 alkoxy; and

E, Q, Z, R12, R15 and R16 are as defined above.



[0288] In one embodiment, V represents C-R22. In another embodiment, V represents N.

[0289] Typically, R21 represents hydrogen, halogen, halo(C1-6)alkyl, cyano, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, C2-6 alkenyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyloxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, amino, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, (C1-6)alkoxy(C1-6)alkylamino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl]-amino, N-[(C1-6)alkyl]-N-[carboxy(C1-6)alkyl]amino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkylamino, carboxy(C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkylamino, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino, (C2-6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-6)alkyl, carboxy, morpholinyl(C1-6)alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl or C2-6 alkoxycarbonylmethylidenyl; or R21 represents (C3-7)cycloalkyl, (C3-7)cycloalkyl-(C1-6)alkyl, (C4-7)cycloalkenyl, (C4-9)bicycloalkyl, (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl, (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl or (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents. Additionally, R21 may represent (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl.

[0290] More typically, R21 represents hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl or (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl; or R21 represents (C3-7)cycloalkyl, which group may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0291] Where R21 represents an optionally substituted (C3-7)cycloalkyl group, typical values include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl and cycloheptyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0292] Where R21 represents an optionally substituted (C3-7)cycloalkyl(C1-6)alkyl group, a typical value is cyclohexylmethyl, which group may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0293] Where R21 represents an optionally substituted (C4-7)cycloalkenyl group, typical values include cyclobutenyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl and cycloheptenyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0294] Where R21 represents an optionally substituted (C4-9)bicycloalkyl group, typical values include bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, bicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl and bicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0295] Where R21 represents an optionally substituted (C3-7)heterocycloalkyl group, typical values include oxetanyl, azetidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, hexahydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, azepanyl, oxazepanyl, diazepanyl and thiadiazepanyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0296] Where R21 represents an optionally substituted (C3-7)heterocycloalkenyl group, a typical value is optionally substituted 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinyl.

[0297] Where R21 represents an optionally substituted (C4-9)heterobicycloalkyl group, typical values include 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.1]heptanyl, 3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl, 2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl, quinuclidinyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, 8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]octanyl, 3-oxa-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanyl, 3-oxa-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanyl and 3,9-diazabicyclo-[4.2.1]nonanyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0298] Where R21 represents an optionally substituted (C4-9)spiroheterocycloalkyl group, typical values include 5-azaspiro[2.3]hexanyl, 5-azaspiro[2.4]heptanyl, 2-azaspiro[3.3]-heptanyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.4]octanyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro-[3.5]nonanyl, 2-oxa-7-azaspiro[3.5]nonanyl and 2,4,8-triazaspiro[4.5]-decanyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0299] Illustratively, R21 represents hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, methoxy, carboxycyclobutyloxy, methylthio, methylsulphonyl, methylamino, N-[carboxyethyl]-N-methylamino, carboxycyclopentylamino, carboxycyclopropylmethylamino or ethoxycarbonylethyl; or R21 represents cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexylmethyl, cyclohexenyl, bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, bicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl, bicyclo[2.2.2]-octanyl, oxetanyl, azetidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, hexahydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, azepanyl, oxazepanyl, diazepanyl, thiadiazepanyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]-hexanyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.1.1]heptanyl, 3-azabicyclo-[4.1.0]heptanyl, 2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl, 3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, 8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]octanyl, 3-oxa-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanyl, 3-oxa-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanyl, 5-azaspiro[2.3]hexanyl, 5-azaspiro[2.4]heptanyl or 2-azaspiro-[3.3]heptanyl, any of which groups may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents. Additionally, R21 may represent (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl.

[0300] More particularly, R21 represents hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl or (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl; or R21 represents cyclobutyl, which group may be optionally substituted by one or more substituents.

[0301] Examples of optional substituents which may be present on R21 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from halogen, halo(C1-6)alkyl, cyano, cyano-(C1-6)alkyl, nitro, nitro(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, C2-6 alkenyl, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, trifluoroethoxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonyl(C1-6)alkyl, oxo, amino, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, C2-6 alkylcarbonylamino, (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino-(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylamino, C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, morpholinyl-(C1-6)alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, a carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moiety Ω as defined herein, -(C1-6)alkyl-Ω, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminosulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl and [(C1-6)alkyl][N-(C1-6)alkyl]-sulphoximinyl.

[0302] Typical examples of optional substituents on R21 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from C1-6 alkyl and hydroxy.

[0303] Suitable examples of particular substituents on R21 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from fluoro, fluoromethyl, chloro, bromo, cyano, cyanomethyl, cyanoethyl, nitro, nitromethyl, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, ethenyl, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, methoxy, ethoxy, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy, trifluoroethoxy, methylthio, methylsulphonyl, methylsulphonylmethyl, methylsulphonylethyl, oxo, amino, methylamino, dimethylamino, acetylamino, acetylaminomethyl, methoxycarbonylamino, ethoxycarbonylamino, tert-butoxycarbonylamino, methylsulphonylamino, formyl, acetyl, carboxy, carboxymethyl, carboxyethyl, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, n-butoxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl, morpholinyl-ethoxycarbonyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylethyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylidenyl, acetylaminosulphonyl, methoxyaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, tetrazolylmethyl, hydroxyoxadiazolyl, aminocarbonyl, methylaminocarbonyl, dimethylaminocarbonyl, methylsulphonylaminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl, methylaminosulphonyl, dimethylaminosulphonyl, methylsulphoximinyl and (methyl)(N-methyl)sulphoximinyl.

[0304] Typical examples of particular substituents on R21 include one, two or three substituents independently selected from methyl and hydroxy.

[0305] Suitably, R21 represents hydrogen, fluoro, fluoroisopropyl, cyano, methyl, trifluoromethyl, ethenyl, hydroxy, hydroxyisopropyl, methoxy, isopropoxy, trifluoroethoxy, carboxycyclobutyloxy, methylthio, methylsulphonyl, amino, methylamino, dimethylamino, methoxyethylamino, N-(hydroxyethyl)-N-(methyl)amino, N-[carboxyethyl]-N-methylamino, carboxycyclopentylamino, carboxycyclopropylmethylamino, methylsulphonylamino, acetoxyisopropyl, carboxy, ethoxycarbonylethyl, fluoromethylcyclopropyl, acetylaminomethylcyclopropyl, hydroxycyclobutyl, carboxycyclopentyl, carboxycyclohexyl, (carboxy)(methyl)cyclohexyl, (carboxy)(hydroxy)cyclohexyl, carboxymethylcyclohexyl, ethoxycarbonylcyclohexyl, (methoxycarbonyl)(methyl)-cyclohexyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(methyl)cyclohexyl, carboxycyclohexylmethyl, carboxycyclohexenyl, ethoxycarbonylcyclohexenyl, carboxybicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, ethoxycarbonylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, carboxybicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl, carboxybicyclo-[2.2.2]octanyl, fluorooxetanyl, hydroxyoxetanyl, hydroxyazetidinyl, (hydroxy)(methyl)-azetidinyl, carboxyazetidinyl, (tert-butoxycarbonyl)(hydroxy)azetidinyl, tetrazolylazetidinyl, hydroxytetrahydrofuranyl, pyrrolidinyl, hydroxypyrrolidinyl, carboxypyrrolidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)pyrrolidinyl, carboxymethylpyrrolidinyl, ethoxycarbonylpyrrolidinyl, fluorotetrahydropyranyl, hydroxytetrahydropyranyl, piperidinyl, difluoropiperidinyl, (cyano)(methyl)piperidinyl, (hydroxy)(nitromethyl)piperidinyl, (hydroxy)(methyl)piperidinyl, (hydroxy)(trifluoromethyl)piperidinyl, (hydroxymethyl)(methyl)piperidinyl, methylsulphonylpiperidinyl, oxopiperidinyl, (formyl)(methyl)piperidinyl, acetylpiperidinyl, carboxypiperidinyl, (carboxy)(fluoro)piperidinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)piperidinyl, (carboxy)(ethyl)piperidinyl, (carboxy)(trifluoromethyl)piperidinyl, (carboxy)(hydroxy)piperidinyl, (carboxy)(hydroxymethyl)piperidinyl, (carboxy)(methoxy)piperidinyl, (amino)(carboxy)piperidinyl, carboxymethylpiperidinyl, methoxycarbonylpiperidinyl, (methoxycarbonyl)(methyl)piperidinyl, (ethyl)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinyl, (isopropyl)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinyl, (methoxy)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinyl, (carboxy)(methoxycarbonyl)piperidinyl, ethoxycarbonylpiperidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(fluoro)piperidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(methyl)piperidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(trifluoromethyl)piperidinyl, (ethoxycarbonyl)(hydroxymethyl)piperidinyl, (n-butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)piperidinyl, (methyl)(morpholinylethoxycarbonyl)piperidinyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylpiperidinyl, methylsulphonylaminocarbonylpiperidinyl, acetylaminosulphonylpiperidinyl, methoxyaminocarbonylpiperidinyl, tetrazolylpiperidinyl, hydroxyoxadiazolylpiperidinyl, aminosulphonylpiperidinyl, piperazinyl, cyanoethylpiperazinyl, trifluoroethylpiperazinyl, methylsulphonylpiperazinyl, methylsulphonylethylpiperazinyl, oxopiperazinyl, acetylpiperazinyl, carboxypiperazinyl, tert-butoxycarbonylpiperazinyl, carboxymethylpiperazinyl, carboxyethylpiperazinyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylpiperazinyl, ethoxycarbonylethylpiperazinyl, tetrazolylmethylpiperazinyl, trioxohexahydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazinyl, morpholinyl, dimethylmorpholinyl, hydroxymethylmorpholinyl, carboxymorpholinyl, (carboxy)(methyl)morpholinyl, carboxymethylmorpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, oxothiomorpholinyl, dioxothiomorpholinyl, carboxyazepanyl, carboxyoxazepanyl, oxodiazepanyl, (methyl)(oxo)diazepanyl, dioxothiadiazepanyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, (carboxy)(methyl)-3-azabicyclo-[3.1.0]hexanyl, methoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, ethoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanyl, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanyl, carboxy-2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.1.1]heptanyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo-[4.1.0]heptanyl, methoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl, ethoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptanyl, (hydroxy)(methyl)(oxo)-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl, carboxy-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, methoxycarbonyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, oxo-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, ethoxycarbonylmethylidenyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, 3-oxa-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanyl, oxo-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonanyl, carboxy-3-oxa-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanyl, carboxy-5-azaspiro[2.3]hexanyl, (carboxy)(methyl)-5-azaspiro-[2.3]hexanyl, carboxy-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptanyl, carboxy-2-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.4]octanyl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.5]nonanyl, 2-oxa-7-azaspiro[3.5]nonanyl or (dioxo)(methyl)-2,4,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decanyl. Additional values include methylsulphoximinyl and (dihydroxy)(methyl)cyclobutyl.

[0306] Selected values of R21 include hydroxyisopropyl, methylsulphoximinyl and (dihydroxy)(methyl)cyclobutyl.

[0307] Various embodiments and aspects of compounds of the above formula disclosed herein are set out below.

[0308] In a particular embodiment, R21 represents hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R21 represents hydroxyisopropyl, especially 2-hydroxyprop-2-yl.

[0309] Generally, R22 represents hydrogen or C1-6 alkyl.

[0310] Suitably, R22 represents hydrogen, chloro or methyl.

[0311] Typically, R22 represents hydrogen or methyl.

[0312] In one embodiment, R22 represents hydrogen. In another embodiment, R22 represents C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl. In a further embodiment, R22 represents halogen. In one aspect of that embodiment, R22 represents fluoro. In another aspect of that embodiment, R22 represents chloro.

[0313] Generally, R23 represents hydrogen or C1-6 alkyl.

[0314] Suitably, R23 represents hydrogen, methyl, trifluoromethyl or methoxy.

[0315] Typically, R23 represents hydrogen or methyl.

[0316] In one embodiment, R23 represents hydrogen. In another embodiment, R23 represents C1-6 alkyl, especially methyl. In a further embodiment, R23 represents trifluoromethyl. In an additional embodiment, R23 represents C1-6 alkoxy, especially methoxy.

[0317] Also disclosed herein are compounds of formula (IIC), (IID), (IIE), (IIF), (IIG), (IIH), (IIJ), (IIK) and (IIL), and N-oxides thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and solvates thereof, and glucuronide derivatives thereof, and co-crystals thereof:

















wherein

T represents -CH2- or -CH2CH2-;

U represents C(O) or S(O)2;

W represents O, S, S(O), S(O)2, S(O)(NR5), N(R31) or C(R32)(R33);

-M- represents -CH2- or -CH2CH2-;

R31 represents hydrogen, cyano(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonyl(C1-6)alkyl, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, a carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moiety Ω, -(C1-6)alkyl-Ω, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl or di(C1-6)alkylaminosulphonyl;

R32 represents hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, aminosulphonyl, (C1-6)alkyl-sulphoximinyl, [(C1-6)alkyl][N-(C1-6)alkyl]sulphoximinyl, a carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moiety Ω, or -(C1-6)alkyl-Ω;

R33 represents hydrogen, halogen, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, hydroxy-(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy, amino or carboxy;

R34 represents hydrogen, halogen, halo(C1-6)alkyl, hydroxy, C1-6 alkoxy, C1-6 alkylthio, C1-6 alkylsulphinyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, amino, C1-6 alkylamino, di(C1-6)alkylamino, (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino, (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonylamino or (C1-6)alkylsulphonylamino(C1-6)alkyl; and

V, E, Q, Z, R5, R12, R15, R16, R23 and Ω are as defined above.



[0318] Various embodiments and aspects of compounds of the above formulae (IIC), (IID), (IIE), (IIF), (IIG), (IIH), (IIJ), (IIK) and (IIL) disclosed herein are set out below.In a first embodiment, T represents -CH2-. In a second embodiment, T represents -CH2CH2-.

[0319] In a first embodiment, U represents C(O). In a second embodiment, U represents S(O)2.

[0320] Generally, W represents O, S(O)2, N(R31) or C(R32)(R33).

[0321] Typically, W represents O, N(R31) or C(R32)(R33).

[0322] In a first embodiment, W represents O. In a second embodiment, W represents S. In a third embodiment, W represents S(O). In a fourth embodiment, W represents S(O)2. In a fifth embodiment, W represents S(O)(NR5). In a sixth embodiment, W represents N(R31). In a seventh embodiment, W represents C(R32)(R33).

[0323] In one embodiment, -M- represents -CH2-. In another embodiment, -M- represents -CH2CH2-.

[0324] Typically, R31 represents hydrogen, cyano(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonyl(C1-6)alkyl, formyl, C2-6 alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl-(C1-6)alkyl, tetrazolyl(C1-6)alkyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-6 alkylaminocarbonyl, di(C1-6)alkylaminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl, C1-6 alkylaminosulphonyl or di(C1-6)alkylaminosulphonyl.

[0325] Typical values of R31 include hydrogen, cyanoethyl, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoroethyl, methylsulphonyl, methylsulphonylethyl, formyl, acetyl, carboxy, carboxymethyl, carboxyethyl, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylethyl, tetrazolylmethyl, aminocarbonyl, methylamino-carbonyl, dimethylaminocarbonyl, aminosulphonyl, methylaminosulphonyl and dimethylaminosulphonyl.

[0326] Generally, R32 represents halogen, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, a carboxylic acid isostere or prodrug moiety Ω, or -(C1-6)alkyl-Ω.

[0327] Typically, R32 represents hydrogen, halogen, cyano, hydroxy, hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl, C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, formyl, carboxy, carboxy(C1-6)alkyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl(C1-6)alkyl, aminosulphonyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl, [(C1-6)alkyl][N-(C1-6)alkyl]sulphoximinyl, (C1-6)alkylsulphonylaminocarbonyl, (C2-6)alkylcarbonylaminosulphonyl, (C1-6)alkoxyaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl or hydroxyoxadiazolyl.

[0328] Typical values of R32 include hydrogen, fluoro, cyano, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, methylsulphonyl, formyl, carboxy, carboxymethyl, carboxyethyl, methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, tert-butoxycarbonyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl, methoxycarbonylethyl, ethoxycarbonylmethyl, ethoxycarbonylethyl, aminosulphonyl, methylsulphoximinyl, (methyl)(N-methyl)sulphoximinyl, methylsulphonylaminocarbonyl, acetylaminosulphonyl, methoxyaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl and hydroxyoxadiazolyl.

[0329] In a particular embodiment, R32 represents hydroxy.

[0330] In a selected embodiment, R32 represents carboxy.

[0331] Generally, R33 represents hydrogen, halogen or C1-6 alkyl.

[0332] Suitably, R33 represents hydrogen or C1-6 alkyl.

[0333] Selected values of R33 include hydrogen, fluoro, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, hydroxymethyl, methoxy, amino and carboxy.

[0334] Selected values of R33 include hydrogen and methyl.

[0335] In a first embodiment, R33 represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, R33 represents halogen. In one aspect of that embodiment, R33 represents fluoro. In a third embodiment, R33 represents C1-6 alkyl. In a first aspect of that embodiment, R33 represents methyl. In a second aspect of that embodiment, R33 represents ethyl. In a third aspect of that embodiment, R33 represents isopropyl. In a fourth embodiment, R33 represents trifluoromethyl. In a fifth embodiment, R33 represents hydroxy. In a sixth embodiment, R33 represents hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R33 represents hydroxymethyl. In a seventh embodiment, R33 represents C1-6 alkoxy. In one aspect of that embodiment, R33 represents methoxy. In an eighth embodiment, R33 represents amino. In a ninth embodiment, R33 represents carboxy.

[0336] In a first embodiment, R34 represents hydrogen. In a second embodiment, R34 represents halogen. In one aspect of that embodiment, R34 represents fluoro. In a third embodiment, R34 represents halo(C1-6)alkyl. In one aspect of that embodiment, R34 represents fluoromethyl. In a fourth embodiment, R34 represents hydroxy. In a fifth embodiment, R34 represents C1-6 alkoxy, especially methoxy. In a sixth embodiment, R34 represents C1-6 alkylthio, especially methylthio. In a seventh embodiment, R34 represents C1-6 alkylsulphinyl, especially methylsulphinyl. In an eighth embodiment, R34 represents C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, especially methylsulphonyl. In a ninth embodiment, R34 represents amino. In a tenth embodiment, R34 represents C1-6 alkylamino, especially methylamino. In an eleventh embodiment, R34 represents di(C1-6)alkylamino, especially dimethylamino. In a twelfth embodiment, R34 represents (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino, especially acetylamino. In a thirteenth embodiment, R34 represents (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, especially acetylaminomethyl. In a fourteenth embodiment, R34 represents (C1-6)alkylsulphonylamino, especially methylsulphonylamino. In a fifteenth embodiment, R34 represents (C1-6)alkylsulphonylamino(C1-6)alkyl, especially methylsulphonylaminomethyl.

[0337] Typically, R34 represents hydrogen, halogen, halo(C1-6)alkyl, hydroxy or (C2-6)alkylcarbonylamino(C1-6)alkyl.

[0338] Selected values of R34 include hydrogen, fluoro, fluoromethyl, hydroxy, methoxy, methylthio, methylsulphinyl, methylsulphonyl, amino, methylamino, dimethylamino and acetylaminomethyl.

[0339] Particular values of R34 include hydrogen, fluoro, fluoromethyl, hydroxy and acetylaminomethyl.

[0340] Suitably, R34 represents hydrogen or hydroxy.

[0341] Also disclosed herein are compounds of formula (IIM) and N-oxides thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and solvates thereof, and glucuronide derivatives thereof, and co-crystals thereof:

wherein
E, Q, Z, W, R12, R15, R16 and R21 are as defined above.

[0342] With specific reference to formula (IIM), the integer W is suitably O, S or N-R31, especially S or N-R31.

[0343] Specific compounds disclosed herein include each of the compounds whose preparation is described in the accompanying Examples, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and solvates thereof, and co-crystals thereof.

[0344] The compounds in accordance with the present invention are beneficial in the treatment and/or prevention of various human ailments. These include autoimmune and inflammatory disorders; neurological and neurodegenerative disorders; pain and nociceptive disorders; cardiovascular disorders; metabolic disorders; ocular disorders; and oncological disorders.

[0345] Inflammatory and autoimmune disorders include systemic autoimmune disorders, autoimmune endocrine disorders and organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Systemic autoimmune disorders include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, psoriatic arthropathy, vasculitis, polymyositis, scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific inflammatory arthritis, juvenile inflammatory arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (including oligoarticular and polyarticular forms thereof), anaemia of chronic disease (ACD), Still's disease (juvenile and/or adult onset), Behçet's disease and Sjögren's syndrome. Autoimmune endocrine disorders include thyroiditis. Organ-specific autoimmune disorders include Addison's disease, haemolytic or pernicious anaemia, acute kidney injury (AKI; including cisplatin-induced AKI), diabetic nephropathy (DN), obstructive uropathy (including cisplatin-induced obstructive uropathy), glomerulonephritis (including Goodpasture's syndrome, immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis), lupus nephritis (LN), minimal change disease, Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, inflammatory bowel disease (including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis and pouchitis), pemphigus, atopic dermatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune pneumonitis, autoimmune carditis, myasthenia gravis, spontaneous infertility, osteoporosis, osteopenia, erosive bone disease, chondritis, cartilage degeneration and/or destruction, fibrosing disorders (including various forms of hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis), asthma, rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, fever, muscular dystrophy (including Duchenne muscular dystrophy) and organ transplant rejection (including kidney allograft rejection).

[0346] Neurological and neurodegenerative disorders include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, ischaemia, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, head trauma, seizures and epilepsy.

[0347] Cardiovascular disorders include thrombosis, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension, irregular contractility of the heart (e.g. during heart failure), and sexual disorders (including erectile dysfunction and female sexual dysfunction). Modulators of TNFα function may also be of use in the treatment and/or prevention of myocardial infarction (see J.J. Wu et al., JAMA, 2013, 309, 2043-2044).

[0348] Metabolic disorders include diabetes (including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and juvenile diabetes), dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome.

[0349] Ocular disorders include retinopathy (including diabetic retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy, non-proliferative retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity), macular oedema (including diabetic macular oedema), age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), vascularisation (including corneal vascularisation and neovascularisation), retinal vein occlusion, and various forms of uveitis and keratitis.

[0350] Oncological disorders, which may be acute or chronic, include proliferative disorders, especially cancer, and cancer-associated complications (including skeletal complications, cachexia and anaemia). Particular categories of cancer include haematological malignancy (including leukaemia and lymphoma) and non-haematological malignancy (including solid tumour cancer, sarcoma, meningioma, glioblastoma multiforme, neuroblastoma, melanoma, gastric carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma). Chronic leukaemia may be myeloid or lymphoid. Varieties of leukaemia include lymphoblastic T cell leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), chronic lymphocytic/lymphoid leukaemia (CLL), hairy-cell leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic neutrophilic leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic T cell leukaemia, plasmacytoma, immunoblastic large cell leukaemia, mantle cell leukaemia, multiple myeloma, acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia, acute megakaryocytic leukaemia, promyelocytic leukaemia and erythroleukaemia. Varieties of lymphoma include malignant lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lymphoblastic T cell lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, MALT1 lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. Varieties of non-haematological malignancy include cancer of the prostate, lung, breast, rectum, colon, lymph node, bladder, kidney, pancreas, liver, ovary, uterus, cervix, brain, skin, bone, stomach and muscle. Modulators of TNFα function may also be used to increase the safety of the potent anticancer effect of TNF (see F.V. Hauwermeiren et al., J. Clin. Invest., 2013, 123, 2590-2603).

[0351] The present invention also provides a pharmaceutical composition which comprises a compound in accordance with the invention as described above, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, in association with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers.

[0352] Pharmaceutical compositions according to the invention may take a form suitable for oral, buccal, parenteral, nasal, topical, ophthalmic or rectal administration, or a form suitable for administration by inhalation or insufflation.

[0353] For oral administration, the pharmaceutical compositions may take the form of, for example, tablets, lozenges or capsules prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients such as binding agents (e.g. pregelatinised maize starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone or hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose); fillers (e.g. lactose, microcrystalline cellulose or calcium hydrogenphosphate); lubricants (e.g. magnesium stearate, talc or silica); disintegrants (e.g. potato starch or sodium glycollate); or wetting agents (e.g. sodium lauryl sulphate). The tablets may be coated by methods well known in the art. Liquid preparations for oral administration may take the form of, for example, solutions, syrups or suspensions, or they may be presented as a dry product for constitution with water or other suitable vehicle before use. Such liquid preparations may be prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutically acceptable additives such as suspending agents, emulsifying agents, non-aqueous vehicles or preservatives. The preparations may also contain buffer salts, flavouring agents, colouring agents or sweetening agents, as appropriate.

[0354] Preparations for oral administration may be suitably formulated to give controlled release of the active compound.

[0355] For buccal administration, the compositions may take the form of tablets or lozenges formulated in conventional manner.

[0356] The compounds of formula (IIB) may be formulated for parenteral administration by injection, e.g. by bolus injection or infusion. Formulations for injection may be presented in unit dosage form, e.g. in glass ampoules or multi-dose containers, e.g. glass vials. The compositions for injection may take such forms as suspensions, solutions or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, and may contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilising, preserving and/or dispersing agents. Alternatively, the active ingredient may be in powder form for constitution with a suitable vehicle, e.g. sterile pyrogen-free water, before use.

[0357] In addition to the formulations described above, the compounds of formula (IIB) may also be formulated as a depot preparation. Such long-acting formulations may be administered by implantation or by intramuscular injection.

[0358] For nasal administration or administration by inhalation, the compounds according to the present invention may be conveniently delivered in the form of an aerosol spray presentation for pressurised packs or a nebuliser, with the use of a suitable propellant, e.g. dichlorodifluoromethane, fluorotrichloromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane, carbon dioxide or other suitable gas or mixture of gases.

[0359] The compositions may, if desired, be presented in a pack or dispenser device which may contain one or more unit dosage forms containing the active ingredient. The pack or dispensing device may be accompanied by instructions for administration.

[0360] For topical administration the compounds of use in the present invention may be conveniently formulated in a suitable ointment containing the active component suspended or dissolved in one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. Particular carriers include, for example, mineral oil, liquid petroleum, propylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, polyoxypropylene, emulsifying wax and water. Alternatively, the compounds of use in the present invention may be formulated in a suitable lotion containing the active component suspended or dissolved in one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. Particular carriers include, for example, mineral oil, sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, cetyl esters wax, cetearyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, 2-octyldodecanol and water.

[0361] For ophthalmic administration the compounds of use in the present invention may be conveniently formulated as micronized suspensions in isotonic, pH-adjusted sterile saline, either with or without a preservative such as a bactericidal or fungicidal agent, for example phenylmercuric nitrate, benzylalkonium chloride or chlorhexidine acetate. Alternatively, for ophthalmic administration compounds may be formulated in an ointment such as petrolatum.

[0362] For rectal administration the compounds of use in the present invention may be conveniently formulated as suppositories. These can be prepared by mixing the active component with a suitable non-irritating excipient which is solid at room temperature but liquid at rectal temperature and so will melt in the rectum to release the active component. Such materials include, for example, cocoa butter, beeswax and polyethylene glycols.

[0363] The quantity of a compound of use in the invention required for the prophylaxis or treatment of a particular condition will vary depending on the compound chosen and the condition of the patient to be treated. In general, however, daily dosages may range from around 10 ng/kg to 1000 mg/kg, typically from 100 ng/kg to 100 mg/kg, e.g. around 0.01 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg body weight, for oral or buccal administration, from around 10 ng/kg to 50 mg/kg body weight for parenteral administration, and from around 0.05 mg to around 1000 mg, e.g. from around 0.5 mg to around 1000 mg, for nasal administration or administration by inhalation or insufflation.

[0364] If desired, a compound in accordance with the present invention may be co-administered with another pharmaceutically active agent, e.g. an anti-inflammatory molecule such as methotrexate or prednisolone.

[0365] The compounds of formula (I) above may be prepared by a process which comprises reacting a compound of formula Z-Q-CO2H or a carboxylate salt thereof (e.g. a carboxylate salt with an alkali metal such as lithium, sodium or potassium) with a compound of formula (III):

wherein E, Q, Y, Z, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above.

[0366] The reaction may advantageously be performed in the presence of a peptide coupling reagent such as 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]-pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (HATU), optionally in the presence of a suitable base, e.g. an organic base such as N,N-diisopropylethylamine or triethylamine. The reaction is conveniently effected at ambient or elevated temperature in a suitable solvent, e.g. a dipolar aprotic solvent such as N,N-dimethylformamide, and/or a chlorinated solvent such as dichloromethane.

[0367] Alternatively, the reaction may be accomplished in the presence of a coupling reagent such as 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDCI), typically in the presence of a reagent such as 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBT) and a suitable base, e.g. an organic base such as N,N-diisopropylethylamine or triethylamine. The reaction is conveniently effected at ambient temperature in a suitable solvent, e.g. a dipolar aprotic solvent such as N,N-dimethylformamide, or a chlorinated solvent such as dichloromethane.

[0368] The product thereby obtained is suitably treated with an acid, ideally an organic acid such as acetic acid, or p-toluenesulphonic acid, or a mineral acid such as hydrochloric acid, typically at an elevated temperature.

[0369] Alternatively, the reaction may conveniently be effected at an elevated temperature in the presence of a mineral acid, e.g. hydrochloric acid.

[0370] Alternatively, the reaction may conveniently be effected at an elevated temperature in the presence of a lower alkanol, e.g. a C1-4 alkanol such as methanol.

[0371] In an alternative procedure, the compounds of formula (I) above wherein E represents a covalent bond or an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain may be prepared by a process which comprises reacting a compound of formula L1-E1-Y with a compound of formula (IV):

wherein Q, Y, Z, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above, E1 represents a covalent bond or an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain, and L1 represents a suitable leaving group.

[0372] The leaving group L1 is typically a halogen atom, e.g. chloro or bromo.

[0373] The reaction is conveniently effected at ambient or elevated temperature in a suitable solvent, e.g. a dipolar aprotic solvent such as N,N-dimethylformamide, or a chlorinated solvent such as dichloromethane, or a cyclic ether such as tetrahydrofuran, or an organic nitrile such as acetonitrile, or an organic sulfoxide such as dimethylsulfoxide. The reaction may be performed in the presence of a suitable base, e.g. an inorganic base such as potassium carbonate, cesium carbonate or sodium hydride.

[0374] The intermediates of formula (IV) above may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula Z-Q-CO2H or a carboxylate salt thereof (e.g. a carboxylate salt with an alkali metal such as lithium, sodium or potassium) with a compound of formula (V):

wherein Q, Z, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above; under conditions analogous to those described above for the reaction between compound (III) and a compound of formula Z-Q-CO2H or a carboxylate salt thereof.

[0375] The intermediates of formula (III) above may be prepared by reducing a compound of formula (VI):

wherein E, Y, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above.

[0376] The transformation is conveniently effected by catalytic hydrogenation of compound (VI), which typically comprises treating compound (VI) with gaseous hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst such as palladium on carbon, or platinum on carbon.

[0377] Alternatively, the reduction of compound (VI) may be effected by treatment with elemental iron or zinc, typically at an elevated temperature in the presence of ammonium chloride.

[0378] Alternatively, the reduction of compound (VI) may be effected by treatment with tin(II) chloride, typically at an elevated temperature in the presence of a mineral acid such as hydrochloric acid.

[0379] The intermediates of formula (VI) wherein E represents a covalent bond or an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula L1-E1-Y with a compound of formula (VII):

wherein E1, Y, R1, R2, R3 and L1 are as defined above; under conditions analogous to those described above for the reaction between compound (IV) and a compound of formula L1-E1-Y.

[0380] Alternatively, the intermediates of formula (VI) wherein E represents a covalent bond or an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula Y-E1-NH2 with a compound of formula (VIII):

wherein E1, Y, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above.

[0381] The reaction is conveniently effected at ambient or elevated temperature in a suitable solvent, e.g. 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), a hydrocarbon solvent such as toluene, a cyclic ether such as tetrahydrofuran, a dipolar aprotic solvent such as N,N-dimethylformamide, or an organic nitrile such as acetonitrile. The reaction may be performed in the presence of a suitable base, e.g. an inorganic base such as sodium hydride or potassium carbonate.

[0382] In another procedure, the compounds of formula (I) above, wherein Q corresponds to a group of formula -CH(OH)-Q1-, may be prepared by a process which comprises reacting an aldehyde of formula OHC-Q1-Z with a compound of formula (IX):

wherein E, Y, Z, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above.

[0383] The reaction is conveniently effected in the presence of a strong base, e.g. n-butyllithium or lithium diisopropylamide (LDA). The reaction is carried out in a suitable solvent, e.g. a cyclic ether such as tetrahydrofuran.

[0384] The intermediates of formula (IX) above wherein E represents a covalent bond or an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula L1-E1-Y with a compound of formula (X):

wherein E1, Y, R1, R2, R3 and L1 are as defined above; under conditions analogous to those described above for the reaction between compound (IV) and a compound of formula L1-E1-Y.

[0385] Alternatively, the intermediates of formula (IX) above may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula (III) as defined above with formic acid, ideally at ambient temperature.

[0386] The intermediates of formula (IX) above wherein E represents -N(H)- may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula L2-Y with a compound of formula (XI):

wherein Y, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above, and L2 represents a suitable leaving group; in the presence of a transition metal catalyst.

[0387] The leaving group L2 is typically a halogen atom, e.g. bromo.

[0388] A suitable transition metal catalyst for use in the above reaction is tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0), in which case the reaction is conveniently performed in the presence of 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',4',6'-triisopropylbiphenyl. The reaction is suitably carried out at an elevated temperature in a suitable solvent, e.g. N,N-dimethylformamide, typically in the presence of a base, e.g. an inorganic base such as cesium carbonate.

[0389] In a further procedure, the compounds of formula (I) above wherein Z represents a 1H-[1,2,3]triazol-1-yl moiety, optionally substituted in the 4-position, may be prepared by a process which comprises reacting a compound of formula H-C≡C-Rz with a compound of formula (XII):

wherein E, Q, Y, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above, and Rz represents an optional substituent on Z.

[0390] The reaction is conveniently performed in the presence of copper sulfate pentahydrate and sodium ascorbate. Suitably, the reaction is carried out at ambient temperature in a suitable solvent, e.g. a cyclic ether solvent such as tetrahydrofuran, typically in admixture with water.

[0391] The intermediates of formula (XII) above wherein E represents a covalent bond or an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula (XIII):

wherein Q, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above, and L3 represents a suitable leaving group; with sodium azide; followed by reaction of the resulting compound with a compound of formula L1-E1-Y under conditions analogous to those described above for the reaction between compound (IV) and a compound of formula L1-E1-Y.

[0392] The leaving group L3 is typically a halogen atom, e.g. chloro.

[0393] The reaction between compound (XIII) and sodium azide is conveniently effected at ambient temperature in a suitable solvent, e.g. N,N-dimethylformamide.

[0394] The compounds of formula (I) above wherein Q represents -S- may be prepared by a process which comprises reacting a compound of formula Z-S-Z with a compound of formula (IX) as defined above.

[0395] The reaction is conveniently effected at ambient temperature in a suitable solvent, e.g. N,N-dimethylformamide. The reaction may be performed in the presence of a suitable base, e.g. an inorganic base such as potassium carbonate.

[0396] In a further procedure, the compounds of formula (I) above may be prepared by a process which comprises cyclising a compound of formula (XIV):

wherein E, Q, Y, Z, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above.

[0397] The cyclisation reaction is conveniently effected by heating compound (XIV) in acetic acid.

[0398] The intermediates of formula (XIV) above may be prepared by a process which comprises reacting an aldehyde derivative of formula Y-E2-CHO with a compound of formula (XV):

wherein Q, Y, Z, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above, and -E2-CH2- corresponds to a group E as defined above; in the presence of a reducing agent.

[0399] The reducing agent for use in the above reaction is suitably sodium triacetoxyborohydride or sodium borohydride.

[0400] In a further procedure, the compounds of formula (I) above wherein -Q-Z represents dimethylamino may be prepared by a process which comprises reacting a compound of formula (III) as defined above with (dichloromethylene)dimethylammonium chloride.

[0401] The reaction is conveniently effected in a suitable solvent, e.g. a chlorinated solvent such as dichloromethane, typically in the presence of a base, e.g. an organic base such as N,N-diisopropylethylamine.

[0402] In a further procedure, the compounds of formula (I) above may be prepared by a process which comprises cyclising a compound of formula (XVI):

wherein E, Q, Y, Z, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above.

[0403] The cyclisation reaction is conveniently effected by heating compound (XVI) in acetic anhydride, then acetic acid.

[0404] The intermediates of formula (XVI) above may be prepared by reducing a compound of formula (XVII):

wherein E, Q, Y, Z, R1, R2 and R3 are as defined above; under conditions analogous to those described above for the reduction of compound (VI).

[0405] The intermediates of formula (XVII) wherein E represents a covalent bond or an optionally substituted straight or branched C1-4 alkylene chain may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula L1-E1-Y with a compound of formula (XVIII):

wherein E1, Q, Y, Z, R1, R2, R3 and L1 are as defined above; under conditions analogous to those described above for the reaction between compound (IV) and a compound of formula L1-E1-Y.

[0406] The intermediates of formula (XVIII) above may be prepared by heating a compound of formula (VII) as defined above with an anhydride of formula (Z-Q-CO)2O, suitably in the presence of acetic acid and a mineral acid such as sulphuric acid.

[0407] As will be appreciated, the compounds of formula (IX) above correspond to compounds of formula (I) wherein Q represents a covalent bond and Z is hydrogen.

[0408] Where they are not commercially available, the starting materials of formula (V), (VII), (VIII), (X), (XI), (XIII) and (XV) may be prepared by methods analogous to those described in the accompanying Examples, or by standard methods well known from the art.

[0409] It will be understood that any compound of formula (I) initially obtained from any of the above processes may, where appropriate, subsequently be elaborated into a further compound of formula (I) by techniques known from the art. By way of example, a compound of formula (I) wherein E represents -CH2- may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein E represents -CH(CH3)- by treatment with a methyl halide, e.g. methyl iodide, in the presence of a base such as lithium hexamethyldisilazide.

[0410] A compound of formula (I) which contains a hydroxy group may be alkylated by treatment with the appropriate alkyl halide in the presence of a base, e.g. sodium hydride, or silver oxide. A compound of formula (I) wherein -Q-Z represents -CH2OH may be arylated in a two-step procedure which comprises: (i) treatment with thionyl chloride; and (ii) treatment of the chloro derivative thereby obtained with the appropriate aryl or heteroaryl hydroxide. A compound of formula (I) wherein -Q-Z represents -CH2OH may be converted into the corresponding compound of formula (I) wherein -Q-Z represents -CH2S-Z via a two-step procedure which comprises: (i) treatment with thionyl chloride; and (ii) treatment of the chloro derivative thereby obtained with a compound of formula Z-SH, typically in the presence of a base, e.g. an inorganic base such as potassium carbonate. A compound of formula (I) wherein -Q-Z represents -CH2OH may be converted into the corresponding compound of formula (I) wherein -Q-Z represents -CH2CN via a two-step procedure which comprises: (i) treatment with thionyl chloride; and (ii) treatment of the chloro derivative thereby obtained with a cyanide salt such as sodium cyanide. A compound of formula (I) which contains hydroxy may be converted into the corresponding fluoro-substituted compound by treatment with diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST) or bis(2-methoxyethyl)aminosulfur trifluoride (BAST). A compound of formula (I) which contains hydroxy may be converted into the corresponding difluoro-substituted compound via a two-step procedure which comprises: (i) treatment with an oxidising agent, e.g. manganese dioxide; and (ii) treatment of the carbonyl-containing compound thereby obtained with DAST.

[0411] A compound of formula (I) wherein -Q-Z represents -CH2OH may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein -Q-Z represents -CH(OH)Z in a two-step procedure which comprises: (i) oxidation with a suitable oxidising agent, e.g. Dess-Martin periodinane or manganese(IV) oxide; and (ii) treatment of the aldehyde derivative thereby obtained with a Grignard reagent, e.g. a compound of formula Z-MgBr or Z-MgCl.

[0412] A compound of formula (I) wherein -Q-Z represents -CH2OH may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein -Q-Z represents -CH(OH)CF3 in a two-step procedure which comprises: (i) oxidation with a suitable oxidising agent, e.g. Dess-Martin periodinane or manganese(IV) oxide; and (ii) treatment of the aldehyde derivative thereby obtained with (trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane and cesium fluoride.

[0413] A compound of formula (I) which contains an N-H moiety may be alkylated by treatment with the appropriate alkyl halide, typically at an elevated temperature in an organic solvent such as acetonitrile; or at ambient temperature in the presence of a base, e.g. an alkali metal carbonate such as potassium carbonate or cesium carbonate, in a suitable solvent, e.g. a dipolar aprotic solvent such as N,N-dimethylformamide. Alternatively, a compound of formula (I) which contains an N-H moiety may be alkylated by treatment with the appropriate alkyl tosylate in the presence of a base, e.g. an inorganic base such as sodium hydride, or an organic base such as 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU).

[0414] A compound of formula (I) which contains an N-H moiety may be methylated by treatment with formaldehyde in the presence of a reducing agent, e.g. sodium triacetoxyborohydride.

[0415] A compound of formula (I) which contains an N-H moiety may be acylated by treatment with the appropriate acid chloride, e.g. acetyl chloride, or with the appropriate carboxylic acid anhydride, e.g. acetic anhydride, typically at ambient temperature in the presence of a base, e.g. an organic base such as triethylamine.

[0416] A compound of formula (I) which contains an N-H moiety may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein the nitrogen atom is substituted by C1-6 alkylsulphonyl, e.g. methylsulphonyl, by treatment with the appropriate C1-6 alkylsulphonyl chloride, e.g. methanesulphonyl chloride, or with the appropriate C1-6 alkylsulphonic acid anhydride, e.g. methanesulphonic anhydride, typically at ambient temperature in the presence of a base, e.g. an organic base such as triethylamine or N,N-diisopropylethylamine.

[0417] A compound of formula (I) substituted by amino (-NH2) may be converted into the corresponding compound substituted by C1-6 alkylsulphonylamino, e.g. methylsulphonylamino, or bis[(C1-6)alkylsulphonyl]amino, e.g. bis(methylsulphonyl)amino, by treatment with the appropriate C1-6 alkylsulphonyl halide, e.g. a C1-6 alkylsulphonyl chloride such as methanesulphonyl chloride. Similarly, a compound of formula (I) substituted by hydroxy (-OH) may be converted into the corresponding compound substituted by C1-6 alkyl-sulphonyloxy, e.g. methylsulphonyloxy, by treatment with the appropriate C1-6 alkylsulphonyl halide, e.g. a C1-6 alkylsulphonyl chloride such as methanesulphonyl chloride.

[0418] A compound of formula (I) containing the moiety -S- may be converted into the corresponding compound containing the moiety -S(O)- by treatment with 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. Likewise, a compound of formula (I) containing the moiety -S(O)- may be converted into the corresponding compound containing the moiety -S(O)2- by treatment with 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. Alternatively, a compound of formula (I) containing the moiety -S- may be converted into the corresponding compound containing the moiety -S(O)2- by treatment with Oxone® (potassium peroxymonosulfate).

[0419] A compound of formula (I) containing an aromatic nitrogen atom may be converted into the corresponding N-oxide derivative by treatment with 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid.

[0420] A bromophenyl derivative of formula (I) may be converted into the corresponding optionally substituted 2-oxopyrrolidin-1-ylphenyl or 2-oxooxazolidin-3-ylphenyl derivative by treatment with pyrrolidin-2-one or oxazolidin-2-one, or an appropriately substituted analogue thereof. The reaction is conveniently effected at an elevated temperature in the presence of copper(I) iodide, trans-N,N'-dimethylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine and an inorganic base such as potassium carbonate.

[0421] A compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents halogen, e.g. bromo or chloro, may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R1 represents an optionally substituted aryl or heteroaryl moiety by treatment with the appropriately substituted aryl or heteroaryl boronic acid or a cyclic ester thereof formed with an organic diol, e.g. pinacol, 1,3-propanediol or neopentyl glycol. The reaction is typically effected in the presence of a transition metal catalyst, e.g. [1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II), dichloro[1,1'-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)ferrocene]palladium(II), tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0), bis[3-(diphenylphosphanyl)cyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-yl]iron-dichloropalladium-dichloromethane complex, or tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0), and a base, e.g. an inorganic base such as sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate or cesium carbonate, or potassium phosphate.

[0422] A compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents halogen, e.g. bromo, may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R1 represents an optionally substituted aryl, heteroaryl or heterocycloalkenyl moiety via a two-step procedure which comprises: (i) reaction with bis(pinacolato)diboron or bis(neopentyl glycolato)diboron; and (ii) reaction of the compound thereby obtained with an appropriately functionalised halo- or tosyloxy-substituted aryl, heteroaryl or heterocycloalkenyl derivative. Step (i) is conveniently effected in the presence of a transition metal catalyst such as [1,1'-bis-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II), or bis[3-(diphenylphosphanyl)-cyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-yl]iron-dichloropalladium-dichloromethane complex. Step (ii) is conveniently effected in the presence of a transition metal catalyst such as tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0), or bis[3-(diphenylphosphanyl)cyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-yl]iron-dichloropalladium-dichloromethane complex, and a base, e.g. an inorganic base such as sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate.

[0423] A compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents halogen, e.g. bromo, may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R1 represents an optionally substituted C2-6 alkynyl moiety by treatment with an appropriately substituted alkyne derivative, e.g. 2-hydroxybut-3-yne. The reaction is conveniently accomplished with the assistance of a transition metal catalyst, e.g. tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0), typically in the presence of copper(I) iodide and a base, e.g. an organic base such as triethylamine.

[0424] A compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents halogen, e.g. bromo, may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R1 represents an optionally substituted imidazol-1-yl moiety by treatment with the appropriately substituted imidazole derivative, typically in the presence of copper(II) acetate and an organic base such as N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA).

[0425] A compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents halogen, e.g. bromo, may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R1 represents 2-(methoxycarbonyl)-ethyl via a two-step procedure which comprises: (i) reaction with methyl acrylate; and (ii) catalytic hydrogenation of the alkenyl derivative thereby obtained, typically by treatment with a hydrogenation catalyst, e.g. palladium on charcoal, under an atmosphere of hydrogen gas. Step (i) is typically effected in the presence of a transition metal catalyst, e.g. palladium(II) acetate or bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium(0), and a reagent such as tri(ortho-tolyl)phosphine.

[0426] In general, a compound of formula (I) containing a -C=C- functionality may be converted into the corresponding compound containing a -CH-CH- functionality by catalytic hydrogenation, typically by treatment with a hydrogenation catalyst, e.g. palladium on charcoal, under an atmosphere of hydrogen gas, optionally in the presence of a base, e.g. an alkali metal hydroxide such as sodium hydroxide.

[0427] A compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents 6-methoxypyridin-3-yl may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R1 represents 2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-pyridin-5-yl by treatment with pyridine hydrochloride; or by heating with a mineral acid such as hydrochloric acid. By utilising similar methodology, a compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents 6-methoxy-4-methylpyridin-3-yl may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R1 represents 4-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-5-yl; and a compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents 6-methoxy-5-methylpyridin-3-yl may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R1 represents 3-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-5-yl.

[0428] A compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-5-yl may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R1 represents 2-oxopiperidin-5-yl by catalytic hydrogenation, typically by treatment with gaseous hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst such as platinum(IV) oxide.

[0429] A compound of formula (I) containing an ester moiety, e.g. a C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl group such as methoxycarbonyl or ethoxycarbonyl, may be converted into the corresponding compound containing a carboxy (-CO2H) moiety by treatment with an acid, e.g. a mineral acid such as hydrochloric acid.

[0430] A compound of formula (I) containing an N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl) moiety may be converted into the corresponding compound containing an N-H moiety by treatment with an acid, e.g. a mineral acid such as hydrochloric acid, or an organic acid such as trifluoroacetic acid.

[0431] A compound of formula (I) containing an ester moiety, e.g. a C2-6 alkoxycarbonyl group such as methoxycarbonyl or ethoxycarbonyl, may alternatively be converted into the corresponding compound containing a carboxy (-CO2H) moiety by treatment with a base, e.g. an alkali metal hydroxide selected from lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide; or an organic base such as sodium methoxide or sodium ethoxide.

[0432] A compound of formula (I) containing a carboxy (-CO2H) moiety may be converted into the corresponding compound containing an amide moiety by treatment with the appropriate amine in the presence of a condensing agent such as 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide.

[0433] A compound of formula (I) containing a carbonyl (C=O) moiety may be converted into the corresponding compound containing a -C(CH3)(OH)- moiety by treatment with methylmagnesium bromide. Similarly, a compound of formula (I) containing a carbonyl (C=O) moiety may be converted into the corresponding compound containing a -C(CF3)(OH)- moiety by treatment with (trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane and cesium fluoride. A compound of formula (I) containing a carbonyl (C=O) moiety may be converted into the corresponding compound containing a -C(CH2NO2)(OH)- moiety by treatment with nitromethane.

[0434] A compound of formula (I) containing a hydroxymethyl moiety may be converted into the corresponding compound containing a formyl (-CHO) moiety by treatment with an oxidising agent such as Dess-Martin periodinane. A compound of formula (I) containing a hydroxymethyl moiety may be converted into the corresponding compound containing a carboxy moiety by treatment with an oxidising agent such as tetrapropylammonium perruthenate.

[0435] A compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents a substituent containing at least one nitrogen atom, which substituent is linked to the remainder of the molecule via a nitrogen atom, may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula (I) wherein R1 represents halogen, e.g. bromo, with the appropriate compound of formula R1-H [e.g. 1-(pyridin-3-yl)piperazine or morpholine]. The reaction is conveniently effected with the assistance of a transition metal catalyst, e.g. tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0), in the presence of an amination ligand such as 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',4',6'-triisopropyl-biphenyl (XPhos) or 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthalene (BINAP) and a base, e.g. an inorganic base such as sodium tert-butoxide. Alternatively, the reaction may be effected using palladium diacetate, in the presence of a reagent such as [2',6'-bis(propan-2-yloxy)biphenyl-2-yl](dicyclohexyl)phosphane and a base, e.g. an inorganic base such as cesium carbonate.

[0436] A compound of formula (I) containing an oxo moiety can be converted into the corresponding compound containing an ethoxycarbonylmethylidene moiety by treatment with triethyl phosphonoacetate in the presence of a base such as sodium hydride.

[0437] A compound of formula (IIB) wherein R21 represents ethenyl may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula (IIB) wherein R21 represents halogen, e.g. chloro, with potassium vinyl trifluoroborate. The reaction is typically effected in the presence of a transition metal catalyst, e.g. [1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II), and a base, e.g. an organic base such as triethylamine.

[0438] A compound of formula (IIB) wherein R21 represents halogen, e.g. chloro, may be converted into the corresponding compound wherein R21 represents an optionally substituted C4-7 cycloalkenyl moiety by treatment with the appropriately substituted cycloalkenyl boronic acid or a cyclic ester thereof formed with an organic diol, e.g. pinacol, 1,3-propanediol or neopentyl glycol. The reaction is typically effected in the presence of a transition metal catalyst, e.g. bis[3-(diphenylphosphanyl)cyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-yl]iron-dichloropalladium-dichloromethane complex, and a base, e.g. an inorganic base such as potassium carbonate.

[0439] A compound of formula (IIB) wherein R21 represents a substituent containing at least one nitrogen atom, which substituent is linked to the remainder of the molecule via a nitrogen atom, may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula (IIB) wherein R21 represents halogen, e.g. chloro, with the appropriate compound of formula R21-H [e.g. 2-methoxyethylamine, N-methyl-L-alanine, 2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid, 3-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid, 1-(aminomethyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, methyl azetidine-3-carboxylate, pyrrolidin-3-ol, pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid, piperidine-2-carboxylic acid, piperidine-3-carboxylic acid, 4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)piperidine, piperazine, 1-(methylsulfonyl)piperazine, piperazin-2-one, 2-(piperazin-1-yl)propanoic acid, morpholine, morpholine-2- carboxylic acid, thiomorpholine, thiomorpholine 1,1-dioxide, 1,4-diazepan-5-one, 2-oxa-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane or an appropriately substituted azaspiroalkane], optionally in the presence of a base, e.g. an organic base such as triethylamine or N,N-diisopropylethylamine and/or 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, or pyridine, or an inorganic base such as potassium carbonate.

[0440] Where a mixture of products is obtained from any of the processes described above for the preparation of compounds according to the invention, the desired product can be separated therefrom at an appropriate stage by conventional methods such as preparative HPLC; or column chromatography utilising, for example, silica and/or alumina in conjunction with an appropriate solvent system.

[0441] Where the above-described processes for the preparation of compounds give rise to mixtures of stereoisomers, these isomers may be separated by conventional techniques. In particular, where it is desired to obtain a particular enantiomer of a compound of formula (I) this may be produced from a corresponding mixture of enantiomers using any suitable conventional procedure for resolving enantiomers. Thus, for example, diastereomeric derivatives, e.g. salts, may be produced by reaction of a mixture of enantiomers of formula (I), e.g. a racemate, and an appropriate chiral compound, e.g. a chiral base. The diastereomers may then be separated by any convenient means, for example by crystallisation, and the desired enantiomer recovered, e.g. by treatment with an acid in the instance where the diastereomer is a salt. In another resolution process a racemate of formula (I) may be separated using chiral HPLC. Moreover, if desired, a particular enantiomer may be obtained by using an appropriate chiral intermediate in one of the processes described above. Alternatively, a particular enantiomer may be obtained by performing an enantiomer-specific enzymatic biotransformation, e.g. an ester hydrolysis using an esterase, and then purifying only the enantiomerically pure hydrolysed acid from the unreacted ester antipode. Chromatography, recrystallisation and other conventional separation procedures may also be used with intermediates or final products where it is desired to obtain a particular geometric isomer of the invention.

[0442] During any of the above synthetic sequences it may be necessary and/or desirable to protect sensitive or reactive groups on any of the molecules concerned. This may be achieved by means of conventional protecting groups, such as those described in Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry, ed. J.F.W. McOmie, Plenum Press, 1973; and T.W. Greene & P.G.M. Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd edition, 1999. The protecting groups may be removed at any convenient subsequent stage utilising methods known from the art.

[0443] The following Examples illustrate the preparation of compounds.

[0444] The compounds in accordance with this invention potently inhibit the binding of a fluorescence conjugate to TNFα when tested in the fluorescence polarisation assay described below. Moreover, certain compounds in accordance with this invention potently inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation in the reporter gene assay described below.

Fluorescence Polarisation Assay


Preparation of Compound (A)



[0445] 1-(2,5-Dimethylbenzyl)-6-[4-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]-2-(pyridin-4-yl-methyl)-1H-benzimidazole - hereinafter referred to as "Compound (A)" - can be prepared by the procedure described in Example 499 of WO 2013/186229 (published 19 December 2013); or by a procedure analogous thereto.

Preparation of fluorescence conjugate



[0446] Compound (A) (27.02 mg, 0.0538 mmol) was dissolved in DMSO (2 mL). 5 (-6) Carboxy-fluorescein succinimyl ester (24.16 mg, 0.0510 mmol) (Invitrogen catalogue number: C1311) was dissolved in DMSO (1 mL) to give a bright yellow solution. The two solutions were mixed at room temperature, the mixture turning red in colour. The mixture was stirred at room temperature. Shortly after mixing a 20 µL aliquot was removed and diluted in a 80:20 mixture of AcOH:H2O for LC-MS analysis on the 1200RR-6140 LC-MS system. The chromatogram showed two closely eluting peaks at retention times of 1.42 and 1.50 minutes, both with mass (M+H)+ = 860.8 amu, corresponding to the two products formed with the 5- and 6-substituted carboxyfluorescein group. A further peak at retention time 2.21 minutes had a mass of (M+H)+ = 502.8 amu, corresponding to Compound (A). No peak was observed for unreacted 5(-6) carboxyfluorescein succinimyl ester. The peak areas were 22.0%, 39.6% and 31.4% for the three signals, indicating a 61.6% conversion to the two isomers of the desired fluorescence conjugate at that time-point. Further 20 µL aliquots were extracted after several hours and then after overnight stirring, diluted as before and subjected to LC-MS analysis. The percentage conversion was determined as 79.8% and 88.6% respectively at these time-points. The mixture was purified on a UV-directed preparative HPLC system. The pooled purified fractions were freeze-dried to remove excess solvent. After freeze-drying, an orange solid (23.3 mg) was recovered, equivalent to 0.027 mmol of fluorescence conjugate, corresponding to an overall yield of 53% for the reaction and preparative HPLC purification.

Inhibition of binding offluorescence conjugate to TNFα



[0447] Compounds were tested at 10 concentrations starting from 25 µM in a final assay concentration of 5% DMSO, by pre-incubation with TNFα for 60 minutes at ambient temperature in 20 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, 0.05% Tween 20, before addition of the fluorescence conjugate and a further incubation for 20 hours at ambient temperature. The final concentrations of TNFα and the fluorescence conjugate were 10 nM and 10 nM respectively in a total assay volume of 25 µL. Plates were read on a plate reader capable of detecting fluorescence polarisation (e.g. an Analyst HT plate reader; or an Envision plate reader). An IC50 value was calculated using XLfit™ (4 parameter logistic model) in ActivityBase.

[0448] When tested in the fluorescence polarisation assay, the compounds of the accompanying Examples were all found to exhibit IC50 values of 50 µM or better.

Reporter Gene Assay


Inhibition of TNFα-induced NF-κB activation



[0449] Stimulation of HEK-293 cells by TNFα leads to activation of the NF-κB pathway. The reporter cell line used to determine TNFα activity was purchased from InvivoGen. HEK-Blue™ CD40L is a stable HEK-293 transfected cell line expressing SEAP (secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase) under the control of the IFNβ minimal promoter fused to five NF-κB binding sites. Secretion of SEAP by these cells is stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by TNFα, with an EC50 of 0.5 ng/mL for human TNFα. Compounds were diluted from 10 mM DMSO stocks (final assay concentration 0.3% DMSO) to generate a 10-point 3-fold serial dilution curve (e.g. 30,000 nM to 2 nM final concentration). Diluted compound was preincubated with TNFα for 60 minutes prior to addition to a 384-well microtitre plate and incubated for 18 h. The final TNFα concentration in the assay plate was 0.5 ng/mL. SEAP activity was determined in the supernatant using a colorimetric substrate, e.g. QUANTI-Blue™ or HEK-Blue™ Detection media (InvivoGen). Percentage inhibitions for compound dilutions were calculated between a DMSO control and maximum inhibition (by excess control compound) and an IC50 value calculated using XLfit™ (4 parameter logistic model) in ActivityBase.

[0450] When tested in the reporter gene assay, certain compounds of the accompanying Examples were found to exhibit IC50 values of 50 µM or better.

EXAMPLES



[0451] Any Examples which do not fall within the claims are included for reference purposes.
Abbreviations
DCM: dichloromethane THF: tetrahydrofuran
EtOH: ethanol EtOAc: ethyl acetate
MeOH: methanol DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide
DMF: N,N-dimethylformamide HOBT: 1-hydroxybenzotriazole
DIPEA: N,N-diisopropylethylamine PTSA: p-toluenesulfonic acid
TBAF: tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride LDA: lithium diisopropylamide
HATU: 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate
EDCI: 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide
Pd(PPh3)4: tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0)
Pd-118: dichloro[1,1'-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)ferrocene]palladium(II)
Pd2(dba)3: tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0)
SiO2: silica
h: hour M: mass
HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography
LCMS: Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
ES+: Electrospray Positive Ionisation RT: retention time

Nomenclature



[0452] Compounds were named with the aid of ACD/Name Batch (Network) version 11.01, and/or Accelrys Draw 4.0.

Analytical Conditions


Analytical HPLC


Method A



[0453] 
Column: Waters Atlantis dC18 (2.1 x 100 mm, 3 µm column)
Flow rate: 0.6 mL/minute
Solvent A: 0.1% formic acid/water
Solvent B: 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile
Injection volume: 3 µL
Column temperature: 40°C
UV detection wavelength: 215 nm
Eluent: 0.00-5.00 minutes, constant gradient from 95% solvent A + 5% solvent B to 100% solvent B; 5.00-5.40 minutes, 100% solvent B; 5.40-5.42 minutes, constant gradient from 100% solvent B to 95% solvent A + 5% solvent B; 5.42-7.00 minutes, 95% solvent A + 5% solvent B.

Method B



[0454] 
Column: Waters Atlantis dC18 (2.1 x 50 mm, 3 µm column)
Flow rate: 1.0 mL/minute
Solvent A: 0.1% formic acid/water
Solvent B: 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile
Injection volume: 3 µL
UV detection wavelength: 215 nm
Eluent: 0.00-2.50 minutes, constant gradient from 95% solvent A + 5% solvent B to 100% solvent B; 2.50-2.70 minutes, 100% solvent B; 2.71-3.00 minutes, 95% solvent A + 5% solvent B.

Method C



[0455] 
Column: Phenomenex, Gemini C18 (2.0 mm x 100 mm, 3 µm column)
Flow rate: 0.5 mL/minute
Solvent A: 2 nM ammonium hydrogencarbonate in water
Solvent B: acetonitrile
Injection volume: 3 µL
Column temperature: 50°C
UV detection wavelength: 215 nm
Eluent: 0.00-5.50 minutes, constant gradient from 95% solvent A + 5% solvent B to 100% solvent B; 5.50-5.90 minutes, 100% solvent B.
MS detection using Waters LCT or LCT Premier, or ZQ or ZMD.
UV detection using Waters 2996 photodiode array or Waters 2787 UV or Waters 2788 UV.

INTERMEDIATE 1


6-Chloro-N-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)methyl]-3-nitropyridin-2-amine



[0456] To a solution of 2,6-dichloro-3-nitropyridine (5.0 g, 25.9 mmol) and 2,5-dichlorobenzylamine (5.5 g, 4.2 mL) in toluene (20 mL) was added sodium hydride (60% dispersion in mineral oil, 1.9 g, 33.7 mmol) at 0°C. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 18 h, then quenched with water (50 mL) and extracted with DCM (3 x 50 mL). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 100% DCM), yielding the title compound (8.3 g, 96%) as a yellow solid. δH (d6-DMSO) 7.16 (t, J 6.0 Hz, 1H), 8.45 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (d, J 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.46-7.43 (m, 1H), 7.35 (dd, J 8.5, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 6.83 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 4.72-4.69 (m, 2H). LCMS (ES+) 334.0 (M+H)+, RT 1.71 minutes (Method B).

INTERMEDIATE 2


6-Chloro-N2-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)methyl]pyridine-2,3-diamine



[0457] Zinc (5.1 g, 78.0 mmol) and saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution (50 mL) were added to a stirred solution of Intermediate 1 (8.7 g, 26.0 mmol) in EtOH (200 mL) at 0°C. The reaction mixture was heated at 50°C for 2 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a celite pad and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was diluted with DCM (50 mL) and washed with 2M aqueous NaOH solution (2 x 30 mL). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 0-5% EtOAc/DCM), yielding the title compound (5.8 g, 74%) as a purple solid. δH (d6-DMSO) 7.49 (d, J 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.19-7.17 (m, 3H), 6.76 (d, J 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.42 (d, J 7.7 Hz, 1H), 4.94 (s, 2H), 4.55 (d, J 5.6 Hz, 2H). LCMS (ES+) 304.0 (M+H)+, RT 1.54 minutes (Method B).

INTERMEDIATE 3


2-(4-Formylphenoxy)acetic acid



[0458] To a solution of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10.0 g, 82.0 mmol) in acetone (150 mL) was added potassium carbonate (24.9 g, 180.0 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred at 40°C for 15 minutes. Bromoacetic acid (12.0 g, 86.0 mmol) was added slowly, portionwise, and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 18 h. The reaction mixture was cooled and water (200 mL) was added. The reaction mixture was partitioned with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL), and the combined extracted aqueous layer was adjusted to pH 2 with 6N HCl. The aqeous layer was partitioned with EtOAc (2 x 400 mL), then the organic layers were washed with water (200 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with isohexane to yield the title compound (13.5 g, 91%) as a cream solid. δH (d6-DMSO) 13.12 (br s, 1H), 9.87 (s, 1H), 7.88-7.85 (m, 2H), 7.12-7.10 (m, 2H), 4.83 (s, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 4


2-(4-Carbamoylphenoxy)acetic acid



[0459] To a solution of Intermediate 3 (1.9 g, 10.3 mmol) in formic acid (50 mL) was added hydroxylamine hydrochloride (1.1 g, 15.5 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h, then cooled and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with isohexane and filtered. The resulting cream solid was suspended in tert-butanol (50 mL), then potassium hydroxide (2.3 g, 41.0 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 4 h. The reaction mixture was cooled and water (100 mL) was added. The reaction mixture was partitioned with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL), and the combined extracted aqueous layer was adjusted to pH 2 with 6N HCl. The resulting precipitate was filtered off and dried in vacuo, yielding the title compound (1.6 g, 80%) as a white solid. δH (d6-DMSO) 7.84-7.81 (m, 3H), 7.17 (br s, 1H), 6.96-6.94 (m, 2H), 4.74 (s, 2H). LCMS (ES+) 196.0 (M+H)+, RT 0.30 minutes (Method B).

INTERMEDIATE 5


5-Chloro-3-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)methyl]-2-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine



[0460] A solution of Intermediate 2 (0.4 g, 1.3 mmol) in acetic acid (5 mL) was heated at 140°C for 18 h. The reaction mixture was cooled and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was treated with 2M aqueous NaOH solution (5 mL) and extracted with DCM (2 x 10 mL). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 0-10% MeOH/ DCM), yielding the title compound (0.6 g, 14%) as a cream solid. δH (d6-DMSO) 8.08 (d, J 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (d, J 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (d, J 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.75 (d, J 2.5 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (s, 2H), 2.30 (s, 3H). LCMS (ES+) 328.0 (M+H)+, RT 1.51 minutes (Method B).

INTERMEDIATE 6


6-Chloro-N-[(2,5-dimethylphenyl)methyl]-3-nitropyridin-2-amine



[0461] A suspension of 2,6-dichloro-3-nitropyridine (5 g, 25.9 mmol) in toluene (25 mL) was cooled to 0°C and treated with 2,6-dimethylbenzylamine (4.2 g, 31 mmol). The resulting yellow suspension was stirred at 0°C for 30 minutes, then sodium hydride (60% in mineral oil, 1.04 g, 26 mmol) was added. The mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirring was continued for 18 h. The resulting mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (two portions of 100 mL each). The combined organic extracts were diluted with DCM (50 mL) and MeOH (20 mL), then washed with brine (two portions of 70 mL each), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting crude yellow solid was triturated with diisopropyl ether to give a crude yellow solid (6.1 g). A portion of the crude material (800 mg) was further triturated with diisopropyl ether to give the title compound (729 mg) as a yellow solid. HPLC-MS (pH 10): MH+ m/z 292.3, RT 1.70 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 7


6-Benzyloxy-N-[(2,5-dimethylphenyl)methyl]-3-nitropyridin-2-amine



[0462] A solution of benzyl alcohol (354 µL, 3.4 mmol) in DMF (4 mL) was cooled to 0°C and treated with sodium hydride (60% in mineral oil, 136 mg, 3.4 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 5 minutes before the addition of Intermediate 6 (500 mg, 1.71 mmol). The resulting mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature over 1 h, then was diluted with water (50 mL) and extracted with DCM (four portions of 50 mL each). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine (50 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was triturated with diisopropyl ether to give the title compound (429 mg, 96%) as a yellow solid. δH (DMSO-d6) 9.13 (t, 1H), 8.34 (d, 1H), 7.30 (s, 5H), 7.08 (m, 2H), 6.99 (d, 1H), 6.21 (d, 1H), 5.32 (s, 2H), 4.73 (d, 2H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 2.20 (s, 3H).

INTERMEDIATE 8


6-Benzyloxy-N2-[(2,5-dimethylphenyl)methyl]pyridine-2,3-diamine



[0463] A suspension of Intermediate 7 (420 mg, 11.6 mmol) in ethanol (40 mL) was treated with ammonium chloride (saturated aqueous solution, 5 mL), followed by zinc powder (303 mg, 4.64 mmol), and the resulting mixture was heated at reflux for 1.5 h. The mixture was filtered through celite whilst warm, then concentrated in vacuo, to give a crude brown solid which was used in the subsequent step without further purification.

INTERMEDIATE 9


2-[(6-Carbamoylpyridin-3-yl)oxy]acetic acid



[0464] 5-Hydroxypyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (5 g, 32 mmol) was suspended in 7M NH3 in MeOH (40 mL) and heated at 110°C for 24 h in a high pressure reactor. The solvent was evaporated. The resulting dark solid (4.54 g) was dissolved in DMF (32 mL) and sodium hydride (60% dispersion in mineral oil, 1.37 g, 33.6 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 minutes, then tert-butyl bromoacetate (5.2 mL, 35.2 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 4 h. Water (20 mL) was added. The resulting precipitate was filtered off and dried. The resulting material (3.73 g) was stirred in 4M HCl in 1,4-dioxane (30 mL) for 5 h at room temperature. A portion (20%) of the 1,4-dioxane was removed under vacuum, and the suspension was diluted with diethyl ether (30 mL). The resulting precipitate was filtered off and dried, to afford the title compound as the HCl salt (3.8 g, 61%), which was not purified further and was used crude in subsequent steps.

INTERMEDIATE 10


3-[(2,5-Dimethylphenyl)methyl]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine



[0465] To a solution of 1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (1.9 g, 16 mmol) in THF (6 mL) were added 2-(chloromethyl)-1,4-dimethylbenzene (2.6 g, 17 mmol) and potassium carbonate (4.8 g, 35 mmol). The mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water (5 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred for another 10 minutes. The reaction mixture was poured into ethyl acetate/water and the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed three times with brine, then dried over magnesium sulphate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by gradient silica column chromatography, eluting with 0-60% ethyl acetate in DCM, followed by preparative chromatography, to afford the title compound (0.9 g, 24%) as a white solid. LCMS (ES+) (M+H)+ 238, RT 1.83 minutes (Method A).

INTERMEDIATE 11


6-Chloro-3-nitro-N-[((1R)-1-phenylethyl]pyridin-2-amine



[0466] To a solution of 2,6-dichloro-3-nitropyridine (1 g, 5.2 mmol) in THF (15 mL) was added (1R)-1-phenylethanamine (0.7 mL, 5.2 mmol). After stirring for 12 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was quenched with water (5 mL) and allowed to warm to ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was poured into ethyl acetate/water. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed three times with water, then dried over magnesium sulphate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by gradient silica column chromatography, eluting with 0-10% ethyl acetate in hexane, to afford the title compound (760 mg, 53%) as a yellow solid. δH (CDCl3) 8.56 (d, J 6.2 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (d, J 14.9 Hz, 1H), 7.57-7.23 (m, 4H), 7.22-7.19 (m, 1H), 6.52 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (q, J 14.1 Hz, 1H), 1.57 (d, J 6.9 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ES+) (M+H)+ 278, RT 1.66 minutes (Method A).

INTERMEDIATE 12


6-(1-Methylpyrazol-4-yl)-3-nitro-N-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]pyridin-2-amine



[0467] To a solution of Intermediate 11 (460 mg, 1.67 mmol) in ethanol (5 mL) were added 1-methylpyrazol-4-ylboronic acid (24 mg, 2.0 mmol) and Pd-118 (5 mg, 0.005 mmol), followed by 2M aqueous Na2CO3 solution (2 mL). The mixture was degassed under nitrogen and heated under reflux for 2 h. The reaction mixture was poured into ethyl acetate/water, washed four times with water, and dried over magnesium sulphate, then the solvent was removed by evaporation in vacuo. The residue was purified by gradient silica column chromatography, eluting with 0-50% ethyl acetate in DCM, to afford the title compound (48 mg, 90%) as a yellow oil. δH (CDCl3) 8.69 (d, J 5.5 Hz, 1H), 8.38 (d, J 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.91 (s, 1H), 7.77 (s, 1H), 7.46-7.24 (m, 5H), 6.77 (d, J 8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.58-5.32 (m, 1H), 3.92 (s, 3H), 1.68 (d, J 6.9 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ES+) (M+H)+ 324, RT 1.53 minutes (Method A).

INTERMEDIATE 13


6-(1-Methylpyrazol-4-yl)-N2-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]pyridine-2,3-diamine



[0468] To a solution of Intermediate 12 (480 mg, 1.5 mmol) in ethanol (5 mL) and hydrochloric acid (10% aqueous solution, 2.5 mL) was added tin chloride (1.24 g, 4.5 mmol). The mixture was heated under reflux for 4 h, then cooled to room temperature and quenched with 2N aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (20 mL). EtOAc was added and the organic phase was washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue (400 mg, 75%) was used directly in the next step. LCMS (ES+) (M+H)+ 294, RT 1.28 minutes (Method A).

INTERMEDIATE 14


2,2-Dichloro-3-oxocyclobutyl 2,2-dimethylpropanoate



[0469] To a stirred mixture of vinyl pivalate (30 g, 234 mmol) and zinc (31 g, 474 mmol) in diethyl ether (250 mL) was added a solution of 2,2,2-trichloroacetyl chloride (34 mL, 304 mmol) in diethyl ether (250 mL), dropwise over 2.5 h in a water bath, whilst maintaining the reaction temperature between 15°C and 30°C. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite and washed through with ethyl acetate (200 mL). The filtrate was washed with water (200 mL) and brine (200 mL), then dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum, to afford the title compound (68 g, 97%) as an orange liquid. δH (500 MHz, CDCl3) 5.40 (dd, J 8.4, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (dd, J 18.9, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.39 (dd, J 18.9, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 1.28 (s, 9H).

INTERMEDIATE 15


3-Oxocyclobutyl 2,2-dimethylpropanoate



[0470] Zinc (74 g, 1.1 mol) was added to acetic acid (200 mL) with stirring and the suspension was cooled in an ice bath. Intermediate 14 (68 g, 228 mmol) in acetic acid (300 mL) was added dropwise over 2 h. Upon completion of addition, the reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1.5 h, then filtered and washed with DCM (100 mL). The filtrate was diluted with EtOAc (800 mL) and washed sequentially with water (3 x 250 mL), saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution (3 x 250 mL) and brine (50 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by chromatography (SiO2, 0-10% EtOAc in heptane), yielding the title compound (11 g, 28%) as a clear colourless oil. δH (500 MHz, CDCl3) 5.26-5.19 (m, 1H), 3.51-3.40 (m, 2H), 3.19-3.07 (m, 2H), 1.22 (s, 9H).

INTERMEDIATE 16


3-(5-Bromopyrimidin-2-yl)-3-hydroxycyclobutyl 2,2-dimethylpropanoate



[0471] 5-Bromo-2-iodopyrimidine (16.7 g, 58.8 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (200 mL) with stirring and cooled to -78°C under N2. n-Butyllithium in hexane (2.5M, 23.5 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at -78°C. Intermediate 15 (10 g, 58.8 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) was cooled in a dry ice bath and added in one portion. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78°C for 10 minutes, then quenched by the addition of saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution (20 mL) and allowed to warm to room temperature. Saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution (50 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with DCM (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 0-30% EtOAc in heptane), yielding the title compound (7.6 g, 35%) as a yellow solid. δH (500 MHz, CDCl3) 8.78 (s, 2H), 5.22-5.14 (m, 1H), 3.03-2.93 (m, 2H), 2.67-2.58 (m, 2H), 1.22 (s, 9H).

INTERMEDIATE 17


1-(5-Bromopyrimidin-2-yl)cyclobutane-1,3-diol



[0472] Intermediate 16 (6 g, 16.4 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (120 mL) and K2CO3 (11.3 g, 82 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 18 h at room temperature, then diluted with DCM (400 mL) and washed with water (150 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (200 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound (2.94 g, 73%) as an off-white solid. δH (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) 8.98 (s, 2H), 5.63 (s, 1H), 5.08 (d, J6.2 Hz, 1H), 4.09-3.92 (m, 1H), 2.87-2.79 (m, 2H), 2.28-2.14 (m, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 18


3-(5-Bromopyrimidin-2-yl)-3-hydroxycyclobutan-1-one



[0473] To a stirred solution of Intermediate 17 (2 g, 8.1 mmol) in DCM (200 mL) was added Dess-Martin periodinane (4.1 g, 9.8 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 18 h and the resulting suspension was diluted with DCM (100 mL), then washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution (100 mL). The aqueous layer was re-extracted with DCM (100 mL), then the combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by chromatography (SiO2, 0-30% EtOAc in heptane) to afford the title compound (1.37 g, 69%) as an off white solid. δH (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) 9.04 (s, 2H), 6.41 (s, 1H), 3.69-3.55 (m, 2H), 3.37-3.21 (m, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 19


3-(5-Bromopyrimidin-2-yl)-3-[(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy]cyclobutan-1-one



[0474] Intermediate 18 (1.37 g, 5.64 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous DMF (20 mL) with stirring under N2 and cooled to 0°C. 1H-Imidazole (1.9 g, 28.18 mmol) was added, followed by tert-butyl(chloro)dimethylsilane (2.0 g, 13.5 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h, then diluted with DCM (150 mL) and washed with water (3 x 50 mL). The aqueous phase was re-extracted with DCM (50 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by chromatography (SiO2, 0-20% EtOAc in heptane) to afford the title compound (1.6 g 79%) as a pale orange oil. δH (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) 9.06 (s, 2H), 3.78-3.66 (m, 2H), 3.44-3.34 (m, 2H), 0.88 (s, 9H), 0.00 (s, 6H).

INTERMEDIATE 20


3-(5-Bromopyrimidin-2-yl)-3-[(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy]-1-methylcyclobutan-1-ol



[0475] Intermediate 19 (1.35 g, 3.78 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous diethyl ether (40 mL) under N2 with stirring and cooled to 0°C using an ice bath. Methylmagnesium bromide in diethyl ether (3M, 2.52 mL) was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 0°C, then quenched with saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution (20 mL) and water (20 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by chromatography (SiO2, 0-100% DCM in heptane) to afford the title compound (1.19 g, 84%) as a clear oil. Major isomer (∼70% abundance): δH (500 MHz, CDCl3) 8.79 (s, 2H), 3.10-3.03 (m, 2H), 2.59-2.51 (m, 2H), 1.18 (s, 3H), 0.87 (s, 9H), -0.14 (s, 6H). Minor isomer (∼30% abundance): δH (500 MHz, CDCl3) 8.79 (s, 2H), 2.78-2.63 (m, 4H), 1.49 (s, 3H), 0.95 (s, 9H), 0.04 (s, 6H).

INTERMEDIATE 21


2-[5-(6-Amino-5-nitropyridin-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]propan-2-ol



[0476] Prepared from 2-[5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]-propan-2-ol (4.19 g, 15.85 mmol), 6-bromo-3-nitropyridin-2-amine (3.00 g, 13.21 mmol), cesium carbonate (6.45 mg, 19.82 mmol), 1,4-dioxane/water solution (9:1, 50 mL) and [1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II) (483.3 mg, 5 mol %) in accordance with Method A to give the title compound (3.03 g, 73%). δH (400 MHz, CDCl3) 9.31 (s, 2H), 8.57 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.21 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 4.60 (s, 1H), 1.89 (br s, 1H), 1.64 (s, 6H). LCMS (ES+) 276.14 (M+H)+, RT 3.54 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 22


N-{6-[2-(1-Hydroxy-1-methylethyl)pyrimidin-5-yl]-3-nitropyridin-2-yl}acetamide



[0477] To a solution of Intermediate 21 (3.47 g, 10.1 mmol) in acetic acid (10 mL) were added acetic anhydride (10 mL) and sulfuric acid (260 µL, 4.88 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 65°C for 1 h, then cooled to room temperature. The white solid was filtered off and washed with DCM (150 mL). The filtrate was neutralized by saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution, then the mixture was partitioned and the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 99.5:0.45:0.05 DCM/MeOH/NH4OH), yielding the title compound (1.5 g, 47%). LCMS (ES+) 318.22 (M+H)+, RT 4.10 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 23 (METHOD B)


N-{[2-(Difluoromethoxy)phenyl]methyl}-N-{6-[2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)pyrimidin-5-yl]-3-nitropyridin-2-yl}acetamide



[0478] To a suspension of Intermediate 22 (200 mg, 0.5043 mmol) and 2-(difluoromethoxy)benzyl bromide (153 mg, 0.65 mmol) in acetonitrile (4 mL) were added DMF (0.4 mL) and Cs2CO3 (328.6 mg, 1.01 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight, then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken up in water (10 mL) and ethyl acetate (10 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (2 x 10 mL) and saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution (10 mL), then dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was used without further purification. LCMS (ES+) 474.0 (M+H)+, RT 3.14 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 24


N-{3-Amino-6-[2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)pyrimidin-5-yl]pyridin-2-yl}-N-{[2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]methyl}acetamide



[0479] Pt/C 5% type 5R163 (5.08 mg, 2 wt %) was added to a solution of Intermediate 23 (254 mg, 0.54 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (1.1 mL) and the mixture was stirred for 2 days at room temperature under H2 (5 bar). The solution was filtered through 45µ Whatman filters, then concentrated in vacuo, yielding the title compound (239 mg, quantitative), which was used without further purification. LCMS (ES+) 444.0 (M+H)+, RT 2.79 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 25


[2-Bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]methanol



[0480] 2-Bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)benzaldehyde (12.0 g, 47.8 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (20 mL). The reaction mixture was cooled to -15°C, then sodium borohydride (1.81 g, 47.8 mmol) was added cautiously. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 minutes, then treated with NH4Cl and partitioned with EtOAc. The organic layers were extracted and washed with brine, then dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo, yielding the title compound (12.46 g, quantitative) as a brown oil. δH (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 7.53 (dd, J 8.0, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (t, J 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (dd, J 8.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.17 (t, J 74.2 Hz, 1H), 5.10 (s, 1H), 4.61 (s, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 26


1-Bromo-2-(bromomethyl)-3-(difluoromethoxy)benzene



[0481] Intermediate 25 (12.46 g, 49.24 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (200 mL) and cooled to 0°C. Carbon tetrabromide (24.49 g, 73.86 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (19.37 g, 73.86 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 minutes, then treated with water and partitioned. The organic layers were extracted and dried over MgSO4, then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by chromatography (SiO2, 0-20% EtOAc in hexane) to give the title compound (15.41 g, quantitative) as a brown oil. δH (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 7.57 (dd, J 8.1, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (t, J 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (t, J 73.2 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (dd, J 8.3, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (s, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 27


N-{[2-Bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]methyl}-N-{6-[2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-3-nitropyridin-2-yl}acetamide



[0482] Prepared from Intermediate 22 (900 mg, 2.84 mmol), Intermediate 26 (1.19 mg, 3.69 mmol), acetonitrile (25 mL), DMSO (2.3 mL) and Cs2CO3 (1.85 mg, 5.67 mmol) in accordance with Method B to give the title compound (911 mg, 52%). δH (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 9.49 (s, 2H), 8.59 (d, J 8.5 Hz, 1H), 8.56 (t, J 5.8 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (d, J 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (dd, J 5.8, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (t, J 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.26 (t, J 73.3 Hz, 1H), 5.15 (d, J 5.0 Hz, 2H), 2.01 (s, 3H), 1.74 (s, 6H). LCMS (ES+) 552.0/ 554.0 (M+H)+, RT 5.60 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 28


6-Chloro-N-{[2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorophenyl]methyl}-3-nitropyridin-2-amine



[0483] Potassium carbonate (19.10 g, 138.2 mmol) was added to a suspension of 2,6-dichloro-3-nitropyridine (25 g, 125.65 mmol) and [2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorophenyl]-methanamine (26.42 g, 138.22 mmol) in acetonitrile (200 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h, then partitioned between water and DCM. The organic layer was washed with water and dried over MgSO4, then filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting crystalline solid was taken up in a minimum amount of diethyl ether and filtered, then washed with a small amount of diethyl ether and dried, yielding the title compound (27 g, 62%) as a yellow solid. δH (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 8.79 (t, J 5.5 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.43 (m, 1H), 7.28 (t, J 76 Hz, 1H), 7.15 (m, 1H), 7.08 (d, J 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.83 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 4.83 (d, J 5.7 Hz, 2H). LCMS (ES+) 348.0 (M+H)+, RT 1.54 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 29


6-Chloro-N2-{[2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorophenyl]methyl}pyridine-2,3-diamine



[0484] A mixture of Intermediate 28 (25 g, 71.90 mmol) and 5% Pt/C 163 (2.5 g, 10 wt %) in EtOAc (350 mL) was de-gassed and flushed with hydrogen, then hydrogenated at normal pressure at room temperature for 18 h. More catalyst (0.5 g) was added, then the reaction mixture was de-gassed and hydrogenated for a further 18 h. The mixture was filtered through a plug of celite-silica gel, washing with EtOAc. The residue was crystallised from diethyl ether/hexane and filtered, then washed with hexane/diethyl ether (2:1) and dried, yielding the title compound (22.4 g, 98%) as a green solid. δH (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 7.44 (m, 1H), 7.25 (t, J 76 Hz, 1H), 7.16 (m, 1H), 7.08 (m, 1H), 6.69 (d, J 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.40 (d, J 7.7 Hz, 1H), 5.97 (t, J 4.6 Hz, 1H), 4.90 (s, 2H), 4.46 (d, J 4.0 Hz, 2H). LCMS (ES+) 318.0 (M+H)+, RT 1.47 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 30


5-Chloro-3-{[2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorophenyl]methyl}-2-methylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine



[0485] Intermediate 29 (20 g, 62.95 mmol) was divided into batches (4 x 5 g). Each batch was dissolved in acetic acid (25 mL) and heated under microwave irradiation at 150°C for 8 h. The batches were combined and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc and washed twice with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution. The organic extract was dried over MgSO4, filtered through celite/silica gel (EtOAc) and concentrated in vacuo. The brown solid was slurried in diethyl ether and filtered, then washed with diethyl ether and dried, to yield the title compound (12.5 g, 58%) as a light brown solid. δH (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 7.96 (d, J 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.48 (m, 1H), 7.25 (m, 2H), 7.15 (m, 1H), 7.08 (m, 1H), 5.47 (s, 2H). LCMS (ES+) 342 (M+H)+, RT 1.44 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 31


3-[tert-Butyl(dimethyl)silyl]oxy-3-[5-(3-{[2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorophenyl]methyl}-2-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]-1-methylcyclobutanol



[0486] A mixture of Intermediate 20 (200 mg, 0.53 mmol), bis(pinacolato)diboron (166.5 mg, 0.64 mmol) and potassium acetate (162.6 mg, 1.607 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was purged with argon. [1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II)-dichloromethane complex (12.38 mg, 0.016 mmol, 3 mol %) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 100°C under an argon atmosphere for 1 h, then cooled to room temperature. Water (2.5 mL) was added, followed by Intermediate 30 (201.3 mg, 0.59 mmol) and sodium carbonate (113.6 mg, 1.07 mmol). The mixture was purged with argon, then Pd2(dba)3 (9.81 mg, 0.03 mmol, 2 mol %) and tri(tert-butyl)phosphonium tetrafluoroborate (6.22 mg, 0.02 mmol, 4 mol %) were added. The reaction mixture was heated under argon for 3 h at 90°C. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and partitioned between EtOAc (15 mL) and water (15 mL), then extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were successively washed with saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution and saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution, then dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, gradient 0-100% EtOAc in heptane), yielding the title compound (215 mg, 67.0%). LCMS (ES+) 600.0 (M+H)+, RT 2.97 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 32


3-Bromo-2-fluoro-6-methoxybenzaldehyde



[0487] To a solution of 1-bromo-2-fluoro-4-methoxybenzene (25 g, 121.9 mmol) in THF (250 mL) at -78°C was added LDA (2M solution in THF; 73.2 mL, 146.3 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 10 minutes. DMF (11 mL, 146.34 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. After completion of the reaction (monitored by TLC), the reaction mixture was quenched with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution and the residue was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with water and brine, then dried over sodium sulphate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, gradient 0-20% EtOAc in hexane), yielding the title compound as a pale yellow solid (25.5 g, 89%). δH (400 MHz, CDCl3) 10.38 (s, 1H), 7.67 (t, J 8.35 Hz, 1H), 6.72 (d, J 9.03 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (s, 3H).

INTERMEDIATE 33


3-Bromo-2-fluoro-6-hydroxybenzaldehyde



[0488] To a solution of Intermediate 32 (50 g, 215.5 mmol) in dry DCM (300 mL) at -50°C was added boron tribromide (1M solution in DCM; 646 mL, 646 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at -50°C for 30 minutes, then diluted with water. The organic layer was separated, then washed with water and brine. The organic layer was separated and dried over sodium sulphate, then concentrated in vacuo, to yield the title compound (40 g, 85%) as a white solid. δH (400 MHz, CDCl3) 11.44 (s, 1H), 10.23-10.38 (m, 1H), 7.63 (t, J 8.35 Hz, 1H), 6.73 (d, J 9.03 Hz, 1H).

INTERMEDIATE 34


3-Bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)-2-fluorobenzaldehyde



[0489] To a solution of Intermediate 33 (40 g, 183.5 mmol) in acetonitrile (200 mL) at 0°C were added aqueous KOH (61.6 g, 1100 mmol) and diethyl [bromo(difluoro)methyl]-phosphonate (52.2 mL, 293.6 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0°C for 30 minutes, then quenched with water. The residue was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with water and brine, then separated, dried over sodium sulphate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, gradient 0-5% EtOAc in hexane), yielding the title compound (20 g, 41%) as a yellow oil. δH (400 MHz, CDCl3) 10.34 (s, 1H), 7.78 (t, J 8.13 Hz, 1H), 6.98-7.08 (m, 1H), 6.42-6.85 (m, 1H).

INTERMEDIATE 35


[3-Bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)-2-fluorophenyl]methanol



[0490] To a solution of Intermediate 34 (20 g, 74.6 mmol) in MeOH (200 mL) at -15°C was added sodium borohydride (2.76 g, 74.6 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at -15°C for 20 minutes, then quenched with ice-cold water and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was extracted with DCM and washed with water. The organic layer was separated and dried over sodium sulphate, then concentrated in vacuo, to yield the title compound (17.5 g, 87%) as a clear oil. δH (400 MHz, CDCl3) 7.47-7.57 (m, 1H), 6.91 (d, J 8.58 Hz, 1H), 6.38-6.78 (m, 1H), 4.80 (s, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 36


1-Bromo-3-(bromomethyl)-4-(difluoromethoxy)-2-fluorobenzene



[0491] To a solution of Intermediate 35 (17.5 g, 64.81 mmol) in DCM (200 mL) at 0°C were added carbon tetrabromide (32.2 g, 97.22 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (25.5 g, 97.22 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0°C for 10 minutes, then quenched with ice-cold water. The residue was extracted with DCM. The organic layer was separated and dried over sodium sulphate, then concentrated in vacuo, to yield the title compound (16.3 g, 76%) as a white solid. δH (400 MHz, CDCl3) 7.53 (t, J 8.13 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (d, J 8.58 Hz, 1H), 6.37-6.79 (m, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 37


2-[5-(6-{[3-Bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)-2-fluorophenyl]methylamino}-5-nitropyridin-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]propan-2-ol



[0492] To a solution of Intermediate 21 (2.52 g, 9.15 mmol) in acetonitrile (73 mL) were added Intermediate 36 (4.58 g, 13.72 mmol), DMF (7.3 mL) and Cs2CO3 (5.96 g, 18.31 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 18 h, then concentrated in vacuo. Water was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layers were washed with saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo, yielding the title compound (4.8 g, quantitative) as a yellow solid. LCMS (ES+) 528.0/530.0 (M+H)+, RT 3.14 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 38


2-[5-(5-Amino-6-{[3-bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)-2-fluorophenyl]methylamino}pyridin-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]propan-2-ol



[0493] Pt/C 5% type 5R163 (122 mg, 2 wt %) was added to a solution of Intermediate 37 (6.10 g, 0.54 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (23 mL) and the mixture was stirred for 2 days at room temperature under H2 (5 bar). The solution was filtered through 45µ Whatman filters and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, gradient 0-100% EtOAc in heptane), yielding the title compound (2.95 g, 51%). LCMS (ES+) 498.0/500.0 (M+H)+, RT 3.16 minutes.

INTERMEDIATE 39


N-[(5-Bromopyridin-2-yl)(methyl)(oxo)-λ6-sulfanylidene]-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide



[0494] To a suspension of 5-bromo-2-(methylsulfinyl)pyridine (5 g, 22.8 mmol), MgO (3.68 g, 91.3 mmol), tetrakis(acetato-κO)dirhodium(Rh-Rh) (0.25 g, 0.570 mmol) and 2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (5.16 g, 45.6 mmol) in anhydrous DCM (150 mL) was added bis(acetyloxy)(phenyl)-λ3-iodane (11.03 g, 34.2 mmol) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 18 h, then filtered over celite. The filter cake was washed with DCM (30 mL). The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 0-100% EtOAc in heptane), yielding the title compound (5.7 g, 97%) as a light yellow oil. LCMS (ES+) 332.0/334.0 (M+H)+, RT 1.27 minutes.

EXAMPLE 1


4-({5-Chloro-3-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)methyl]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl}methoxy)-benzamide



[0495] To a solution of Intermediate 2 (2.9 g, 9.6 mmol) in DMF (30 mL) were added Intermediate 4 (2.2 g, 11.3 mmol), EDCI (2.18 g, 11.5 mmol), HOBT (1.75 g, 11.3 mmol) and DIPEA (3.3 mL, 19.2 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 18 h. The reaction mixture was treated with brine (20 mL) and EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was suspended in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) and PTSA (1.42 g, 8.2 mmol) was added, then the reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h. The reaction mixture was cooled and treated with 2M aqueous NaOH solution (5 mL), then extracted with DCM (2 x 10 mL). The organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 0-100% EtOAc/DCM), yielding the title compound (0.2 g, 5%) as a cream solid. δH (d6-DMSO) 8.28 (d, J 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (m, 3H), 7.57 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.46 (d, J 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (dd, J 8.6, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (s, 1H), 6.83 (d, J 8.9 Hz, 2H), 6.58 (d, J 2.5 Hz, 1H), 5.64 (s, 2H), 5.49 (s, 2H). LCMS (ES+) 463.0 (M+H)+, RT 2.43 minutes (Method C).

EXAMPLE 2 (METHOD A)


4-({3-[(2,5-Dichlorophenyl)methyl]-5-(pyridin-4-yl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl}-methoxy)benzamide



[0496] A microwave vial was charged with a solution of Example 1 (0.2 g, 0.3 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (3 mL) and water (1 mL). Pyridin-4-ylboronic acid (0.05 g, 0.42 mmol) and 2M aqueous sodium carbonate solution (1 mL) were added, and the reaction mixture was degassed for 10 minutes. Pd(PPh3)4 (0.04 g, 0.10 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was degassed for 10 minutes, then heated at 100°C for 60 minutes in a Biotage microwave reactor. Ethyl acetate was added to the reaction mixture, and the mixture was filtered through a Celite pad. The organic layer was separated, dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC, yielding the title compound (1 mg, 8%) as a white solid. δH (d6-DMSO) 8.68 (dd, J 5.1, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 8.33 (d, J8.4 Hz, 1H), 8.13 (d, J8.3 Hz, 1H), 8.06 (dd, J 4.6, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 7.83 (s, 1H), 7.81 (d, J 8.9 Hz, 2H), 7.57 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (dd, J 8.6, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (s, 1H), 6.92-6.89 (m, 3H), 5.77 (s, 2H), 5.57 (s, 2H). LCMS (ES+) 504.0 (M+H)+, RT 2.14 minutes (Method C).

EXAMPLE 3


3-[(2,5-Dichlorophenyl)methyl]-2-methyl-5-(pyridin-4-yl)imidazo[4,5-6]pyridine



[0497] Prepared from Intermediate 5 (0.06 g, 0.18 mmol) and pyridin-4-ylboronic acid (0.03 g, 0.22 mmol) in accordance with Method A to give the title compound (4 mg, 6%). δH (d6-DMSO) 8.66 (d, J 6.0 Hz, 2H), 8.12 (d, J 8.3 Hz, 1H), 8.05-8.01 (m, 3H), 7.58 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (dd, J 8.6, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.14 (d, J 8.6 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (s, 2H), 2.62 (s, 3H). LCMS (ES+) 371.0 (M+H)+, RT 2.17 minutes (Method C).

EXAMPLE 4


5-Benzyloxy-3-[(2,5-dimethylphenyl)methyl]-2-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine



[0498] A suspension of Intermediate 8 (400 mg, 1.2 mmol) in acetic acid (5 mL) was heated at reflux for 3 days, then allowed to cool to room temperature. The crude mixture was concentrated in vacuo, then the residue was partitioned between EtOAc (50 mL) and Na2CO3 (10% w/v aqueous solution, 30 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (30 mL), then the combined organic extracts were washed with brine (50 mL) and dried over MgSO4. Filtration and concentration in vacuo gave a crude gum which was purified by column chromatography on SiO2, eluting with DCM:EtOAc (gradient from 0 to 30% EtOAc), and trituration with diisopropyl ether, to yield the title compound (30 mg, 67%) as an off-white powder. δH (DMSO-d6) 7.90 (d, 1H), 7.38-7.41 (m, 2H), 7.27-7.28 (m, 3H), 7.13 (d, 1H), 7.00 (d, 1H), 6.69 (d, 1H), 6.36 (s, 1H), 5.38 (s, 2H), 5.32 (s, 2H), 2.39 (s, 3H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 2.10 (s, 3H). LCMS (ES+) 358.8 (M+H)+, RT 2.77 minutes (Method A).

EXAMPLE 5


5-({5-Benzyloxy-3-r(2,5-dimethylphenyl)methyl]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl}methoxy)-pyridine-2-carboxamide



[0499] A suspension of Intermediate 9 (470 mg, 2.4 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was treated with DMF (2 mL), followed by HATU (912 mg, 2.4 mmol) and DIPEA (420 µL, 2.4 mmol), and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 minutes. The mixture was treated with Intermediate 8 (730 mg, 2.1 mmol) in DCM (5 mL), then stirred at room temperature for 18 h. The reaction mixture was treated with water (20 mL) and extracted with DCM (two portions of 25 mL each), then the combined organic layers were concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken up in acetic acid (25 mL) and heated at reflux for 8 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue was partitioned between DCM (60 mL) and Na2CO3 (10% w/v aqueous solution, 50 mL). The aqueous phase was further extracted with DCM/EtOAc (9:1 mixture, two portions of 50 mL each). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine (two portions of 40 mL each), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by column chromatography on SiO2 (eluting with DCM/EtOAc, gradient from 1:0 to 0:1), followed by trituration with EtOAc, to yield the title compound (180 mg, 17%) as a pale solid. δH (DMSO-d6) 8.07-8.09 (m, 2H), 7.94 (d, 1H), 7.92 (s, 1H), 7.45-7.48 (m, 2H), 7.37-7.40 (m, 2H), 7.26-7.28 (m, 3H), 7.08 (d, 1H), 6.95 (d, 1H), 6.80 (d, 1H), 6.34 (s, 1H), 5.51 (s, 2H), 5.39 (s, 2H), 5.35 (s, 2H), 2.23 (s, 3H), 1.90 (s, 3H). LCMS (ES+) 494.8, RT 2.64 minutes (Method A).

EXAMPLE 6


{3-[(2,5-Dimethylphenyl)methyl]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl}(phenyl)methanol



[0500] To a solution of Intermediate 10 (380 mg, 1.6 mmol) in THF (10 mL) at -78°C was added 1.6M n-butyllithium in hexane (3.2 mmol) over 1 minute. The reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes, then benzaldehyde (0.34 g, 3.2 mmol) in THF (2 mL) was added over 1 minute. After a further 10 minutes, the reaction mixture was quenched with water (1mL) and allowed to warm to ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was poured into ethyl acetate/water. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed three times with water, then dried over magnesium sulphate and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by gradient silica column chromatography, eluting with 0-60% ethyl acetate in DCM, followed by preparative chromatography, to afford the title compound (300 mg, 55%) as a white solid. δH (CDCl3) 8.33 (d, J 4.8 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (dd, J8.0, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.25-7.15 (m, 7H), 7.05-7.00 (m, 1H), 7.00-6.90 (m, 1H), 6.91 (s, 1H), 5.82 (s, 1H), 5.25 (dd, JAB 16.8 Hz, 2H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 2.02 (s, 3H). LCMS (ES+) 344.0 (M+H)+, RT 2.24 minutes (Method C).

EXAMPLE 7


{5-(1-Methylpyrazol-4-yl)-3-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl}methanol



[0501] A mixture of Intermediate 13 (400 mg, 1.36 mmol), glycolic acid (125 mg, 1.6 mmol), HATU (573 mg, 1.5 mmol) and triethylamine (0.38 mL, 2.7 mmol) in DCM (15 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 2 h. The cooled reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was retaken in acetic acid (5 mL) and heated at 140°C for 4 h, then cooled down to room temperature. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, retaken in DCM and washed with 2M aqueous NaOH solution. The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was redissolved in a mixture of THF, methanol and 2M aqueous NaOH solution, then heated at 65°C for 1 h. The cooled reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, EtOAc:DCM, 80 to 100%) to give the title compound (115 mg, 25%) as a white solid. δH (CDCl3) 8.00 (s, 1H), 8.00-7.90 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.30 (m, 6H), 6.22 (q, J 14.4, 7.0 Hz), 4.65 (dd, J 15.8, 5.6 Hz, 2H), 4.00 (s, 3H), 3.25 (t, J 5.8 Hz, 1H), 2.11 (d, J 7.2 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ES+) 334.0 (M+H)+, RT 1.64 minutes (Method C).

EXAMPLE 8


2-(5-{3-[2-(Difluoromethoxy)benzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol



[0502] Intermediate 24 (254 mg, 0.5728 mmol) was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (2.5 mL) and acetic anhydride (0.06 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred at 80°C for 1 h, then the solvent was removed in vacuo. The residue was taken up in acetic acid (2 mL) and heated at 150°C for 2 h. The acetic acid was stripped with toluene (3 x 5 mL). The residue was taken up in EtOAc and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (1.2 mL) and cooled in an ice bath, then aqueous NaOH solution (1N, 0.25 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight and allowed to warm slowly to room temperature, then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken up in the minimum volume of acetonitrile/water (70:30), with a drop of DMSO, and purified by preparative HPLC, yielding the title compound (10 mg, 18%) as an off-white solid. δH (400 MHz, CDCl3) 9.33 (s, 2H), 8.08 (d, J 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (d, J 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (dt, J 8.0, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (dd, J 8.0, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.12 (td, J 7.7, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 6.99 (dd, J 7.7, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.65 (t, J 73.3 Hz, 1H), 5.60 (s, 2H), 4.72 (s, 1H), 2.61 (s, 3H), 1.64 (s, 6H). LCMS (ES+) 426.30 (M+H)+, RT 2.35 minutes.

EXAMPLE 9


2-(5-{3-[2-Bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)benzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol



[0503] Pt/C 5% type 5R163 (2 mg, 2 wt %) was added to a solution of Intermediate 27 (100 mg, 0.181 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (0.4 mL, 5 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 18 h. The solution was filtered through celite, washed with 1,4-dioxane and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken up in acetic acid (2 mL) and stirred at 50°C for 3 h. Acetic anhydride (0.02 mL, 0.18 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was heated at 50°C for 72 h. The precipitate was filtered off and dried in vacuo. The solid was suspended in acetic acid (1 mL) and stirred at 100°C for 2 days, then heated under microwave irradiation for 30 minutes at 150°C. The solution was azeotroped with toluene (2 x 10 mL) and taken up in DCM (10 mL). The organic solution was washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution (10 mL), dried with MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (0.3 mL) and cooled in an ice bath before adding NaOH (6.0 mg, 0.15 mmol) in water (0.15 mL). The mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 5 h. The resulting white precipitate was filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether, yielding the title compound (3.5 mg, 4.0%). δH (400 MHz, CDCl3) 9.24 (s, 2H), 8.01 (d, J 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (d, J 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.13 (d, J 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.31 (t, J 73.3 Hz, 1H), 5.71 (s, 2H), 4.77 (s, 1H), 2.62 (s, 3H), 1.65 (s, 6H). LCMS (ES+) 504.0/506.0 (M+H)+, RT 2.39 minutes.

EXAMPLE 10


2-(5-{3-[2-(Difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorobenzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol



[0504] Prepared from Intermediate 30 (1.50 g, 4.39 mmol), 2-[5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]propan-2-ol (1.39 g, 5.26 mmol), Cs2CO3 (2.14 g, 6.58 mmol), 1,4-dioxane/water (9:1, 25 mL) and [1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]-dichloropalladium(II)-dichloromethane complex (160.6 mg, 0.22 mmol, 5 mol %) in accordance with Method A to give the title compound (1.18 g, 60%). δH (400 MHz, CDCl3) 9.31 (s, 2H), 8.01 (d, J 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.64 (d, J 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (dt, J 8.3, 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.04 (t, J 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (d, J 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.44 (t, J 72.8 Hz, 1H), 5.57 (s, 2H), 4.77 (s, 1H), 2.67 (s, 3H), 1.66 (s, 6H). LCMS (ES+) 444.0 (M+H)+, RT 2.26 minutes.

EXAMPLE 11


cis-1-(5-{3-2-(Difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorobenzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-methylcyclobutane-1,3-diol



[0505] Intermediate 31 (215 mg, 0.36 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (2 mL) and TBAF (1M in THF; 1.07 mL, 1.08 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. Water was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude yellow oil was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, gradient 0-10% MeOH in EtOAc), yielding the title compound (71 mg, 40.8%). LCMS (ES+) 486.0 (M+H)+, RT 2.01 minutes.

EXAMPLE 12


2-(5-{3-[3-Bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)-2-fluorobenzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]-pyridin-5-yl}pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol



[0506] Intermediate 38 (250 mg, 0.50 mmol) was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (2.0 mL) and acetic anhydride (0.05 mL) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 80°C for 1 h, then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken up in acetic acid (2 mL) and the reaction mixture was heated at 150°C for 18 h, then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken up in EtOAc and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified on column chromatography (SiO2, gradient 0-100% EtOAc in heptane), yielding the title compound (175 mg, 60%) as a white solid. LCMS (ES+) 540.0/542.0 (M+H)+, RT 1.43 minutes.

EXAMPLE 13


3-[2-(Difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorobenzyl]-2-methyl-5-{6-[S-(methyl)sulfonimidoyl]-pyridin-3-yl}-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine



[0507] Intermediate 39 (150 mg, 0.45 mmol) was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) and bis(pinacolato)diboron (140 mg, 0.54 mmol), potassium acetate (134 mg, 1.35 mmol) and [1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II) (23 mg, 0.03 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was heated at 80°C for 2 h. Intermediate 30 (124 mg, 0.36 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture, with tri(tert-butyl)(hydrido)phosphate(1-) (13.1 mg, 0.045 mmol), water (0.22 mL), tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) (3.8 mg, 0.011 mmol) and potassium carbonate (75.89 mg, 0.54 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated at 80°C for 18 h. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, then partitioned between EtOAc (15 mL) and water (15 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were successively washed with saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution and saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution, then dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by preparative HPLC, yielding the title compound (5 mg, 2%) as a yellow solid. LCMS (ES+) 462.0 (M+H)+, RT 1.21 minutes.


Claims

1. A compound of formula (IIB) or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a co-crystal thereof:

wherein

E represents -CH2- or -CH(CH3)-;

Q represents -CH2-, -CH(OH)- or -CH2O-;

Z represents hydrogen, methyl, phenyl, aminocarbonylphenyl or aminocarbonylpyridinyl;

V represents C-R22 or N;

R12 represents hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, trifluoromethyl, methyl or ethoxycarbonylethyl;

R15 represents hydrogen, halogen, C1-6 alkyl or difluoromethoxy;

R16 represents hydrogen, halogen or C1-6 alkyl;

R21 represents hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl or (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyl; or R21 represents (C3-7)cycloalkyl, which group may be optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents independently selected from C1-6 alkyl and hydroxy;

R22 represents hydrogen, halogen or C1-6 alkyl; and

R23 represents hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, trifluoromethyl or C1-6 alkoxy.


 
2. A compound as claimed in claim 1 wherein R21 represents hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl.
 
3. A compound as claimed in claim 1 represented by formula (IIF), (IIG), (IIH) or (IIJ) or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a co-crystal thereof:







wherein

W represents C(R32)(R33);

R32 represents hydroxy;

R33 represents hydrogen or C1-6 alkyl;

R34 represents hydrogen or hydroxy; and

E, Q, Z, V, R12, R15, R16 and R23 are as defined in claim 1.


 
4. A compound as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein R15 represents difluoromethoxy.
 
5. A compound as claimed in claim 1 selected from the following:

2-(5-{3-[2-(difluoromethoxy)benzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol;

2-(5-{3-[2-bromo-6-(difluoromethoxy)benzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol;

2-(5-{3-[2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorobenzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol;

cis-1-(5-{3-[2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorobenzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-methylcyclobutane-1,3-diol; and

3-[2-(difluoromethoxy)-6-fluorobenzyl]-2-methyl-5-{6-[S-(methyl)sulfonimidoyl]-pyridin-3-yl}-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.


 
6. A compound of formula (IIB) as defined in claim 1 or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a co-crystal thereof, for use in therapy.
 
7. A compound of formula (IIB) as defined in claim 1 or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a co-crystal thereof, for use in the treatment and/or prevention of an inflammatory or autoimmune disorder, a neurological or neurodegenerative disorder, pain or a nociceptive disorder, a cardiovascular disorder, a metabolic disorder, an ocular disorder, or an oncological disorder.
 
8. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (IIB) as defined in claim 1 or an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, or a co-crystal thereof, in association with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
 
9. A pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 8 further comprising an additional pharmaceutically active ingredient.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verbindung der Formel (IIB) oder N-Oxid davon oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz oder Solvat davon oder Co-Kristall davon:

wobei

E -CH2- oder -CH(CH3)- darstellt;

Q -CH2-, -CH(OH)- oder -CH2O- darstellt;

Z Wasserstoff, Methyl, Phenyl, Aminocarbonylphenyl oder Aminocarbonylpyridinyl darstellt;

V C-R22 oder N darstellt;

R12 Wasserstoff, Fluor, Chlor, Trifluormethyl, Methyl oder Ethoxycarbonylethyl darstellt;

R15 Wasserstoff, Halogen, C1-6-Alkyl oder Difluormethoxy darstellt;

R16 Wasserstoff, Halogen oder C1-6-Alkyl darstellt;

R21 Hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl oder (C1-6)-Alkylsulphoximinyl darstellt; oder R21 (C3-7)-Cycloalkyl darstellt, wobei die Gruppe optional mit einem, zwei oder drei Substituenten, die unabhängig aus C1-6-Alkyl und Hydroxy ausgewählt sind, substituiert sein kann;

R22 Wasserstoff, Halogen oder C1-6-Alkyl darstellt; und

R23 Wasserstoff, C1-6-Alkyl, Trifluormethyl oder C1-6 Alkoxy darstellt.


 
2. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, wobei R21 Hydroxy(C1-6)alkyl darstellt.
 
3. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, die durch die Formel (IIF), (IIG), (IIH) oder (IIJ) dargestellt wird, oder N-Oxid davon oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz oder Solvat davon oder Co-Kristall davon:







wobei

W C(R32)(R33) darstellt;

R32 Hydroxy darstellt;

R33 Wasserstoff oder C1-6-Alkyl darstellt;

R34 Wasserstoff oder Hydroxy darstellt; und

E, Q, Z, V, R12, R15, R16 und R23 wie in Anspruch 1 definiert sind.


 
4. Verbindung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei R15 Difluormethoxy darstellt.
 
5. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, ausgewählt aus dem Folgenden:

2-(5-{3-[2-(Difluormethoxy)benzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol;

2-(5-{3-[2-Brom-6-(difluormethoxy)benzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol;

2-(5-{3-[2-(Difluormethoxy)-6-fluorbenzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol;

cis-1-(5-{3-[2-(Difluormethoxy)-6-fluorbenzyl]-2-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-methylcyclobutan-1,3-diol; und

3-[2-(Difluormethoxy)-6-fluorbenzyl]-2-methyl-5-{6-[S-(methyl)sulfonimidoyl]-pyridin-3-yl}-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin.


 
6. Verbindung der Formel (IIB) nach Anspruch 1 oder N-Oxid davon oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz oder Solvat davon oder Co-Kristall davon zur Verwendung bei einer Therapie.
 
7. Verbindung der Formel (IIB) nach Anspruch 1 oder N-Oxid davon oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz oder Solvat davon oder Co-Kristall davon zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung und/oder Vorbeugung einer Entzündungs- oder Autoimmunerkrankung, einer neurologischen oder neurodegenerativen Erkrankung, Schmerzen oder einer nozizeptiven Erkrankung, einer kardiovaskulären Erkrankung, einer Stoffwechselerkrankung, einer Augenerkrankung oder einer onkologischen Erkrankung.
 
8. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend eine Verbindung der Formel (IIB) nach Anspruch 1, oder N-Oxid davon oder pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz oder Solvat davon oder Co-Kristall davon in Verbindung mit einem pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Träger.
 
9. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 8, ferner umfassend einen zusätzlichen pharmazeutischen Wirkstoff.
 


Revendications

1. Composé de la formule (IIB) ou N-oxyde de celui-ci, ou sel ou solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, ou co-cristal de celui-ci :

dans lequel

E représente -CH2- ou -CH(CH3)- ;

Q représente -CH2-, -CH(OH)- or -CH2O-;

Z représente hydrogène, méthyle, phényle, aminocarbonylphényle ou aminocarbonyle-pyridinyle ;

V représente C-R22 ou N ;

R12 représente hydrogène, fluoro, chloro, trifluorométhyle, méthyle ou éthoxycarbonyléthyle ;

R15 représente hydrogène, halogène ou C1-6 alkyle ou difluorométhoxy ;

R16 représente hydrogène, halogène ou C1-6 alkyle ;

R21 représente hydroxy(C1-6)alkyle ou (C1-6)alkylsulphoximinyle ; ou R21 représente (C3-7)cycloalkyle, ce groupe pouvant optionnellement être remplacé par un, deux ou trois substituants indépendamment sélectionnés parmi C1-6 alkyle et hydroxy ;

R22 représente hydrogène, halogène ou C1-6 alkyle ; et

R23 représente hydrogène, C1-6 alkyle, trifluorométhyle ou C1-6 alkoxy.


 
2. Composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel R21 représente hydroxy(C1-6)alkyle.
 
3. Composé selon la revendication 1, représenté par la formule (IIF), (IIG), (IIH) ou (IIJ) ou N-oxyde de celui-ci, ou sel ou solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, ou co-cristal de celui-ci :







dans lequel

W représente C(R32)(R33) ;

R32 représente hydroxy ;

R33 représente hydrogène ou C1-6 alkyle ;

R34 représente hydrogène ou halogène ; et

E, Q, Z, V, R12, R15, R16 et R23 sont tels que définis dans la revendication 1.


 
4. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel R15 représente difluorométhoxy.
 
5. Composé selon la revendication 1, sélectionné parmi ce qui suit :

2-(5-{3-[2-(difluorométhoxy)benzyl]-2-méthyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol ;

2-(5-{3-[2-bromo-6-(difluorométhoxy)benzyl]-2-méthyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol ;

2-(5-{3-[2-(difluorométhoxy)-6-fluorobenzyl]-2-méthyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}-pyrimidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol ;

cis-1-(5-{3-[2-(difluorométhoxy)-6-fluorobenzyl]-2-méthyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-5-yl}pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-méthylcyclobutane-1,3-diol ; et

3-[2-(difluorométhoxy)-6-fluorobenzyl]-2-méthyl-5-{6-[S-(méthyl)sulfonimidoyl]-pyridin-3-yl}-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.


 
6. Composé de la formule (IIB) selon la revendication 1 ou N-oxyde de celui-ci, ou sel ou solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, ou co-cristal de celui-ci, pour l'utilisation dans la thérapie.
 
7. Composé de la formule (IIB) selon la revendication 1 ou N-oxyde de celui-ci, ou sel ou solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, ou co-cristal de celui-ci, pour l'utilisation dans le traitement et/ou la prévention d'une maladie inflammatoire ou auto-immune, d'une maladie neurologique ou neurodégénérative, de douleur ou d'une maladie nociceptive, d'une maladie cardiovasculaire, d'une maladie métabolique, d'une maladie oculaire, ou d'une maladie oncologique.
 
8. Composition pharmaceutique, comprenant un composé de la formule (IIB) selon la revendication 1 ou un N-oxyde de celui-ci, ou un sel ou solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, ou un co-cristal de celui-ci, en association avec un vecteur pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
9. Composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 8, comprenant en outre un ingrédient pharmaceutiquement actif supplémentaire.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description