(19)
(11)EP 3 081 233 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
23.12.2020 Bulletin 2020/52

(21)Application number: 16168473.3

(22)Date of filing:  26.07.2010
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 47/61(2017.01)
A61K 47/60(2017.01)

(54)

GLYCOPOLYSIALYLATION OF PROTEINS OTHER THAN BLOOD COAGULATION PROTEINS

GLYCOPOLYSIALYLIERUNG VON PROTEINEN AUSSER BLUTGERINNUNGSPROTEINEN

GLYCOPOLYSIALYLATION DE PROTÉINES AUTRES QUE DES PROTÉINES DE COAGULATION SANGUINE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 27.07.2009 US 228828 P
21.05.2010 US 347136 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
19.10.2016 Bulletin 2016/42

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
10739386.0 / 2459226

(73)Proprietors:
  • Baxalta GmbH
    8152 Glattpark, Opfikon (CH)
  • Baxalta Incorporated
    Bannockburn, IL 60015 (US)
  • Lipoxen Technologies Limited
    London NW1 0NH (GB)

(72)Inventors:
  • Jain, Sanjay
    London, NW1 0NH (GB)
  • Gregoriadis, Gregory
    London, NW1 0NH (GB)
  • Dwivedi, Archana
    London, NW1 0NH (GB)
  • Nath, Srijit
    London, NW1 0NH (GB)
  • Siekmann, Juergen
    1210 Vienna (AT)
  • Haider, Stefan
    3385 Prinzersdorf (AT)
  • Rottensteiner, Hanspeter
    1020 Vienna (AT)
  • Turecek, Peter
    3400 Klosterneuburg (AT)

(74)Representative: Grund, Martin 
Grund Intellectual Property Group Patentanwalt und Solicitor PartG mbB Nikolaistrasse 15
80802 München
80802 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 0 605 963
WO-A1-94/28024
US-A1- 2006 019 877
WO-A1-92/16555
WO-A2-2006/016168
US-A1- 2009 076 237
  
  • ANOUK DIRKSEN ET AL: "Rapid Oxime and Hydrazone Ligations with Aromatic Aldehydes for Biomolecular Labeling", BIOCONJUGATE CHEMISTRY, vol. 19, no. 12, 17 December 2008 (2008-12-17), pages 2543-2548, XP055011724, ISSN: 1043-1802, DOI: 10.1021/bc800310p
  • GREGORIADIS ET AL: "Improving the therapeutic efficacy of peptides and proteins: A role for polysialic acids", INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS, ELSEVIER BV, NL LNKD- DOI:10.1016/J.IJPHARM.2005.06.007, vol. 300, no. 1-2, 26 August 2005 (2005-08-26), pages 125-130, XP005013268, ISSN: 0378-5173
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to materials and methods for conjugating polysialic acid, to carbohydrate-containing glycoproteins other than a blood coagulation proteins, and to the conjugates obtained.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Conjugation of polypeptide drugs such as by PEGylation or polysialylation protects them from degradation in the blood circulation and thus improves their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles (Harris and Chess, Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2003;2:214-21; S. Jain, D. Hreczuk-Hirst, P. Laing and G. Gregoriadis, Drug Delivery Systems and Sciences, 4 (No 1): 3-9, 2004.). The PEGylation process attaches repeating units of ethylene glycol (polyethylene glycol (PEG)) to a polypeptide drug. PEG molecules have a large hydrodynamic volume (5-10 times the size of globular proteins), are highly water soluble and hydrated, non-toxic, non-immunogenic and rapidly cleared from the body. PEGylation of molecules can lead to increased resistance of drugs to enzymatic degradation, increased half-life in vivo, reduced dosing frequency, decreased immunogenicity, increased physical and thermal stability, increased solubility, increased liquid stability, and reduced aggregation. The first PEGylated drugs were approved by the FDA in the early 1990s. Since then, the FDA has approved several PEGylated drugs for oral, injectable, and topical administration.

[0003] Sialic acids (also called N-acetyl neuraminic acids) and polysialic acids are found widely distributed in animal tissues and to a lesser extent in other species ranging from plants and fungi to yeasts and bacteria, mostly in glycoproteins and gangliosides.

[0004] The abbreviation "PSA" used herein refers to the term "polysialic acid". Similarly, the term "mPSA" used herein refers to the term "modified polysialic acid".

[0005] PSAs consist of polymers (generally homopolymers) of N-acetylneuraminic acid. The secondary amino group normally bears an acetyl group, but it may instead bear a glycolyl group. Possible substituents on the hydroxyl groups include acetyl, lactyl, ethyl, sulfate, and phosphate groups.


Structure of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid)



[0006] PSAs and mPSAs generally comprise linear polymers consisting essentially of N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties linked by 2,8- or 2,9- glycosidic linkages or combinations of these (e.g. alternating 2,8- and 2,9- linkages). In particularly preferred PSAs and mPSAs, the glycosidic linkages are α-2,8. Such PSAs and mPSAs are conveniently derived from colominic acids, and are referred to herein as "CAs" and "mCAs". Typical PSAs and mPSAs comprise at least 2, preferably at least 5, more preferably at least 10 and most preferably at least 20 N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties. Thus, they may comprise from 5 to 500 N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties, preferably from 10 to 300 N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties. PSAs and CAs can be polymers comprising different sugar moieties. They can be copolymers. PSAs and CAs preferably are essentially free of sugar moieties other than N-acetylneuraminic acid. PSAs and CAs preferably comprise at least 90%, more preferably at least 95% and most preferably at least 98% N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties.

[0007] Where PSAs and CAs comprise moieties other than N-acetylneuraminic acid (as, for example in mPSAs and mCAs) these are preferably located at one or both of the ends of the polymer chain. Such "other" moieties may, for example, be moieties derived from terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties by oxidation or reduction.

[0008] For example, WO-A-0187922 describes such mPSAs and mCAs in which the non-reducing terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid unit is converted to an aldehyde group by reaction with sodium periodate. Additionally, WO 2005/016974 describes such mPSAs and mCAs in which the reducing terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid unit is subjected to reduction to reductively open the ring at the reducing terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid unit, whereby a vicinal diol group is formed, followed by oxidation to convert the vicinal diol group to an aldehyde group.

[0009] Sialic acid rich glycoproteins bind selectin in humans and other organisms. They play an important role in human influenza infections. For example, sialic acid can hide mannose antigens on the surface of host cells or bacteria from mannose-binding lectin. This prevents activation of complement. Sialic acids also hide the penultimate galactose residue thus preventing rapid clearance of the glycoprotein by the galactose receptor on the hepatic parenchymal cells.


Structure of colominic acid (homopolymer of N-acetylneuraminic acid)



[0010] CAs are produced, inter alia, by particular strains of Escherichia coli possessing the K1 antigen. CAs have many physiological functions. They are important as a raw material for drugs and cosmetics.

[0011] Comparative studies in vivo with polysialylated and unmodified asparaginase revealed that polysialylation increased the half-life of the enzyme (Fernandes and Gregoriadis, Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1341: 26-34, 1997).

[0012] The preparation of conjugates by forming a covalent linkage between the water soluble polymer and the therapeutic protein can be carried out by a variety of chemical methods. One approach for coupling PSA to therapeutic proteins is the conjugation of the polymers via the carbohydrate moieties of the protein. Vicinal hydroxyl (OH) groups of carbohydrates in proteins can be easily oxidized with sodium periodate (NaIO4) to form active aldehyde groups (Rothfus and Smith, J Biol Chem 1963; 238:1402-10; van Lenten and Ashwell, J Biol Chem 1971;246:1889-94). Subsequently the polymer can be coupled to the aldehyde groups of the carbohydrate by use of reagents containing, for example, an active hydrazide group (Wilchek M and Bayer EA, Methods Enzymol 1987;138:429-42). A more recent technology is the use of reagents containing aminooxy groups which react with aldehydes to form oxime linkages (WO 96/40662, WO2008/025856).

[0013] Additional examples describing conjugation of a PSA to a therapeutic protein are described in US Publication No. 2009/0076237 which teaches the oxidation of rFVIII and subsequent coupling to PSA and other water soluble polymers (e.g. PEG, HES, dextran) using hydrazide chemistry; WO 2008/025856 which teaches oxidation of different coagulation factors, e.g. rFIX, FVIII and FVIIa and subsequent coupling to a polymer, e.g. PEG; WO2006/016168 which teaches the conjugation of PSA having a N-hydroxysuccinimide group to amino groups of proteins.

[0014] Recently, an improved method was described comprising mild periodate oxidation of sialic acids to generate aldehydes followed by reaction with an aminooxy group containing reagent in the presence of catalytic amounts of aniline (Dirksen A and Dawson PE, Bioconjugate Chem. 2008; 19,2543-8; and Zeng Y et al., Nature Methods 2009;6:207-9). The aniline catalysis dramatically accelerates the oxime ligation, allowing the use of very low concentrations of reagents.

[0015] Notwithstanding the methods available of conjugating water soluble polymers to therapeutic proteins, there remains a need to develop materials and methods for conjugating water soluble polymers to carbohydrate-containing compounds other than blood coagulation proteins that improve the compound's pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic properties while minimizing the costs associated with the various reagents.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0016] The present invention provides materials and methods for conjugating a water soluble polymer to a carbohydrate-containing compound other than a blood coagulation protein that improve the compound's pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic properties while minimizing the costs associated with the various reagents.

[0017] In one embodiment of the invention there is provided a method of conjugating a water soluble polymer to an oxidized carbohydrate moiety of a carbohydrate-containing compound other than a blood coagulation protein, comprising contacting the oxidized carbohydrate moiety with water soluble polymer under conditions that allow conjugation, wherein said water soluble polymer contains a hydrazide group and a hydrazone linkage is formed between the oxidized carbohydrate moiety and the hydrazide group on the water soluble polymer. The compound is a glycoprotein other than a blood coagulation protein.

[0018] The carbohydrate moiety may be oxidized using a sugar-specific oxidizing enzyme (e.g. galactose or glucose oxidase) or by incubation with a buffer comprising an oxidizing agent selected from sodium periodate (NaIO4), lead tetraacetate (Pb(OAc)4) and potassium perruthenate (KRuO4).

[0019] The carbohydrate moiety may be oxidized at a sialic acid, mannose, galactose or glucose residue.

[0020] The water-soluble polymer used in the invention is PSA, mPSA, CA or mCA.

[0021] In reference examples below, the water soluble polymer is PEG or branched PEG.

[0022] In further particular embodiments of the invention illustrated in examples below, the water soluble polymer is polysialic acid (PSA) or a modified PSA (mPSA). The PSA or mPSA may have a molecular weight range of 350 Da to 120,000 Da, 500 Da to 100,000 Da,1000 Da to 80,000 Da, 1500 Da to 60,000 Da, 2,000 Da to 45,000 Da or 3,000 Da to 35,000 Da.

[0023] The PSA or mPSA may be colominic acid or modified colominic acid.

[0024] In another embodiment of the invention, the PSA or mPSA is comprised of about 2-500 or 10 - 300 sialic acid units. In yet another embodiment, the aforementioned method is provided wherein the oxidizing agent is sodium periodate (NaIO4).

[0025] Also disclosed herein but not forming part of the invention is a method comprising oxidizing the water soluble polymer to form an aldehyde group on a terminal sialic acid unit of the water soluble polymer, and reacting the oxidized water soluble polymer with an aminooxy linker.

[0026] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, the aforementioned method is provided wherein the water soluble polymer is prepared by reacting an activated aminooxy linker with oxidized water soluble polymer wherein the linker is a homobifunctional or heterobifunctional linker. The homobifunctional linker can have the general formula NH2[OCH2CH2]nONH2, wherein n = 1-50, preferably 1-11, more preferably 1-6. The linker may specifically be selected from:

a 3-oxa-pentane-I,5-dioxyamine linker of the formula:

and

a 3,6,9-trioxa-undecane-1,11-dioxyamine linker of the formula:

PSA or mPSA may be oxidized by incubation with an oxidizing agent to form a terminal aldehyde group at the non-reducing end of the PSA.

[0027] The method may comprise oxidizing the water soluble polymer to form an aldehyde group on a terminal unit of the water soluble polymer, e.g. a terminal sialic acid unit of the PSA or mPSA, and reacting the oxidized water soluble polymer with an aminooxy linker. In still another aspect of the disclosure, an aforementioned method is provided wherein the aminooxy linker is 3-oxa-pentane-1,5-dioxyamine. In a related aspect, the oxidizing agent is NaIO4.

[0028] In another aspect of the disclosure, the aforementioned method is provided wherein the contacting of the oxidized carbohydrate moiety with the activated water soluble polymer occurs in a buffer comprising a nucleophilic catalyst selected from the group consisting of aniline and aniline derivatives.

[0029] A hydrazide group according to the invention may be formed on the water soluble polymer by reacting oxidized water soluble polymer with a hydrazide linker. The hydrazide linker can suitably be adipic acid dihydrazide.

[0030] In yet another embodiment of the invention, an aforementioned method is provided further comprising the step of reducing a hydrazone linkage in the conjugated protein, for example by incubating the conjugated protein in a buffer comprising a reducing compound selected from the group consisting of sodium cyanoborohydride (NaCNBH3) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). In a related embodiment the reducing compound is sodium cyanoborohydride (NaCNBH3).

[0031] In another embodiment of the invention, a conjugated glycoprotein produced by any aforementioned method is provided. In still another embodiment of the invention, a conjugated glycoprotein other than a blood coagulation protein comprises (a) the said glycoprotein; and (b) at least one hydrazide-PSA or -mPSA bound to the glycoprotein of (a), wherein said hydrazide-PSA or -mPSA is attached to the glycoprotein via one or more carbohydrate moieties.

FIGURES



[0032] 

Figure 1 shows the synthesis of the water soluble di-aminoxy linkers 3-oxa-pentane-1,5-dioxyamine and 3,6,9-trioxa-undecane-1,1-dioxyamine.

Figure 2 shows the preparation of aminooxy-PSA.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0033] The pharmacological and immunological properties of carbohydrate-containing compounds, such as glycoproteins other than blood coagulations proteins can be improved by chemical modification and conjugation with water soluble polymer, in particular PEG or PSA or mPSA. The properties of the resulting conjugates generally strongly depend on the structure and the size of the polymer. Thus, polymers with a defined and narrow size distribution are usually preferred. PSA and mPSA, used in specific examples, can be purified in such a manner that results in a final PSA preparation with a narrow size distribution.

GLYCOPROTEINS



[0034] As described herein, glycoproteins other than blood coagulation proteins including, cytokines such as interleukins, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-interferons, colony stimulating factors including granulocyte colony stimulating factors, fibroblast growth factors, platelet derived growth factors, phospholipase-activating protein (PUP), insulin, plant proteins such as lectins and ricins, tumor necrosis factors and related alleles, soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor receptors, interleukin receptors and soluble forms of interleukin receptors, growth factors, tissue growth factors, transforming growth factors such as TGFas or TGFβs and epidermal growth factors, hormones, somatomedins, pigmentary hormones, hypothalamic releasing factors, antidiuretic hormones, prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, tissue plasminogen activator, and immunoglobulins such as IgG, IgE, IgM, IgA, and IgD, monoclonal antibodies, erythropoietin (EPO), blood factors other than blood coagulation proteins, galactosidases, α-galactosidases, β-galactosidases, DNAses, fetuin, fragments thereof, and any fusion proteins comprising any of the above mentioned proteins or fragments thereof together with therapeutic glycoproteins in general are contemplated by the invention. In an embodiment the glycoprotein is EPO. In a further embodiment the glycoprotein is a galactosidase. In a still further embodiment the glycoprotein is a DNAse. In a yet further embodiment the glycoprotein is fetuin. Lastly, in a still yet further embodiment the glycoprotein is a granulocyte colony stimulating factor.

[0035] As used herein "biologically active derivative" or "biologically active variant" includes any derivative or variant of a molecule having substantially the same functional and/or biological properties of said molecule, such as binding properties, and/or the same structural basis, such as a peptidic backbone or a basic polymeric unit.

[0036] An "analog," "variant" or "derivative" is a compound substantially similar in structure and having the same biological activity, albeit in certain instances to a differing degree, to a naturally-occurring molecule. For example, a polypeptide variant refers to a polypeptide sharing substantially similar structure and having the same biological activity as a reference polypeptide. Variants or analogs differ in the composition of their amino acid sequences compared to the naturally-occurring polypeptide from which the analog is derived, based on one or more mutations involving (i) deletion of one or more amino acid residues at one or more termini of the polypeptide and/or one or more internal regions of the naturally-occurring polypeptide sequence (e.g., fragments), (ii) insertion or addition of one or more amino acids at one or more termini (typically an "addition" or "fusion") of the polypeptide and/or one or more internal regions (typically an "insertion") of the naturally-occurring polypeptide sequence or (iii) substitution of one or more amino acids for other amino acids in the naturally-occurring polypeptide sequence. By way of example, a "derivative" refers to a polypeptide sharing the same or substantially similar structure as a reference polypeptide that has been modified, e.g., chemically.

[0037] Variant or analog polypeptides include insertion variants, wherein one or more amino acid residues are added to a protein amino acid sequence of the invention. Insertions may be located at either or both termini of the protein, and/or may be positioned within internal regions of the protein amino acid sequence. Insertion variants, with additional residues at either or both termini, include for example, fusion proteins and proteins including amino acid tags or other amino acid labels. In one aspect, the protein molecule optionally contains an N-terminal Met, especially when the molecule is expressed recombinantly in a bacterial cell such as E. coli.

[0038] In deletion variants, one or more amino acid residues in a protein or polypeptide as described herein are removed. Deletions can be effected at one or both termini of the protein or polypeptide, and/or with removal of one or more residues within the protein amino acid sequence. Deletion variants, therefore, include fragments of a protein or polypeptide sequence.

[0039] In substitution variants, one or more amino acid residues of a protein or polypeptide are removed and replaced with alternative residues. In one aspect, the substitutions are conservative in nature and conservative substitutions of this type are well known in the art. Alternatively, the invention embraces substitutions that are also non-conservative. Exemplary conservative substitutions are described in Lehninger, [Biochemistry, 2nd Edition; Worth Publishers, Inc., New York (1975), pp.71-77] and are set out immediately below.

CONSERVATIVE SUBSTITUTIONS



[0040] 
SIDE CHAIN CHARACTERISTICAMINO ACID
Non-polar (hydrophobic): 
 A. Aliphatic A L I V P
 B. Aromatic F W
 C. Sulfur-containing M
 D. Borderline G
Uncharged-polar: 
 A. Hydroxyl S T Y
 B. Amides N Q
 C. Sulfhydryl C
 D. Borderline G
Positively charged (basic) K R H
Negatively charged (acidic) D E


[0041] Alternatively, exemplary conservative substitutions are set out immediately below.

CONSERVATIVE SUBSTITUTIONS II



[0042] 
ORIGINAL RESIDUEEXEMPLARY SUBSTITUTION
Ala (A) Val, Leu, Ile
Arg (R) Lys, Gln, Asn
Asn (N) Gln, His, Lys, Arg
Asp (D) Glu
Cys (C) Ser
Gln (Q) Asn
Glu (E) Asp
His (H) Asn, Gln, Lys, Arg
Ile (I) Leu, Val, Met, Ala, Phe,
Leu (L) Ile, Val, Met, Ala, Phe
Lys (K) Arg, Gln, Asn
Met (M) Leu, Phe, Ile
Phe (F) Leu, Val, Ile, Ala
Pro (P) Gly
Ser (S) Thr
Thr (T) Ser
Trp (W) Tyr
Tyr (Y) Trp, Phe, Thr, Ser
Val (V) Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Ala

ADMINISTRATION



[0043] In one embodiment a conjugated compound of the present invention may be administered by injection, such as intravenous, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal injection. The compositions may be useful as therapeutic, diagnostic and/or similar agents

[0044] To administer compositions comprising a conjugated compound of the present invention to human or test animals, in one aspect, the compositions comprise one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. The terms "pharmaceutically" or "pharmacologically acceptable" refer to molecular entities and compositions that are stable, inhibit protein degradation such as aggregation and cleavage products, and in addition do not produce allergic, or other adverse reactions when administered using routes well-known in the art, as described below. "Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers" include any and all clinically useful solvents, dispersion media, coatings, antibacterial and antifungal agents, isotonic and absorption delaying agents and the like, including those agents disclosed above.

[0045] As used herein, "effective amount" includes a dose suitable for treating a mammal having a clinically defined disorder.

[0046] The compositions may be administered orally, topically, transdermally, parenterally, by inhalation spray, vaginally, rectally, or by intracranial injection. The term parenteral as used herein includes subcutaneous injections, intravenous, intramuscular, intracisternal injection, or infusion techniques. Administration by intravenous, intradermal, intramuscular, intramammary, intraperitoneal, intrathecal, retrobulbar, intrapulmonary injection and or surgical implantation at a particular site is contemplated as well. Generally, compositions are essentially free of pyrogens, as well as other impurities that could be harmful to the recipient.

[0047] Single or multiple administrations of the compositions can be carried out with the dose levels and pattern being selected by the treating physician. For the prevention or treatment of disease, the appropriate dosage will depend on the type of disease to be treated, as described above, the severity and course of the disease, whether drug is administered for preventive or therapeutic purposes, previous therapy, the patient's clinical history and response to the drug, and the discretion of the attending physician.

[0048] The present invention also relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a conjugated compound or protein as defined herein. The pharmaceutical composition may further comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, salt, buffer, or excipient. The pharmaceutical composition can be used for treating clinically-defined disorders. The pharmaceutical composition of the invention may be a solution or a lyophilized product. Solutions of the pharmaceutical composition may be subjected to any suitable lyophilization process.

[0049] As an additional aspect, the invention includes kits which comprise a composition of the invention packaged in a manner which facilitates its use for administration to subjects. In one embodiment, such a kit includes a compound or composition described herein (e.g., a composition comprising a conjugated protein), packaged in a container such as a sealed bottle or vessel, with a label affixed to the container or included in the package that describes use of the compound or composition in practicing the method. In one embodiment, the kit contains a first container having a composition comprising a conjugated protein and a second container having a physiologically acceptable reconstitution solution for the composition in the first container. In one aspect, the compound or composition is packaged in a unit dosage form. The kit may further include a device suitable for administering the composition according to a specific route of administration. Preferably, the kit contains a label that describes use of the therapeutic protein or peptide composition.

[0050] In one embodiment, the derivative retains the full functional activity of native therapeutic compounds, and provides an extended half-life in vivo, as compared to native therapeutic compounds. In another embodiment, the derivative retains at least 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44. 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56,57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, or 150 percent (%) biological activity relative to native compound.

SIALIC ACID AND PSA



[0051] As used herein, "sialic acid moieties" includes sialic acid monomers or polymers ("polysaccharides") which are soluble in an aqueous solution or suspension and have little or no negative impact, such as side effects, to mammals upon administration of the PSA-protein conjugate in a pharmaceutically effective amount. PSA and mPSA are characterized, in one aspect, as having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 sialic acid units. In certain aspects, different sialic acid units are combined in a chain.

[0052] In one embodiment of the invention, the sialic acid portion of the PSA or mPSA compound is highly hydrophilic, and in another embodiment the entire compound is highly hydrophilic. Hydrophilicity is conferred primarily by the pendant carboxyl groups of the sialic acid units, as well as the hydroxyl groups. The saccharide unit may contain other functional groups, such as, amine, hydroxyl or sulphate groups, or combinations thereof. These groups may be present on naturally-occurring saccharide compounds, or introduced into derivative polysaccharide compounds. The PSA and mPSA used in the methods and conjugates of the invention may be further characterized as described above in the Background of the Invention.

[0053] The naturally occurring polymer PSA is available as a polydisperse preparation showing a broad size distribution (e.g. Sigma C-5762) and high polydispersity (PD). Because the polysaccharides are usually produced in bacteria carrying the inherent risk of copurifying endotoxins, the purification of long sialic acid polymer chains may raise the probability of increased endotoxin content. Short PSA molecules with 1-4 sialic acid units can also be synthetically prepared (Kang SH et al., Chem Commun. 2000;227-8; Ress DK and Linhardt RJ, Current Organic Synthesis. 2004;1:31-46), thus minimizing the risk of high endotoxin levels. However PSA preparations with a narrow size distribution and low polydispersity, which are also endotoxin-free, can now be manufactured. Polysaccharide compounds of particular use for the invention are, in one aspect, those produced by bacteria. Some of these naturally-occurring polysaccharides are known as glycolipids. In one embodiment, the polysaccharide compounds are substantially free of terminal galactose units.

[0054] In various embodiments, the compound is linked to or associated with the PSA or mPSA compound in stoichiometric amounts (e.g., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:7, 1:8, 1:9, or 1:10, etc.). In various embodiments, 1-6, 7-12 or 13-20 PSA and/or mPSA units are linked to the compound. In still other embodiments, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 or more PSA and/or mPSA units are linked to the compound.

[0055] Optionally, the compound is modified to introduce glycosylation sites (i.e., sites other than the native glycosylation sites). Such modification may be accomplished using standard molecular biological techniques known in the art. Moreover, the compound, prior to conjugation via one or more carbohydrate moieties, may be glycosylated in vivo or in vitro.

AMINOOXY LINKAGE



[0056] In one aspect of the disclosure, the reaction of hydroxylamine or hydroxylamine derivatives with aldehydes (e.g., on a carbohydrate moiety following oxidation by sodium periodate) to form an oxime group is applied to the preparation of conjugates of compound. For example, a glycoprotein is first oxidized with a oxidizing agent such as sodium periodate (NaIO4) (Rothfus JA et Smith EL., J Biol Chem 1963, 238, 1402-10; and Van Lenten L and Ashwell G., J Biol Chem 1971, 246, 1889-94). The periodate oxidation of e.g. glycoproteins is based on the classical Malaprade reaction described in 1928, the oxidation of vicinal diols with periodate to form an active aldehyde group (Malaprade L., Analytical application, Bull Soc Chim France, 1928, 43, 683-96). Additional examples for such an oxidizing agent are lead tetraacetate (Pb(OAc)4), manganese acetate (MnO(Ac)3), cobalt acetate (Co(OAc)2), thallium acetate (TlOAc), cerium sulfate (Ce(SO4)2) (US 4,367,309) or potassium perruthenate (KRuO4) (Marko et al., J Am Chem Soc 1997,119, 12661-2) By "oxidizing agent" a mild oxidizing compound which is capable of oxidizing vicinal diols in carbohydrates, thereby generating active aldehyde groups under physiological reaction conditions is meant.

[0057] The second step is the coupling of the polymer containing an aminooxy group to the oxidized carbohydrate moiety to form an oxime linkage. In one aspect of the disclosure, this step can be carried out in the presence of catalytic amounts of the nucleophilic catalyst aniline or aniline derivatives (Dirksen A et Dawson PE, Bioconjugate Chem. 2008; Zeng Y et al., Nature Methods 2009;6:207-9). The aniline catalysis dramatically accelerates the oxime ligation allowing the use of very low concentrations of the reagents. In another aspect of the disclosure the oxime linkage is stabilized by reduction with NaCNBH3 to form an alkoxyamine linkage.

[0058] In one aspect of the disclosure, the reaction steps to conjugate PSA or mPSA to a protein are carried out separately and sequentially (i.e., starting materials (e.g., protein, polymer, etc), reagents (e.g., oxidizing agents, aniline, etc) and reaction products (e.g., oxidized carbohydrate on a protein, activated aminooxy polymer, etc) are separated between individual reaction steps).

[0059] Additional information on aminooxy technology can be found in the following references: EP 1681303A1 (HASylated erythropoietin); WO 2005/014024 (conjugates of a polymer and a protein linked by an oxime linking group); WO96/40662 (aminooxy-containing linker compounds and their application in conjugates); WO 2008/025856 (Modified proteins); Peri F et al., Tetrahedron 1998, 54, 12269-78; Kubler-Kielb J and Pozsgay V., J Org Chem 2005, 70, 6887-90; Lees A et al., Vaccine 2006, 24(6), 716-29; and Heredia KL et al., Macromoecules 2007, 40(14), 4772-9.

[0060] Advantages of the invention include high recovery of conjugate, high retention of activity of the conjugated glycoprotein compared to unconjugated protein and high conjugation efficiency.

[0061] The invention is now illustrated with reference to the following examples. Examples 21-25 illustrate specific embodiments of the invention. Examples 1-20, 26 and 27 are included as reference examples for their relevance to preparation of corresponding conjugates of the invention.

EXAMPLES


Example 1


Preparation of the homobifunctional linker NH2[OCH2CH2]2ONH2



[0062] The homobifunctional linker NH2[OCH2CH2]2ONH2

(3-oxa-pentane-1,5-dioxyamine) containing two active aminooxy groups was synthesized according to Boturyn et al. (Tetrahedron 1997;53:5485-92) in a two step organic reaction employing a modified Gabriel-Synthesis of primary amines. In the first step, one molecule of 2,2-chlorodiethylether was reacted with two molecules of Endo-N-hydroxy-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide in dimethylformamide (DMF). The desired homobifunctional product was prepared from the resulting intermediate by hydrazinolysis in ethanol. Except where otherwise specified, this is referred to as the diaminooxy linker in examples below.

Example 2


Preparation of the homobifunctional linker NH2[OCH2CH2]4ONH2



[0063] The homobifunctional linker NH2[OCH2CH2]4ONH2

(3,6,9-trioxa-undecane-1,11-dioxyamine) containing two active aminooxy groups was synthesized according to Boturyn et al. (Tetrahedron 1997;53:5485-92) in a two step organic reaction employing a modified Gabriel-Synthesis of primary amines. In the first step one molecule of Bis-(2-(2-chlorethoxy)-ethyl)-ether was reacted with two molecules of Endo-N-hydroxy-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide in DMF. The desired homobifunctional product was prepared from the resulting intermediate by hydrazinolysis in ethanol.

Example 3


Preparation of aminooxy-PSA



[0064] 500mg of oxidized PSA (MW=18.8kD) obtained from the Serum Institute of India (Pune, India) was dissolved in 8ml 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5. Next, 100mg 3-oxa-pentane-1,5-dioxyamine was added. After shaking for 2hrs at room temperature, 44 mg sodium cyanoborohydride was added. After shaking for another 4hrs at 4°C, the reaction mix was loaded into a Slide-A-Lyzer (Pierce, Rockford, IL) dialysis cassette (3.5 kD membrane, regenerated cellulose) and dialyzed against PBS pH 7.2 for 4 days. The product was frozen at -80°C. The preparation of the aminooxy-PSA according to this procedure is illustrated in Figure 2.

Example 4


Coupling of aminooxy-PSA to rFIX and purification of the conjugate



[0065] To 12.6mg rFIX, dissolved in 6.3ml 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 6.0, 289µl of an aqueous sodium periodate solution (10mM) was added. The mixture was shaken in the dark for 1h at 4°C and quenched for 15min at room temperature by the addition of 6.5µl 1M glycerol. Low molecular weight contaminates were removed by ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) employing Vivaspin (Sartorius, Goettingen, Germany) concentrators (30kD membrane, regenerated cellulose). Next, 43mg aminooxy-PSA was added to the UF/DF retentate and the mixture was shaken for 18hrs at 4°C. The excess PSA reagent was removed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The conductivity of the cooled reaction mixture was raised to 180mS/cm and loaded onto a 5ml HiTrap Butyl FF (GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT) HIC column (1.6 x 2.5cm), pre-equilibrated with 50mM HEPES, 3M sodium chloride, 6.7mM calcium chloride, 0.01% Tween 80, pH 6.9. The conjugate was eluted within 2.4 column volumes (CV) with 50mM HEPES, 6.7mM calcium chloride, 0.005% Tween 80, pH 7.4 at a flow rate of 5ml/min. The preparation was analytically characterized by measuring total protein (BCA) and FIX chromogenic activity. For the PSA-rFIX conjugate a specific activity of 80.2 IU/mg protein was determined (56.4 % in comparison to native rFIX). The results are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1
ItemBCA [mg/ml]FIX:Chrom [IU/ml]Specific Activity [IU FIX:Chrom/mg BCASpecific Activity [%]
rFIX 8.58 1221 142.3 100
PSA-rFIX 1.15 92.2 80.2 56.4

Example 5


Coupling of aminooxy-PSA to rFIX in the presence of aniline as nucleophilic catalyst



[0066] To 3.0mg rFIX, dissolved in 1.4ml 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 6.0, 14.1µl of an aqueous sodium periodate solution (10mM) was added. The mixture was shaken in the dark for 1h at 4°C and quenched for 15min at room temperature by the addition of 1.5µl 1M glycerol. Low molecular weight contaminates were removed by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) employing PD-10 desalting columns (GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT). 1.2mg oxidized rFIX, dissolved in 1.33ml 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 6.0 was mixed with 70µl of aniline (200mM aqueous stock solution) and shaken for 45min at room temperature. Next, 4.0mg aminooxy-PSA was added and the mixture was shaken for 2hrs at room temperature and another 16hrs at 4°C. Samples were drawn after 1h, after 2hrs and at the end of the reaction after 18hrs. Next, excess PSA reagent and free rFIX were removed by means of HIC. The conductivity of the cooled reaction mixture was raised to 180mS/cm and loaded onto a 5ml HiTrap Butyl FF (GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT) HIC column (1.6 x 2.5cm), pre-equilibrated with 50mM HEPES, 3M sodium chloride, 6.7mM calcium chloride, 0.01% Tween 80, pH 6.9. The conjugate was eluted with a linear gradient to 50mM HEPES, 6.7mM calcium chloride, 0.005% Tween 80, pH 7.4 in 20CV with at a flow rate of 5ml/min.

Example 6


Coupling of aminooxy-PSA to rFIX and reduction with NaCNBH3



[0067] To 10.5mg rFIX, dissolved in 5.25ml 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 6.0, 53µl of an aqueous sodium periodate solution (10mM) was added. The mixture was shaken in the dark for 1h at 4°C and quenched for 15min at room temperature by the addition of 5.3µl 1M glycerol. Low molecular weight contaminates were removed by means of UF/DF employing Vivaspin (Sartorius, Goettingen, Germany) concentrators (30 kD membrane, regenerated cellulose). Next, 35.9mg aminooxy-PSA was added to the UF/DF retentate and the mixture was shaken for 2hrs at room temperature. Then 53µl of aqueous sodium cyanoborohydride solution (5M) was added and the reaction was allowed to proceed for another 16 hrs. Then the excess PSA reagent was removed by means of HIC. The conductivity of the cooled reaction mixture was raised to 180mS/cm and loaded onto a 5ml HiTrap Butyl FF HIC (GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT) column (1.6 x 2.5 cm), pre-equilibrated with 50mM HEPES, 3M sodium chloride, 6.7mM calcium chloride, 0.01% Tween 80, pH 6.9. The conjugate was eluted within 2.4CV with 50mM HEPES, 6.7mM calcium chloride, 0.005% Tween 80, pH 7.4 at a flow rate of 5 ml/min.

Example 7


Coupling of aminooxy-PSA (linker: NH2[OCH2CH2]4ONH2) to rFIX and purification of the conjugate



[0068] To 5.6mg rFIX, dissolved in 2.8ml 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 6.0, 102 µl of an aqueous solution of sodium periodate (10mM) was added. The mixture was shaken in the dark for 1h at 4°C and quenched for 15min at room temperature by the addition of 2.9 µl of 1M glycerol. Low molecular weight contaminates were removed by means of UF/DF employing Vivaspin (Sartorius, Goettingen, Germany) concentrators (30kD membrane, regenerated cellulose). Then 19mg aminooxy-PSA was added to the UF/DF retentate and the mixture was shaken for 18hrs at 4°C. The excess PSA reagent was removed by means of HIC. The conductivity of the cooled reaction mixture was raised to 180mS/cm and loaded onto a 5ml HiTrap Butyl FF (GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT) HIC column (1.6 x 2.5cm), pre-equilibrated with 50mM HEPES, 3M sodium chloride, 6.7mM calcium chloride, 0.01% Tween 80, pH 6.9. The conjugate was eluted within 2.4CV with 50mM HEPES, 6.7mM calcium chloride, 0.005% Tween 80, pH 7.4 at a flow rate of 5ml/min.

Example 8


Coupling of aminooxy-PSA to rFVIII



[0069] To 11mg rFVIII, dissolved in 11ml Hepes buffer pH 6 (50mM Hepes, 5mM CaCl2, 150mM NaCl, 0.01% Tween) 57µl 10mM sodium periodate was added. The mixture was shaken in the dark for 30min at 4°C and quenched for 30min at 4°C by the addition of 107µl of an aqueous1M glycerol solution. Then 19.8mg aminooxy-PSA (18.8kD) was added and the mixture was shaken over night at 4°C. The ionic strength was increased by adding a buffer containing 8M ammonium acetate (8M ammonium acetate, 50mM Hepes, 5mM CaCl2, 350mM NaCl, 0.01% Tween 80, pH 6.9) to get a final concentration of 2.5M ammonium acetate. Next, the reaction mixture was loaded on a HiTrap Butyl FF (GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT) column which was equilibrated with equilibration buffer (2.5M ammonium acetate, 50mM Hepes, 5mM CaCl2, 350mM NaCl, 0.01% Tween 80, pH 6.9). The product was eluted with elution buffer (50mM Hepes, 5mM CaCl2, 0.01% Tween 80, pH 7.4), and the eluate was concentrated by centrifugal filtration using Vivaspin (Sartorius, Goettingen, Germany) devices with 30,000 MWCO.

Example 9


Preparation of the homobifunctional linker NH2[OCH2CH2]6ONH2



[0070] The homobifunctional linker NH2[OCH2CH2]6ONH2

(3,6,9,12,15-penatoxa-heptadecane-1,17-dioxyamine) containing two active aminooxy groups was synthesized according to Boturyn et al. (Tetrahedron 1997;53:5485-92) in a two step organic reaction employing a modified Gabriel-Synthesis of primary amines. In the first step one molecule of hexaethylene glycol dichloride was reacted with two molecules of Endo-N-hydroxy-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide in DMF. The desired homobifunctional product was prepared from the resulting intermediate by hydrazinolysis in ethanol.

Example 10


Polysialylation of rFIX employing a maleimido/aminooxy linker system


A. Preparation of the modification reagent



[0071] An Aminooxy-PSA reagent is prepared by use of a maleimido/aminooxy linker system (Toyokuni et al., Bioconjugate Chem 2003; 14, 1253-9). PSA-SH (20kD) containing a free terminal SH - group is prepared using a two step procedure: a) Preparation of PSA-NH2 by reductive amination of oxidized PSA with NH4Cl according to WO05016973A1 and b) introduction of a sulfhydryl group by reaction of the terminal primary amino group with 2-iminothiolane (Traut's reagent / Pierce, Rockford, IL) as described in US7645860. PSA-SH is coupled to the maleimido-group of the linker at pH 7.5 in PBS - buffer using a 10-fold molar excess of the linker and a PSA-SH concentration of 50 mg/ml. The reaction mixture is incubated for 2 hours under gentle shaking at room temperature. Then the excess linker reagent is removed and the aminooxy-PSA is buffer exchanged into oxidation buffer (50mM sodium phosphate, pH 6.0) by diafiltration. The buffer is exchanged 25 times employing a Pellicon XL5kD regenerated cellulose membrane (Millipore, Billerica, MA).

B. Modification of rFIX after prior oxidation with NaIO4



[0072] rFIX is oxidized in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0 employing 100 µM sodium periodate in the buffer. The mixture was shaken in the dark for 1h at 4°C and quenched for 15 min at room temperature by the addition of glycerol to a final concentration of 5mM. Low molecular weight contaminates were removed by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) employing PD-10 desalting columns (GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT). Oxidized rFIX is then spiked with aniline to obtain a final concentration of 10mM and mixed with the aminooxy-PSA reagent to achieve a 5 fold molar excess of PSA. The reaction mixture was incubated for 2 hours under gentle shaking in the dark at room temperature.

C. Purification of the conjugates



[0073] The excess of PSA reagent and free rFIX is removed by means of HIC. The conductivity of the reaction mixture is raised to 180 mS/cm and loaded onto a column filled with 48 ml Butyl - Sepharose FF (GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT) pre-equilibrated with 50 mM Hepes, 3 M sodium chloride, 6.7 mM calcium chloride, 0.01% Tween 80, pH 6.9. Subsequently the conjugate is eluted with a linear gradient of 60% elution buffer (50mM Hepes, 6.7mM calcium chloride, pH 7.4) in 40 CV. Finally the PSA-rFIX containing fractions are collected and subjected to UF/DF by use of a 30 kD membrane made of regenerated cellulose (Millipore). The preparation is analytically characterized by measuring total protein (BCA) and FIX chromogenic activity. For the PSA-rFIX conjugates prepared with both variants a specific activity of > 50 % in comparison to native rFIX was determined.

Example 11


Preparation of aminooxy-PSA reagent



[0074] An aminooxy - PSA reagent was prepared according to Example 3. The final product was diafiltrated against buffer, pH 7.2 (50 mM Hepes) using a 5 kD membrane (regenerated cellulose, Millipore), frozen at -80°C and lyophilized. After lyophilization the reagent was dissolved in the appropriate volume of water and used for preparation of PSA-protein conjugates via carbohydrate modification.

Example 12


Detailed synthesis of the aminooxy-PSA reagent



[0075] 3-oxa-pentane-1,5 dioxyamine was synthesized according to Botyryn et al (Tetrahedron 1997; 53:5485-92) in a two step organic synthesis as outlined in Example 1.

Step 1:



[0076] To a solution of Endo-N-hydroxy-5-norbonene-2,3- dicarboxiimide (59.0g; 1.00eq) in 700 ml anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide anhydrous K2CO3 (45.51g; 1.00eq) and 2,2-dichlorodiethylether (15.84 ml; 0.41eq) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 22 hours at 50°C. The mixture was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue was suspended in 2 L dichloromethane and extracted two times with saturated aqueous NaCl-solution (each 1 L). The Dichloromethane layer was dried over Na2SO4 and then evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure and dried in high vacuum to give 64.5 g of 3-oxapentane-1,5-dioxy-endo-2',3'-dicarboxydiimidenorbornene as a white-yellow solid (intermediate 1).

Step2 :



[0077] To a solution of intermediate 1 (64.25 g; 1.00eq) in 800 ml anhydrous Ethanol, 31.0 ml Hydrazine hydrate (4.26eq) were added. The reaction mixture was then refluxed for 2 hours. The mixture was concentrated to the half of the starting volume by evaporating the solvent under reduced pressure. The occurring precipitate was filtered off. The remaining ethanol layer was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue containing the crude product 3-oxa-pentane-1,5-dioxyamine was dried in vacuum to yield 46.3g. The crude product was further purified by column chromatography (Silicagel 60; isocratic elution with Dichloromethane/Methanol mixture, 9+1) to yield 11.7 g of the pure final product 3-oxa-pentane -1,5-dioxyamine.

Example 13


Preparation of aminooxy-PSA polymer



[0078] 1.3 g of oxidized colominic acid (23kDa) was dissolved in 18ml of 50mM sodium acetate pH 5.5±0.02. 20 fold molar excess of 1, 11-diamino-3,6,9-trioxaundecane (also referred to as 3,6,9-trioxa-undecane-1,11-dioxyamine) was dissolved in minimum amount of 50mM sodium acetate (pH 5.5±0.02) and was added to the PSA solution. The final colominic acid concentration was 62.5mg/ml. This reaction mixture was incubated for 2±0.1hr at 22±1.0°C on a gentle mixer (22 oscillations per minute). After this, 0.65ml of 160 mg/ml NaCNBH3 solution was added to the above reaction mixture so as to make the final concentration of 5.00 mg/ml . This was incubated for 3.0±0.20 hours at 4.0±1.0°C on a shaker (22 oscillations per minute) in a endotoxin free air tight container with enough headspace for mixing. For the purification, the sample was diluted with 2mM triethanolamine, pH 8.0±0.02 to make final colominic acid concentration of 20 mg/ml. The reaction mixture was desalted to remove excess of 1,11-diamino-3,6,9-trioxaundecane, NaCNBH3 and byproducts of the reaction. This was followed by desalting on a Sephadex G25 column using 20mM triethanolamine buffer (pH 8.0±0.02). The pH of the desalted sample was adjusted to pH 7.8-8.0 and was ultrafiltered/diafiltered with 20mM TEA pH 8.0 once and 2mM triethanolamine (TEA) pH 8.0 twice. The sample was freeze dried and stored at -80°C.

[0079] Alternatively, purification was done in presence of high salt during desalting and ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) steps. Anion exchange chromatography in high salt was also used to make highly pure aminooxy-PSA. By analogy, different molecular weights of aminooxy-PSA were synthesized.

Example 14


Coupling of Diaminooxy (3,6,9-trioxa-undecane-1,11-dioxyamine) - PSA to β-Galactosidase



[0080] For oxidation of β-Galactosidase (β-Gal), different concentrations of NaIO4 (ranging from 0.157 mM to 2 mM) were used. 0.5 mg of β-Gal was oxidized under acidic pH of 5.75 at 4° C for 30 minutes in the dark. Oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 5 mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized β-Gal with diaminooxy PSA polymer (22kDa). The final concentration of polymer in the reaction mixture was 1.25 mM whereas the concentration of β-Gal ranged from 0.125 mg/ml to 0.76 mg/ml. All the reactions were done at pH5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C and samples were collected at time intervals of 1, 2 and 24 hours. Conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE and this was also confirmed by western blotting.

[0081] Based on the best reactions conditions, 1.9 mg of β-Gal was oxidized with 1.5 mM of NaIO4 for 30 minutes at 4°C and then oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 5 mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized β-Gal with diaminooxy PSA polymer. The final concentrations of polymer and protein in the reaction mixture were 1.25 mM and 0.76 mg/ml respectively. The final pH of the reaction mixture was around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C for 2 hours. Purified and unpurified conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE and this was confirmed by western blotting using anti-PSA antibody. The in vitro activity PSA-βGal conjugates were comparable to native protein using All in one βGal assay kit (Pierce). Less than 50% activity was observed in comparable conjugates made using aldehyde linker chemistry. Further, the overall process was scaled up to 3 fold.

Example 15


Coupling of Diaminooxy-PSA to Fetuin



[0082] Fetuin and was oxidized with 10 mM NaIO4 for 60 minutes at 4°C in the dark and the oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 10 mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized Fetuin with diaminooxy PSA polymer (23kDa). The final concentration of polymer in the reaction mixture was 2.5mM at pH 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50mM or 3.17mg/ml. The final protein concentration in the reaction was 0.714mg/ml and the reaction was carried out at 4°C for 2 hours. These conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugates in SDS PAGE and this was also confirmed by western blotting.

[0083] For a scale up reaction, 5 mg Fetuin was oxidized with 10 mM NaIO4 for 60 minutes at 4°C in dark and then oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 10 mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized Fetuin with diaminooxy PSA polymer (23kDa). The final concentration of polymer in the reaction mixture was 2.5 mM at pH of 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C and sample was collected after 2 hours. Purified and unpurified conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE and this was also confirmed by western blotting.

Example 16


Coupling of Diaminooxy-PSA to Fetuin with Aniline to Act as a Nucleophilic Catalyst



[0084] 0.2 mg of Fetuin was oxidized with 10mM NaIO4 for 30 minutes at 4°C in dark and then oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 5mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized Fetuin with diaminooxy PSA polymer (23kDa). The final concentration of polymer in the reaction mixture was 1.25mM. The final pH of reaction mixture was 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50mM or 3.17mg/ml. The final protein concentration in the reaction was 0.125mg/ml. 84.21µl of 200mM aniline solution was added to the 1.6ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was carried out at 4°C overnight.

Example 17


Coupling of Diaminooxy-PSA to Erythropoietin (EPO)



[0085] 0.2 mg of EPO was oxidized with 10 mM of NaIO4 for 30 minutes at 4°C. The oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 5 mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized EPO with diaminooxy polymer of 23kDa. The final concentration of polymer in the reaction mixture was 1.25 mM. The final concentration of EPO in the reaction mixture was 0.125 mg/ml. The final pH of the reaction mixture was around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50mM or 3.17mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C for 24 hours. Unpurified conjugate was characterized using SDS PAGE. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE.

Example 18


Coupling of Diaminooxy-PSA to EPO with Aniline to act as a nucleophilic catalyst



[0086] 0.2mg of EPO was oxidized with 10mM NaIO4 for 30 minutes at 4°C. The oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 5mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized EPO with diaminooxy PSA polymer (22kDa). The final concentration of polymer in the reaction mixture was 1.25mM. The final pH of the reaction mixture was around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50mM or 3.17mg/ml. The final protein concentration in the reaction was 0.125mg/ml. 84.21µl of 200mM aniline solution was added to the 1.6ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was carried out at 4°C for overnight. The conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE. A shift in the band was seen in the conjugates. No adverse effect of aniline was observed on activity of the conjugates.

Example 19


Coupling of Diaminooxy-PSA to DNAse



[0087] For glycopolysialylation of DNAse, bovine pancreas DNAse was used for conjugation reaction. This source of DNAse was supplied as lyophilized powder, which was stored at -20° C. Prior to the reaction, this lyophilized powder was dissolved in sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.75). The polymer used for glycopolysialylation had a weight in the range of 10 kDa to 22 kDa. For oxidation of glycon moiety of DNAse, NaIO4 was used as oxidizing agent to a final concentration of 1 mM. DNAse was oxidized at acidic pH of 5.75 at 4° C for 30 minutes. The oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 2 mM. After oxidation was complete, the conjugation reaction was carried out by addition of diaminooxy PSA polymer to a final concentration of 1.25 mM. NaCNBH3 was added to the reaction mixture to a final concentration of 50 mM or 3.17 mg/ml and the polysialylation of the DNAse was preformed 4.0±1.0° C for at least 2 hours. The reactions were stopped with 25 molar excess of Tris over polymer. The conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE and positive result was obtained from western blotting. Activity was measured as 95% (compared with the less than 50% observed in comparable conjugates made using aldehyde linker chemistry).

Example 20


Coupling of Diaminooxy (3 oxa-pentane-1,5-dioxyamine linker)-PSA to β-Galactosidase



[0088] For oxidation of β-Galactosidase, NaIO4 was used at a concentration of 2 mM. 3 mg of β-Galactosidase was oxidized at acidic pH of 5.75 at 4° C for 30 minutes then oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 2 mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized β-Galactosidase with diaminooxy PSA polymer (23 kDa). The final concentration of polymer in the reaction mixture was 1.5 mM. The final concentration of β-Galactosidase in reaction mixture was 0.867 mg/ml. The final pH of reaction mixture was around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C for 2 hours. Conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE and positive result was obtained from western blotting.

Example 21


Preparation of Hydrazide-Colominic Acid



[0089] We used the following protocol to prepare a PSA-hydrazide (colominic acid-hydrazide) using adipic acid dihydrazide. Analogous methods were used to make other PSA-hydrazides.
  1. 1 Dissolve 1g of activated colominic acid in ∼10ml of 20mM sodium acetate pH 5.5±0.02. Final colominic acid concentration should be 62.5mg/ml
  2. 2 Dissolve 25-fold molar excess (over oxidized colominic acid "CAO") of adipic acid dihydrazide (MW= 174.2gms) in minimum amount of 20mM sodium acetate (pH 5.5 ±0.02) and add to solution from 1.
  3. 3 Amount of adipic acid dihydrazide to be added
    = Weight of CAO in grams x 25 x MW of adipic acid dihydrazide in gms MW of CAO in Daltons
    = 1 x 25 x 174.2
    15 x 103
    = 0.290g
  4. 4 After adding adipic acid dihydrazide solution, make up the volume of colominic acid with sodium acetate to a final concentration of 62.5mg/ml. Therefore total reaction volume is 16ml.
  5. 5 Incubate the reaction mixture for 2±0.1 hr at 22.0± 1.0°C on shaker (22 oscillations per minute).
  6. 6 Prepare concentrated NaCNBH3 solution (165 mg/ml) and add 0.5ml to solution from 1 so that the final concentration of this becomes 5.0 mg/ml in the final reaction mixture. Incubate the reaction mixture for 3.0±0.20 hours at 4.0±1.0°C on shaker (22 oscillations per minute).
  7. 7 Keep the reaction mixture in endotoxin-free, air tight container with excess 50ml of headspace for proper mixing (there should be enough space so that reaction mixture should not touch the cap of container).
  8. 8 After 3 hours reaction at 4°C, dilute the sample with 2mM triethanolamine (make the volume up to 50ml), at pH 8.0±0.02 to make final colominic acid concentration to 20 mg/ml.
  9. 9 Desalt the reaction mixture to remove excess of untreated adipic acid dihydrazide, NaCNBH3 etc from the polymer. This can be done by GPC (using XK 50 Sephadex G-25 medium matrix; ≤1.8mg of CA/ml matrix; 35cm bed height; Column volume= 687ml) by observing UV 224nm and conductivity. Desalting is carried out with 20mM triethanolamine (pH 8.0±0.02) buffer.
  10. 10 After desalting, colominic acid-hydrazide is subjected to 1 cycle of ultrafiltration, 1 cycle of diafiltration using 20mM TEA, pH 8.0±0.02 and at least 3 cycles of diafiltration using 2mM TEA, pH 8.0±0.02. This can be done using 3kDa vivaflow cassettes.
  11. 11 Adjust the pH of desalted sample to pH 7.8-8.0. Optionally, freeze-dry the sample and consecutively keep it for secondary drying to remove excess of moisture.

Example 22


Coupling of Hydrazide-PSA to Erythropoietin



[0090] For oxidation of erythropoietin (EPO), NaIO4 was used at a concentration of 10 mM. EPO (1 mg) was oxidized at pH 5.75 at 4°C for 30 minutes then oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 5 mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized EPO with hydrazide-PSA polymer. The molecular weight of the hydrazide-PSA used for conjugation was 24.34 kDa. The final concentration of hydrazide-PSA in the reaction mixture was 1.25 mM. The final concentration of EPO in the reaction mixture was 0.125 mg/ml. The final pH of the reaction mixture was around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17 mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C for 24 hours. Conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE and a positive result was obtained from western blotting.

Example 23


Coupling of Hydrazide-PSA to β-Galactosidase



[0091] β-Galactosidase (0.5 to 4.5 mg) was oxidized with 0.625 to 2 mM of NaIO4 for 30 minutes at 4°C. The oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 5 mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized β-galactosidase with hydrazide-PSA ranging from 24.34 kDa to 27.9 kDa. The final concentration of hydrazide-PSA in the reaction mixture was 1.25 mM. The final concentration of β-galactosidase in the reaction mixture was in a range from 0.125 mg/ml to 0.76 mg/ml. The final pH of reaction mixture should be around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17 mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C and samples were collected at 1, 2 and 24 hours. Purified and unpurified conjugate was characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE and a positive result was obtained from western blotting. Activity was measured as 84%. Less than 50% activity was observed in comparable conjugates made using aldehyde linker chemistry.

Example 24


Coupling of Hydrazide-PSA to Fetuin



[0092] Fetuin (0.25 mg) was oxidized with NaIO4 (5 or 10 mM) for 30 or 60 minutes at 4°C. The oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 5 or 10 mM as appropriate to match the concentration of NaIO4 used for oxidation. The conjugation reactions were carried out using the oxidized Fetuin with adipic acid dihydrazide-PSA polymer. The final concentration of the polymer in the reaction mixture was between 1.25 and 2.5 mM. The final pH of reaction mixture was around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17 mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C for 1 hour to 4 hours. The conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE for each set of reaction conditions and a positive result was obtained from western blotting.

[0093] A scaled-up reaction for 5 mg Fetuin followed by purification of the resulting conjugate was carried out. 5 mg Fetuin was oxidized with 10 mM NaIO4 for 60 minutes at 4°C and then oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 10 mM. The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized Fetuin with adipic acid dihydrazide-PSA polymer. The final concentration of polymer in the reaction mixture was 2.5 mM. The final pH of reaction mixture was around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17 mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C and samples were collected at 2 hours. Purified and unpurified conjugate was characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE and a positive result was obtained from western blotting.

Example 25


Coupling of Hydrazide-PSA to DNAse



[0094] DNAse was oxidized with NaIO4 to a final concentration ranging from 0.2 mM to 2 mM for 30 minutes at 4°C. The oxidation reaction was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of between 2 and 5 mM depending upon the concentration of NaIO4 used for oxidation. Glycopolysialylation of oxidized DNAse was carried out by addition of hydrazide-PSA polymer to a final concentration of 1.25 mM to the oxidized DNAse. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a final concentration of 50 mM or 3.17 mg/ml and the glycopolysialylation of the DNAse was performed at 4°C for a time period ranging from 1 hour to 2 hours. The reactions were stopped with 25-fold molar excess of Tris over polymer. The conjugates were characterized using SDS PAGE and western blotting. A shift in the band was seen for the conjugates in SDS PAGE and a positive result was obtained from western blotting. The activity was measured as 49%.

Example 26


PEGylation of β-Galactosidase using Aminooxy Linker (3-oxa-pentane-1,5-dioxyamine)



[0095] β-Galactosidase (1 mg) was oxidized with 1.5 mM of NaIO4 for 30 minutes at 4°C. The oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 1.5 mM.

[0096] The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidized β-Galactosidase with diaminooxy-PEG polymer (20 kDa). The final concentration of the polymer in the reaction mixture was 1.25 mM. The final concentration of β-Galactosidase in the reaction mixture was 1 mg/ml. The final pH of reaction mixture should be around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17 mg/ml. The reaction was carried out at 4°C for 2 hours. Unpurified conjugate was characterized using SDS PAGE and a shift in the band was seen for the conjugate in SDS PAGE. The activity was measured as 59%.

Example 27


PEGylation of Erythropoietin using Aminooxy Linker



[0097] Erythropoietin (EPO; 0.2 mg) was oxidised with 5 or 10 mM NaIO4 in 50 mM sodium acetate at pH 5.75 for 45 minutes at 4°C and then oxidation was stopped by adding NaHSO3 to a final concentration of 5 or 10 mM (to match the concentration of NaIO4 used for oxidisation). The conjugation reaction was carried out using the oxidised EPO with diaminooxy PEG polymer (20 kDa). The final concentration of the polymer in the reaction mixture was 1.5 mM. The final pH of reaction mixture should be around 5.75. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added to the reaction mixture to a concentration of 50 mM or 3.17 mg/ml. The final protein concentration in the reaction was 0.4 mg/ml. The conjugation reaction was carried out overnight at 4°C.

[0098] The invention thus provides conjugates of compounds other than blood coagulation proteins with water soluble polymers, in particular PSA and mPSA.


Claims

1. A method of conjugating polysialic acid (PSA) or a modified PSA (mPSA) to an oxidized carbohydrate moiety of a glycoprotein other than a blood coagulation protein comprising a carbohydrate group, comprising contacting the oxidized carbohydrate moiety with the PSA or mPSA under conditions that allow conjugation,
wherein said PSA or mPSA contains a hydrazide group and a hydrazone linkage is formed between the oxidized carbohydrate moiety and the hydrazide group on the PSA or mPSA, wherein modified PSA is PSA comprising a moiety derived from a terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid moiety by oxidation or reduction.
 
2. The method according to claim 1 wherein the PSA or mPSA is colominic acid or modified colominic acid.
 
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the PSA or mPSA comprises 2 - 500 sialic acid units.
 
4. The method according to any previous claim wherein the glycoprotein is selected from cytokines such as interleukins, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-interferons, colony stimulating factors including granulocyte colony stimulating factors, fibroblast growth factors, platelet derived growth factors, phospholipase-activating protein (PUP), insulin, plant proteins such as lectins and ricins, tumor necrosis factors and related alleles, soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor receptors, interleukin receptors and soluble forms of interleukin receptors, growth factors, tissue growth factors, transforming growth factors such as TGFαs or TGFβs and epidermal growth factors, hormones, somatomedins, pigmentary hormones, hypothalamic releasing factors, antidiuretic hormones, prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, tissue plasminogen activator, immunoglobulins such as IgG, IgE, IgM, IgA, and IgD, monoclonal antibodies, erythropoietin (EPO), blood factors other than blood coagulation proteins, galactosidases, α-galactosidases, β-galactosidases, DNAses, fetuin, fragments thereof and fusion proteins comprising any of the above mentioned proteins or fragments thereof.
 
5. The method according to claims 1 to 3 wherein the glycoprotein is selected from tumor necrosis factors and related alleles, soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor receptors, immunoglobulins such as IgG, IgE, IgM, IgA and IgD, monoclonal antibodies, erythropoietin (EPO), DNAses, fetuin, fragments thereof and fusion proteins comprising any of the above mentioned proteins or fragments thereof.
 
6. The method according to any previous claim, comprising oxidizing the carbohydrate moiety by incubating the glycoprotein with sodium periodate (NaIO4).
 
7. The method according to any previous claim, comprising oxidizing the PSA or mPSA to form an aldehyde group on a terminal unit of the PSA or mPSA, and reacting the oxidized PSA or mPSA with a hydrazide linker.
 
8. The method according to claim 7 comprising oxidizing the PSA or mPSA using NaIO4.
 
9. The method according to any previous claim comprising contacting the oxidized carbohydrate moiety with PSA or mPSA in a buffer comprising a nucleophilic catalyst selected from aniline and aniline derivatives.
 
10. The method according to any previous claim wherein the hydrazide group is formed by reacting oxidized PSA or mPSA with a hydrazide linker that is adipic acid dihydrazide.
 
11. The method according to any previous claim further comprising reducing an hydrazone linkage in the conjugated glycoprotein by incubation in the presence of a reducing compound.
 
12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the reducing compound is sodium cyanoborohydride (NaCNBH3) or ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
 
13. A conjugated glycoprotein obtainable by the method according to any previous claim.
 
14. A conjugated glycoprotein other than a blood coagulation protein comprising:

(a) the glycoprotein; and

(b) at least one hydrazide-PSA or -mPSA bound to the glycoprotein of (a),
wherein said hydrazide-PSA or -mPSA is attached to the glycoprotein via one or more carbohydrate moieties, wherein modified PSA is PSA comprising a moiety derived from a terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid moiety by oxidation or reduction.


 


Ansprüche

1. Ein Verfahren zum Konjugieren von Polysialsäure (PSA) oder von modifizierter PSA (mPSA) mit einer oxidierten Kohlenhydrateinheit eines Glykoproteins, das kein Blutgerinnungsprotein ist und eine Kohlenhydratgruppe umfasst, umfassend das Inkontaktbringen der oxidierten Kohlenhydrateinheit mit der PSA oder mPSA unter Bedingungen, die eine Konjugation erlauben,
wobei jene PSA oder mPSA eine Hydrazidgruppe enthält und eine Hydrazonbindung zwischen der oxidierten Kohlenhydrateinheit und der Hydrazidgruppe auf der PSA oder mPSA gebildet wird, wobei modifizierte PSA PSA ist, das eine Einheit umfasst, die von einer terminalen N-Acetylneuraminsäureeinheit durch Oxidation oder Reduktion abgeleitet ist.
 
2. Das Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die PSA oder mPSA Kolomininsäure oder modifizierte Kolomininsäure ist.
 
3. Das Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die PSA oder mPSA 2-500 Sialinsäureeinheiten umfasst.
 
4. Das Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Glykoprotein ausgewählt ist aus Zytokinen wie Interleukinen, Alpha-, Beta- und Gamma-Interferonen, Kolonie-stimulierenden Faktoren einschließlich Granulozyten-Kolonie-stimulierenden Faktoren, Fibroblasten-Wachstumsfaktoren, von Blutplättchen abgeleiteten Wachstumsfaktoren, Phospholipase-aktivierendes Protein (PUP), Insulin, Pflanzenproteine wie Lektine und Ricine, Tumor-Nekrose-Faktoren und verwandte Allele, lösliche Formen von Tumor-Nekrose-Faktor-Rezeptoren, Interleukin-Rezeptoren und lösliche Formen von Interleukin-Rezeptoren, Wachstumsfaktoren, Gewebe-Wachstumsfaktoren, transformierende Wachstumsfaktoren wie TGFαs oder TGFßs und epidermale Wachstumsfaktoren, Hormone, Somatomedine, Pigmenthormone, hypothalamische Freisetzungsfaktoren, antidiuretische Hormone, Prolaktin, Choriongonadotropin, follikelstimulierendes Hormon, schilddrüsenstimulierendes Hormon, Gewebeplasminogenaktivator, Immunglobuline wie IgG, IgE, IgM, IgA und IgD, monoklonale Antikörper, Erythropoietin (EPO), andere Blutfaktoren als Blutgerinnungsproteine, Galaktosidasen, α-Galaktosidasen, β-Galaktosidasen, DNAsen, Fetuin, Fragmente davon und Fusionsproteine, die eines der oben genannten Proteine oder Fragmente davon umfassen.
 
5. Das Verfahren nach den Ansprüchen 1 bis 3, wobei das Glykoprotein ausgewählt ist aus Tumor-Nekrose-Faktoren und verwandten Allelen, löslichen Formen von Tumor-Nekrose-Faktor-Rezeptoren, Immunglobulinen, wie IgG, IgE, IgM, IgA und IgD, monoklonalen Antikörpern, Erythropoietin (EPO), DNAsen, Fetuin, Fragmenten davon und Fusionsproteinen, die eines der oben genannten Proteine oder Fragmente davon umfassen.
 
6. Das Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, umfassend die Oxidation der Kohlenhydrateinheit durch Inkubation des Glykoproteins mit Natriumperiodat (NaIO4).
 
7. Das Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, umfassend das Oxidieren des PSA oder mPSA zur Bildung einer Aldehydgruppe an einer terminalen Einheit der PSA oder mPSA und das Reagieren der oxidierten PSA oder mPSA mit einem HydrazidLinker.
 
8. Das Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, umfassend das Oxidieren der PSA oder mPSA unter Verwendung von NaIO4.
 
9. Das Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, umfassend das Inkontaktbringen der oxidierten Kohlenhydrateinheit mit PSA oder mPSA in einem Puffer, der einen nukleophilen Katalysator, ausgewählt aus Anilin und Anilinderivaten, umfasst.
 
10. Das Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Hydrazidgruppe durch Reaktion von oxidierter PSA oder mPSA mit einem Hydrazidlinker, der Adipinsäuredihydrazid ist, gebildet wird.
 
11. Das Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, umfassend weiterhin die Reduktion einer Hydrazonbindung in dem konjugierten Glykoprotein durch Inkubation in Gegenwart einer reduzierenden Verbindung.
 
12. Das Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, wobei die reduzierende Verbindung Natriumcyanoborhydrid (NaCNBH3) oder Ascorbinsäure (Vitamin C) ist.
 
13. Ein konjugiertes Glykoprotein, erhältlich durch das Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche.
 
14. Ein konjugiertes Glykoprotein, das kein Blutgerinnungsprotein ist, umfassend:

(a) das Glykoprotein; und

(b) mindestens eine Hydrazid-PSA oder -mPSA, die an das Glykoprotein von (a) gebunden ist,
wobei jene Hydrazid-PSA oder -mPSA über eine oder mehrere Kohlenhydrat-Einheiten an das Glykoprotein gebunden ist, wobei modifizierte PSA PSA ist, die eine Einheit umfasst, die von einer terminalen N-Acetylneuraminsäure-Einheit durch Oxidation oder Reduktion abgeleitet ist.


 


Revendications

1. Procédé de conjugaison d'un acide polysialique (APS) ou d'un APS modifié (APSm) à une fraction carbohydrate oxydée d'une glycoprotéine autre qu'une protéine de coagulation sanguine comprenant un groupe carbohydrate, comprenant la mise en contact de la fraction carbohydrate oxydée avec l'APS ou l'APSm dans des conditions qui permettent la conjugaison,
dans lequel ledit APS ou APSm contient un groupe hydrazide et une liaison hydrazone est formée entre la fraction carbohydrate oxydée et le groupe hydrazide sur l'APS ou l'APSm, dans lequel un APS modifié est un APS comprenant une fraction dérivée d'une fraction acide N-acétylneuraminique terminale par oxydation ou réduction.
 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1 dans lequel l'APS ou l'APSm est l'acide colominique ou l'acide colominique modifié.
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2 dans lequel l'APS ou l'APSm comprend 2 à 500 unités d'acide sialique.
 
4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel la glycoprotéine est sélectionnée parmi les cytokines telles que les interleukines, les α-, β-, γ-interférons, les facteurs de stimulation de colonies y compris les facteurs de stimulation de colonies de granulocytes, les facteurs de croissance fibroblastique, les facteurs de croissance dérivés de plaquettes, la protéine d'activation de phospholipase (PUP), l'insuline, les protéines végétales telles les lectines et les ricines, les facteurs de nécrose tumorale et les allèles apparentés, les formes solubles des récepteurs de facteurs de nécrose tumorale, les récepteurs d'interleukines et les formes solubles des récepteurs d'interleukines, les facteurs de croissance, les facteurs de croissance tissulaire, les facteurs de croissance transformants tels que les TGFα ou les TGFβ et les facteurs de croissance épidermique, les hormones, les somatomédines, les hormones pigmentaires, les facteurs de libération hypothalamiques, les hormones antidiurétiques, la prolactine, la gonadotropine chorionique, l'hormone folliculo-stimulante, la thyréostimuline, l'activateur tissulaire du plasminogène, les immunoglobulines telles que l'IgG, l'IgE, l'IgM, l'IgA et l'IgD, les anticorps monoclonaux, l'érythropoïétine (EPO), les facteurs sanguins autres que les protéines de coagulation sanguine, les galactosidases, les α-galactosidases, les β-galactosidases, les DNases, la fétuine, les fragments de ceux-ci et les protéines de fusion comprenant l'une quelconque des protéines susmentionnées ou l'un quelconque des fragments de celles-ci.
 
5. Procédé selon les revendications 1 à 3 dans lequel la glycoprotéine est sélectionnée parmi les facteurs de nécrose tumorale et les allèles apparentés, les formes solubles des récepteurs de facteurs de nécrose tumorale, les immunoglobulines telles que l'IgG, l'IgE, l'IgM, l'IgA et l'IgD, les anticorps monoclonaux, l'érythropoïétine (EPO), les DNases, la fétuine, les fragments de ceux-ci et les protéines de fusion comprenant l'une quelconque des protéines susmentionnées ou l'un quelconque des fragments de celles-ci.
 
6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant l'oxydation de la fraction carbohydrate par incubation de la glycoprotéine avec du périodate de sodium (NaIO4).
 
7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant l'oxydation de l'APS ou de l'APSm pour former un groupe aldéhyde sur une unité terminale de l'APS ou de l'APSm, et la réaction de l'APS ou de l'APSm oxydé avec un lieur hydrazide.
 
8. Procédé selon la revendication 7 comprenant l'oxydation de l'APS ou de l'APSm en utilisant du NaIO4.
 
9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes comprenant la mise en contact de la fraction carbohydrate oxydée avec un APS ou un APSm dans un tampon comprenant un catalyseur nucléophile sélectionné parmi l'aniline et les dérivés d'aniline.
 
10. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel le groupe hydrazide est formé par réaction d'un APS ou d'un APSm oxydé avec un lieur hydrazide qui est le dihydrazide de l'acide adipique.
 
11. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes comprenant en outre la réduction d'une liaison hydrazone dans la glycoprotéine conjuguée par incubation en présence d'un composé réducteur.
 
12. Procédé selon la revendication 11, dans lequel le composé réducteur est le cyanoborohydrure de sodium (NaCNBH3) ou l'acide ascorbique (vitamine C).
 
13. Glycoprotéine conjuguée pouvant être obtenue par le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes.
 
14. Glycoprotéine conjuguée autre qu'une protéine de coagulation sanguine comprenant :

(a) la glycoprotéine ; et

(b) au moins un hydrazide-APS ou -APSm lié à la glycoprotéine de (a),
dans laquelle ledit hydrazide-APS ou -APSm est lié à la glycoprotéine par l'intermédiaire d'une ou plusieurs fractions carbohydrate, dans laquelle un APS modifié est un APS comprenant une fraction dérivée d'une fraction acide N-acétylneuraminique terminale par oxydation ou réduction.


 




Drawing











Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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