(19)
(11)EP 3 084 792 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
31.01.2018 Bulletin 2018/05

(21)Application number: 15719014.1

(22)Date of filing:  16.03.2015
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H01H 11/04  (2006.01)
H01H 1/025  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/PL2015/050005
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/147667 (01.10.2015 Gazette  2015/39)

(54)

SCREW AND METHOD OF ITS MANUFACTURE

SCHRAUBE UND VERFAHREN ZU IHRER HERSTELLUNG

VIS ET MÉTHODE POUR Y FABRIQUER


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 24.03.2014 PL 40764214

(43)Date of publication of application:
26.10.2016 Bulletin 2016/43

(73)Proprietor: Gawel Zaklad Produkcji Srub S.A.
36-073 Strazów (PL)

(72)Inventors:
  • SKÓRA, Mariusz
    PL-37-100 Lancut (PL)
  • BUSZTA, Boguslaw
    PL-37-110 Zolynia (PL)
  • KLUZ, Dariusz
    PL-35-061 Rzeszów (PL)

(74)Representative: Sielewiesiuk, Jakub 
AOMB Polska Sp. z o.o. ul. Emilii Plater 53 21st floor
00-113 Warsaw
00-113 Warsaw (PL)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 995 745
DE-U- 7 206 287
SU-A1- 642 779
DE-C- 738 645
GB-A- 1 284 954
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to a screw, particularly designed for terminals of electric starters used in vehicles, boats and aircrafts, and a method of its manufacture.

    [0002] From patent No. EP 1995745 a screw is known designed for the same purpose, the said screw having the main part made of material other than copper or copper alloys, mostly of steel, and provided with a thread and a head with a bore which is positioned coaxially within the screw and has side walls convergent towards the bore inlet, and a bottom in the form of a convex truncated cone. In the head bore an insert made of copper or copper alloy is seated in such a way that it remains in close contact with the bore walls and it is also seated in a circumferential groove located at a certain distance from the bore inlet in the top surface of the head. Preferably, the top surface of the insert is provided with grooves.
    A method of manufacturing the screw consists in that the main part and the head of the screw are formed from a bar stock, a rolled wire rod or an extruded wire rod made by cold forging, and further the bore is produced which extends along the screw axis and has the bottom in the form of a convex truncated cone. Then the insert made of copper or copper alloy is introduced into the bore and, upon the action of appropriate pressure, the insert is seated in the bore in such a manner that the insert material fully fills the entire bore, and grooves are formed in the top surface of the insert. The element shaped in such a way is subjected to plastic working using a suitable tool which forms a bore with side walls convergent towards the bore inlet and a circumferential groove in the top surface of the head at a certain distance from the bore inlet.
    Admittedly, the screw obtained in the process described above ensures permanent seating of the copper or copper alloy insert in the head of the screw whose remaining part is basically made of steel; however, the electrochemical corrosion caused by the difference in electrochemical potentials between copper or copper alloys and steel cannot be avoided and, therefore, electrical properties of electric contact between the insert and the head progressively worsen during the use of the screw mounted in the starter.

    [0003] The purpose of the invention is to provide a solution which eliminates this disadvantage, i.e. designing a screw which features electric current conductivity constant with time and, also, whose production costs are relatively low.

    [0004] A screw according to the invention comprises a threaded part with a head, the said threaded part having an upset central pin, preferably barrel-shaped, which is surrounded by a cylindrical bore having a conical bottom with an inclination angle of α from 10° to 30°, and a cylindrical insert with an axial through hole which is made of copper, aluminium, copper alloy or aluminium alloy and is permanently seated in this cylindrical bore, and the top surface of the central pin is lowered by d from 0.1 mm to 0.6 mm below the top surface of the head. Preferably, the top surface of the cylindrical insert with the axial through hole is provided with grooves concentric with the screw axis.

    [0005] Preferably, the outer surfaces of the cylindrical bore are parallel to the screw axis.

    [0006] Preferably, the bottom of the cylindrical bore has the form of a circular sector with the radius of R from 0.8L to 1.2L, where L is equal to the difference between the bore diameter and the pin diameter.

    [0007] Preferably, the top surface of the pin has a concave shape. The pin walls are convex towards the insert.

    [0008] A method according to the invention comprises forming, using the known plastic working and machining methods, a threaded part together with a head with cylindrical recess which has a cone-shaped bottom with an inclination angle of α from 10° to 30° surrounding a cylindrical central pin, whereas the surface of the head and the surface of the pin are coplanar. In a separate machining operation a cylindrical insert with an axial through hole made of copper, aluminium, copper alloy or aluminium alloy is produced which terminates at one end with a bevel with an inclination angle of α from 10° to 30° and whose inner diameter and outer diameter correspond to respective diameters of the cylindrical bore in the head. Preferably, the insert with the axial through hole is equipped with a flange positioned at the end of the insert which is opposite to the conical end. In next operation the insert is introduced into the cylindrical bore and the upper part of the insert which protrudes from the screw head is pre-shaped. Then, in one plastic working operation, the pin is upset using an appropriate tool and the top surface of the pin is lowered below the top surface of the head, and the final shape of the upper part of the insert protruding from the head is formed together with grooves recessed in its top surface concentrically with the screw axis.

    [0009] Preferably, in the first stage of screw manufacturing the threaded part is formed together with the head with cylindrical recess which has the bottom in the form of a circular sector with the radius of R from 0.8L to 1.2L, where L is equal to the difference between the bore diameter and the pin diameter, and in separate operation the cylindrical insert with the axial through hole is produced which has the chamfer with the radius of R from 0.8L to 1.2L provided at one end.

    [0010] Screws produced according to this method feature a permanent and corrosion-resistant connection of the upper insert made of copper, aluminium, copper alloy, or aluminium alloy, with the remaining part of the screw made of steel, and the method itself is simple. Moreover, due to a quantitatively lower fraction of relatively expensive metals such as copper, aluminium, copper alloys and aluminium alloys, the production cost of these screws is lower when compared with screws known from previous solutions.

    [0011] The invention will be presented in more detail with reference to exemplary embodiments presented in the drawing, where Fig. 1 depicts the cross-section and top view of the screw, Fig. 2 presents detail "A" indicated in Fig. 1, Fig. 3 depicts the cross-section of the cylindrical insert, Fig. 4 presents the cross-section of the cylindrical insert with flange, Figures 5 to 8 illustrate the consecutive phases of manufacturing the screw using plastic forming method, and Fig. 9 presents the screw in an alternative version which has the bottom with the radius R and parallel outer surfaces of the bore.

    [0012] Example 1. Using known methods of plastic working and machining, the threaded part 1 is produced together with the head 2 in which the cylindrical recess 3 with a cone-shaped bottom having the inclination angle of α = 20° surrounding the cylindrical central pin 4, and where the surface of the head 2 and the surface of the pin 4 are coplanar. In a separate machining operation the cylindrical insert 5 with the axial through hole_is produced from a copper alloy, the said insert terminating at one end with a bevel with an inclination angle of α = 20° and having the inner diameter and outer diameter corresponding to the respective diameters of the cylindrical recess 3 in the head 2. Next, in operation A the insert 5 is introduced into the cylindrical recess 3. Then in operation B the upper part of the insert 5 is pre-shaped which protrudes above screw head 2. Further, in one plastic working operation C, the pin 4 is upset using an appropriate tool, the top surface of the pin 4 is lowered below the top surface of head 2 and the final shape of the upper part of the insert 5 is formed together with grooves 6 recessed in the top surface concentrically with the screw axis.

    [0013] The screw produced in this method has the cylindrical copper alloy insert 5 permanently seated in the head 2 with top surface of central pin 4 lowered by d = 0.3 mm below the surface of the head 2.

    [0014] Example 2. An identical screw is produced using the method described in Example 1, but the insert 5 is made of aluminium alloy and provided with a flange 7.

    [0015] Example 3. Using known methods of plastic working or machining, the threaded part 1 is produced together with the head 2 in which the cylindrical recess 3 is provided, surrounding the cylindrical central pin 4, the said recess having the bottom in the form of a quadrant sector with the radius R between 1.2L and 0.8L, and where the surface of the head 2 and the surface of the pin 4 are coplanar. Moreover, the top surface of the pin 4 has a concave shape. In a separate machining or plastic working operation, the cylindrical insert 5 is produced from copper alloy, the said insert having the inner diameter and outer diameter corresponding to the respective diameters of the cylindrical recess 3 in the screw head. Next, in operation A the insert 5 is introduced into the cylindrical recess 3. Then in operation B the upper part of the insert 5 is pre-shaped which protrudes above the screw head 2. Further, in one plastic working operation C, the pin 4 is upset using an appropriate tool, and simultaneously the top concave plane of the pin 4 is lowered below the top surface of head 2 and, as a result, the walls of the pin 4 slightly draw aside towards the insert 5 and the final shape of the upper part of the insert 5 is formed together with grooves 6 recessed in the top surface concentrically with the screw axis.


    Claims

    1. A screw comprising a threaded part and a head in which an insert made of copper or aluminium, or copper alloy, or aluminium alloy is permanently seated, with grooves provided in the top surface of the head concentrically with the screw axis, characterized in that it comprises an upset central pin (4), preferably barrel-shaped, surrounded by a cylindrical bore (3) having a conical bottom with an inclination angle of α from 10° to 30°, the said screw having a cylindrical insert (5) with an axial through hole which is made of copper, aluminium, copper alloy, or aluminium alloy and is permanently seated in the cylindrical bore (3), wherein the top surface of the central pin (4) is lowered by d from 0.1 mm to 0.6 mm below the top surface of the head (2).
     
    2. A screw according to Claim 1, characterized in that the outer surfaces (3', 3") of the cylindrical bore (3) are parallel to the screw axis.
     
    3. A screw according to Claim 1, or Claim 2, characterized in that the bottom of the cylindrical bore (3) has the form of a circular sector with the radius of R from 0.8L to 1.2L, where L is equal to the difference between the bore diameter (L1) and the pin diameter (L2).
     
    4. A screw according to Claim 1, or Claim 2, or Claim 3, characterized in that the top surface of the pin (4) has a concave shape.
     
    5. A screw according to Claim 1, characterized in that the walls of the pin (4) are convex towards the cylindrical insert (5) with the axial through hole.
     
    6. A method for manufacturing a screw using plastic working and machining techniques, characterized in that in the first operation a threaded part (1) is produced together with a head (2) with a cylindrical bore (3) with a cone-shaped bottom with an inclination angle of α from 10° to 30° surrounding a cylindrical central pin (4), wherein the surface of the head (2) and the surface of the pin (4) are coplanar, and in separate operation a cylindrical insert (5) with an axial through hole is produced from copper, aluminium, copper alloy or aluminium alloy, the said insert (5) terminating at one end with a bevel with an inclination angle of α from 10° to 30° and having the inner diameter and the outer diameter corresponding with respective diameters of the cylindrical recess (3) in the head (2) of the screw, and then in operation A the insert (5) with the axial through hole is introduced into the cylindrical bore (3), and subsequently in operation B the upper part of the cylindrical insert (5) is pre-shaped which protrudes above the screw head (2), and further in one plastic working operation C the pin (4) is upset using an appropriate tool and the top surface of the pin (4) is simultaneously lowered below the top surface of the head (2) and the final shape of the upper part of the cylindrical insert (5) is formed together with grooves (6) recessed in its surface concentrically with the screw axis.
     
    7. A method according to Claim 6, characterized in that the cylindrical insert (5) with the axial through hole is provided with a flange (7).
     
    8. A method according to Claim 6, characterized in that in the first stage of screw manufacturing the threaded part (1) is produced together with the head (2) with the cylindrical bore (3) which has the bottom in the form of a circular sector with the radius of R from 0.8L to 1.2L, where L is equal to the difference between the bore diameter (L1) and the pin diameter (L2), and in a separate operation the cylindrical insert (5) with the axial through hole_is produced which has the chamfer with the radius of R from 0.8L to 1.2L provided at one end.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Eine Schraube mit einem Gewindeteil und einem Kopf, in dem ein Einsatz aus Kupfer oder Aluminium oder einer Kupferlegierung oder Aluminiumlegierung dauerhaft sitzt, wobei Nuten in der oberen Oberfläche des Kopfes konzentrisch zur Schraubenachse vorgesehen sind, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es einen umgeworfen zentralen Stift (4), der vorzugsweise tonnenförmig ist und von einer zylindrischen Bohrung (3) mit einem konischen Boden mit einem Neigungswinkel von 10° bis 30° umgeben ist, aufweist, wobei die genannte Schraube einen zylindrischen Einsatz (5) mit einem axialen Durchgangsloch, das aus Kupfer, Aluminium, Kupferlegierung oder Aluminiumlegierung hergestellt ist und dauerhaft in der zylindrischen Bohrung (3) gesetzt ist, aufweist, wobei die obere Oberfläche des zentralen Stiftes (4) um 0,1 mm bis 0,6 mm unter der oberen Oberfläche des Kopfes (2) gesenkt wird.
     
    2. Schraube nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Außenflächen (3', 3") der zylindrischen Bohrung (3) parallel zur Schraubenachse sind.
     
    3. Schraube nach Anspruch 1 oder Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Boden der zylindrischen Bohrung (3) die Form eines Kreissektors mit dem Radius R von 0,8L bis 1,2L hat, wobei L gleich der Differenz zwischen der Bohrungsdurchmesser (L1) und der Stiftdurchmesser (L2) ist.
     
    4. Schraube nach Anspruch 1 oder Anspruch 2 oder Anspruch 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die obere Oberfläche des Stiftes (4) eine konkave Form hat.
     
    5. Schraube nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Wände des Stiftes (4) zum zylindrischen Einsatz (5) mit dem axialen Durchgangsloch konvex sind.
     
    6. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer Schraube unter Verwendung von Kunststoffs- und Bearbeitungstechniken, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass im ersten Arbeitsgang ein Gewindeteil (1) zusammen mit einem Kopf (2) mit einer zylindrischen Bohrung (3) mit einem kegelförmigen Boden mit einer Neigungswinkel von 10° bis 30°, der einen zylindrischen zentralen Stift (4) umgibt, hergestellt wird, wobei die Oberfläche des Kopfes (2) und die Oberfläche des Stiftes (4) koplanar sind und im getrennten Betrieb ein zylindrischer Einsatz (5) mit einem axialen Durchgangsloch aus Kupfer, Aluminium, Kupferlegierung oder Aluminiumlegierung hergestellt werden, wobei der genannte Einsatz (5) an einem Ende mit einer Abschrägung mit einem Neigungswinkel von 10° bis 30° endet und den Innendurchmesser und der Außendurchmesser den jeweiligen Durchmessern der zylindrischen Aussparung (3) im Kopf (2) der Schraube entsprechen und dann im Betrieb A der Einsatz (5) mit dem axialen Durchgangsloch in die zylindrische Bohrung (3) eingeführt wird und anschließend im Betrieb B der obere Teil der zylindrischen Einsatz (5) vorgeformt wird, der über den Schraubenkopf (2) hinausragt, und ferner in einem Kunststoffbetrieb C der Stift (4) unter Verwendung eines geeigneten Werkzeugs umgeworfen wird und die obere Oberfläche des Stiftes (4) gleichzeitig unterhalb der oberen Oberfläche des Kopfes (2) abgesenkt wird und die endgültige Form des oberen Teils des zylindrischen Einsatzes (5) zusammen mit Nuten (6) ausgebildet wird, die in seiner Oberfläche konzentrisch zu der Schraubenachse vertieft sind.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der zylindrische Einsatz (5) mit dem axialen Durchgangsloch mit einem Flansch (7) vorgesehen ist.
     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass in der ersten Stufe der Schraubenherstellung der Gewindeteil (1) zusammen mit dem Kopf (2) mit der zylindrischen Bohrung (3) hergestellt wird, die den Boden in Form eines Kreissektors mit dem Radius R von 0,8L bis 1,2L, wobei L gleich der Differenz zwischen dem Bohrungsdurchmesser (L1) und dem Stiftdurchmesser (L2) ist und in einem getrennten Betrieb der zylindrische Einsatz (5) mit dem axialen Durchgangsloch hergestellt wird, die an einem Ende die Fase mit dem Radius R von 0,8 L bis 1,2 L aufweist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Une vis comprenant une partie filetée et une tête dans laquelle un insert fait de cuivre ou d'aluminium, ou d'alliage de cuivre, ou d'alliage d'aluminium est fixé en permanence, avec des rainures prévues dans la surface supérieure de la tête concentriquement à l'axe de la vis, caractérisée en ce qu'elle comprend une goupille centrale contrariée (4), de préférence en forme de tonneau, entourée d'un alésage cylindrique (3) ayant un fond conique avec un angle d'inclinaison a de 10° à 30°, ladite vis ayant un insert cylindrique (5) avec un trou traversant axial qui est fait de cuivre, d'aluminium, d'alliage de cuivre ou d'alliage d'aluminium et est en permanence logé dans l'alésage cylindrique (3), où la surface supérieure de la goupille centrale (4) est abaissée par d de 0,1 mm à 0,6 mm en dessous de la surface supérieure de la tête (2).
     
    2. Une vis selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que les surfaces extérieures (3', 3") de l'alésage cylindrique (3) sont parallèles à l'axe de la vis.
     
    3. Une vis selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, caractérisée en ce que le fond de l'alésage cylindrique (3) a la forme d'un secteur circulaire avec le rayon R de 0,8 L à 1,2 L, où L est égal à la différence entre le diamètre de l'alésage (L1) et le diamètre de l'axe (L2).
     
    4. Une vis selon la revendication 1, ou la revendication 2 ou la revendication 3, caractérisée en ce que la surface supérieure de la goupille (4) a une forme concave.
     
    5. Une vis selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que les parois de la goupille (4) sont convexes vers l'insert cylindrique (5) avec le trou traversant axial.
     
    6. Un procédé de fabrication d'une vis utilisant des techniques de travail plastique et d'usinage, caractérisé en ce que dans la première opération, une partie filetée (1) est réalisée avec une tête (2) avec un alésage cylindrique (3) avec un fond en forme de cône avec un angle d'inclinaison a de 10° à 30° entourant une goupille centrale cylindrique (4), où la surface de la tête (2) et la surface de la goupille (4) sont coplanaires, et dans une opération séparée un insert cylindrique (5) avec un trou traversant axial est réalisé à partir de cuivre, d'aluminium, d'alliage de cuivre ou d'alliage d'aluminium, ledit insert (5) se terminant à une extrémité par un biseau avec un angle d'inclinaison a de 10° à 30° et ayant le diamètre intérieur et le diamètre extérieur correspondant aux diamètres respectifs de l'évidement cylindrique (3) dans la tête (2) de la vis, et ensuite en opération A l'insert (5) avec le trou traversant axial est introduit dans l'alésage cylindrique (3), et ensuite en opération B la partie supérieure de l'insert cylindrique (5) est préformée qui fait saillie au-dessus de la tête de vis (2), et en outre en opération de travail plastique C la goupille (4) est contrariée à l'aide d'un outil approprié, et la surface supérieure de la goupille (4) est abaissée simultanément en dessous de la surface supérieure de la tête (2), et la forme finale de la partie supérieure de l'insert cylindrique (5) est formée avec des rainures (6) évidées dans sa surface concentriquement à l'axe de la vis.
     
    7. Un procédé selon la revendication 6, caractérisé en ce que l'insert cylindrique (5) avec le trou traversant axial est muni d'une bride (7).
     
    8. Un procédé selon la revendication 6, caractérisé en ce que dans la première étape de fabrication de vis, la partie filetée (1) est réalisée avec la tête (2) avec l'alésage cylindrique (3) qui a le fond sous la forme d'un secteur circulaire avec le rayon R de 0,8 L à 1,2 L, où L est égal à la différence entre le diamètre de l'alésage (L1) et le diamètre de l'axe (L2), et dans une opération séparée, l'insert cylindrique (5) avec le trou traversant axial est réalisé qui a un chanfrein avec le rayon R de 0,8L à 1,2L prévu à une extrémité.
     




    Drawing












    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description