(19)
(11)EP 3 086 119 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 14871790.3

(22)Date of filing:  03.12.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
G01N 33/574(2006.01)
C12Q 1/48(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2014/081968
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/093291 (25.06.2015 Gazette  2015/25)

(54)

METHOD FOR PREDICTING ANTITUMOR EFFICACY OF HSP90 INHIBITOR IN CANCER TREATMENT

VERFAHREN ZUR PROGNOSE DER ANTITUMORWIRKSAMKEIT EINES HSP90-HEMMERS IN DER KREBSBEHANDLUNG

PROCÉDÉ POUR PRÉDIRE L'EFFICACITÉ ANTITUMORALE DE L'INHIBITEUR HSP90 DANS LE TRAITEMENT DU CANCER


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 16.12.2013 JP 2013259134

(43)Date of publication of application:
26.10.2016 Bulletin 2016/43

(60)Divisional application:
18186428.1 / 3415916

(73)Proprietor: Nippon Kayaku Kabushiki Kaisha
Tokyo 100-0005 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • FUKUDA, Tsuyoshi
    Tokyo 115-8588 (JP)
  • MIYAZAKI, Osamu
    Tokyo 115-8588 (JP)
  • MASUDA, Kuniko
    Tokyo 115-8588 (JP)
  • OKAMOTO, Kazuya
    Tokyo 115-8588 (JP)

(74)Representative: Graf von Stosch, Andreas et al
Graf von Stosch Patentanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Prinzregentenstraße 22
80538 München
80538 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2006/095783
WO-A1-2010/020618
WO-A2-2013/009655
JP-A- 2008 538 750
JP-A- 2013 510 585
WO-A1-2006/109085
WO-A1-2013/074594
WO-A2-2013/009655
JP-A- 2012 500 013
  
  • XINQI WU ET AL: "Activity of the Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor Ganetespib in Melanoma", PLOS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, 13 February 2013 (2013-02-13), page e56134, XP055369795, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056134
  • J. ACQUAVIVA ET AL: "Targeting KRAS-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with the Hsp90 Inhibitor Ganetespib", MOLECULAR CANCER THERAPEUTICS, vol. 11, no. 12, 1 December 2012 (2012-12-01), pages 2633-2643, XP055156511, ISSN: 1535-7163, DOI: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-12-0615
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Technical Field



[0001] The present invention relates to a biological marker and a method for selecting cancer patients for whom a cancer treatment using an anti-tumor agent with a HSP90 inhibitory activity is expected to be effective.

Background Art



[0002] There is a need to develop novel anti-tumor chemotherapies for treating malignant tumor diseases. Recently, there have been found various functional molecules such as growth factors or growth factor receptors involved in cell growth-related signal transduction and proteins involved in signal transduction pathways. Thus, molecular targeting anti-tumor agents targeting the functional molecules have been developed.

[0003] Such molecular targeting anti-tumor agents are expected to be therapeutically effective in some patients but not in others. For example, a BCR-ABL/KIT/PDGFR-A inhibitor Imatinib exhibits a very high therapeutic effect in chronic myeloid leukemia patients with BCR/ABL translocation (NPL 1). EGFR inhibitors Gefitinib and Erlotinib exhibit a high therapeutic effect in lung cancer patients with EGFR gene mutation (NPLs 2 and 3). The anti-HER2 antibody Trastuzumab and the HER2/EGFR inhibitor Lapatinib exhibit a high therapeutic effect in patients with HER2 overexpressing breast cancer (NPLs 4 and 5). The ALK inhibitor Crizotinib has a very high therapeutic effect in lung cancer patients with EML4-ALK gene mutation (NPL 6). Therefore, it is said to be very important to find a therapy-related biomarker in advance before the beginning of a clinical trial in order to make a success of development of novel molecular targeting anti-tumor agents and thus to provide novel treatment options for patients for whom the anti-tumor agent is effective.

[0004] A biomarker often does not correspond one-to-one with a compound. For example, although Erlotinib is a different compound from Gefitinib, EGFR mutation is used as a biomarker for both of them. In addition, a biomarker for Trastuzumab, which is an antibody, is the same as one for Lapatinib, which is a small molecular compound. That is, the biomarker for the molecular targeting anti-tumor agent does not depend on a structure but on a mechanism of action of the molecular targeting anti-tumor agent.

[0005] One of the targets of the molecular targeting anti-tumor agents are heat shock proteins (HSP). HSPs are molecular chaperones present in a cell, and functional molecules classified into some families (e.g., HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, HSP40, and small HSPs) depending on their molecular weight. The term "molecular chaperone" is a generic name for proteins which transiently forms a complex with a target protein for the purpose of promoting formation of a functional higher order structure of the target protein. That is, molecular chaperones assist proteins to be folded or assembled and inhibit proteins from aggregating.

[0006] Among them, HSP90 is involved in many in vivo high-order functions such as accurate folding, inhibition of aggregation, intercellular transport, and maintenance of quasi-activated state in 100 types or more proteins. HSP90 acts by a mechanism in which HSP90 specifically recognizes and binds to an unstably folded protein to thereby form a complex. In particular, various target proteins involved in cancer-related signal transduction (steroid receptors, Raf serine kinases, tyrosine kinases) depends on HSP90 for its structural organization. HSP90 is deeply involved in regulation of cell cycle, and oncogenic-, growth-, and survival-signals of cells.

[0007] Regulatory functions of many signal molecules are lost in human tumors, and HSP90 is needed to maintain the functions (NPL 7). A HSP90 inhibitor changes the structure of a chaperon complex containing HSP90 and its target protein to thereby detach the target protein from the complex, the target protein being degraded mainly via an ubiquitin-proteasome system. This decreases an amount of the target protein for HSP90. Accordingly, signal transduction downstream of the target protein is blocked, and therefore cancer cells are inhibited from proliferating. Thus, an anti-tumor effect is achieved.

[0008] In particular, a plurality of genetic abnormalities are accumulated and proteins are mutated in an oncogenesis process. Cancer cells contains many mutant proteins, so that a higher chaperon activity is needed than normal cells containing normal proteins. Therefore, an expression amount of HSP90 is increased in many cancer cells. The cancer cells express abnormal proteins, and are under a hypoxic and nutrient starvation condition. That is, the cancer cells are under a kind of stressed condition. It is believed this is why the cancer cells are highly dependent on the chaperon activity of HSP90. Therefore, the cancer cells are expected to have higher sensitivity to HSP90 inhibitors than the normal cells. Exploratory studies of HSP90 inhibitors targeting HSP90 have been conducted and their anti-tumor effect has been verified.

[0009] PTL 1 has described 5-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-[1,2,4]triazol-3-one derivatives as the HSP90 inhibitor. This compound has been reported to exhibit an excellent anti-tumor effect in the experiment on animals and thus be a promising anti-tumor agent. PTLs 2 and 3 have reported triazole compounds having a HSP90 inhibitory activity.

[0010] As described above, HSP 90 is a promising target protein for the anti-tumor agent. However, a biomarker related to a treatment with a HSP90 inhibitor has not been established. PTL 4 has reported, as biomarkers for HSP90, at least one activating mutation in KRAS, EGFR, and BRAF genes. PTL 5 has reported, as biomarkers for HSP90 inhibitors, mutations in ALK, a MAPK pathway, or an EGFR gene. However, detailed examples were limited to relations between mutations in ALK, KRAS, or EGFR genes and therapeutic effects of the HSP90 inhibitor. Additionally, there was not a high correlation between mutations in the KRAS and EGFR genes and the effect of the HSP90 inhibitor. In PTL 5, there was a correlation between mutations in the ALK and the effect of the HSP90 inhibitor. However, lung cancer patients with ALK gene mutation are only less than 5% of all lung cancer patients.

[0011] PTL 5 has also mentioned mutations in Akt and ERK genes as biomarkers for HSP90 inhibitors. However, as described above, there is no example in PTL 5 from which the correlation between mutations in the Akt and ERK genes and the therapeutic effect of the HSP90 inhibitor is expected. Criteria based on which mutations in Akt and ERK genes or proteins correlating to the therapeutic effect of the HSP90 inhibitor are selected is not specifically mentioned. PTL6 - PTL8 describe methods for determining tumor responses to HSP90 inhibitors. NPTL10 and NPTL11 mention that Ganetespib treatment results in decreased Akt and ERK phosphorylation levels.

[0012] Akt is a serine-threonine kinase acting downstream of a growth factor, and transduces signals relating to growth, survival, differentiation, and carbohydrate metabolism of cells. Akt is activated by phosphorylation with PDK1/2, which is a kinase acting upstream of Akt, on a cell membrane (NPL 8). Gene amplification and activating mutations of Akt have been reported in some classes of cancer, and deficiency of PTEN negatively regulating Akt has been found in many classes of cancer. Therefore, the anti-tumor agents targeting Akt have been developed.

[0013] ERK is the first discovered MAP kinase, and transduces signals relating to cytoskeleton, cell motility, cell cycle, and differentiation. ERK is activated by phosphorylation with various growth factors or cell-specific stimuli. The activation of ERK plays an important role in growth, motility, and survival of cancer cells. An activity of ERK has actually been found to be increased in many classes of cancer (NPL 9).

[0014] The phosphorylation of Akt and ERK is a signal playing an important role for cell survival and growth. However, there has been no finding that the phosphorylation is directly regulated by HSP90.

Citation List


Patent Literature



[0015] 

PTL 1: International Publication No. WO2006/095783

PTL 2: International Publication No. WO2009/023211

PTL 3: International Publication No. WO2007/134678

PTL 4: Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open (JP-A) No. 2012-500013

PTL 5: International Publication No. WO2011/060328

PTL 6: International Publication No. WO 2013/009655 A2

PTL 7: International Publication No. WO 2010/020618 A1

PTL 8: International Publication No. WO 2006/109085 A1


Non-Patent Literature



[0016] 

NPL 1: Activity of a Specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in the blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the Philadelphia chromosome. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2001, 344: 1038-42.

NPL 2: Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2004, 350: 2129-39.

NPL 3: Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. The Lancet Oncology. 2011, 12: 735-42.

NPL 4: Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpress HER2. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2001, 344: 783-92.

NPL 5: Lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2006, 355: 2733-43.

NPL 6: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibition in non-small-cell lung cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine.2010, 363:1693-703.

NPL 7: Hsp90 inhibitors as novel cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Trends in Molecular Medicine.2002, 8:4 (Suppl.), S55-61.

NPL 8: Roles of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathways in controlling growth and sensitivity to therapy-implications for cancer and aging. Aging. 2011, 3:192-222.

NPL 9: Targeting the Raf-MEK-ERK mitogen-actiated protein kinase cascade for the treatment of cancer. Oncogene. 2007, 26: 3291-310

NPL 10: Activity of the Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor Genetespb in Melanoma. Plos One, 2013, 8(2): e56134

NPL 11: Targeting KRAS-Mutant Non-Small Lung Cell Cancer with the HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 2012, 11(12): 2633-2643.


Summary of Invention


Technical Problem



[0017] An object of the present invention is to provide a method for identifying a group of patients for whom a HSP90 inhibitor is effective.

Solution to Problem



[0018] The present inventors conducted extensive studies to solve the above-described problems and consequently have found that an increased expression level of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) in a tumor correlates to an anti-tumor effect of an HSP90 inhibitor, that is, when an expression amount of pERK in a certain tumor is determined to be higher than a control level, the tumor can be determined to be highly sensitive to the HSP90 inhibitor. The present invention is summarized as follows.

[0019] The present invention relates to a method for determining sensitivity of a tumor to an HSP90 inhibitor, the method including:
detecting increased pERK in the tissue of the tumor.

[0020] The present invention also relates to a method for selecting a patient for whom a treatment with a HSP90 inhibitor is effective, based on an increased phosphorylation level of ERK as compared with a control level in the tumor.

[0021] Sensitivity of a tumor to an HSP90 inhibitor may be determined by a method including:
detecting pERK in the tissue of the tumor.

[0022] Treatment with a HSP90 inhibitor may be considered effective for a patient; or
when a rate of the number of pERK-positive cells to the total number of tumor cells in a tumor from the patient is about 1.0% or higher.

[0023] Phosphorylation of ERK may be detected using any one or more selected from the group consisting of an immunohistochemical analysis (IHC), a Western blot analysis, an ELISA assay, and a mass spectrometry.

[0024] The present invention also relates to the above methods, wherein the HSP90 inhibitor is a triazole compound (A) represented by the following General Formula (1):

where

X denotes a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms, an alkynyl group having 2 to 10 carbon atoms, or a halogen atom;

Y denotes a sulfur atom or an oxygen atom;

m denotes an integer of 0 to 4; and

A denotes an amino group having a substituent.



[0025] The present invention also relates to the above methods, wherein the HSP90 inhibitor is Ganetespib.

[0026] The present invention also relates to the above methods, wherein the tumor is selected from the group consisting of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, endometrial cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, renal cell cancer, prostatic cancer, skin cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, brain tumor, and sarcoma.

Advantageous Effects of Invention



[0027] According to the present invention, a cancer patient for whom a treatment with a HSP90 inhibitor is effective can be selected reliably, easily, and conveniently.

Brief Description of Drawings



[0028] 

FIG. 1 is a graph illustrating an anti-tumor effect of a triazole compound (A-1) in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells SK-OV-3 (Example 1).

FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating an anti-tumor effect of a triazole compound (A-1) in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells TOV-21G (Example 1).

FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating an anti-tumor effect of a triazole compound (A-1) in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells OV-90 (Example 1).

FIG. 4 is a graph illustrating an anti-tumor effect of a triazole compound (A-1) in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells OVCAR-3 (Example 1).

FIG. 5 is a graph illustrating an anti-tumor effect of a triazole compound (A-1) in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells OC-11-JCK (Example 1).

FIG. 6 is a graph illustrating an anti-tumor effect of a triazole compound (A-1) in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells OC-11-JCK/CDDP (Example 1).

FIG. 7 is a graph illustrating anti-tumor effects of a triazole compound (A-1) and Ganetespib in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells OC-11-JCK/PTX (Example 1).

FIG. 8 is a graph illustrating anti-tumor effects of a triazole compound (A-1) and Ganetespib in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells TOGY-18 (Example 1).

FIG. 9 is a graph illustrating an anti-tumor effect of a triazole compound (A-1) in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells 2008 (Example 1).

FIG. 10 is a graph illustrating an anti-tumor effect of a triazole compound (A-1) in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells SHIN-3 (Example 1).

FIG. 11 is a graph illustrating anti-tumor effects of a triazole compound (A-1) and Ganetespib in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human breast cancer cells MC-19-JCK (Example 1).

FIG. 12 is a graph illustrating anti-tumor effects of a triazole compound (A-1) and Ganetespib in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human breast cancer cells JIMT-1 (Example 1).

FIG. 13 is a graph illustrating anti-tumor effects of a triazole compound (A-1) and Ganetespib in mice transplanted subcutaneously with human lung cancer cells NCI-H1975 (Example 1).

FIG. 14 is a photograph illustrating immunoblot analysis results of proteins EGFR, HER2, HER3, Met, IGF-1R, Raf-1, Stat3, phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), Akt, phosphorylated ERK (pERK), ERK, mTOR, MEK, Hsp90, Hsp70, and Actin in tumors from human ovarian cancer cells OC-11-JCK, OC-11-JCK/CDDP, OC-11-JCK/PTX, ES-2, SHIN-3, SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3, TOV-21G, OV-90, TOGY-18, OC-10-JCK, and 2008 transplanted subcutaneously to mice (Example 1).

FIG. 15 is a photograph illustrating immunoblot analysis results of HSP90-related proteins in a tumor derived from SK-OV-3 sampled before and 4 and 24 hours after administration of a triazole compound (A-1) to mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells SK-OV-3 (Example 2).

FIG. 16 is a photograph illustrating immunoblot analysis results of HSP90-related proteins in a tumor derived from TOV-21G sampled before and 4 and 24 hours after administration of a triazole compound (A-1) to mice transplanted subcutaneously with human ovarian cancer cells TOV-21G (Example 2).

FIG. 17 is a graph illustrating rates of the numbers of pAkt-positive cells when tumors derived from human ovarian cancer cells 2008, OC-11-JCK, SK-OV-3, and TOV-21G transplanted subcutaneously to mice were immunohistologically stained with anti-pAkt antibodies (Example 3).

FIG. 18 is a graph illustrating rates of the numbers of pERK-positive cells when tumors derived from human ovarian cancer cells OC-11-JCK, SK-OV-3, and TOV-21G transplanted subcutaneously to mice were immunohistologically stained with anti-pERK antibodies.



[0029] As used herein, "Akt" refers to any or all of Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3, and phosphorylation of Akt (phosphorylated Akt: pAkt) refers to addition of a phosphate group to any amino acid residue in Akt or Akt containing an amino acid residue to which a phosphate group has been added. Specific examples of an amino acid residue to which a phosphate group is to be added include, but not limited thereto, Ser308 or Ser473 (for Akt1), Ser309 or Ser474 (for Akt2), and Ser305 or Ser472 (for Akt3).

[0030] As used herein, "ERK" refers to one or both of ERK1 and ERK2, and phosphorylation of ERK (phosphorylated: pERK) refers to addition of a phosphate group to any amino acid residue in ERK or ERK containing an amino acid residue to which a phosphate group has been added. Specific examples of an amino acid residue to which a phosphate group is to be added include, but not limited thereto, Thr160, Thr177, Thr202, and Tyr204.

[0031] As used herein, a "phosphorylation level" refers to, for a certain protein in a cell, an amount or a rate of a protein containing an amino acid residue to which a phosphate group has been added. For example, a phosphorylation level of Akt refers to an amount of pAkt or a rate of pAkt relative to the total amount of Akt (amount of pAkt + amount of non-phosphorylated Akt). Proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction including Akt and ERK are activated mainly by being phosphorylated. Therefore, it can be presumed that a signal transduction protein having a high phosphorylation level is activated while a signal transduction protein having a low phosphorylation level is not activated.

[0032] As used herein, "detecting a phosphorylation level of Akt or ERK" refers to all techniques for detecting the phosphorylation level of Akt or ERK as described above. Examples of a method for detecting a phosphorylation level of Akt or ERK include immunological detection methods using an anti-phosphorylated Akt antibody or anti-phosphorylated ERK antibody such as a Western blot analysis, an ELISA assay, an immunostaining method, and an immunohistochemical analysis (IHC); methods for detecting pAkt or pERK using a mass spectrometry; detection methods using a functional molecule which specifically interacts with a phosphate group; and detection methods using a functional molecule, a protein, or RNA which specifically interacts with pAkt or pERK.

[0033] As used herein, an "immunohistochemical analysis (IHC)" refers to a common technique for verifying expression of a certain protein in a freezed sample or a paraffin-embedded sample prepared from a specimen.

[0034] As used herein, a "Western blot analysis" refers to a common technique including separating proteins by electrophoresis, transferring the proteins onto a membrane, and then detecting only the intended protein using an antibody.

[0035] As used herein, an "ELISA assay" refers to a detection technique using an antibody specific to the intended protein or phosphorylated residues in combination with an enzymatic reaction. The ELISA assay enables to measure an amount of only a certain substance recognized by the antibody in a specimen including a plurality of substances.

[0036] As used herein, a "mass spectrometry" refers to a technique used for determining a mass-to-charge ratio of a molecule or an ion. The mass spectrometry includes ionizing a sample in a vacuum with a high voltage being applied to thereby electrically or magnetically separate the sample. The sample is separated depending on the mass-to-charge ratio, the mass-to-charge ratio being unique to a substance from which the sample is derived. Thus, the intended substance can be detected. A method for ionizing is not particularly limited herein, but may be MALDI which allows a protein as an ion source to stably ionize.

[0037] As used herein, a "HSP90 inhibitor" refers to all those inhibitors having an HSP90-inhibiting activity. Examples thereof include anti-HSP90 antibodies, triazole ring-containing compounds, 17-AAG, Geldanamycin, Radicicol, PU3, or derivatives thereof or pharmacologically acceptable salts thereof, all of which have the HSP90-inhibiting activity. Examples of the triazole ring-containing compounds, as one example of the HSP90 inhibitor, include Ganetespib:

a triazole compound (A) represented by the following General Formula (1)

and pharmacologically acceptable salts thereof. Tautomers of Ganetespib and the triazole compound (A) are also included.

[0038] In General Formula (1), X denotes a linear, branched, or cyclic alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, an alkynyl group having 2 to 10 carbon atoms, or a halogen atom. When X is the alkyl group, X is preferably a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms, further preferably an ethyl group, an isopropyl group, a tert-butyl group, or a 2,2-dimethylpropyl group. When X is the alkynyl group, X is preferably an alkynyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, further preferably a 2-propynyl group or a 2-butynyl group. When X is the halogen atom, X is preferably a bromide atom or a chlorine atom.

[0039] In the General Formula (1), Y is a sulfur atom or an oxygen atom.

[0040] In the General Formula (1), m is an integer of 0 to 4, preferably 0 or 1.

[0041] In the General Formula (1), A is not limited so long as it is an amino group having a substituent, but is preferably a morpholino group, a 4-methylpiperazin-1-yl group, a piperidin-1-yl group, or a pyrrolidin-1-yl group.

[0042] As used with respect to Ganetespib and the General Formula (1), the tautomers refer to the same compounds as each other which are rapidly interconvertible with each other and in which triazole rings are in the relationship to each other as illustrated in the following General Formulae (2-1) and (2-2):


Examples



[0043] The present examples exemplify certain embodiments of the present invention and various use thereof. The present examples are for exemplary purposes only and the present invention is not limited thereto.

[0044] Mice (all were female) used in the present examples were as follows:

Nude mice

Strain: BALB/cA-nu/nu (6 to 13 week-old at transplant)

Supplier: CLEA Japan, Inc. or CHARLES RIVER LABORATORIES JAPAN, INC.

SCID mice

Strain: CB-17/scid (5 to 7 week-old at transplant)

Supplier: CHARLES RIVER LABORATORIES JAPAN, INC.

NOD/SCID

Strain: NOD-scid (8 week-old at transplant)

Supplier: CHARLES RIVER LABORATORIES JAPAN, INC.


Synthetic Example 1: Synthesis of HSP90 inhibitor compound



[0045] As the triazole compound (A) represented by General Formula (1) of the present invention, 5-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-isopropyl-phenyl)-4-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-2 ,4-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazol-3-one; (A-1) was used. Compound (A-1) was synthesized according to the production method disclosed in Example 2-5 of International Publication No. WO2006/095783. Ganetespib was synthesized according to the production method disclosed in Example 4 of International Publication No. WO2007/139952.

Test Example 1: Anti-tumor test in mice transplanted subcutaneously with a tumor


<Cells and tumors to be transplanted>



[0046] Human ovarian cancer cell lines OC-10-JCK, OC-11-JCK, and TOGY-18, and a human breast cancer cell line MC-19-JCK were obtained from Central Institute for Experimental Animals. Cryopreserved tumor pieces were thawed, and then OC-10-JCK, OC-11-JCK, and MC-19-JCK were transplanted subcutaneously to SCID mice, while TOGY-18 was transplanted subcutaneously to nude mice. After the tumors were grown, the tumors were removed and cut into tumor pieces. The tumor pieces were transplanted subcutaneously to SCID mice or nude mice with trocars. The tumors were maintained by repeated transplantation in the same manner as described above to prepare tumors to be transplanted. Human ovarian cancer cell lines ES-2, SK-OV-3, OV-90, and TOV-21G, and a human lung cancer cell line NCI-H1975 were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The SK-OV-3 and NCI-H1975 cell lines were grown in recommended culture media, of which about 1 × 107 cells were suspended into HBSS and then injected subcutaneously to SCID mice. After the cells formed tumors, the tumors were removed and cut into tumor pieces. The tumor pieces were transplanted subcutaneously to SCID mice with trocars. The tumors were maintained by repeated transplantation in the same manner as described above to prepare tumors to be transplanted. The OV-90 cell line was grown in a recommended culture medium, of which about 1 × 106 cells were suspended into HBSS and then injected subcutaneously to SCID mice. After the cells formed a tumor, the tumor was subjected to an anti-tumor test. The TOV-21G cell line was grown in a recommended culture medium, of which about 1 × 107 cells were suspended into HBSS and then injected subcutaneously to SCID mice. After the cells formed a tumor, the tumor was subjected to the anti-tumor test. The ES-2 cell line was grown in a recommended culture medium, suspended into HBSS, and then injected subcutaneously to nude mice. After the cells formed a tumor, the tumor was removed and cut into tumor pieces. The tumor pieces were transplanted subcutaneously to nude mice with a trocar. The tumor was maintained by repeated transplantation in the same manner as described above to prepare a tumor to be transplanted. A human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3 was obtained from Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research (CRCBR). The cell line was grown in RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS, of which about 1 × 107 cells were suspended into HBSS and then injected subcutaneously to NOD/SCID mice. After the cells formed a tumor, the tumor was subjected to the anti-tumor test. A human breast cancer cell line JIMT-1 was obtained from German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ). The cell line was grown in a recommended culture medium, suspended into HBSS and then injected subcutaneously to SCID mice. After the cells formed a tumor, the tumor was removed and cut into tumor pieces. The tumor pieces were transplanted subcutaneously to SCID mice with a trocar. The tumor was maintained by repeated transplantation in the same manner as described above to prepare a tumor to be transplanted. A human ovarian cancer cell line 2008 was grown in RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS, of which about 1 × 107 cells were suspended into HBSS and then injected subcutaneously to SCID mice. After the cells formed a tumor, the tumor was removed and cut into tumor pieces. The tumor pieces were transplanted subcutaneously to SCID mice with a trocar. The tumor was maintained by repeated transplantation in the same manner as described above to prepare a tumor to be transplanted. A human ovarian cancer cell line SHIN-3 was grown in E-MEM medium supplemented with 15% FBS, of which about 1 × 106 cells were suspended into HBSS and then injected subcutaneously to SCID mice. After the cells formed a tumor, the tumor was subjected to the anti-tumor test. OC-11-JCK/PTX and OC-11-JCK/CDDP were established at Pharmaceuticals Research Laboratories of Nippon Kayaku Co., Ltd. OC-11-JCK obtained from Central Institute for Experimental Animals was transplanted to SCID mice or nude mice, to which paclitaxel (PTX) or cisplatin (CDDP) were repeatedly administered. As a result, a PTX-resistant cell line and a CDDP-resistant cell line, which were designated as OC-11-JCK/PTX and OC-11-JCK/CDDP, were obtained.

<Anti-tumor test in mice transplanted subcutaneously with tumor>



[0047] The above-described tumors derived from OC-10-JCK, OC-11-JCK, OC-11-JCK/CDDP, OC-11-JCK/PTX, MC-19-JCK, TOGY-18, SK-OV-3, ES-2, 2008, NCI-H1975, and JIMT-1 maintained by passage in SDID mice or nude mice were transplanted subcutaneously to the dorsums of SCID mice, NOD/SCID mice (for OVCAR-3 only) or nude mice with trocars. The OV-90, TOV-21G, OVCAR-3, and SHIN-3 cell lines were transplanted subcutaneously to mice in the same manner as described above. When the average tumor volume of each tumor reached about 100 mm3 to about 200 mm3, test drugs were started to be administered. Dosage and usage of the drugs were as follows. The triazole (A-1) synthesized as the HSP90 inhibitor compound in Synthetic Example 1 was dissolved in Japanese Pharmacopoeia glucose injection, and then administered into a tail vein at a dose of 40 mg/kg three times at 4 day intervals. For MC-19-JCK, the triazole was administered once at 40 mg/kg. For NCI-H1975 and JIMT-1, the triazole was administered at 40 mg/kg three times at 7 day intervals. Ganetespib was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, diluted 10 times with Japanese Pharmacopoeia glucose injection containing 20% of Cremophor (registered trademark) RH40, and then administered into a tail vein at a dose of 125 mg/kg three times at 7 day intervals. For MC-19-JCK, Ganetespib was administered once at 125mg/kg. For NCI-H1975, Ganetespib was administered into a tail vein at 150 mg/kg three times at 7 day intervals. The tumors were measured twice a week from the beginning of the administration to the completion of an observation period. A long length (L) and a short length (W) of each of the tumors were measured with a caliper. Based on the long length and the short length measured, a tumor volume was calculated according to the following expression: L × W2 × 1/2. Each of drug administration groups and a non-administration group (control group) each including 3 mice to 5 mice per group were subjected to the anti-tumor test. From the beginning to the 21st day of administration, a relative tumor volume of each of the drug administration groups (T/C (%)) based on a relative tumor volume of the non-administration group as 100 was calculated as an index of an anti-tumor effect according to the following expression: Relative tumor volume of drug administration group / Relative tumor volume of non-administration group × 100. For each tumor, the lowest T/C (%) value from the beginning to the 21st day of administration is presented in Table 1.

[0048] Time-dependent tumor growth curves representing relative tumor volumes based on a tumor volume at the beginning of administration as 1 are illustrated in FIG. 1 (SK-OV-3), FIG. 2 (TOV-21G), FIG. 3 (OV-90), FIG. 4 (OVCAR-3), FIG. 5 (OC-11-JCK), FIG. 6 (OC-11-JCK/CDDP), FIG. 7 (OC-11/PTX), FIG. 8 (TOGY-18), FIG. 9 (2008), FIG. 10 (SHIN-3), FIG. 11 (MC-19-JCK), FIG. 12 (JIMT-1), and FIG. 13 (NCI-H1975).

<Extraction of tumor protein>



[0049] Protein extraction liquid was obtained from each tumor as follows. The human ovarian cancer tumors maintained by passage in SCID mice or nude mice were transplanted subcutaneously to the dorsums of SCID mice or nude mice with trocars. When the tumor volume of each tumor reached about 300 mm3, the tumor was removed, immediately minced, measured for wet weight, and then rapidly freezed with liquid nitrogen. The freezed tumor was thoroughly homogenized with a beads shocker. To this, was added at 4 µL/mg a RIPA buffer containing a protease inhibitor and a phosphatase inhibitor, followed by gently stirring and leaving to stand on ice for 15 min. The resultant cell suspension liquid was centrifuged, of which supernatant was determined as the protein extraction liquid. The total protein amount in the protein extraction liquid was quantified by BioRad protein assay.

<Expression amount of protein>



[0050] An immunoblot method was used to verify expression amounts of target proteins (client proteins) of HSP90 in a tumor and cell survival- and growth-related proteins.

[0051] Thirty micrograms of total protein was subjected to electrophoresis in 8% acrylamide gel. Then, the protein was transferred onto a PVDF membrane at a voltage of 100 V for 60 min at 4°C. The PVDF membrane on which the protein had been transferred was blocked in TBS-Tween (0.1%) containing 5% milk at normal temperature for 60 min, followed by incubating with each of primary antibodies described below overnight at 4°C.
Primary antibody (supplier, product number, dilution ratio, exposure time)

EGFR (Santa Cruz, sc-003, 1:500, 1 min)

HER2 (Santa Cruz, sc-284, 1:2000, 5 sec)

HER3 (Santa Cruz, sc-285, 1:400, 1 min)

Met (Santa Cruz, sc-161, 1:500, 5 min)

IGF-1R (Cell Signaling, #3027, 1:500, 15 sec)

Raf-1 (Santa Cruz, sc-133, 1:300, 5 min)

Stat3 (BD Transduction Laboratory, 610189, 1:500, 15 sec)

pAkt (Cell Signaling, #4058S, 1:500, 1 min)

Akt (Cell Signaling, #4691S, 1:2000, 15 sec)

pERK (Santa Cruz, sc-16982-R, 1:500, 1 min)

ERK (Invitrogen, 44-654G, 1:1000, 15 sec)

mTOR (Cell Signaling, #2983S, 1:500, 15 sec)

MEK (Cell Signaling, #9122S, 1:500, 1 min)

HSP90 (Enzo Life Science, SPA-830, 1:500, 15 sec)

HSP70 (Enzo Life Science, SPA-810, 1:2000, 15 sec)

Actin (Santa Cruz, sc-8432/HRP, 1:300, 5 min)



[0052] After incubation, the blot membrane was washed with TBS-Tween (0.1%) at normal temperature for 10 min three times to thereby remove excessive primary antibodies. Then, the membrane was incubated with an appropriate secondary antibody (anti-rabbit IgG HRP conjugate or anti-mouse IgG HRP conjugate) at normal temperature for 60 min. The membrane was washed with TBS-Tween (0.1%) at normal temperature for 10 min three times to thereby remove excessive secondary antibodies. Then, the membrane was incubated with ECL Western Blotting Detection Reagents (GE Healthcare) for 2 min, followed by exposing to an X-ray film. Thus, the signal of the intended protein was detected.

[0053] As client proteins, expression amounts of EGFR, HER2, HER3, Met, IGF-1R, Raf-1, Stat-3, Akt, mTOR, and MEK were determined. As cell survival- and growth-regulating proteins, expression amounts of pAkt, pERK, and ERK were determined. As HSP90-related proteins, expression amounts of HSP90 and HSP70 were verified. As an internal control protein, Actin was employed. Protein extraction liquids were collected from at least 2 animals per tumor cell line, and evaluated. Results are presented in FIG. 14. Intensities of expression levels of some proteins are presented in Table 1. The expression levels were determined according to the following criteria:

+++: A very thick clear band was observed at the position corresponding to the intended molecular weight in the Western blot under the above described conditions.

++: A clear band was observed at the position corresponding to the intended molecular weight in the Western blot under the above described conditions.

+: A thin or slightly unclear band was observed at the position corresponding to the intended molecular weight in the Western blot under the above described conditions.

-: No band was observed or only a very thin unclear band was observed at the position corresponding to the intended molecular weight in the Western blot under the above described conditions.

Table 1: Anti-tumor effects of triazole compound (A-1) and Ganetespib, and expression amounts of various molecular markers
Tumor cell lineT/C %Expression level
A-1GanetespibEGFRHER2MetpAktpERKmTOR
SK-OV-3 3.0 NT +++ +++ + +++ - +
TOV-21G 25.0 NT - - - ++ ++ -
ES-2 25.6 NT ++ - ++ - + +
OV-90 30.4 NT ++ - ++ - ++ +
OVCAR-3 34.9 NT - + + + - +
OC-11-JCK 36.0 NT +++ - ++ - - ++
TOGY-18 45.2 67.7 - + ++ - - +
OC-11-JCK/CDDP 46.4 NT + - - - - ++
OC-10-JCK 50.2 NT - ++ ++ - - ++
2008 51.7 NT +++ + ++ - - -
OC-11-JCK/PTX 62.4 84.0 ++ - + - - +
SHIN-3 78.1 NT + + + - - -
MC-19-JCK 5.2 19.8 NT NT NT NT NT NT
JIMT-1 34.9 56.6 NT NT NT NT NT NT
NCI-H1975 49.4 44.0 NT NT NT NT NT NT
NT: Not Tested.


[0054] It can be seen from Table 1 that, like other molecular target drugs, the triazole compound (A-1) was highly effective for some lines (e.g., SK-OV-3 and TOV-21G) but hardly effective for others (e.g., OC-11-JCK/PTX and SHIN-3).

[0055] It can be seen from FIG. 14 or Table 1 that expression amounts of pAkt and pERK in tumor cell lines for which the triazole compound (A-1) was relatively highly effective (SK-OV-3, TOV-21G, ES-2, OV-90, and OVCAR-3) tended to be higher than those in other tumor cell lines, but expression amounts of pAkt and pERK in tumor cell lines for which the triazole compound (A-1) was lowly effective (e.g., 2008, OC-11/PTX, or SHIN-3) tended to be low. Meanwhile, there was not found a correlation between expression amounts of client proteins of HSP90 or HSP90-related proteins and the effect of the triazole compound (A-1).

[0056] The above results indicate that the tumor containing an increased expression amount of pAkt or pERK is highly sensitive to the triazole compound (A-1).

[0057] It can be seen from Table 1 that there was found a correlation between the anti-tumor effect of the triazole compound (A-1) and the anti-tumor effect of Ganetespib. This is because a biomarker for determining the anti-tumor effect and an expression pattern thereof is common to HSP90 inhibitors containing at least a triazole ring. The biomarker for the molecular targeting anti-tumor agent does not depend on a structure but on a mechanism of action of the molecular targeting anti-tumor agent. Therefore, it is suggested that, in the overall HSP90 inhibitors, the tumor containing an increased expression level of pAkt or pERK is highly sensitive to the HSP90 inhibitor.

Example 2


<Cells and tumors to be transplanted>



[0058] Tumors to be transplanted derived from human ovarian cancer cell lines SK-OV-3 and TOV-21G were prepared in the same manner as in Example 1.

<Extraction of tumor protein>



[0059] Protein extraction liquid was obtained from each tumor as follows. The human ovarian cancer tumors maintained by passage in SCID mice were transplanted subcutaneously to the dorsums of SCID mice with trocars. When the tumor volume of each tumor reached about 300 mm3, the triazole (A-1) synthesized as the HSP90 inhibitor in Synthetic Example 1 was administered into a tail vein of each of the mice at a dose of 40 mg/kg in the same manner as in Example 1. The tumors were removed before and 4 and 24 hours after administration. At each time point, the tumors were removed from three mice for the SK-OV-3 tumor and two mice for the TOV-21G tumor. Protein extraction liquids were obtained in the same manner as in Example 1. The total protein amount in each of the extraction liquids was quantified in the same manner as in Example 1.

<Change in expression amount of protein>



[0060] The immunoblot method was used to verify change in expression amounts of the client proteins and the HSP90-related proteins in the SK-OV-3 and TOV-21G tumors to which the triazole compound (A-1) had been administered, in the same manner as in Example 1. The types and dilution ratios of primary antibodies and secondary antibodies used were the same as in Example 1.

[0061] The immunoblot results of the SK-OV-3 tumor are illustrated in FIG. 15 and the immunoblot results of the TOV-21G tumor are illustrated in FIG. 16.

[0062] It can be seen from FIG. 15 that expression levels of the client proteins EGFR, IGF-1R, Met, and mTOR in the SK-OV-3 tumor 4 hours after administration of the triazole compound (A-1) were significantly decreased. Accordingly, expression levels of pAkt and pERK, which regulate cell growth- and survival-signals, were also significantly decreased. Meanwhile, expression amounts of total Akt and total ERK were not changed. It can be seen from FIG. 16 that expression levels of the client proteins EGFR, HER2, IGF-1R, Met, and mTOR were also decreased in the TOV-21G tumor. Accordingly, an expression level of pAkt was also decreased. However, the expression amounts of total Akt and total ERK were not changed. The above results indicate that the triazole compound (A-1) serving as the HSP90 inhibitor decreases the expression amounts of the client proteins, which contribute to growth of cancer cells, to thereby inhibit phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, resulting in developing the anti-tumor effect.

Example 3


<Cells and tumors to be transplanted>



[0063] Tumors to be transplanted derived from human ovarian cancer cell lines SK-OV-3, TOV-21G, 2008, and OC-11-JCK were prepared in the same manner as in Example 1.

<Production of tissue preparation>



[0064] A tissue preparation of each of the tumors was made as follows. The human ovarian cancer tumors maintained by passage in SDID mice were transplanted subcutaneously to the dorsums of SCID mice with trocars. When the tumor volume of each tumor reached about 300 mm3, the tumor was removed. The removed tumor was cut, and immediately thereafter was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin overnight. Thus-fixed tumor was dehydrated in ethanol stepwise, cleared in xylene, and then embedded in paraffin. The resultant paraffin block was sectioned at 3 µm and mounted on a glass slide. Thus, a section was produced. The paraffin was removed with xylene from the section. The section was hydrated in ethanol stepwise. After antigens were activated by a microwave treatment in a sodium citrate buffer (this procedure was performed for pAkt staining only), the section was blocked with a 0.2% porcine serum solution at normal temperature for 30 min. Then, the section was incubated with the following primary antibody: pAkt (Sigma, SAB4300259, 1:500) or pERK (Santa Cruz, sc-16982-R, 1:500) overnight at 4°C. The section was washed with TBS buffer at normal temperature for 5 min three times to thereby remove excessive primary antibodies, followed by incubating with anti-rabbit IgG HRP conjugates at 37°C for 30 min. The section was washed with TBS at normal temperature for 5 min three times to thereby remove excessive secondary antibodies. Then, the section was stained with DAB to thereby detect the signal of the intended protein. The stained section of each tumor was observed by a microscope. Photographs were taken in 3 fields of view at an edge of the tumor at which cells were actively grown and which has few necrosis layers. The numbers of positive cells and negative cells among cancer cells were measured and a rate of the positive cells was calculated according to the following equation: Positive cells (%) = 100 × Number of positive cells / (Number of positive cells + Number of non-negative cells).

[0065] Rates of the pAkt-positive cells in the tumors derived from 2008, OC-11-JCK, SK-OV-3, and TOV-21G are illustrated in FIG. 17. Rates of the pERK-positive cells in the tumors derived from OC-11-JCK, SK-OV-3, and TOV-21G are illustrated in FIG. 18. The rate of each of the positive cells and T/C (%) of the triazole compound (A-1) obtained in Example 1 are presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Rates of pAkt- and pERK-positive cells in each tumor cell line and anti-tumor effect of triazole compound (A-1)
TumorpAkt-positive cells (%)pERK-positive cells (%)T/C (%)
2008 0.88 NT 51.7
OC-11-JCK 0.67 1.01 36.0
TOV-21G 4.31 5.89 25.0
SK-OV-3 24.05 1.84 3.0


[0066] It can be confirmed from FIGs. 17 and 18 and Table 2 that there was also a correlation between the rates of pAkt- and pERK-positive cells and the anti-tumor effect of the triazole compound (A-1) in the immunohistological study. From above results, it is suggested that the triazole compound (A-1) is not highly effective for tumors containing less than 1% of both of the pAkt- and pERK-positive cells. The biomarker for the molecular targeting anti-tumor agent does not depend on a structure but on a mechanism of action of the molecular targeting anti-tumor agent. Therefore, it is suggested that, in the overall HSP90 inhibitors, the tumor containing an increased expression level of pAkt or pERK is highly sensitive to the HSP90 inhibitor.


Claims

1. An in vitro method for determining sensitivity of a tumor to an HSP90 inhibitor, the method comprising:
detecting an increased phosphorylation level of ERK in a tissue of the tumor from a patient.
 
2. An in vitro method for selecting a patient for whom a treatment with a HSP90 inhibitor is effective, the method comprising:
selecting the patient based on:
an increased phosphorylation level of ERK as compared with a control level in a tissue of a tumor from the patient.
 
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the HSP90 inhibitor is a triazole ring-containing compound.
 
4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the triazole ring-containing compound is Ganetespib.
 
5. The method according to claim 3, wherein the triazole ring-containing compound is a triazole compound (A) represented by the following General Formula (1):

where

X denotes a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms, an alkynyl group having 2 to 10 carbon atoms, or a halogen atom;

Y denotes a sulfur atom or an oxygen atom;

m denotes an integer of 0 to 4; and

A denotes an amino group having a substituent.


 
6. The method according to claim 5, wherein X in the General Formula (1) is an ethyl group, an isopropyl group, a tert-butyl group, a 2,2-dimethylpropyl group, a 2-propynyl group, a 2-butynyl group, or a halogen atom.
 
7. The method according to claim 5, wherein, in the General Formula (1), m is 0 or 1 and A is a morpholino group, a 4-methylpiperazin-1-yl group, a piperidin-1-yl group, or a pyrrolidin-1-yl group.
 
8. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the phosphorylation of ERK is detected with any one or more selected from the group consisting of an immunohistochemical analysis (IHC), a Western blot analysis, an ELISA assay, and a mass spectrometry.
 
9. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein a rate of a number of phosphorylated ERK-positive cells to a total number of tumor cells in the tumor from the patient is 1.0% or higher.
 
10. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the tumor is selected from the group consisting of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, endometrial cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, renal cell cancer, prostatic cancer, skin cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, brain tumor, and sarcoma.
 
11. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the tumor is selected from the group consisting of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, small cell lung cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer.
 
12. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the tumor is ovarian cancer.
 


Ansprüche

1. Ein in vitro-Verfahren zum Bestimmen der Empfindlichkeit eines Tumors gegenüber einem HSP90-Inhibitor, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:
Nachweis eines erhöhten Phosphorylierungsgrads von ERK in einem Gewebe des Tumors von einem Patienten.
 
2. Ein in vitro-Verfahren zur Auswahl eines Patienten, bei dem eine Behandlung mit einem HSP90-Inhibitor wirksam ist, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:
Auswählen des Patienten basierend auf:
einen erhöhten Phosphorylierungsgrad von ERK im Vergleich zu einem Kontrollwert in einem Gewebe eines Tumors von dem Patienten.
 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der HSP90-Inhibitor eine einen Triazolring enthaltende Verbindung ist.
 
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei die den Triazolring enthaltende Verbindung Ganetespib ist.
 
5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei die den Triazolring enthaltende Verbindung eine Triazolverbindung (A) ist, dargestellt durch die folgende allgemeine Formel 1:

wobei

X eine lineare oder verzweigte Alkylgruppe mit 1 bis 8 Kohlenstoffatomen, eine Alkynylgruppe mit 2 bis 10 Kohlenstoffatomen oder ein Halogenatom bezeichnet;

Y ein Schwefelatom oder ein Sauerstoffatom bezeichnet;

m eine ganze Zahl von 0 bis 4 bezeichnet; und

A eine Aminogruppe mit einem Substituenten bezeichnet.


 
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, wobei X in der allgemeinen Formel (1) eine Ethylgruppe, eine Isopropylgruppe, eine tert-Butylgruppe, eine 2,2-Dimethylpropylgruppe, eine 2-Propynylgruppe, eine 2-Butynylgruppe oder ein Halogenatom ist.
 
7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, wobei in der allgemeinen Formel (1) m 0 oder 1 ist und A eine Morpholinogruppe, eine 4-Methylpiperazin-1-yl-Gruppe, eine Piperidin-1-yl-Gruppe oder eine Pyrrolidin-1-yl-Gruppe ist.
 
8. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, wobei die Phosphorylierung von ERK mit einem oder mehreren ausgewählt aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus einer immunhistochemischen Analyse (IHC), einer Western-Blot-Analyse, einem ELISA-Assay und einer Massenspektrometrie, nachgewiesen wird.
 
9. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, wobei das Verhältnis der Zahl von phosphorylierten ERK-positiven Zellen zu einer Gesamtzahl von Tumorzellen im Tumor von dem Patienten 1,0% oder mehr beträgt.
 
10. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, wobei der Tumor ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus Eierstockkrebs, Brustkrebs, kleinzelligem Lungenkrebs, nicht-kleinzelligem Lungenkrebs, Bauchspeicheldrüsenkrebs, Darmkrebs, Kopf- und Halskrebs, Endometriumkrebs, Magenkrebs, Speiseröhrenkrebs, Nierenzellkrebs, Prostatakrebs, Hautkrebs, Leukämie, Lymphom, Myelom, Hirntumor und Sarkom.
 
11. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, wobei der Tumor ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus Eierstockkrebs, Brustkrebs, kleinzelligem Lungenkrebs und nicht-kleinzelligem Lungenkrebs.
 
12. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, wobei der Tumor Eierstockkrebs ist.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé in-vitro pour déterminer la sensibilité d'une tumeur à un inhibiteur de HSP90, le procédé comprenant:
la détection d'une augmentation du niveau de phosphorylation de ERK dans un tissu de la tumeur chez un patient.
 
2. Procédé in-vitro de sélection d'un patient pour lequel un traitement par un inhibiteur de la HSP90 est efficace, le procédé comprenant:
la sélection du patient en fonction de:
une augmentation du niveau de phosphorylation de l'ERK par rapport à un niveau de contrôle dans un tissu d'une tumeur provenant du patient.
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel l'inhibiteur de HSP90 est un composé contenant un cycle triazole.
 
4. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le composé contenant le cycle triazole est le Ganetespib.
 
5. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le composé contenant le cycle triazole est un composé triazole (A) représenté par la formule générale suivante (1):

dans laquelle

X représente un groupe alkyle linéaire ou ramifié ayant 1 à 8 atomes de carbone, un groupe alcynyle ayant 2 à 10 atomes de carbone ou un atome d'halogène ;

Y représente un atome de soufre ou un atome d'oxygène;

m représente un nombre entier de 0 à 4; et

A représente un groupe amino ayant un substituant.


 
6. Procédé selon la revendication 5, dans lequel X dans la formule générale (1) est un groupe éthyle, un groupe isopropyle, un groupe tert-butyle, un groupe 2,2-diméthylpropyle, un groupe 2-propynyle, un groupe 2-butynyle, ou un atome d'halogène.
 
7. Procédé selon la revendication 5, dans lequel, dans la formule générale (1), m est 0 ou 1 et A est un groupe morpholino, un groupe 4-méthylpipérazine-1-yle, un groupe pipéridine-1-yle ou un groupe pyrrolidine-1-yle.
 
8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, dans lequel la phosphorylation de l'ERK est détectée avec une ou plusieurs substances choisies dans le groupe constitué par une analyse immunohistochimique (IHC), une analyse par transfert Western, un test ELISA et une spectrométrie de masse.
 
9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel le taux d'un certain nombre de cellules ERK phosphorylées positives pour un nombre total de cellules tumorales dans la tumeur provenant du patient est de 1,0% ou plus.
 
10. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel la tumeur est choisie dans le groupe constitué par le cancer de l'ovaire, le cancer du sein, le cancer du poumon à petites cellules, le cancer du poumon non à petites cellules, le cancer du pancréas, le cancer colorectal, le cancer de la tête et du cou, le cancer endométrial, le cancer de l'estomac, le cancer oesophagien, le cancer rénal cellulaire, le cancer prostatique, le cancer cutané, la leucémie, le lymphome, le myélome, le cancer du cerveau et les sarcomes.
 
11. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel la tumeur est choisie dans le groupe constitué par le cancer de l'ovaire, le cancer du sein, le cancer du poumon à petites cellules et le cancer du poumon non à petites cellules.
 
12. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel la tumeur est un cancer de l'ovaire.
 




Drawing






































Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description