(19)
(11)EP 3 089 709 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/37

(21)Application number: 14827689.2

(22)Date of filing:  26.12.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61F 2/40(2006.01)
A61B 17/80(2006.01)
A61F 2/30(2006.01)
A61B 17/86(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2014/072442
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/103090 (09.07.2015 Gazette  2015/27)

(54)

REVERSE SHOULDER SYSTEMS

INVERSES SCHULTERSYSTEM

SYSTÈMES D'ÉPAULE INVERSÉS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 03.01.2014 US 201461923382 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
09.11.2016 Bulletin 2016/45

(73)Proprietor: Tornier, Inc.
Bloomington, MN 55437 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • GARGAC, Shawn Martin
    Bloomington, MN 55437 (US)
  • KUESTER, William Matthew
    Bloomington, MN 55437 (US)
  • HODOREK, Brian C.
    Bloomington, MN 55437 (US)
  • MUTCHLER, Austin Wyatt
    Warsaw, IN 46580 (US)

(74)Representative: Lavoix 
62, rue de Bonnel
69448 Lyon Cedex 03
69448 Lyon Cedex 03 (FR)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 762 201
US-A1- 2010 217 399
US-A1- 2012 253 467
EP-A2- 1 927 328
US-A1- 2011 035 013
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to a glenoid implant for a shoulder prosthesis. The systems and methods described herein are directed to orthopedic implants, for example to reverse shoulder replacement systems and methods for implantation.

    Description of the Related Art



    [0002] Shoulder replacement surgery involves placing a motion providing device at the glenohumeral joint, i.e., the joint interface between the scapula and the proximal humerus of the arm. See Figure 1. Reverse shoulder replacement reverses the curvature of the natural glenoid cavity and the proximal head of the humerus. That is, a convex surface of a glenoid component is positioned on the scapula and a concave surface of a humeral component is positioned on the proximal humerus.

    [0003] Some reverse shoulder systems have limitations in connection with the fixation of the glenoid component. In some glenoid component designs, a one-piece construct is provided in which a central threaded post projects from a baseplate. The threaded post provides fixation to the bone of the scapula, but provides little to no flexibility of the final positioning of peripheral features of the baseplate, such as screw or mount holes thereon. Also, the unitary nature of this approach requires more inventory to provide a proper mix of baseplate configurations and threaded post sizes.

    [0004] Other reverse shoulder systems provide a plate having an integral fixed central post and a plurality of screws that are placed through either the post or the plate. These systems are limited in that the length, inner diameter, and configuration of the central post are fixed. As such, the size of a screw placed through the central post is predefined which limits the ability to perform revisions (subsequent surgeries on the patient to replace the system). In a revision surgery the old implant must be removed and replaced with a new implant. Commonly a lot of bone is removed with the old implant and in this case larger screws are required to securely fix the new glenoid implant to the scapula.

    [0005] In currently available systems, specifically unitary systems having an integral fixed central threaded post, independent rotation is not provided between the post and the baseplate. For these unitary systems the post and the baseplate rotate together when the post is driven into the bone. With other glenoid implants wherein an anchor member is driven through the baseplate and extends from a distal end of the baseplate, axial translation of the baseplate relative to the anchor member is not prevented. For these systems, the baseplate is not secured against axial translation until the anchor member is fully engaged in the scapula and pulls the baseplate against the surface of the bone thereby preventing rotation of the baseplate. EP-A-1 762 201 discloses another glenoid implant which comprises a baseplate and a plurality of anchor pins: a distal portion of each anchor pin is designed to be secured into a glenoid whereas a proximal head of each anchor pin is designed to be coupled with the distal end of the baseplate, being received in an aperture thereof. With this glenoid implant, fixing the baseplate to the anchor pins when they are already secured to the glenoid requires axially translating the baseplate with respect to the glenoid so as to couple the distal end of the baseplate with simultaneously all the anchor pins, so that rotating the baseplate with respect to the glenoid is no longer possible.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0006] There is a need for new shoulder prosthesis systems that can provide more flexibility and better adaptability to patient anatomies while maximizing revision options. When implanting reverse shoulder systems it is desirable to independently attach a baseplate to the scapula and thereafter to independently rotate the baseplate with respect to the scapula such that fixation means in the periphery of the baseplate can be driven into bone thereunder. To that end, the invention is a glenoid implant as defined in claim 1.

    [0007] A glenoid implant, according to some embodiments disclosed herein, includes an anchor member and a baseplate. The anchor member has a longitudinal portion configured to be secured to a bone and a proximal head. The proximal head has a first engaging surface. The baseplate has a proximal end and a distal end. The distal end of the baseplate comprises a first aperture sized to accept the proximal head of the anchor member and a second engaging surface. When the proximal head is inserted from the distal end of the baseplate into the first aperture, the first engaging surface couples with the second engaging surface. In some embodiments, the anchor member is restrained against axial translation by this engagement with respect to the baseplate but is permitted to rotate with respect to the baseplate.

    [0008] Other embodiments of a glenoid implant may further comprise a locking structure configured to apply a force to the anchor member. A glenoid implant may further comprise a glenosphere configured to be attached to the baseplate. A glenoid implant may also include one or more perimeter anchors for securing the baseplate to bone.

    [0009] A method for implanting a glenoid implant, as disclosed herein, includes providing an anchor member and a baseplate. The anchor member has a longitudinal portion configured to be secured to a bone and a proximal head. The proximal head has a first engaging surface. The baseplate has a proximal end and a distal end. The distal end of the baseplate comprises a first aperture sized to accept the proximal head of the anchor member and a second engaging surface. The method includes securing the anchor member at least partially to bone. The method further includes, with the proximal head of the anchor member inserted into the first aperture such that the first engaging surface is coupled to the second engaging surface, rotating the baseplate relative to the anchor member to adjust the position of the baseplate without adjusting the rotational position of the anchor member. The method may further include securing the baseplate to the bone.

    [0010] In some cases, a method further comprises, prior to securing the anchor member at least partially to bone, inserting the proximal head into the first aperture to cause the first engaging surface to couple with the second engaging surface. A method may also comprise applying a force to the anchor member with a locking member to prevent rotation between the anchor member and the baseplate. A method may also comprise engaging a glenosphere to the baseplate. In some embodiments, securing the baseplate to bone comprises inserting one or more perimeter anchors through one or more openings in the baseplate.

    [0011] Other embodiments of the invention include additional implants or components of implants, described herein. A system or kit may also be provided according to some embodiments, wherein the system or kit comprises a plurality of anchor members engageable with one or more baseplates and/or a plurality of baseplates engageable with one or more anchor members, examples of which are described further herein.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0012] These and other features, aspects and advantages are described below with reference to the drawings, which are intended to illustrate but not to limit the inventions. In the drawings, like reference characters denote corresponding features consistently throughout similar embodiments. The following is a brief description of each of the drawings.

    Figure 1 is a schematic view of the human shoulder.

    Figure 2 is a perspective view of a glenoid implant in an assembled configuration.

    Figure 3 is an exploded view of the glenoid implant shown in Figure 2.

    Figure 4 is a cross-sectional side view of the glenoid implant shown in Figure 2.

    Figure 5 is a side view of a baseplate and an anchor member of a glenoid implant.

    Figure 6 is a cross-sectional, exploded side view of a baseplate, an anchor member and perimeter anchor members.

    Figure 6A illustrates an embodiment of an anchor retention member.

    Figures 7A-7E are side views of different embodiments of anchor members, which may be assembled into a kit.

    Figure 8A is a top perspective view of a baseplate.

    Figures 8B-8E are side views of different embodiments of baseplates.

    Figures 8F-G are top views of different embodiments of baseplates.

    Figure 8H is a top perspective view of another embodiment of a baseplate.

    Figure 9A is a cross-sectional side view of a baseplate with a dual threaded lumen and an anchor member.

    Figure 9B is a cross-sectional side view of the baseplate of Figure 9A.

    Figure 10 illustrates an implantation tool and a method of using such a tool to implant a portion of a glenoid implant.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS



    [0013] While the present description sets forth specific details of various embodiments, it will be appreciated that the description is illustrative only and should not be construed in any way as limiting. Furthermore, various applications of such embodiments and modifications thereto, which may occur to those who are skilled in the art, are also encompassed by the general concepts described herein. Each and every feature described herein, and each and every combination of two or more of such features, is included within the scope of the present invention provided that the features included in such a combination are not mutually inconsistent.

    [0014] Figure 1 depicts the human shoulder. The glenoid cavity is a portion of the shoulder that is located on the scapula. The glenoid cavity articulates with the head of the humerus to permit motion of the glenohumeral joint. Total shoulder arthroplasty replaces the glenohumeral joint with prosthetic articular surfaces that replicate the naturally occurring concave and convex surfaces of the body. Typically, in total shoulder arthroplasty, an articular surface replaces the humeral head and an articular surface replaces cartilage in the glenoid cavity. In a typical reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, a glenoid implant with a convex spherical head is inserted into the glenoid cavity and a complimentary socket is placed on the humerus. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty reverses the naturally occurring ball and socket orientation related to the glenohumeral joint.

    [0015] Figures 2-4 depict a glenoid implant 100, more preferably a reverse glenoid implant, configured to be implanted in the glenoid cavity of a patient in the patient's scapula. The glenoid implant 100 includes an anchor member 104 for anchoring the implant 100 in the scapular glenoid, a baseplate 108, a locking structure 112 configured to deter rotation of the anchor member relative to the baseplate, and a glenosphere 116 having an articular surface (e.g., a convex, spherical surface). The glenosphere 116 is configured to couple to a complimentary prosthetic device anchored to the humerus (not shown, but sometimes referred to herein as the humeral component) in order for the joint replacement implants to replicate the motion of the human shoulder. The humeral component can take any suitable form such as those disclosed in connection with Figures 18-21 and elsewhere in US provisional application number 61/719835, filed October 29, 2012 Suitable humeral components can be configured to couple with reverse shoulder joint components, including those described in connection with Figures 1-9, 27-38, and 39-41 of the '835 application. Suitable humeral components can be configured to adapt to anatomical and reverse shoulder configurations. The glenoid implant 100 and the humeral component provide a replacement for the natural glenohumeral joint.

    [0016] As used herein, the terms "distal" and "proximal" are used to refer to the orientation of the glenoid implant as shown in Figures 2-4. As shown in Figure 3, a longitudinal axis 120 of the glenoid implant 100 extends through a central longitudinal axis 124 of anchor member 104 (shown in Figures 4 and 6). The glenosphere 116 is towards the proximal end along the longitudinal axis 120 and the anchor member 104 is towards the distal end along the longitudinal axis 120. In other words, an element is proximal to another element if it is closer to a central aperture 128 (shown in Figure 4) of the glenosphere 116 than the other element, and an element is distal to another element if it closer to a distal tip 132 (shown in Figure 4) of the anchor member 104 than the other element. At some points below, reference may be made to the anatomical location. In use when the implant is delivered into a patient's scapula, the distal tip 132 of the anchor member 104 is more medial on the patient, whereas the articular surface of the glenosphere 116 is more lateral on the patient.

    [0017] Figures 3 and 4 show that the baseplate 108 is oriented substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 120 of the glenoid implant 100. The baseplate 108 is shown coupled to the anchor member 104 in Figures 4 and 5 and apart from the anchor member 104 in Figure 6. Referring now to Figure 5, the baseplate 108 has a proximal end 136 and a distal end 140. The proximal end 136 comprises a proximal surface 144 and the distal end 140 comprises a distal surface 148. The proximal surface 144 can be substantially parallel to the distal surface 148. The baseplate 108 can also include a bone engaging surface 152. A thickness of the baseplate 108 defined between the proximal surface 144 and the bone engaging surface 152 may correspond to the amount that the baseplate 108 extends above a surface of the bone when implanted. The thickness can be in a range between about 2mm and about 12mm, e.g., between about 4mm and about 9mm, e.g., about 6mm. Thicknesses of about 3mm, 5mm, 7mm, 8mm, 10mm and 11mm are also contemplated. The bone engaging surface 152 can be substantially parallel to the proximal surface 144 and/or the distal surface 148. The baseplate 108 also has a lateral surface 156 that spans between the proximal surface 144 of the baseplate 108 and the bone engaging surface 152 of the baseplate 108. The lateral surface 156 can have a circular profile when viewed in a cross-section plane extending parallel to the proximal surface 144. The diameter of the circular profile can be between about 20 mm and about 40 mm, e.g., between about 25mm and about 35 mm, e.g. about 30 mm. In some embodiments, the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108 is configured to form a portion of a friction lock engagement, such as a Morse taper. In one embodiment, the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108 is tronconical. The term tronconical, as used herein, refers to a shape or surface that is or is similar to a truncated cone. In some embodiments, the lateral surface 156 is configured with a gradually increasing perimeter in a direction from proximal surface 144 toward the bone engaging surface 152.

    [0018] As illustrated in Figure 5, in some embodiments, the baseplate 108 can include a central protrusion 160 that projects distally from the bone engaging surface 152 to the distal end 140. The central protrusion 160 has an outer surface 164 that extends from the bone engaging surface 152 to the distal surface 148. Referring now to Figure 6, the central protrusion 160 can include a first aperture 168 which may be cylindrical. In some embodiments, the first aperture 168 may include a groove 172 along an inner wall of the first aperture. The baseplate 108 can have a second aperture 176 that in some embodiments, extends from the first aperture 168 to the proximal end 136 of the baseplate 108, such that a lumen 180 is formed through the baseplate 108. The second aperture 176 can include an internally threaded surface 184 as shown. In some embodiments, the second aperture 176 is smaller in diameter than the first aperture 168.

    [0019] Figure 6 shows that the baseplate 108 includes a plurality of holes, e.g., two holes 188, 192 positioned laterally outward of the lumen 180, that are configured to accept perimeter anchor members 196. The holes 188, 192 extend from the proximal end 136 of the baseplate 108 to the bone engaging surface 152 of the baseplate 108. These holes 188, 192 are also illustrated in Figure 8A, which illustrates a perspective view of the proximal end 136 of the baseplate 108 of Figures 2-6. As illustrated, the baseplate 108 may have a circular shape, with a thickness between the proximal surface 144 and the bone engaging surface 152 that is less than a diameter of the proximal surface 136. It will be appreciated that the baseplate 108 need not be circular, and may have other shapes as well.

    [0020] Referring to Figures 3 and 6, the holes 188, 192 can be defined in part by internal members 200 that are disposed within recesses 204 in baseplate 108. In some embodiments, the internal member 200 is semi-spherical and the recess 204 is semi-spherical, in order to permit the rotation and tilting of the internal member 200 with respect to the baseplate 108. The internal member 200 allows a longitudinal axis extending centrally through the holes 188, 192 (for example longitudinal axis 208 extending through hole 188 as shown in Figure 6) to be aimed to some extent toward a desired anatomical feature. The movement of the internal member 200 allows the positioning and/or aiming of perimeter anchor members 196 toward a desired location. The longitudinal axis 208 extending through the hole 188 can be substantially parallel to a longitudinal axis 212 extending through the second aperture 176 and/or lumen 180, as shown by the orientation of the internal member 200 in part defining the hole 188 or angled with respect to the longitudinal axis 212 of the second aperture 176 and/or lumen 180, not shown.

    [0021] The number and position of the holes 188, 192 depends on many factors including the anatomical structure of the patient, the diameter of the perimeter anchor members 196, and size constraints dictated by dimensions of the baseplate 108. Thus, there may be fewer or greater holes and perimeter anchors members than illustrated. In some embodiments, perimeter anchor members 196 are inserted through the baseplate 108 from the proximal end 136 thereof. As shown in Figure 6, the perimeter anchor member 196 can be inserted in the general direction of Arrow A.

    [0022] Figure 6 shows that the anchor member 104 is configured to be attached to the bone of a patient. The anchor member 104 is generally formed of a cylindrical longitudinal portion 216 and a proximal head 220, both of which extend along a longitudinal axis 124 of the anchor member 104. The anchor member 104 has an external lateral surface 224 which may include a self-tapping threaded surface. Other lateral surfaces of anchor members are discussed below in connection with Figures 7A-7E, 8E, and 9A. As used herein, a threaded surface is right-handed when the driving action is performed with clockwise rotation and left-handed when the driving action is performed with counterclockwise rotation. The threading of the external lateral surface 224 of the anchor member 104 may be right-handed or left-handed. In some embodiments, the longitudinal portion 216 of the anchor member 104 comprises a distally tapered distal tip 132.

    [0023] Figure 6 shows that the proximal head 220 can have a cavity 228 disposed about the longitudinal axis 124. The cavity 228 extends distally from the proximal end of the proximal head 220. In some embodiments, the cavity 228 comprises one or more flat surfaces that are capable of mating with a driver configured to apply rotational force to drive the anchor member 104 into the bone. For example, the cavity 228 can have a hexagonal cross-section, centered on the longitudinal axis 124, configured to mate with a hexagonal cross-section driver. The proximal head 220 can comprise a groove 232. In some embodiments, the groove 232 is a circumferential groove around an external surface of the proximal head 220. The proximal head 220 may include an inclined surface 236, the function of which is discussed in greater detail below.

    [0024] Referring to Figures 5 and 6, the anchor member 104 and the baseplate 108 are coupled in the first aperture 168, which is sized to accept the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104. In some embodiments, the glenoid implant 100 comprises a member 240, as shown in Figure 3, 4 and 6, that is sized to fit partly within the groove 232 in the proximal head 220 and partly within the groove 172 in the baseplate 108. The member 240 can comprise a c-clip, o-ring or similar protruding device that can span at least a portion of the groove 232 in the proximal head 220 and at least a portion of the groove 172 in the baseplate 108. Alternatively member 240 may be comprised of elastically deformable barbs, fingers, or other projections having one end attached to and angled away from either head 220 or baseplate 108 such that the projections are deformed between head and baseplate when head is inserted into baseplate and such that the unattached end of the projections elastically expands into groove in head or baseplate. In this way, the anchor member 104 is held at a fixed position along the longitudinal axis 120 of the glenoid implant 100, shown in Figure 4, relative to the baseplate 108. Preferably the coupling provided by the member 240 does not prevent the relative rotation of the anchor member 104 and the baseplate 108. In some embodiments, as shown in Figures 4 and 6, the member 240 is retained within the groove 172 of the baseplate 108 before the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104 is inserted into the first aperture 168.

    [0025] Figure 6 depicts the anchor member 104 separate from the baseplate 108, e.g., before being coupled to the baseplate. The anchor member 104 can be inserted from the distal end 140 of the baseplate 108 into the first aperture 168. During insertion, the inclined surface 236 of the proximal head 220 initially contacts the member 240. Further insertion of the anchor member 104 displaces the member 240 away from the axis 124, farther into the groove 172. Such displacement allows the anchor member 104 to be inserted farther into the first aperture 168. The anchor member 104 is inserted into the first aperture 168 until the member 240 engages the groove 232 in the proximal head 220. The anchor member 104 is retained in the baseplate 108 by the spanning of the member 240 across the gap between the longitudinally adjacent grooves 232, 172, as shown in Figure 4.

    [0026] In some embodiments, the member 240 is deformed by the proximal head 220 when the proximal head 220 is inserted into the first aperture 168. For example, the inclined surface 236 can provide a progressively larger force on the member 240 as the proximal head 220 is urged from the distal end 140 of the baseplate 108 proximally into the first aperture 168 of the central protrusion 160. The inclined surface 236 can have an angle of about 45 degrees or greater. In this context, the angle is measured relative to the flattened proximal end of the proximal head 220. In one embodiment, the member 240 has a corresponding inclined surface 368 (see Figure 6) that faces distally. When the groove 232 in the proximal head 220 aligns with the groove 172 in the baseplate 108, the member 240 returns to a relaxed state, e.g., is no longer deformed and the member 240 functions to couple the anchor member 104 to the baseplate 108. More specifically, the member 240 couples the proximal head 220 to the first aperture 168.

    [0027] Figure 6A illustrates a member 240A having mating ends. In particular, the clip member 240A has a first end 241, a second end 242, and an arcuate segment 243 therebetween. The inclined surface 368 is provided along a distal-facing side of the arcuate segment 243. The first and second ends 241, 242 are configured to mate or nest together when urged toward each other. For example, the first end 241 can have a reduced thickness on the distal facing side thereof and the second end 242 can have a reduced thickness on a proximal facing side thereof. The reductions in thickness of the first and second ends 241, 242 can sum to the total thickness of the arcuate segment 243 or more in various embodiment. As a result, the ends 241, 242 can move from a spaced apart configuration to an overlapping configuration with minimal to no deflection of the ends 241, 242 in a proximal-distal direction being required. Alternatively, the reductions in thickness of the first and second ends 241, 242 can sum to less than total thickness of the arcuate segment 243. In such embodiments, upon causing the ends 241, 242 to overlap, deflection of the ends along the proximal-distal direction will occur causing a widening of the clip 240A in the region of the ends 241, 242 compared to in the arcuate segment 243. Figure 6A illustrates an enlarged configuration of the member 240A, e.g., a configuration in which an anchor member is being inserted and the clip member 240A is enlarged to permit advancement of a head of the anchor member through the clip member 240A and a corresponding baseplate. These structures are examples of various means for preventing axial translation of the baseplate 108 relative to the anchor member 104 while permitting rotation therebetween.

    [0028] Figure 4 shows that the glenosphere 116 defines a convex, articular surface 244. The glenosphere 116 defines an interior surface 248 configured to receive the baseplate 108. In particular, the interior surface 248 of the glenosphere 116 is configured to couple with the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108. In some embodiments, the interior surface 248 of the glenosphere 116 is configured to frictionally engage the surface 156, e.g., in a Morse taper. In some embodiments, the interior surface 248 of the glenosphere 116 is tronconical. The glenosphere 116 can include an internal threaded surface 252. In some embodiments, the glenosphere 116 comprises a creep-resistant material, such as a suitable metal including any of stainless steel, cobalt-chrome alloy, or titanium which permits the interior surface 248 to deflect slightly in connection with forming a secure connection such as a Morse taper.

    [0029] Referring to Figures 3 and 4, the locking structure 112 can include a locking screw 256, a compression washer 260, and a threaded member 264, which may be a bushing. The locking screw 256 has a body that extends along the longitudinal axis 120 when the assembly 100 is assembled. The locking screw 256 can have an external threaded surface 272 and a proximal head 276, as shown in Figure 4. A lateral surface 280 of the locking screw 256 located between the external threaded surface 272 and the proximal head 276 has a smooth surface, e.g., one that is not threaded. In some embodiments, a driver can be introduced into the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 in order to rotate the locking screw 256. The compression washer 260 is generally annular in shape in one embodiment. The threaded member 264 includes one or more internal threads 284 configured to mate with the external threaded surface 272 of the locking screw 256. The threaded member 264 can include a sidewall 288 that forms an internal cavity 292 configured to house the compression washer 260. The sidewall 288 can have an external threaded surface 296 that is configured to mate with an internal threaded surface 252 of the glenosphere 116. The glenoid implant 100 is configured to be assembled as shown in Figures 2 and 4.

    [0030] Figure 4 shows that during assembly of the locking structure 112, the compression washer 260 can be inserted into the internal cavity 292 of the threaded member 264 and housed within the sidewall 288. The locking screw 256 can be inserted through the compression washer 260 from the proximal end to the distal end thereof. A portion of the external threaded surface 272 of the locking screw 256 passes through the central aperture of the compression washer 260. The locking screw 256 can be inserted into the threaded member 264 such that the external threaded surface 272 of the locking screw 256 mates with the internal thread(s) 284 of the threaded member 264. The locking screw 256 can be further rotated until the compression washer 260 is loosely retained between the threaded member 264 and the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256. The smooth lateral surface 280 can be disposed within the internal threads 284 of the threaded member 264, when the compression washer 260 is loosely retained.

    [0031] The locking structure 112, which can include the locking screw 256, the compression washer 260, and the threaded member 264, can be coupled to the glenosphere 116, as shown in Figure 4. In some embodiments, the locking structure 112 is coupled to the glenosphere 116 after the locking structure 112 has been assembled, as described above. The threads on external surface 296 of the sidewall 288 of the threaded member 264 can be rotated to engage the internal threaded surface 252 of the glenosphere 116. This may involve rotation of the locking screw 256 toward the threaded member 264, so that the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 fits within the glenosphere 116. The glenosphere 116 can have a central aperture 128 that allows access to the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256. The central aperture 128 permits a driver or other tool to engage the locking screw 256. As shown in Figure 4, the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 can have a cavity with one or more flats, e.g., a hexagonal cavity, configured to mate with the driver.

    [0032] The locking structure 112 can be coupled to the baseplate 108, as shown in Figure 4. In some embodiments, the locking structure 112 is coupled to the baseplate 108 after the locking structure 112 has been assembled, as described above. In some embodiments, the locking structure 112 is coupled to the baseplate 108 after the locking structure 112 is coupled to the glenosphere 116, as described above. The locking screw 256 can be rotated until the external threaded surface 272 of the locking screw 256 engages the second aperture 176 in baseplate 108, in particular the threaded surface 184 (See Figure 6). When the locking screw 256 is rotated, the locking screw 256 traverses the second aperture 176 distally toward the anchor member 104. Further rotation of the locking screw 256 brings the distal tip 300 of the locking screw 256 into contact with the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104. In some embodiments, the distal tip 300 of the locking screw 256 enters the cavity 228. The locking screw 256 is capable of applying a force to the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104. In some embodiments, this downward (e.g., distally directed) force applies a compression force to the member 240 such that the member 240 applies a frictional force to the groove 232 on the proximal head 220. A friction force will also be applied by the distal tip 300 to the wall at the distal end of the cavity 228. The distally directed forces created by the locking screw 256 on the anchor member 104 and/or the member 240 are sufficient to reduce or prohibit the rotation of the anchor member 104 with respect to the baseplate 108. For example, high friction can arise due to the high normal force generated by action of the locking screw 256.

    [0033] Referring to Figure 4, when the locking screw 256 is rotated and advanced towards the anchor member 104, the locking screw 256 can cause a force to be applied to the glenosphere 116. Rotation of the locking screw 256 can move the proximal head 276 toward the distal end of the threaded member 264. Rotation of the locking screw 256 can bring the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 into contact with the compression washer 260. In some embodiments, the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 can apply a downward force on the compression washer 260. The compression washer 260 can thereby apply a downward force on the threaded member 264. The threaded member 264 including the sidewall 288 can be coupled with the internal threaded surface 252 of the glenosphere 116. The threaded member 264 can provide a downward force on the glenosphere 116, as the locking screw 256 is advanced distally toward the anchor member 104. This causes the glenosphere 116 to move distally and engage the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108.

    [0034] Figure 4 shows that the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108 is tapered, e.g., tronconical, in some embodiments. The glenosphere 116 defines an interior surface 248 that is tapered or tronconical or otherwise configured to create high friction with the baseplate 108. The surfaces 156, 248 can be initially engaged in any suitable manner, e.g., using an impactor to create an initial frictional engagement therebetween. In some embodiments, the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108 and the interior surface 248 of the glenosphere 116 form a Morse taper. The distally directed force of the locking screw 256 enhances, e.g., makes more rigid, the connection between the anchor 104 and baseplate 108, reducing or eliminating play between these components. As a secondary advantageous effect, the distally directed force of the locking screw 256 can also increase the friction at the surfaces 156, 248. The frictional force created by the coupling of the glenosphere 116 and the baseplate 108 add to the rigidity of the glenoid implant 100.

    [0035] The compression washer 260 shown in Figure 4 can have multiple functions. The compression washer 260 is configured to fill the space between the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 and the threaded member 264 to add to the rigidity of the implant 100. In particular, rotation of the locking screw 256 applies a force on the compression washer 260 which can compress or otherwise deform the compression washer 260. In the compressed state, the compression washer 260 applies a force to maintain the position of the locking screw 256. The placement and use of the compression washer 260 facilitates the rigidity of the glenoid implant 100 by filling the space between the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 and the threaded member 264. Additionally, the locking screw 256 applies a force to the anchor member 104. This force enhances the connection of the anchor member 104 to the baseplate 104 which reduces or eliminate play between these components to minimize or reduce loosening of these components over time. For example, maintaining the position of the locking screw 256, the compression washer 260 further minimizes or prevents rotation, translation, or micromotion of the anchor member 104 with respect to the baseplate 108. In some embodiments, the compression washer 260 tends to distribute the force of the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256. The compression washer 260 causes the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 to be in contact with a larger surface area of the threaded member 264. The distribution of force facilitates the downward movement of the glenosphere 116 with respect to the baseplate 108 and/or enhances friction between the surfaces 156, 248 as discussed above. The compression washer 260 further minimizes or prevents rotation, translation, or micromotion of the glenosphere 116 with respect to the baseplate 108.

    [0036] The glenoid implant 100 can have a modular design, meaning that the anchor member 104 and the baseplate 108 can be interchangeable with another anchor member and/or another baseplate. In some embodiments a single baseplate can couple with any one of a plurality of anchor members in a kit including a plurality of anchor members, such as shown in Figure 7A-7E. In some embodiments, a single anchor member can couple with any one of a plurality of baseplates in some or in another kit, including for example the baseplates shown in Figures 8A-8G. The proximal heads of the anchor members can have a consistent diameter among a plurality of anchor members in some kits. Further, the grooves and the cavities of the anchor members can be consistent in size and location among a plurality of anchor members in some kits. In some embodiments, the grooves and first apertures of the baseplates is a consistent diameter among a plurality of baseplates in the kit. Further, the second apertures and the lumens of the baseplates can be consistent in size and location among a plurality of baseplates. This allows for the interchangeability of the plurality of anchor members with any one of a plurality of baseplates or the plurality of baseplates with any one of a plurality of anchor members.

    [0037] Figures 7A-7E show that the modular design allows the use of a plurality of anchor members with a given baseplate. In Figures 7A-7E, the anchor members 104A-104E include a longitudinal portion 216A, 216B, 216C, 216D or 216E, a distal end, a proximal head 220, and a groove 232. The anchor members 104A-104E shown in Figures 7A-7E are compatible with the baseplates 108, described herein. The anchor members 104A-104E may include additional features of anchor members described herein.

    [0038] Figures 7A-7C differ with respect to the external lateral surface and the longitudinal portion of the anchor member. The anchor members 104A, 104B, 104C may have a longitudinal portion 216A, 216B, 216C having different configurations, e.g., diameters and/or lengths. The longitudinal portion 216A of anchor member 104A has a constant diameter and thread pitch, but different lengths in different embodiments. The anchor member 104B has a different diameter and/or thread pitch from the anchor member 104A. The anchor member 104C has a different diameter and/or thread pitch from the anchor members 104A and 104B.

    [0039] As shown in Figures 7A-7C, the anchor members 104A-104C can have a different diameter in the longitudinal portions 216A-216C. In some embodiments, the diameters are in the range of 6.5 mm to 9.5 mm. Larger diameter anchor members can be useful for revision of total shoulder arthroplasty or failed reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The anchor members of the plurality of anchor members can have different lengths, and in some embodiments the lengths of the anchor member can be in the range of 15 mm to 40 mm. The external lateral surface is configured to engage a bony surface. The configurations shown in Figures 7A-7C demonstrate the ability to provide, e.g., in a kit, a plurality of anchor members from which a particular anchor member can be selected based on the anatomy of a patient.

    [0040] Figure 7D depicts another embodiment of an anchor member 104D. The anchor member 104D has a cylindrical section of material along the longitudinal portion 216D of the anchor member 104D. The cylindrical section includes porous material 304 to promote bony ingrowth. That is, bone material can grow into the pores of the cylindrical section of porous material 304. The longitudinal portion 216D may include an external threaded surface to engage bone. Figures 7A-7D show the proximal head 220 of the anchor members 104A-104D may have a consistent configuration. For example, the proximal head can have a unitary diameter among a plurality of anchor members. The anchor member may include a groove that engages member 240 as described above.

    [0041] Figure 7E shows an anchor member 104E. The longitudinal portion 216E can include an external lateral surface that is generally without threads to be tapped or otherwise pressed into the bone. The external lateral surface may be comprised of ridges, circumferential ridges, rough coatings, knurling, plasma sprayed metal, or other rough surfaces that will increase the friction of the longitudinal portion 216E relative to the bone thereby helping to prevent longitudinal portion 216E from pulling out of the bone. The anchor member 104E comprises a proximal head 220 that is the same as the proximal heads in the anchor members of Figures 7A-7D. The longitudinal portion 216E can be tapered, e.g., having a narrower transverse profile adjacent to its distal end and a wider transverse profile adjacent to the head 220. The proximal head 220 has a groove 232 that couples with the baseplate 108 in the same manner as the other anchor members discussed herein. The anchor member 104E provides additional options for the interchangeable anchor member.

    [0042] The anchor members 104, 104A-104E (described above) and 312 (described below in connection with Figure 9A) can be made from a biocompatible material such as a metal alloy, polymer, or ceramic. For example, anchor members can be made from stainless steel, titanium, titanium alloy, cobalt-chrome alloy, and/or PEEK. In some embodiments, the anchor member 104, 104A-104E, 312 is more rigid than the baseplate 108. The rigidity of the anchor member 104, 104A-104E, 312 prevents deformation of the anchor member during insertion into the bone and during use as a glenoid implant.

    [0043] Figures 8A-8H illustrate embodiments of baseplates having features similar to those described above and/or additional features. One or more of these features may be interchanged or incorporated into any of the baseplates described herein. In the embodiment of Figures 8A, G and H, on the proximal surface 144, the baseplate 108, 108G, 108H may include tool engaging grooves or openings 398. The tool engaging grooves 398 are configured to engage two radially extending legs of a tool described below with reference to Figure 10.

    [0044] As shown in the embodiments of Figures 5, 8AC and 8F-8H, the central protrusion 160 is centrally disposed relative to the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108. For example, a central longitudinal axis of the central protrusion 160 can be disposed equidistant from points along the lateral surface 156, as shown in Figure 5. Figures 8B-8H illustrate more features of baseplates that can be combined with and/or substituted for features illustrated in the embodiment of Figures 5 and 8A. For example, Figures 8B-8E illustrate baseplates 108B-108D with configurations that can augment or compensate for scapula bone loss. Figure 8B shows that the bone engaging surface 320 has a curved surface (e.g., a convex surface). The bone engaging surface 320 is symmetrical with respect to the central protrusion. Figure 8C shows that the bone engaging surface 324 of the baseplate 108C has an anatomically curved surface. The curved surface can be nonsymmetrical with respect to the central protrusion. The curved surface can be selected by the surgeon to match an anatomic feature of the patient's bone. The bone engaging surfaces 152, 320, 324 can match the curvature of the glenoid cavity of the patient.

    [0045] Figures 8D-8E illustrate that the protrusion 328 can be eccentric with respect to the baseplate 108D. In each of these embodiments, the protrusion 328 is not centrally disposed relative to the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108D. An anchor member such as anchor member 104 can be inserted into the protrusion 328, as discussed above with reference to central protrusion 160. When an anchor member is coupled to the baseplate 108D, the anchor member is eccentric with respect to the baseplate 108D.

    [0046] Figures 8F-8H each illustrate embodiments of a baseplate 108F, 108G, 108H with a plurality of holes, e.g., five, holes 190 or four holes 194. The holes are located around the periphery of the lumen 180. In some embodiments, the holes are equidistant with respect to each other, in other words, the holes are equally spaced around the lumen 180. Figure 8G further illustrates that tool engaging grooves 398 may also be provided between holes 194.

    [0047] Figure 8H illustrates a baseplate 108H that has further features that can be combined with any of the other baseplates herein. The baseplate 108H has a radial protrusion 330 disposed between the proximal surface 144 and the bone engaging surface (not shown but opposite the surface 144). The radial protrusion 330 has a proximally oriented face 334. The face 334 can include an annular surface extending outward from a distal portion of the peripheral surface 156. In one embodiment, the face 334 abuts the glenosphere 116 when the glenoid implant 100 is fully assembled. The radial protrusion 330 can also define a positive stop for the distal advancement of the glenosphere 116 during assembly of the glenoid implant 100 such that the glenosphere is not overstressed by being advanced too far over the surface 156.

    [0048] Figures 9A and 9B illustrate an alternative embodiment of an anchor member 312 and a baseplate 336. The proximal head 340 of the anchor member 312 can include a threaded surface 344, as shown in Figure 9A. The threads disposed on the surface 344 of the proximal head 340 of the anchor member 312 may be left-handed. The first aperture 348 in the baseplate 336 can include a threaded surface 352 configured to mate with the threads on the surface 344 of the proximal head 340. The threaded surface 352 of the first aperture 348 can be left-handed. Further, the baseplate 336 can comprise a central portion 356 that is not threaded. The central portion 356 can be surrounded by a smooth surface. The threaded surface in the aperture 348 is disposed between the smooth surface and a distal surface 358 of the baseplate 336. The smooth surface of the first aperture 348 has a length (e.g., along the longitudinal axis of the aperture, left to right on Figure 9B) and a width (e.g., a diameter or dimension transverse to the longitudinal axis of the aperture, up and down on Figure 9B). The threaded surface 344 has a length less than or equal to the length of the smooth surface disposed around the central portion 356 of the first aperture. When the threaded surface 344 is housed in the central portion 356, rotation in one direction does not cause the threaded surface 344 and the threads in the aperture 348 to engage each other in a manner permitting advancement along the longitudinal axis of the anchor member 312 or the baseplate 336. For example, if the threaded surface 344 and the threads in the aperture 348 are left-handed, the baseplate 336 can be rotated clockwise without the threads engaging and without the baseplate advancing axially along the longitudinal axis of the anchor member 312. Thus, the anchor member 312 and the baseplate 336 are restrained in axial translation but are permitted to rotate relative to each other. Of course, the threaded surface 344 and the threads in the aperture 348 could be right-handed and in such arrangement the baseplate could be rotated counterclockwise without the threads engaging.

    [0049] In some embodiments, the anchor member 312 can be advanced from the distal end 360 of the baseplate 336, through the first aperture 348. The threaded surface 344 of the anchor member 312 can engage the threaded surface 352 of the baseplate 336. The anchor member 312 can be advanced until the threaded surface 344 on the proximal head 340 is proximal of the threaded surface 352 such that the threads of the surface 344 disengage from the threads of the threaded surface 352 of the first aperture 348. When the threaded surface 344 of the proximal head 340 disengages from the threaded surface 352 of the first aperture 348, the threaded surface 344 of the proximal head 340 is disposed within the central portion 356. Figures 9A and 9B show that in this configuration, the anchor member 312 is prevented from axial translation with respect to the baseplate 336 but is freely rotatable with respect to the baseplate 336.

    [0050] In some embodiments, the proximal head 340 of the anchor member 312 is advanced into the central portion 356 of the baseplate 336 before the anchor member 312 is driven into the bone. For instance, the manufacturer can provide the anchor member 312 coupled to the baseplate 336, as shown in Figure 9A, or this assembly can be provided by the surgeon after selecting the baseplate 336 and/or the anchor member 312 from a plurality of baseplates and/or anchor members as discussed elsewhere herein. The baseplate 336 can be held in a desired orientation when the anchor member 312 is driven into the bone. In some embodiments, the baseplate 336 is maintained in a desired orientation by one or more tools, such as the cannulated tools as described in connection with Figure 10 below while the anchor member 312 is advanced by rotation into the bone.

    [0051] According to some methods, the anchor member 312 is partially or fully seated within the bone before the proximal head 340 of the anchor member 312 is advanced into the central portion 356 of the baseplate 336. As noted above, the first aperture 348 and the threaded surface 344 of the proximal head 340 can have left-handed threads. The external lateral surface 364 of the anchor member 100 can have right-handed threads. The baseplate 336 can be rotated with respect to the proximal head 340 such that the proximal head 340 advances through the first aperture 348 and is disposed within the central aperture 356 without disengaging the external lateral surface 364 of the anchor member 312 from the bone. Once the threaded surface 344 on the proximal head 340 is contained within the central portion 356, the surgeon can then rotate the baseplate 336 to align the baseplate 336 with anatomical features of the patient. In some embodiments, following proper orientation of the baseplate 336 relative to the patient, the surgeon can fully seat anchor member 312 into the bone. In some embodiments, the locking structure 112, described in greater detail above, can be utilized with anchor member 312 and baseplate 336. The locking structure 112 applies a force to the anchor member 312, which prevents subsequent rotation of the anchor member 312 with respect to the baseplate 336. The locking structure 112 may also apply a force to glenosphere 116, which creates a frictional lock with the baseplate 336. Further details regarding the use of the locking structure and methods of using the anchor member 312 and baseplate 336 are described below.

    [0052] Figure 9A shows that the anchor member 312 can be cannulated. The cannulation allows the anchor member 312 to slide over a guide wire during insertion. The use of a guide wire helps to ensure the proper placement of the anchor member 312 within the bone. The anchor members 104, 104A-104E can also be cannulated to facilitate placement.

    [0053] A method of using the glenoid implant 100 can include a plurality of steps, in addition to the method of assembling the glenoid implant 100 described above. The surgeon may select one or more of the plurality of steps. Further, a manufacturer providing a glenoid implant can provide instructions for one or more of the plurality of steps.

    [0054] In one embodiment, a method of using a glenoid implant comprises selecting a preferred baseplate and/or preferred anchor member from a plurality of anchor members such as anchor members 104, 104A-104E, 312 and/or a plurality of baseplates such as baseplates 108, 108B-108G, 336 described above, to best suit the patient. For example, any of the baseplates 108, 108B-108G, 336 and/or the anchors 104, 104A-104E, 312 can be selected based upon the shape of the prepared bone. The baseplates and/or anchors can also be selected based on patient anatomy. For example, a baseplate could be selected that has holes arranged to be positioned above underlying scapular bone. Or a baseplate could be selected that has holes arranged to be positioned above underlying high quality, e.g., high density, bone. As discussed above with reference to Figures 5 and 8A-8G, the baseplate can have a variety of different bone engaging surfaces 152, 316, 320, 324 332, and configurations in order to best suit the patient. Further, the surgeon may select from a variety of bone anchors, such as those shown in Figures 6, 7A-7E, and 9A-9B. The plurality of anchor members can include different diameters of the longitudinal portion, wherein the bone anchor is selected based on the best fit with the anatomic structure of the patient, specifically the best fit in accordance with the glenoid that was removed. As noted above, the bottom loaded design (e.g., where the anchor member is inserted in the distal end 140 of the baseplate) permits the longitudinal portion and the external lateral surface of the anchor member to have a larger diameter than the diameter of one or more of the following: the second aperture, the first aperture, the lumen, and the central protrusion, which is an advantage for revision cases where much glenoid bone is typically removed. Further, the surgeon can make this selection after exposing the shoulder joint and inspecting the patient's anatomy. The bone anchors in the kit can have different thread pitch, lengths and diameters of the longitudinal portion, and integral components such as those to promote bony ingrowth, as shown in Figure 7D.

    [0055] After selecting a preferred anchor member and a preferred baseplate, the surgeon or other practitioner may attach the anchor member to the baseplate. For example, a surgeon may insert the proximal head 220 of any of the anchor members 104, 104A-104E into the first aperture 168 of any of the baseplates 108, 108B-108G. This insertion can result in coupling the anchor member 104, 104A-104E to the baseplate 108, 108B-108G. The proximal head 220 is inserted from the distal end 140 of the baseplate 108, 108B-108G into the first aperture 168. The proximal head 220 does not traverse the second aperture 176. The longitudinal portion 216, 216A-216E of the anchor member 104, 104A-104E remains distal to the baseplate 108, 108B-108G when the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104, 104A-104E is inserted into the first aperture 168 of the baseplate 108, 108B-108G. The longitudinal portion 216, 216A-216E of the anchor member 104, 104A-104E is not inserted into the first aperture 168. The longitudinal portion 216, 216A-216E of the anchor member 104, 104A-104E is not inserted into the second aperture 176. The longitudinal portion 216, 216A-216E of the anchor member 104, 104A-104E remains outside the confines of the baseplate 108, 108B-108G during coupling of the anchor member 104, 104A-104E to the baseplate 108, 108B-108G. During coupling, the longitudinal portion 216, 216A-216E extends distally.

    [0056] As shown in Figure 10, an anchor member (such as anchor member 104) with a baseplate pre-attached (such as baseplate 108) can be inserted into a bone such as the scapular glenoid. It will be appreciated that although certain embodiments described herein involve the surgeon or practitioner pre-attaching the anchor member and baseplate before inserting the anchor member into bone, in other embodiments, the anchor member may be inserted separately from the baseplate. For example, an anchor member 104 may be at least partially seated or fully seated within the bone before the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104 is inserted into the first aperture 168 of the baseplate 108. In yet other embodiments, an anchor member and a baseplate may come pre-attached by the manufacturer.

    [0057] With reference to Figure 10, as the surgeon prepares the patient for the implantation of the glenoid implant 100, the surgeon first pierces a hole in the glenoid, typically the hole being slightly smaller than the diameter of the anchor member 104. In one embodiment, the surgeon rotates the anchor member 104 into the glenoid using a tool designed to mate with the cavity 228 of the anchor member, e.g., with a hexagonal tip. This tool may be inserted through the lumen 180 in the baseplate when the baseplate is pre-attached to the anchor member. The self-tapping threads of the external lateral surface 224 of the anchor member 104, if provided, permit the anchor member to be driven into the bone, optionally into the pre-formed hole. The surgeon can insert a guide wire into the bone in combination with a cannulated anchor member. The guide wire can facilitate placement of the anchor member with respect to the bone.

    [0058] In some methods, a hole is made in the glenoid of a diameter of the central protrusion 160 of the baseplate 108 in order to accommodate the central protrusion 160 when the anchor member is fully seated in the bone. One method step includes shaping the bone to match the distal surface 148 of the baseplate 108. The hole in the glenoid and the shaping of the bone may be done to accommodate the shapes of any of the other baseplates (e.g., baseplates 108B-108G and 336) described herein.

    [0059] In embodiments where the anchor member is pre-attached to the baseplate or can be attached by the surgeon during implantation..

    [0060] After advancing the anchor into the bone such that the baseplate is adjacent to the glenoid the anchor member can be rotated (e.g. driven into the bone) without corresponding rotation of the baseplate. These arrangements allow the surgeon to position the baseplate relative to bone, specifically anatomical features of the bone, and maintain that position as the bone anchor member is rotated further into the bone to frictionally secure the baseplate to the bone). In some embodiments, the baseplate 108 is held in a desired orientation when the anchor member 104 is driven into the bone. In some embodiments, the baseplate 108 is maintained in a desired orientation by tools, as described below.

    [0061] Referring now to Figure 10, in some methods tools are used to maintain the orientation of the baseplate 108 relative to the bone. In one embodiment, a cannula 372 is configured to interact with the baseplate 108. In some embodiments, the cannula 372 has two radially extending legs 376, 380. The radially extending legs 376, 380 permit the cannula 372 to be a smaller diameter than the diameter of the baseplate 108. In some embodiments, the radially extending legs 376, 380 include a distal feature that mates with a feature on the proximal end 136 of the baseplate 108, for instance with tool engaging grooves 398 shown in Figure 8A. In some embodiments, the radially extending legs 376, 380 may extend, and partially cover the holes 188, 192. In some embodiments, the cannula 372 is sized to accept an inner cannula 384. The inner cannula 384 can have multiple functions in some embodiments. The inner cannula 384 can be configured to assist in docking and un-docking the legs 376, 380 with the baseplate 108. For example, the outer profile of the inner cannula 384 can be larger than the inner profile of the outer cannula 372 near the distal end of the legs 376, 380. As the inner cannula 384 is advanced distally in the outer cannula 372 the outer surface of the inner cannula 384 spreads the legs 376, 380. Another function for the inner cannula 384 in some embodiments is to provide access for a driver therethrough to mate with the cavity 228 in the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104 The inner cannula 284 can have an inner lumen to provide such access. Thus, the driver can be used to insert the anchor member 104 into the bone while the cannula 372 maintains the rotational orientation of the baseplate 108. The cannula 372 may further be used to rotate baseplate 108 to a desired orientation with respect to the bone.

    [0062] In some embodiments, the baseplate 108 is rotated to align the holes 188, 192 (shown in Figure 6) with anatomic features of the patient. In some embodiments, the baseplate 108 is rotated to align the bone engaging surface 152 with anatomic features of the patient. When the baseplate 108 is coupled to the anchor member 104, the baseplate 108 is freely rotatable with respect to the anchor member 104. The baseplate 108 can be rotated and orientated without adjusting the rotational position of the anchor member 104. The anchor member 104 can be rotated and orientated without adjusting the rotational position of the baseplate 108. In some embodiments, the baseplate 108 is rotated after the anchor member 104 is partially or fully driven into the bone. In some embodiments, the baseplate 108 is rotated before the anchor member 104 is driven into the bone.

    [0063] Following proper orientation of the baseplate 108 relative to the bone, the surgeon can fully seat anchor member 104 into the bone using the driver. After the anchor member 104 is fully seated in the bone and the baseplate 108 is properly oriented relative to the bone, perimeter anchors 196 such as shown in Figure 6 may be inserted into holes 188 and 192 provided in the baseplate 108. In some embodiments, perimeter anchors 196 are inserted from the proximal end 136 of the baseplate 108 to the bone engaging surface 152 of the baseplate 108, or through the baseplate 108. This is the opposite direction the anchor member 104 is inserted into the baseplate 108.

    [0064] In some embodiments, after the anchor member and baseplate are attached to the bone, the locking structure 112 may be used to further secure the anchor member relative to the baseplate and to attach the glenosphere to the baseplate. For example, after the anchor member 104 shown in Figure 10 has been inserted into the bone, the baseplate 108 is in the desired orientation with respect to the patient, and the perimeter anchors 196 have been inserted, the rotation of the anchor member 104 with respect to the baseplate 108 can be restricted via the locking structure 112. With the locking structure 112 already assembled as described with respect to Figure 3 above, and either with or without the glenosphere 116 attached to the threaded member 264, the locking screw 256 is inserted into the second aperture 176 of the baseplate which has the threaded surface 184. The locking screw 256 is rotated until the locking screw 256 applies a force on the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104. In some embodiments, the locking screw 256 enters a cavity 228 in the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104. In some embodiments, the force interacts with the member 240 to prevent rotation of the anchor member 104 with respect to the baseplate 108. After application of force by the locking screw 256, the anchor member 104 is prohibited from axial translation and rotation with respect to the baseplate 108.

    [0065] With the locking structure 112 in place, a glenosphere 116 such as shown in Figures 3 and 4 may be attached to the baseplate 108. In one embodiment, the glenosphere 116 may have already been attached to the threaded member 264 when the locking screw 256 is inserted into the cavity 228 in the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104. In another embodiment, the glenosphere 116 may be attached to threaded member 264 after the locking screw 256 is inserted into the cavity 228. In some embodiments, the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108 is tapered and the interior surface 248 of the glenosphere 116 is tapered. When the glenosphere 116 moves distally, the interior surface 248 engages with the lateral surface 156 of the baseplate 108. In some embodiments, the interior surface 248 and the lateral surface 156 form a Morse taper.

    [0066] In some embodiments, the locking screw 256 simultaneously applies a force to the anchor member 104 and the glenosphere 116 when the locking screw 256 is advanced through the second aperture 176. In some embodiments, the glenoid implant 100 is dimensioned so that the locking screw 256 applies a force to the proximal head 220 of the anchor member 104 simultaneously with the glenosphere 116 interior surface 248 mating with the lateral surface of the baseplate 108. In this way, the locking screw 256 creates a downward force on the anchor member 104 and creates a downward force on the threaded member 264 which is coupled to the glenosphere 116. The downward force causes the interior surface 248 and the lateral surface 156 to engage. In some embodiments, the locking screw 256 creates a push force on the glenosphere 116 and/or a pull force on the baseplate 108.

    [0067] As illustrated in Figure 4, the compression washer 260 provided between the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 and the baseplate 108 may be utilized to prevent micromotion. The compression washer 260 provides resistance against backout when the locking screw 256 creates a push force on the anchor member 104. The compression washer 260 is designed to fill the space between the proximal head 276 of the locking screw 256 and the threaded member 264 as the locking screw 256 creates a push force on the glenosphere 116 and/or pull force on the baseplate 108. The placement and use of the compression washer 260 facilitates the rigidity of the glenoid implant 100, and further prevents rotation, translation and/or micromotion of the anchor member 104 with respect to the baseplate 108. Further, preventing micromotion involves no additional step from the current procedure of securing a locking member.

    [0068] In some embodiments, a bone graft (not shown) may be placed into the bone. The bone graft can be attached to or disposed about any of the surfaces or portions of the baseplates described herein including the distal surface 148, distal end 140, the bone engaging surface 152, 316, 320, 324, 332, the central protrusion 160, 328, or the longitudinal portion 216, 216A-216E of the anchor member 104, 104A-104E or any other feature that would benefit from bony ingrowth. Allowing the anchor member 104, 104A-104E to be driven into the bone independently of rotation of the baseplate 108, 108B-108G causes less wear and stress on the bone graft during insertion. In some embodiments, the anchor member 104, 104A-104E is freely rotatable with respect to the bone graft. In some embodiments, the bone graft is coupled to the baseplate 108, 108B-108G and rotates when the baseplate 108, 108B-108G rotates but not when the anchor member 104, 104A-104E rotates. In some embodiments, the bone graft is inserted after the anchor member 104, 104A-104E is fully or partially seated within the bone.

    [0069] Although these inventions have been disclosed in the context of certain preferred embodiments and examples, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the present inventions extend beyond the specifically disclosed embodiments to other alternative embodiments and/or uses of the inventions and obvious modifications and equivalents thereof. In addition, while several variations of the inventions have been shown and described in detail, other modifications, which are within the scope of these inventions, will be readily apparent to those of skill in the art based upon this disclosure. It is also contemplated that various combination or sub-combinations of the specific features and aspects of the embodiments may be made and still fall within the scope of the inventions. It should be understood that various features and aspects of the disclosed embodiments can be combined with or substituted for one another in order to form varying modes of the disclosed inventions. Thus, it is intended that the scope of at least some of the present inventions herein disclosed should not be limited by the particular disclosed embodiments described above.


    Claims

    1. A glenoid implant for a shoulder prosthesis comprising:

    an anchor member (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312) comprising a longitudinal portion (216; 216A; 216B; 216C; 216D; 216E) configured to be secured to a bone and a proximal head (220; 340), wherein the proximal head has a first engaging surface (232; 344);

    a baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) comprising a proximal end (136) and a distal end (140), wherein the distal end (140) comprises a centrally disposed first aperture (168; 348) sized to accept the proximal head (220; 340) of the anchor member (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312) and a second engaging surface (172; 352); and

    a perimeter anchor (196) provided to be inserted through the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) from the proximal end (136), the baseplate comprising a hole (188, 192) configured to accept the perimeter anchor,

    wherein the first engaging surface and the second engaging surface couple the anchor and the base member with each other so as both to restrain the anchor member against axial translation with respect to the baseplate and to permit the baseplate to rotate freely with respect to both the anchor member and the glenoid when i) the longitudinal portion of the anchor member is secured to a glenoid and ii) the baseplate is placed adjacent to the glenoid so that the proximal head of the anchor member is inserted from the distal end of the baseplate into the first aperture of the baseplate.


     
    2. The glenoid implant of Claim 1, further comprising a locking structure (112), wherein the locking structure (112) is configured to apply a force to the anchor member (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312).
     
    3. The glenoid implant of Claim 2, wherein the locking structure (112) applies a force to the anchor member (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312) such that the anchor member is no longer freely rotatable with respect to the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336).
     
    4. The glenoid implant of Claim 2 or Claim 3, further comprising a glenosphere (116) with a fourth engaging surface and the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) further comprises a third engaging surface between the proximal end (136) of the baseplate and the distal end (140) of the baseplate.
     
    5. The glenoid implant of Claim 4, wherein the locking structure (112) is configured to apply a force to the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) such that the third engaging surface couples with the fourth engaging surface.
     
    6. The glenoid implant of Claim 4 or Claim 5, wherein the third engaging surface or the fourth engage surface comprises a Morse taper.
     
    7. The glenoid implant of any one Claims 2 to 6, wherein the locking structure (112) comprises a screw (256).
     
    8. The glenoid implant of Claim 7, further comprising a compression washer (260) configured to prevent micromotion when the locking structure (112) applies a force to the anchor member (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312) such that the anchor member is no longer freely rotatable with respect to the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336).
     
    9. The glenoid implant of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first engaging surface comprises a first groove (232) and the second engaging surface comprises a second groove (172).
     
    10. The glenoid implant of Claim 9, wherein a member (240) couples the first groove (232) and the second groove (172) after the proximal head (220; 340) is inserted from the distal end (140) into the first aperture (168; 348).
     
    11. The glenoid implant of any one of the preceding claims, wherein when the proximal head (220; 340) is inserted from the distal end (140) into the first aperture (168; 348), the proximal head is prevented from passing from the distal end to the proximal end (136) of the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336).
     
    12. The glenoid implant of any one of the preceding claims, wherein when the proximal head (220; 340) is inserted from the distal end (140) into the first aperture (168; 348), the longitudinal portion (216; 216A; 216B; 216C; 216D; 216E) is prevented from passing from the distal end to the proximal end (136) of the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336).
     
    13. The glenoid implant of any one of the preceding claims, wherein when the proximal head (220; 340) is inserted from the distal end (140) into the first aperture (168; 348), the longitudinal portion (216; 216A; 216B; 216C; 216D; 216E) is located distally to the distal end.
     
    14. The glenoid implant of any one of the preceding claims, wherein:

    the first aperture (168; 348) comprises a threaded surface (352) and a smooth surface (356), the threaded surface disposed between the smooth surface and a distal surface (358) of the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336), the smooth surface of the first aperture comprises a length and a width;

    the proximal head (220; 340) comprises a threaded surface (344) having a length less than or equal to the length of the smooth surface of the first aperture (168; 348); and

    the threaded surface (344) of the proximal head (220; 340) of the anchor member (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312) comprises the first engaging surface and the threaded surface (352) of the first aperture (168; 348) comprises the second engaging surface, such that when the threaded surface of the proximal head (220; 340) is disposed within the smooth surface (356) of the first aperture, the anchor member is restrained against translation but rotation of the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) is permitted.


     
    15. The glenoid implant of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the baseplate (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) is circular.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Glenoidimplantat für eine Schulterprothese, umfassend:

    ein Verankerungselement (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312), das einen Längsabschnitt (216; 216A; 216B; 216C; 216D; 216E), der dazu ausgebildet ist, dass er an einem Knochen befestigt werden kann, und einen proximalen Kopf (220; 340) aufweist, wobei der proximale Kopf eine erste Eingriffsfläche (232; 344) aufweist;

    eine Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336), die ein proximales Ende (136) und ein distales Ende (140) aufweist, wobei das distale Ende (140) eine zentral angeordnete erste Öffnung (168; 348), die so bemessen ist, dass sie den proximalen Kopf (220; 340) des Verankerungselements (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 1041D; 104K; 312) aufnimmt, und eine zweite Eingriffsfläche (172; 352) aufweist; und

    einen Umfangsanker (196), der zum Einsetzen durch die Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) vom proximalen Ende (136) aus vorgesehen ist, wobei die Basisplatte ein Loch (188, 192) aufweist, das zur Aufnahme des Umfangsankers ausgebildet ist,

    wobei die erste Eingriffsfläche und die zweite Eingriffsfläche den Anker und das Basiselement so miteinander koppeln, dass beide das Verankerungselement gegen axiale Verschiebung in Bezug auf die Basisplatte festhalten und es der Basisplatte ermöglichen, sich sowohl in Bezug auf das Verankerungselement als auch auf die Gelenkpfanne frei zu drehen, wenn i) der Längsabschnitt des Verankerungselements an einem Glenoid befestigt ist und ii) die Basisplatte neben dem Glenoid angeordnet ist, so dass der proximale Kopf des Verankerungselements vom distalen Ende der Basisplatte in die erste Öffnung der Basisplatte eingeführt wird.


     
    2. Glenoidimplantat nach Anspruch 1, ferner aufweisend eine Verriegelungsstruktur (112), wobei die Verriegelungsstruktur (112) so ausgebildet ist, dass sie eine Kraft auf das Verankerungselement (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312) ausübt.
     
    3. Glenoidimplantat nach Anspruch 2, wobei die Verriegelungsstruktur (112) eine Kraft auf das Verankerungselement (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312) ausübt, derart dass das Verankerungselement in Bezug auf die Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) nicht mehr frei drehbar ist.
     
    4. Glenoidimplantat nach Anspruch 2 oder 3, ferner aufweisend eine Glenosphäre (116) mit einer vierten Eingriffsfläche, und wobei die Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) ferner eine dritte Eingriffsfläche zwischen dem proximalen Ende (136) der Basisplatte und dem distalen Ende (140) der Basisplatte aufweist.
     
    5. Glenoidimplantat nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Verriegelungsstruktur (112) dazu ausgebildet ist, eine Kraft auf die Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) auszuüben, so dass die dritte Eingriffsfläche mit der vierten Eingriffsfläche koppelt.
     
    6. Glenoidimplantat nach Anspruch 4 oder 5, wobei die dritte Eingriffsfläche oder die vierte Eingriffsfläche einen Morsekonus aufweist.
     
    7. Glenoidimplantat nach einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 6, wobei die Verriegelungsstruktur (112) eine Schraube (256) umfasst.
     
    8. Glenoidimplantat nach Anspruch 7, ferner umfassend eine Kompressionsscheibe (260), die dazu ausgebildet ist, dass sie Mikrobewegungen verhindert, wenn die Verriegelungsstruktur (112) eine Kraft auf das Verankerungselement (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312) ausübt, so dass das Verankerungselement in Bezug auf die Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) nicht mehr frei drehbar ist.
     
    9. Glenoidimplantat nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei die erste Eingriffsfläche eine erste Nut (232) und die zweite Eingriffsfläche eine zweite Nut (172) aufweist.
     
    10. Glenoidimplantat nach Anspruch 9, wobei ein Element (240) die erste Nut (232) und die zweite Nut (172) miteinander verbindet, nachdem der proximale Kopf (220; 340) vom distalen Ende (140) in die erste Öffnung (168; 348) eingeführt wurde.
     
    11. Glenoidimplantat nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei, wenn der proximale Kopf (220; 340) vom distalen Ende (140) in die erste Öffnung (168; 348) eingeführt ist, der proximale Kopf daran gehindert wird, vom distalen Ende zum proximalen Ende (136) der Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108K; 336) zu gelangen.
     
    12. Glenoidimplantat nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei, wenn der proximale Kopf (220; 340) vom distalen Ende (140) in die erste Öffnung (168; 348) eingeführt ist, der Längsabschnitt (216; 216A; 216B; 216C; 216D; 216E) daran gehindert wird, vom distalen Ende zum proximalen Ende (136) der Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108K; 336) zu gelangen.
     
    13. Glenoidimplantat nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei, wenn der proximale Kopf (220; 340) vom distalen Ende (140) in die erste Öffnung (168; 348) eingeführt wird, der Längsabschnitt (216; 216A; 216B; 216C; 216D; 216E) distal zum distalen Ende angeordnet ist.
     
    14. Glenoidimplantat nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei:

    die erste Öffnung (168; 348) eine mit Gewinde versehene Oberfläche (352) und eine glatte Oberfläche (356) aufweist, wobei die mit Gewinde versehene Oberfläche zwischen der glatten Oberfläche und einer distalen Oberfläche (358) der Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) angeordnet ist, wobei die glatte Oberfläche der ersten Öffnung eine Länge und eine Breite aufweist;

    der proximale Kopf (220; 340) eine Gewindefläche (344) mit einer Länge aufweist, die kleiner oder gleich der Länge der glatten Oberfläche der ersten Öffnung (168; 348) ist; und

    die Gewindefläche (344) des proximalen Kopfes (220; 340) des Verankerungselements (104; 104A; 104B; 104C; 104D; 104E; 312) die erste Eingriffsfläche umfasst, und

    die Gewindefläche (352) der ersten Öffnung (168; 348) die zweite Eingriffsfläche umfasst, so dass, wenn die Gewindefläche des proximalen Kopfes (220; 340) innerhalb der glatten Oberfläche (356) der ersten Öffnung angeordnet ist, das Verankerungselement an einer Verschiebung gehindert wird, aber eine Drehung der Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) zulässig ist.


     
    15. Glenoidimplantat nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei die Basisplatte (108; 108B; 108C; 108D; 108E; 108F; 108G; 108H; 336) kreisförmig ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Implant glénoïde pour une prothèse d'épaule comprenant :

    un élément d'ancrage (104 ; 104A ; 104B ; 104C ; 104D ; 104E ; 312) comprenant une partie longitudinale (216 ; 216A ; 216B ; 216C ; 216D ; 216E) configurée pour être fixée à un os et une tête proximale (220 ; 340), dans lequel la tête proximale a une première surface de mise en prise (232 ; 344) ;

    une plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336) comprenant une extrémité proximale (136) et une extrémité distale (140), dans lequel l'extrémité distale (140) comprend une première ouverture disposée de manière centrale (168 ; 348) dimensionnée pour accepter la tête proximale (220 ; 340) de l'élément d'ancrage (104 ; 104A ; 104B ; 104C ; 104D ; 104E ; 312) et une deuxième surface de mise en prise (172 ; 352) ; et

    un ancrage périmétral (196) prévu pour être inséré à travers la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336) à partir de l'extrémité proximale (136), la plaque de base comprenant un trou (188, 192) configuré pour accepter l'ancrage périmétral,

    dans lequel la première surface de mise en prise et la deuxième surface de mise en prise couplent l'ancrage et l'élément de base entre eux afin, à la fois, d'empêcher l'élément d'ancrage d'effectuer une translation axiale par rapport à la plaque de base et de permettre à la plaque de base de tourner librement à la fois par rapport à l'élément d'ancrage et à la glène lorsque i) la partie longitudinale de l'élément d'ancrage est fixé à une glène et ii) la plaque de base est placée de manière adjacente à la glène de sorte que la tête proximale de l'élément d'ancrage est insérée depuis l'extrémité distale de la plaque de base dans la première ouverture de la plaque de base.


     
    2. Implant glénoïde selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une structure de verrouillage (112), dans lequel la structure de verrouillage (112) est configurée pour appliquer une force sur l'élément d'ancrage (104 ; 104A ; 104B ; 104C ; 104D ; 104E ; 312).
     
    3. Implant glénoïde selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la structure de verrouillage (112) applique une force sur l'élément d'ancrage (104 ; 104A ; 104B ; 104C ; 104D ; 104E ; 312) de sorte que l'élément d'ancrage ne peut plus tourner librement par rapport à la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336).
     
    4. Implant glénoïde selon la revendication 2 ou la revendication 3, comprenant en outre une glénosphère (116) avec une quatrième surface de mise en prise et la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336) comprend en outre une troisième surface de mise en prise entre l'extrémité proximale (136) de la plaque de base et l'extrémité distale (140) de la plaque de base.
     
    5. Implant glénoïde selon la revendication 4, dans lequel la structure de verrouillage (112) est configurée pour appliquer une force sur la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336) de sorte que la troisième surface de mise en prise se couple avec la quatrième surface de mise en prise.
     
    6. Implant glénoïde selon la revendication 4 ou la revendication 5, dans lequel la troisième surface de mise en prise ou la quatrième surface de mise en prise comprend un cône Morse.
     
    7. Implant glénoïde selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 6, dans lequel la structure de verrouillage (112) comprend une vis (256).
     
    8. Implant glénoïde selon la revendication 7, comprenant en outre une rondelle de compression (260) configurée pour empêcher un micro-déplacement lorsque la structure de verrouillage (112) applique une force sur l'élément d'ancrage (104 ; 104A ; 104B ; 104C ; 104D ; 104E ; 312) de sorte que l'élément d'ancrage ne peut plus tourner librement par rapport à la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336).
     
    9. Implant glénoïde selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la première surface de mise en prise comprend une première rainure (232) et la deuxième surface de mise en prise comprend une seconde rainure (172).
     
    10. Implant glénoïde selon la revendication 9, dans lequel un élément (240) couple la première rainure (232) et la seconde rainure (172) après que la tête proximale (220 ; 340) a été insérée depuis l'extrémité distale (140) dans la première ouverture (168 ; 348).
     
    11. Implant glénoïde selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel lorsque la tête proximale (220 ; 340) est insérée depuis l'extrémité distale (140) dans la première ouverture (168 ; 348), la tête proximale ne peut pas passer de l'extrémité distale à l'extrémité proximale (136) de la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336).
     
    12. Implant glénoïde selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel lorsque la tête proximale (220 ; 340) est insérée depuis l'extrémité distale (140) dans la première ouverture (168 ; 348), la partie longitudinale (216 ; 216A ; 216B ; 216C ; 216D ; 216E) ne peut pas passer de l'extrémité distale à l'extrémité proximale (136) de la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336).
     
    13. Implant glénoïde selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel lorsque la tête proximale (220 ; 340) est insérée depuis l'extrémité distale (140) dans la première ouverture (168 ; 348), la partie longitudinale (216 ; 216A ; 216B ; 216C ; 216D ; 216E) est positionnée de manière distale par rapport à l'extrémité distale.
     
    14. Implant glénoïde selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel :

    la première ouverture (168 ; 348) comprend une surface filetée (352) et une surface lisse (356), la surface filetée est disposée entre la surface lisse et une surface distale (358) de la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336), la surface lisse de la première ouverture comprend une longueur et une largeur ;

    la tête proximale (220 ; 340) comprend une surface filetée (344) ayant une longueur inférieure ou égale à la longueur de la surface lisse de la première ouverture (168 ; 348) ; et

    la surface filetée (344) de la tête proximale (220 ; 340) de l'élément d'ancrage (104 ; 104A ; 104B ; 104C ; 104D ; 104E ; 312) comprend la première surface de mise en prise, et la surface filetée (352) de la première ouverture (168 ; 348) comprend la deuxième surface de mise en prise, de sorte que lorsque la surface filetée de la tête proximale (220 ; 340) est disposée dans la surface lisse (356) de la première ouverture, on empêche l'élément d'ancrage d'effectuer une translation mais la rotation de la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336) est autorisée.


     
    15. Implant glénoïde selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la plaque de base (108 ; 108B ; 108C ; 108D ; 108E ; 108F ; 108G ; 108H ; 336) est circulaire.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description