(19)
(11)EP 3 098 310 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
16.01.2019 Bulletin 2019/03

(21)Application number: 14879862.2

(22)Date of filing:  05.09.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C12N 15/09(2006.01)
C12N 15/10(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2014/073579
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/111248 (30.07.2015 Gazette  2015/30)

(54)

METHOD FOR PREPARING DNA UNIT COMPOSITION, AND METHOD FOR CREATING CONCATENATED DNA

VERFAHREN ZUR VORBEREITUNG VON DNA-EINHEIT-ZUSAMMENSETZUNG UND VERFAHREN ZUR ERZEUGUNG VON VERKETTETER DNA

PROCÉDÉ POUR LA PRÉPARATION D'UNE COMPOSITION D'UNITÉS D'ADN ET PROCÉDÉ POUR CRÉER DE L'ADN CONCATÉNÉ


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 21.01.2014 JP 2014008690

(43)Date of publication of application:
30.11.2016 Bulletin 2016/48

(60)Divisional application:
18210824.1

(73)Proprietor: Synplogen Co., Ltd.
Nada-ku Kobe-shi Hyogo 657-0013 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • TSUGE, Kenji
    Tsuruoka City Yamagata 997-0017 (JP)
  • ITAYA, Mitsuhiro
    Tsuruoka City Yamagata 997-0017 (JP)

(74)Representative: Appleyard Lees IP LLP 
15 Clare Road
Halifax HX1 2HY
Halifax HX1 2HY (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-02/14490
JP-A- 2006 503 583
JP-A- 2004 129 654
  
  • TSUGE KENJI ET AL: "One step assembly of multiple DNA fragments with a designed order and orientation in Bacillus subtilis plasmid", NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL LTD, vol. 31, no. 21, 1 November 2003 (2003-11-01), pages E133.1-E133.8, XP002569369, ISSN: 0305-1048, DOI: 10.1093/NAR/GNG133
  • R. GODISKA ET AL: "Linear plasmid vector for cloning of repetitive or unstable sequences in Escherichia coli", NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, vol. 38, no. 6, 29 December 2009 (2009-12-29), pages e88-e88, XP055145054, ISSN: 0305-1048, DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkp1181
  • KENJI TSUGE ET AL: "Method of preparing an equimolar DNA mixture for one-step DNA assembly of over 50 fragments", SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 5, no. 1, 20 May 2015 (2015-05-20), XP055369781, DOI: 10.1038/srep10655
  • TAKAAKI TAMURA: '4 DNA no Kenshutsu, Kaitei Idenshi Kogaku Jikken Note 1st volume, DNA o Eru' TORIATSUKAI NO KIHON TO CHUSHUTSU SEISEI BUNRI 2006, pages 28 - 29, XP008183907
  • ITAYA, M. ET AL.: 'Construction and Manipulation of Giant DNA by a Genome Vector' METHODS IN ENZYMOLOGY vol. 498, 2011, pages 427 - 447, XP055355825
  • HIROMICHI SAWAKI ET AL.: 'Development of quantitative PCR array for studying human glycogens expression profiling' JAPAN JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR TUMOR MARKER RESEARCH vol. 24, 2009, page 29, XP055359025
  • MITSUHIRO ITAYA ET AL.: 'Chosa DNA no Gosei to Gosei Seibutsu Kogaku deno Katsuyo' JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR BIOSCIENCE AND BIOENGINEERING vol. 91, no. 6, 2013, JAPAN, pages 319 - 321, XP008183906
  • KENJI TSUGE ET AL.: 'Genome Builder Oyobi Genome Designer to shite no Kosokin' JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR BIOSCIENCE AND BIOENGINEERING vol. 90, no. 6, 2012, JAPAN, pages 281 - 284, XP008183902
  • TSUGE, K. ET AL.: 'Production of the non- ribosomal peptide plipastatin in Bacillus subtilis regulated by three relevant gene blocks assembled in a single movable DNA segment' JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY vol. 129, 2007, ISSN 0168-1656 pages 592 - 603, XP022034270
  • YASUKO NISHINO: 'Researcher Interview No.3 Koshi Kenji TSUGE' KEIO IAB RESEARCH DIGEST vol. 2, 2009, pages 8 - 11, XP008183908
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates to a method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition and a method of constructing a DNA concatemer.

BACKGROUND ART



[0002] In recent years, techniques for DNA synthesis have been increasingly developed, for example, in order to construct a long chain DNA molecule having a size of a genome. Known such techniques include assembly of chemically synthesized DNA fragments and PCR-amplified DNA unit fragments. The synthesis process of the chemical synthesized DNA and the PCR method, however, are known to be accompanied by random mutation introduced into synthesized DNA molecules. Therefore, the sequences of the DNA molecules need to be always checked somewhere from the start to the end of the gene-assembling process so as to select a DNA molecule having a desired sequence.

[0003] Checking base sequences is usually conducted by Sanger base sequencing on an automated fluorescence sequencer. This method can determine about 800 consecutive bases in a single session of base sequencing. When the number of base sequencing sessions for checking base sequences of chemically- or PCR-synthesized DNA unit fragments prior to gene-assembling is reduced, time and cost can be saved. For this reason, the chemically- or PCR-synthesized DNA unit fragments to be used for gene-assembling are preferably short.

[0004] As the DNA unit fragments to be used for gene-assembling become shorter, however, the number of them to be assembled needs to be increased.

[0005] A currently known method to assemble a plurality of DNA unit fragments is a gene-assembling method employing a plasmid transformation system in Bacillus subtilis (the OGAB method). Patent Document 1, for example, discloses a method that adopts the OGAB method for constructing a DNA plasmid for use in transforming a Bacillus subtilis cell.

[0006] The OGAB method employs a so-called multimeric plasmid, in which multiple plasmid units exist within one molecule by homologous recombination between plasmid molecules. In the OGAB method, the DNA plasmid molecule for transformation is not necessarily circular, but it only has to have a tandem-repeat structure in which a plasmid unit and a DNA unit fragment used for assembling to be assembled appear repeatedly with each unit maintaining a same direction.

[0007] In the OGAB method, to prepare a DNA molecule having a tandem-repeat structure as above described, multiple DNA unit fragments, when used, need to be joined to their corresponding plasmids. As the number of kinds of DNA unit fragments increases, it becomes more difficult to join them to their corresponding plasmids and to construct a tandem-repeat structure. To join many DNA unit fragments together, the molar ratio among DNA unit fragments in ligation is desirably made close to 1.

[0008] Patent Document 1: Japanese Patent No. 4479199

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION


Problems to be Solved by the Invention



[0009] In reality, however, it is difficult to precisely control the number of moles of each kind of DNA unit fragment. One of the reason for this is that no method that quantifies DNA with a fluorescent double-stranded DNA intercalater such as SYBR Geen I has reproducibility better than about ±20% because, for example, the color of a fluorescent substance fades during measurement. These measurement method measures the weight of DNA per unit volume and therefore when followed by the OGAB method in which the number of moles of DNA per unit volume is required for calculating the amount of each DNA unit fragment, the weight of DNA measured by the above mentioned measurement method needs to be converted to the corresponding molarity. The weight of a DNA unit fragment is proportional to the length thereof. Therefore, when the DNA unit fragment molecules are broadly varied in length and accordingly have their weight measurements varying by several folds or greater for the equal number of moles, calculation based on the measurement value often includes large errors. The method of Patent Document 1 attempts to adjust the molar ratio among DNA unit fragments to 1, but fails to precisely control the molar ratio due to the broad distribution of the lengths of the DNA unit fragments.

[0010] The present invention is devised based on the above circumstances, and an object of the present invention is to provide a method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition and a method of constructing a DNA concatemer, in either of which methods the numbers of moles of multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments are substantially the same.

Means for Solving the Problems



[0011] The inventors of the present invention have found that measurement errors occurring in the measurement of the number of moles of each kind of DNA unit fragment are reduced when a corresponding auxiliary sequence is attached to each DNA unit fragment, and the present invention has now been completed. More specifically, the present invention is defined in the appended claims. Also discloses is:
  1. (1) A method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition, comprising:
    a step of preparing solutions containing multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments, each solution containing one of the multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments, each DNA unit fragment being attached to a corresponding auxiliary sequence; and a step of, after preparing each solution, measuring the concentration of each kind of DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto in each of the solutions, and then based on the measurement result, taking a portion from each of the solutions so that the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in one portion is close to the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in another portion.
  2. (2) The method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition according to (1), wherein each DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto has a circular structure, and each corresponding auxiliary sequence is a plasmid DNA sequence harboring an origin of replication.
  3. (3) The method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition according to (1) or (2), wherein the distribution of the sum of the lengths of the base sequence of each DNA unit fragment and the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to the DNA unit fragment has a standard deviation ranging from -20% to 20% with relative to the average value of the sum of the lengths.
  4. (4) The method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition according to any one of (1) to (3), wherein the average length of the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to each DNA unit fragment is twice or greater than the average length of the base sequence of the DNA unit fragment.
  5. (5) The method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition according to any one of (1) to (4), wherein each DNA unit fragment is not longer than 1600 bp.
  6. (6) The method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition according to any one of (1) to (5), wherein the DNA unit fragments are used to construct a DNA concatemer, the DNA concatemer comprising DNA assemblies each comprising the DNA unit fragments, and
    the step of preparing solutions containing multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments comprises a step of designing each DNA unit fragment, the designing being conducted in a way that the base sequence of each DNA assembly when divided by the number of kinds of its constituent DNA unit fragments into equal parts has a non-palindromic sequence near each boundary between two adjacent equal parts, and that each DNA unit fragment has such a non-palindromic sequence at an end and is separated by the non-palindromic sequence from an adjacent DNA unit fragment.
  7. (7) A method of constructing a DNA concatemer to be used for microbial cell transformation, the DNA concatemer comprising more than one DNA assembly unit, each of the more than one DNA assembly unit comprising a DNA vector harboring an origin of replication effective in a host microorganism and a DNA assembly, the method comprising:

    a step of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition in a solution by the method as claimed in any one of (1) to (6);

    a step of preparing the DNA vector;

    a step of removing with a restriction enzyme a corresponding auxiliary sequence from each DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto contained in the solution after preparation; and

    a step of, after the removal step, joining the DNA vector and each of the DNA unit fragment together,
    wherein each of the DNA vector and the DNA unit fragment is structurally capable of being joined repeatedly while maintaining a certain order, and

    each DNA assembly comprises of a DNA molecule in which the DNA unit fragment is joined to one another.

  8. (8) The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to (7), further comprising: a step of, based on a relation between the yield of a DNA fragment comprising a target number of DNA unit fragments joined together and a coefficient of variation for the concentration of this DNA fragment, the yield being equal to the product of the number of DNA unit fragments per assembly unit and the number of the assembly unit, adjusting a coefficient of variation for the concentrations of the DNA vector and each DNA unit fragment in the joining step.
  9. (9) The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to (7) or (8), wherein the restriction enzyme is a Type II restriction enzyme.
  10. (10) The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of (7) to (9), further comprising: a step of, before the removal step, mixing two or more solutions containing DNA unit fragments selected from the solutions containing DNA unit fragments.
  11. (11) The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of (7) to (10), further comprising: a step of, after the removal step and before the joining step, inactivating the restriction enzyme.
  12. (12) The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of (7) to (11), wherein the microorganism is Bacillus subtilis.

Effects of the Invention



[0012] The present invention provides a method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition and a method of constructing a DNA concatemer, in either of which methods the numbers of moles of multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments are substantially the same.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0013] 

[FIG. 1] an illustration showing DNA vectors according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[FIG. 2] an illustration showing the structure of a synonymous codon variant of Fragment No. 10 among DNA unit fragments of Example 1 of the present invention.

[FIG. 3] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis analyzing crude plasmids each harboring Fragment No. 01 or Fragment No. 21 among DNA unit fragments of Example 1 of the present invention, and highly pure plasmids resulting from purification of these crude plasmids, after restriction enzyme treatment.

[FIG. 4] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis analyzing a group of plasmids to be treated with BbsI, a group of plasmids to be treated with AarI, and a group of plasmids to be treated with BsmBI, among plasmids harboring DNA unit fragments after purification in Example 1 of the present invention. Each group of plasmids had been treated with each restriction enzyme in one session prior to electrophoresis.

[FIG. 5] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis analyzing a group of plasmids to be treated with BbsI, a group of plasmids to be treated with AarI, and a group of plasmids to be treated with BsmBI, among plasmids harboring DNA unit fragments after purification in Example 1 of the present invention. Each group of plasmids had been treated with each restriction enzyme in one session and then combined together prior to electrophoresis.

[FIG. 6] an illustration showing the distribution of the number of molecules of each kind of DNA unit fragment before and after size-based selection. A group of plasmids to be treated with BbsI, a group of plasmids to be treated with AarI, and a group of plasmids to be treated with BsmBI, among plasmids harboring DNA unit fragments in Example 1 of the present invention, had been treated with each restriction enzyme in one session and then combined together.

[FIG. 7] an illustration showing the percentage change in the numbers of molecules of each kind of DNA unit fragment before and after size-based selection. A group of plasmids to be treated with BbsI, a group of plasmids to be treated with AarI, and a group of plasmids to be treated with BsmBI, among plasmids harboring DNA unit fragments in Example 1 of the present invention, had been treated with each restriction enzyme in one session and then combined together.

[FIG. 8] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis analyzing the product of ligation of a DNA unit fragment and a DNA vector in Example 1 of the present invention.

[FIG. 9] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis in Example 1 of the present invention, conducted after transforming Bacillus subtilis with a DNA concatemer obtained by ligation of a DNA unit fragment and a DNA vector, extracting plasmids from the resulting plurality of transformant strains of Bacillus subtilis, and subjecting the resulting plasmids to restriction enzyme treatment.

[FIG. 10] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis in Example 1 of the present invention, conducted after extracting plasmids from a plurality of transformant strains of Bacillus subtilis, subjecting the resulting plasmids to restriction enzyme treatment and electrophoresis, selecting a Bacillus subtilis clone containing a target DNA assembly based on the electrophoresis photograph, and conducting restriction enzyme treatment.

[FIG. 11] an illustration showing that selected DNA assemblies formed lambda phage DNA plaques in Example 1 of the present invention.

[FIG. 12] a photograph showing genomes of selected DNA assemblies and wild-type lambda phage after treated with the restriction enzyme AvaI, in Example 1 of the present invention.

[FIG. 13] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis analyzing plasmids harboring DNA unit fragments after purification in Example 2 of the present invention. The plasmids had been treated with the restriction enzyme AarI in one session prior to electrophoresis.

[FIG. 14] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis analyzing the product of ligation of a DNA unit fragment and a DNA vector in Example 2 of the present invention.

[FIG. 15] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis in Example 2 of the present invention, conducted after transforming Bacillus subtilis with a DNA concatemer obtained by ligation of a DNA unit fragment and a DNA vector, extracting plasmids from the resulting plurality of transformant strains of Bacillus subtilis, and subjecting the resulting plasmids to restriction enzyme treatment.

[FIG. 16] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis in Example 2 of the present invention, conducted after extracting plasmids from a plurality of transformant strains of Bacillus subtilis, subjecting the resulting plasmids to restriction enzyme treatment and electrophoresis, selecting a Bacillus subtilis clone containing a target DNA assembly based on the electrophoresis photograph, and conducting restriction enzyme treatment.

[FIG. 17] a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis analyzing a DNA (A) to a DNA (H) used in Test Example 1.

[FIG. 18] a graph showing the appearance number of transformants obtained by transformation of Bacillus subtilis competent cells with the DNA (A) to the DNA (H) used in Test Example 1.

[FIG. 19] a graph showing the relationship between CV (%) indicating variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments and the relative amount of each kind of DNA unit fragment, analyzed for each gene assembly size in simulation 1. FIG. 19A is a graph for a 6-fragment assembly, FIG. 19B is a graph for a 13-fragment assembly, FIG. 19C is a graph for a 26-fragment assembly, and FIG. 19D is a graph for a 51-fragment assembly.

[FIG. 20] a graph showing the relationship between N (the number of DNA unit fragments in one ligation product) and the number of molecules of ligation products, analyzed for a 6-fragment assembly in simulation 1 with CV = 20%.

[FIG. 21] FIG. 21A is a graph showing λ function of CV (%) indicating variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments obtained from fitting to an exponential distribution curve in simulation 1, and FIG. 21B is a graph showing λ function of CV (%) indicating variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments determined from the average N value of virtual ligation product.

[FIG. 22] an illustration showing misligation sites in assemblies #1, #2, #5, #7, #8, #9, #10, and #11 among assemblies resulting from experiment of reconstruction of λ phage genome in simulation 1.

[FIG. 23] a photograph showing the result of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyzing the product of ligation of 51 DNA unit fragments with CV = 6.6% variation in the number of fragments in experiment of reconstruction of λ phage genome in simulation 1.

[FIG. 24] a graph comparing actual ligation efficiency and ligation efficiency in ligation simulation in simulation 1. FIG. 24A is a graph comparing with simulation with a ligation-eligible rate of 95%, FIG. 24B is a graph comparing with simulation with a ligation-eligible rate of 96%, FIG. 24C is a graph comparing with simulation with a ligation-eligible rate of 97%, FIG. 24D is a graph comparing with simulation with a ligation-eligible rate of 98%, FIG. 24E is a graph comparing with simulation with a ligation-eligible rate of 99%, and FIG. 24F is a graph comparing with simulation with a ligation-eligible rate of 100%.

[FIG. 25] a graph showing the relationship between CV (%) indicating variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments and the relative amount of each kind of DNA unit fragment, obtained by using the formula f(N) = 0.0058*CV(%)*exp(-0.058*CV(%)*N). The analysis was conducted for each gene assembly size in simulation 1.

[FIG. 26] a graph showing the relationship between variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments and the average number of DNA unit fragments in one ligation product, obtained by using the formula f(N) = 0.0058*CV (%)*exp(-0.0058*CV (%)*N).


PREFERRED MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION



[0014] Embodiments of the present invention are described below. The scope of the present invention, however, is not limited to these embodiments.

<Method of preparing DNA unit fragment composition>



[0015] A method of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition of the present invention comprises: a step of preparing solutions containing multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments, each solution containing one of the multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments, each DNA unit fragment being attached to a corresponding auxiliary sequence; and a step of, after the preparation step, measuring the concentration of each kind of DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto in each of the solutions, and then based on the measurement result, taking a portion from each of the solutions so that the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in one portion is close to the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in another portion. In the present specification, different kinds of "DNA unit fragments" are distinguished from each other by the difference in the base sequences. The "DNA unit fragment" refers to one with or without a restriction enzyme recognition site introduced thereinto.

[0016] In the present invention, when the concentration of each kind of DNA unit fragment in the solution containing the DNA unit fragment is measured, the DNA unit fragment being measured has the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto. The corresponding auxiliary sequences thus attached contribute to reduction in distribution of the lengths of different base sequences when the concentration of the solution is measured. As a result, when the measurement result is used to calculate the number of moles of each kind of DNA unit fragment, errors in the calculation are reduced. Then, when the resulting measurement result is used for taking a portion from each of the solutions so that the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in each portion is substantially the same, the molar ratio among different portions tends to be close to 1. The "concentration of the DNA unit fragment in the solution" thus measured refers to the molarity of the DNA unit fragment. The method of measuring the molarity of the DNA unit fragment in the solution is not particularly limited, but examples of the method include measuring the mass ratio (% by mass) of the DNA unit fragment in the solution and then using the measurement (% by mass) to calculate the molarity of the DNA unit fragment in the solution. In the method of measuring the molarity of the DNA unit fragment in the solution, a means capable of measuring the DNA concentration by weight with ±20% precision is preferably used, and, more specifically, a microspectrophotometer for measuring ultraviolet absorption spectra is preferably used.

[0017] The step of preparing solutions containing DNA unit fragments each with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto is not particularly limited and may be conducted, for example, by preparing each DNA unit fragment and then attaching the corresponding auxiliary sequence to the DNA unit fragment.

[0018] Preparation of the DNA unit fragment may be conducted by using the DNA unit fragment synthesized in advance or newly constructed. Construction of each DNA unit fragment can be achieved by a well-known conventional method including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and chemical synthesis. Addition of a restriction enzyme recognition sequence to each DNA unit fragment can be achieved by constructing the DNA unit fragment by PCR in which, for example, a primer having a restriction enzyme recognition sequence for forming a protruding end in the base sequence of the template DNA is used, or by constructing the DNA unit fragment by chemical synthesis in which a restriction enzyme recognition sequence is incorporated in advance for forming a certain protruding sequence at an end of the DNA unit fragment. The base sequence of the DNA unit fragment thus constructed can be confirmed by a well-known conventional method, for example, by incorporating the DNA unit fragment into a plasmid and then conducting Sanger base sequencing on an automated fluorescence sequencer.

[0019] The corresponding auxiliary sequence is not particularly limited and may be a linear DNA molecule or a circular plasmid. When a circular plasmid DNA sequence is used, the DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto has a circular structure and therefore can be used, for example, to transform a host such as Escherichia coli.

[0020] The DNA plasmid is not particularly limited in its kind, but for replication of the DNA plasmid in the transformed host, the plasmid DNA sequence preferably has an origin of replication. Specifically, a high-copy Escherichia coli plasmid vector, pUC19, or a derivative plasmid thereof is preferable. In order to reduce the distribution of the lengths between DNA unit fragments each attached to the corresponding auxiliary sequence so that the numbers of moles of the DNA unit fragments can be made close to one another, all the DNA unit fragments are preferably cloned into the same kind of plasmid vector.

[0021] Attaching the corresponding auxiliary sequence to each DNA unit fragment may be conducted, for example, by ligation with DNA ligase, or by TA cloning in the case of attaching the DNA unit fragment to the DNA plasmid.

[0022] The standard deviation of the distribution of the sum of the lengths of the base sequence of each DNA unit fragment and the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to the DNA unit fragment is not particularly limited. When the standard deviation is small, calculation errors are reduced in the calculation of the number of moles of each DNA unit fragment conducted based on the measurement result of the DNA concentration in the solution, and, as a result, the number of moles of the DNA unit fragment contained in one solution can be close to the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in another solution. Specifically, the standard deviation of the distribution of the sum of the lengths of the base sequence of each DNA unit fragment and the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to the DNA unit fragment preferably ranges from -20% to 20%, more preferably ranges from -15% to 15%, further more preferably ranges from -10% to 10%, further preferably ranges from -5% to 5%, even further preferably ranges from -1% to 1%, and most preferably ranges from -0.5% to 0.5% with relative to the average value of the sum of the lengths.

[0023] The average length of the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to each DNA unit fragment is not particularly limited. When the average length of the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to each DNA unit fragment is greater than the average length of the base sequence of the DNA unit fragment, calculation errors are reduced in the calculation of the number of moles of the DNA unit fragment conducted based on the measurement result of the DNA concentration in the solution, and, as a result, the number of moles of the DNA unit fragment contained in one solution can be close to the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in another solution. Specifically, the average length of the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to the DNA unit fragment is preferably not smaller than twice, further preferably not smaller than 5 times, further preferably not smaller than 10 times, and most preferably not smaller than 20 times the average length of the base sequence of the DNA unit fragment. When the average length of the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to each DNA unit fragment is too great, handling of the DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto is difficult. Therefore, the average length of the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to each DNA unit fragment is preferably not greater than 10000 times (specifically, for example, not greater than 5000 times, not greater than 3000 times, not greater than 1000 times, not greater than 500 times, not greater than 250 times, and not greater than 100 times) the average length of the base sequence of the DNA unit fragment, for example.

[0024] The length of each DNA unit fragment is not particularly limited. However, the number of sessions of base sequencing required for determining the base sequence of each DNA unit fragment is preferably small in order to save time and cost. Therefore, each DNA unit fragment is preferably short, and specifically, it is preferably not longer than 1600 bp and further preferably not longer than 1200 bp. Particularly when base sequencing is conducted by Sanger base sequencing on an automated fluorescence sequencer, which can determine about 800 consecutive bases in a single session of base sequencing, each DNA unit fragment is most preferably not longer than 800 bp (specifically, not longer than 600 bp, not longer than 500 bp, not longer than 400 bp, not longer than 200 bp, and not longer than 100 bp, for example). As the DNA unit fragments thus become shorter, however, the number of them needed for constructing a DNA concatemer described below increases. Here, many DNA unit fragments can be joined together when they are prepared by the method of the present invention as described below. But, again, when each DNA unit fragment is too short, the number of the DNA unit fragments to be joined increases and, as a result, operation efficiency decreases. For this reason, each DNA unit fragment is preferably not shorter than 20 bp, more preferably not shorter than 30 bp, and further preferably not shorter than 50 bp.

[0025] Applications of the DNA unit fragment composition prepared by the method of the present invention are not particularly limited. The DNA unit fragment composition prepared by the method of the present invention can be used to construct a DNA concatemer comprising DNA assemblies each comprising the DNA unit fragments. When the DNA unit fragment composition prepared by the method of the present invention is used to construct a DNA concatemer by a method described below, many kinds of DNA unit fragments (50 kinds or more, for example) can be joined together. This is achieved probably for a reason that the numbers of moles of DNA unit fragments contained in the DNA unit fragment composition prepared by the method of the present invention are close to one another with high precision.

[0026] In the present invention, the step of preparing solutions containing DNA unit fragments may comprise a step of designing each DNA unit fragment. Designing each DNA unit fragment is not particularly limited. In the case, for example, where the DNA unit fragment composition is used to construct a DNA concatemer comprising DNA assemblies, the designing may be conducted in a way that the base sequence of each DNA assembly when divided by the number of kinds of its constituent DNA unit fragments into equal parts has a non-palindromic sequence near each boundary between two adjacent equal parts, and that each DNA unit fragment is separated by the non-palindromic sequence from an adjacent DNA unit fragment. The DNA unit fragments thus designed have substantially the same length. This characteristic is preferable in terms of operation efficiency because when the DNA unit fragments are to be used for DNA concatemer construction as described below and are therefore subjected to removal of corresponding auxiliary sequences with restriction enzymes and to subsequent electrophoresis for size-based selection, the DNA unit fragments are observed substantially as a single band, allowing recovery of all the DNA unit fragments to be completed in a single session of size-based selection. The area referred to by the expression "near each boundary between two adjacent equal parts" is not particularly limited, and may be determined, as needed, based on the length of the base sequence. When the base sequence of each DNA unit fragment is 1000-bp long, for example, the area "near each boundary between two adjacent equal parts" may be determined, for example, as an area within 100 bp (specifically, within 90 bp, within 80 bp, within 70 bp, within 60 bp, within 50 bp, within 30 bp, within 20 bp, within 10 bp, within 5bp) of each "boundary between two adjacent equal parts".

[0027] When the DNA unit fragment is thus designed for constructing a DNA concatemer comprising target DNA assemblies, the DNA unit fragment is preferably designed to have a non-palindromic sequence (a sequence that is not a palindromic sequence) at an end of the DNA unit fragment. The non-palindromic sequence of the DNA unit fragment thus designed is converted into a protruding sequence that is structurally capable of being joined repeatedly while maintaining a certain order as described below.

<Method of constructing DNA concatemer>



[0028] The present invention also subsumes a method of constructing a DNA concatemer. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer of the present invention comprises: a step of preparing the DNA unit fragment composition in the solution by the method described above; a step of preparing a DNA vector; a step of removing with a restriction enzyme the corresponding auxiliary sequence from each DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto contained in the solution; and a step of, after the removal step, joining the DNA vector and the DNA unit fragment together.

[0029] The DNA concatemer comprises more than one DNA assembly unit and is to be used for microbial cell transformation. Each DNA assembly unit comprises the DNA vector and the DNA assembly. The number of DNA assembly units in one DNA concatemer is not particularly limited provided that it is greater than 1. However, for enhanced efficiency in transformation, the number is preferably not smaller than 1.5, more preferably not smaller than 2, further preferably not smaller than 3, and most preferably not smaller than 4.

[0030] Each DNA vector harbors an origin of replication effective in a host microorganism that is to be transformed. The DNA vector is not particularly limited provided that it harbors a sequence that allows DNA replication to occur in a microorganism to be transformed with the DNA concatemer. For example, the DNA vector harbors a sequence coding for an origin of replication effective in a bacterium of the genus Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis). The sequence coding for an origin of replication effective in Bacillus subtilis is not particularly limited. Examples of sequences coding for the origin of θ replication include sequences coding for, for example, an origin of replication harbored by plasmids such as pTB19 (Imanaka, T., et al. J. Gen. Microbioi. 130, 1399-1408. (1984)), pLS32 (Tanaka, T and Ogra, M. FEBS Lett. 422, 243-246. (1998)), and pAMβ1 (Swinfield, T. J., et al. Gene 87, 79-90. (1990)).

[0031] Each DNA assembly is a DNA molecule in which the DNA unit fragment described above is joined to one another. The DNA referred to in the present invention is a DNA molecule to be cloned, and is not particularly limited in its kind or size. Specifically, the DNA referred to in the present invention may have a sequence naturally occurring in a prokaryote, a eukaryote, a virus, or the like or an artificial sequence, for example. In the method of the present invention capable of joining many DNA unit fragments to a plasmid as described above, a DNA molecule having a long base sequence is preferably used. The DNA molecule having a long base sequence is, for example, a group of genes coding for an entire metabolic pathway or a complete or partial genomic DNA of a phage or the like.

[0032] Each DNA assembly unit may or may not comprise an additional proper base sequence, where appropriate, besides the DNA vector and the DNA assembly. In the case of constructing a plasmid for use in expression of a constituent gene of the DNA assembly, the DNA assembly unit may comprise a base sequence capable of controlling transcription and translation, such as a promoter, an operator, an activator, and a terminator. Specific examples of a promoter for Bacillus subtilis as a host include Pspac promoter (Yansura, D. and Henner, D. J. Pro. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA 81, 439-443. (1984.)), the expression of which can be controlled by IPTG (isopropyl s-D-thiogalactopyranoside), and Pr promoter (Itaya, M. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 63, 602-604. (1999)).

[0033] Each of the DNA vector and the DNA unit fragment is structurally capable of being joined repeatedly while maintaining a certain order. In the present specification, the expression "joined while maintaining a certain order" refers to that a DNA unit fragment is joined in a certain order and orientation to another DNA unit fragment or to a DNA vector adjacent within a DNA assembly unit. The expression "joined repeatedly" refers to that the 5' end of a DNA unit fragment or a DNA vector harboring its 5' base sequence is joined to the 3' end of a DNA unit fragment or a DNA vector harboring its 3' base sequence. Specific examples of such a DNA unit fragment include a DNA unit fragment having an end capable of being joined repeatedly to a partner while maintaining a certain order due to complementation between the base sequences of their protruding ends. Such protrusion is not particularly limited in its structure, or in the difference in shape between one on the 5' protruding end and one on the 3' protruding end, provided that it has a non-palindromic sequence.

[0034] Each protruding end is preferably formed by the step of removing the corresponding auxiliary sequence from the DNA unit fragment with a restriction enzyme. Therefore, in construction of a DNA concatemer by the method of the present invention, the DNA unit fragment preferably comprises a restriction enzyme recognition sequence that allows removal of the corresponding auxiliary sequence with a restriction enzyme. The preparation of the DNA vector can also be conducted, for example, by restriction enzyme treatment that forms a protruding end and allows the DNA vector and the DNA unit fragment to join repeatedly while maintaining a certain order.

[0035] The restriction enzyme used above for removal of the corresponding auxiliary sequence is not particularly limited, but is preferably a Type II restriction enzyme, and is more preferably a Type IIS restriction enzyme that can form a protruding end having a certain sequence at a locus at a certain distance outside its recognition sequence, such as AarI, BbsI, BbvI, BcoDI, BfuAI, BsaI, BsaXI, BsmAI, BsmBI, BsmFI, BspMI, BspQI, BtgZI, FokI, and SfaNI. A Type IIS restriction enzyme can form different protruding ends for a single DNA unit fragment, and consequently can maintain the order in which DNA unit fragments are joined. Not only in the preparation of the DNA unit fragment but also in the preparation of the DNA vector, a Type IIS restriction enzyme is preferably used for forming a protruding end that allows the DNA vector and the DNA unit fragment to join repeatedly while maintaining a certain order.

[0036] The DNA unit fragments can be divided into groups, each group for a single restriction enzyme to be used for removal of the corresponding auxiliary sequence. In this case, each group can consist of two or more solutions each containing a different DNA unit fragment. The two or more solutions can be mixed together before the removal step. As a result, a separate session of restriction enzyme treatment is not required for respective DNA unit fragment, but, instead, a single session of restriction enzyme treatment is enough to treat an entire restriction-enzyme group. Especially when the DNA unit fragments are fractionated by electrophoresis, the DNA unit fragments can be recovered in a single session of fractionation and, as a result, operation efficiency is further enhanced. However, when there are multiple groups of the DNA unit fragments, fractionation is conducted for each group. When the DNA unit fragments are recovered, the recovered amounts can vary between different groups. Accordingly, the numbers of moles of DNA unit fragments that have been made substantially the same can also vary. For this reason, the number of groups each for a single restriction enzyme to be used for removal of the corresponding auxiliary sequence is preferably small, in other words, the number of kinds of restriction enzymes to be used for removal of the corresponding auxiliary sequence is preferably small. The number of kinds of restriction enzymes to be used is preferably not greater than 5, more preferably not greater than 3, and most preferably 1. Specifically, when only a single kind of restriction enzyme is used, all the solutions containing DNA unit fragments can be mixed together, leading to significant enhancement in operation efficiency and then to decreased probability of variation occurring in the number of moles of DNA unit fragments that have been made substantially the same. The number of moles of many DNA unit fragments are made substantially the same when mixed together, and therefore these many DNA unit fragments can be joined together as described above with a restriction enzyme.

[0037] When a Type IIS restriction enzyme recognition sequence is added to the sequence of the DNA unit fragment, the Type IIS restriction enzyme to be used is selected so that it recognizes none of the sequences of the DNA unit fragments in the same group. In other words, when a certain Type IIS restriction enzyme is used, each restriction enzyme recognition is designed such that the Type IIS restriction enzyme does not recognizes the sequence of one DNA unit fragment but recognizes the sequence of another DNA unit fragment, a different Type IIS restriction enzyme is selected for the another DNA unit fragment. In case of such design, different Type IIS restriction enzymes are used for different DNA unit fragments, and that the DNA unit fragments can then be divided into groups each for a different Type IIS restriction enzyme. If a Type IIS restriction enzyme is available that recognizes none of the sequences of the DNA unit fragments used, the recognition sequence of the Type IIS restriction enzyme can be added to the DNA unit fragments so that the corresponding auxiliary sequences can be removed from the DNA unit fragments all at once with the single Type IIS restriction enzyme.

[0038] The step of joining the DNA vector and the DNA unit fragment is not particularly limited, but can be conducted by, after restriction enzyme treatment, fractionating the DNA unit fragment from its corresponding auxiliary sequence treated with the restriction enzyme and then joining the DNA unit fragment thus fractionated and the DNA vector with DNA ligase or the like (ligation). In this way, a DNA concatemer to be used for microbial transformation can be constructed. It is noted that the DNA unit fragment used in the joining step has no restriction enzyme recognition sequence added thereinto.

[0039] The method of fractionation between the DNA unit fragment and its corresponding auxiliary sequence is not particularly limited. It is preferable that the molar ratio between the DNA unit fragments is maintained after restriction enzyme treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis is specifically preferable.

[0040] The method of joining the DNA unit fragment and the DNA vector is not particularly limited, but the joining is preferably conducted in the presence of polyethylene glycol and a salt. The salt is more preferably a monovalent alkali metal salt. More specifically, the joining is further preferably conducted in a ligation reaction solution containing 10% polyethylene glycol 6000 and 250-mM sodium chloride. The concentration of each DNA unit fragment in the ligation reaction solution is not particularly limited, but is preferably not lower than 1 fmol/µl. The reaction temperature and the reaction time for ligation are not particularly limited, but are preferably 37°C and for 30 minutes or longer. Preferably, the concentration of the DNA vector in the ligation reaction solution is measured before reaction and then the number of moles of the DNA vector and the number of moles of the DNA unit fragment are adjusted to be the same.

[0041] The method of preparing a DNA concatemer according to the present invention may or may not comprise, and preferably comprise a step of, based on a relation between the yield of a DNA fragment comprising a target number of DNA unit fragments joined together and a coefficient of variation for the concentration of this DNA fragment (hereinafter in the present specification, the coefficient is called "coefficient of variation 1") (hereinafter in the present specification, the relation is called "relation"), the yield being equal to the product of the number of DNA unit fragments per assembly unit and the number of the more than one assembly unit, adjusting a coefficient of variation for the concentrations of the DNA vector and each DNA unit fragment (hereinafter in the present specification, the coefficient is called "coefficient of variation 2") in the joining step. It is noted that the coefficient of variation 1 is a coefficient of variation used in the relation for convenience, and the coefficient of variation 2 is the coefficient of variation for the concentrations of each DNA unit fragment and the DNA vector in the actual joining step. By including this adjustment step, the coefficient of variation 2 is adjusted to fall within the range shown by the relation, a desired number of DNA unit fragments (for example, 50 DNA unit fragments) can be joined in the joining step.

[0042] The target number of DNA unit fragments joined together refers to the number of DNA fragments intended to be joined in the joining step, and more specifically refers to the product of the number of DNA unit fragments per assembly unit to be joined and the number of the more than one assembly unit. The "yield of a DNA fragment comprising a target number of DNA unit fragments joined together" refers to the proportion of the number of DNA fragments per DNA assembly unit joined together to the total number of DNA fragments used for joining.

[0043] The relation according to the present invention is a formula showing the relationship between the yield of a DNA fragment comprising a target number of DNA unit fragments joined together and the coefficient of variation 1. A formula determined by computer simulation of ligation, for example, can be used. More specifically, the relation can be obtained by conducting simulation of ligation, for example, for each of DNA unit fragment groups having a coefficient of variation 1 varying by 1% starting from 0% to 20% (10 to 30 groups, for example), determining the distribution of the number of DNA unit fragments per each resulting DNA concatemer (exponential distribution, for example), plotting a fitting curve of the resulting distributions, and using the fitting curve. A specific tool for use in ligation simulation is not particularly limited and a conventional known means can be used. For example, VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) of spreadsheet software Excel (registered trademark) 2007 can be used for programming as well as constructing algorithms to conduct simulation. The fitting curve can be plotted, for example, with a function of spreadsheet software Excel (registered trademark) 2007 that helps plotting exponential approximation curves. Adjustment of the coefficient of variation 2 based on the relation can be conducted, for example, after designing the relation, by substituting the yield of a target DNA fragment into the relation thus obtained, and adjusting the process in each pre-joining step so that the DNA fragment being joined has a coefficient of variation 1 equal to the thus-calculated coefficient of variation 1. The method of adjustment is not particularly limited. For example, the adjustment may be conducted by selecting, in a step such as the step of preparing the DNA vector, the step of preparing the DNA unit fragment, and/or the step of joining the DNA vector and the DNA unit fragment together, a measuring instrument (a spectrophotometer, a spectrofluorophotometer, or a real-time PCR apparatus, for example), that has its measurement errors known in advance for use in determining the concentration of the DNA vector or the DNA unit fragment in order to obtain the desired coefficient of variation 2.

[0044] The coefficient of variation 2 is not particularly limited. As the variation in the concentrations of the DNA unit fragments being joined is reduced, the number of DNA unit fragments that can be joined increases. Therefore, the coefficient of variation 2 is preferably not greater than 20%, more preferably not greater than 15%, further preferably not greater than 10%, further more preferably not greater than 8%, and most preferably not greater than 5%.

[0045] The method of preparing a DNA concatemer of the present invention may further comprise a step of inactivating the restriction enzyme after the removal step and before the joining step. A certain DNA unit fragment can have a restriction enzyme cleavage site that is the same as a restriction enzyme cleavage site for separating another DNA unit fragment from its corresponding auxiliary sequence. In this case, it is difficult to mix together different DNA unit fragment groups with their corresponding auxiliary sequences attached thereto while the restriction enzyme or enzymes are still active. Accordingly, the DNA unit fragments cannot be fractionated in a single session by combining these DNA unit fragment groups together. In contrast, when the restriction enzyme or enzymes have been inactivated, different DNA unit fragment groups with their corresponding auxiliary sequences attached thereto can be combined together after the inactivation, and, as a result, the DNA unit fragments can be fractionated in a single session. This advantage makes it easier to construct a DNA concatemer comprising even a greater number of DNA assemblies in the joining step, and, as a result, makes it easier to transform Bacillus subtilis. Inactivation of the restriction enzymes can be conducted by a well-known conventional method, for example, phenol-chloroform treatment.

[0046] The host microorganism to be transformed is not particularly limited provided that it has ability to undergo spontaneous transformation. Examples of the ability to undergo spontaneous transformation include ability to process DNA into a single strand prior to taking it up. Specific examples of the host microorganism include bacteria of the genus Bacillus, bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, bacteria of the genus Haemophilus, abacteria of the genus Neisseria, and the like. Examples of the bacteria of the genus Bacillus include B. subtilis (Bacillus subtilis), B. megaterium (Bacillus megaterium), B. stearothermophilus (Bacillus stearothermophilus), and the like. Examples of the most preferable microorganisms, among these, include Bacillus subtilis that has excellent ability to undergo spontaneous transformation and recombination.

[0047] The DNA concatemer constructed by the method of the present invention can be used for microbial cell transformation. The method of giving competency to a microorganism that is to be transformed can be a known method that is suitable for the selected microorganism. Specifically, for Bacillus subtilis, a method described in Anagnostopoulou, C. and Spizizen, J. J. Bacteriol., 81, 741-746(1961) is preferably used. Similarly, as the method of transformation, a known method that is suitable for the selected microorganism can be used. The amount of ligation product solution to give to the competent cell is not particularly limited, but is preferably from 1/20 to 20/20 and more preferably half the amount of the competent cell culture. The method of purifying the resulting plasmid from the transformant can also be a known method.

[0048] The presence of DNA assemblies in the plasmid purified from the transformant can be confirmed by checking the size-based patterns of fragments cleaved by a restriction enzyme or enzymes, PCR, or base sequencing. When the DNA insert for a substance-producing function, it can be confirmed by detecting the function.

EXAMPLES



[0049] The present invention will be described below more specifically by examples. The examples merely illustrate embodiments of the present invention, and therefore do not limit the scope of the present invention.

(Materials)



[0050] The microbial cells used for transformation were Bacillus subtilis cells. The strains of Bacillus subtilis used were strain RM125 (Uozumi, T., et al. Moi. Gen. Genet., 152, 65-69(1977)) and its derivative strain BUSY9797. As a DNA vector capable of replication in Bacillus subtilis, pGETS118-AarI-pBR (see SEQ ID NO:1) constructed as described below by using pGET118 (Kaneko, S., et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 31, e112 (2003)) as well as pGETS151-pBR (see SEQ ID NO:2) were used. As a DNA assembly, lambda phage DNA (manufactured by Toyobo Co., Ltd.) (see SEQ ID NO:3) and an artificial operon of the mevalonate pathway described below (see SEQ ID NO:4) were used. For selecting an Escherichia coli having a DNA plasmid into which a DNA unit fragment is incorporated, the antibiotic carbenicillin (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.) was used. For selecting Bacillus subtilis, the antibiotic tetracycline (Sigma) was used. As a Type IIS restriction enzyme, AarI (Thermo), BbsI (NEB), BsmBI (NEB), and SfiI (NEB) were used. The restriction enzymes HindIII, PvuII, and T4 DNA Ligase used were manufactured by Takara Bio Inc. For ligation that was normally conducted for constructing an Escherichia coli plasmid, Takara Ligation Kit (Mighty) (Takara Bio Inc.) was used. For PCR reaction for preparing a DNA unit fragment, KOD plus polymerase manufactured by Toyobo Co., Ltd. was used. For colony PCR for base sequencing DNA cloned in a plasmid, Ex-Taq HS manufactured by Takara Bio Inc. was used. As a DNA plasmid that was a corresponding auxiliary sequence to be attached to a DNA unit fragment, pMD-19 (simple) (Takara Bio Inc.) was used. The enzyme used for purifying a circular plasmid was Plasmid Safe manufactured by EPICENTRE. As the agarose gel for electrophoresis, 2-Hydroxyethyl agarose (Sigma), which was agarose gel for DNA electrophoresis having low melting temperature, or UltraPure Agarose (Invitrogen Limited) was used. For inactivation of a restriction enzyme, phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol 25:24:1 and TE saturated phenol (containing 8-quinolinol) manufactured by Nacalai Tesque, Inc. were used. The lambda terminase used was manufactured by EPICENTRE. For lambda phage packaging, Gigapack III Plus Packaging Extract from Agilent Technologies was used. The lysozyme used was manufactured by Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. The medium component of the LB medium and the agar-agar manufactured by Becton, Dickinson and Company were used. The IPTG (isopropyl s-D-thiogalactopyranoside) used was manufactured by Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. All the medium components and biochemical reagents other than those described above manufactured by Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd were used. For construction of a plasmid other than those particularly mentioned, one of Escherichia coli strains DH5α, JM109, and TOP10 was used. For purification of a small amount of constructed plasmid from Escherichia coli, QIAprep Spin Miniprep Kit from QIAGEN was used, while for purification of a large amount, QIAfilter Midi Kit from QIAGEN was used. For DNA cleanup from an enzymatic reaction solution, MinElute Reaction Cleanup Kit from QIAGEN or QIAquick PCR purification Kit from QIAGEN was used. For purification of a gel block resulting from ordinary agarose gel electrophoresis separation, MinElute Gel Extraction Kit from QIAGEN was used. As a spectrophotometer for trace amount detection, nano-drop 2000 from Thermo was used. For base sequencing, the automated fluorescence sequencer 3130xl Genetic Analyzer manufactured by Applied Biosystems Inc. was used. Other common DNA handling was conducted according to a standard protocol (Sambrook, J., et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York (1989)). Bacillus subtilis transformation and plasmid extraction were conducted according to a known method (Tsuge, K., et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 31, e133. (2003)).

(Construction of DNA vector used in assembly)



[0051] The DNA vector used in lambda phage DNA assembly, pGETS118-AarI-pBR (SEQ ID NO:1), was a plasmid constructed through multiple steps starting from the Escherichia coli-Bacillus subtilis shuttle plasmid vector pGETS118 harboring an origin of replication in Escherichia coli F factor, oriS, and an origin of replication in Bacillus subtilis, repA (Kaneko, et. al., Nucleic Acids Res., 31,e112. (2003)). The structure thereof is shown in FIG. 1. The cloning site for a gene assembly was the area between two AarI cleavage sites. This area between the two AarI cleavage sites, which was to be removed at the time of assembling, had an origin of replication of the Escherichia coli multicopy plasmid pBR322 for facilitating vector acquisition in Escherichia coli, as well as an ampicillin resistance gene, introduced thereinto. As for the AarI cleavage site naturally occurring in a tetracycline resistance gene of pGETS118, its recognition site was rendered ineffective by single base mutation that had no influence on the amino acid sequence of the tetracycline resistance gene (tetL). The DNA vector used in assembly of an artificial mevalonate-pathway operon, pGETS151-pBR (SEQ ID NO:2), was constructed by joining together fragments amplified from the pGETS118-AarI-pBR DNA described above as a template with three pairs of primers, PartA (5'-TAGGGTCTCAaagcggccgcaagctt-3' (see SEQ ID NO:5) and 5'-TAGGGTCTCAGCggccaagaaggcc-3' (see SEQ ID NO:6)), PartB (5'-TAGGGTCTCAccGCCCTTCCCGGTCGATAT-3' (see SEQ ID NO:7) and 5'-TAGGGTCTCAtaTTAGCTTAATTGTTATCCGCTCACAATTCC-3' (see SEQ ID NO:8)), and PartC (5'-TAGGGTCTCAAAtaactggaaaaaattagtgtctcatggttcg-3' (see SEQ ID NO:9) and 5'-TAGGGTCTCAgcttaagtggtgggtagttgacc-3' (see SEQ ID NO:10)). Unlike the template plasmid, this DNA vector pGETS151-pBR did not have gene regions functioning only in Escherichia coli (the region between cat and oriS, and the region between parA and parC) (FIG. 1). Although this DNA vector with a gene assembly was capable of replicating only in Bacillus subtilis, it shared the same characteristics with pGETS118-AarI-pBR in terms of the gene-assembling process. To about 10 µl of a solution each containing one of the plasmids (equivalent to 5 µg), 29 µl of sterilized water, 5 µl of 10× Buffer_for_AarI that came with a restriction enzyme used, 1 µl of 50× Oligonucleotide for activation of cleavage that also came with the restriction enzyme used, and 5 µl of the restriction enzyme AarI (Thermo) were added, followed by reaction at 37°C for 2 hours. The resulting liquid was subjected to separation by electrophoresis in agarose gel having low melting temperature. From the gel, a fragment of about 15 kb (in the case of pGETS118-AarI-pBR) or of 4.3 kb (in the case of pGETS151-pBR) attributed to the vector was cut out, followed by purification of the DNA vector in question, which was then dissolved in 20 µl of TE. The concentration of the DNA vector was measured by taking a 1-µl sample from the TE solution and subjecting the sample to measurement with a spectrophotometer for trace amount detection.

(Designing DNA unit fragment's border regions)



[0052] The number of different combinations of 4-base protruding was 4 raised to the 4th power, which was equal to 256. From these, protruding sequences used in the present invention were selected according to the following criterion. First, all the 16 palindromic sequences (Group 0) (AATT, ATAT, TATA, TTAA, CCGG, CGCG, GCGC, GGCC, ACGT, AGCT, TCGA, TGCA, CATG, CTAG, GATC, GTAC) were excluded because their complementary sequences had the same sequences as their own and therefore there was a possibility that identical fragments would join together, which was not appropriate in the present invention. The remaining 240 sequences included both a certain sequence (CCTA, for example) and its complementary sequence (TAGG), and therefore the theoretical number of combinations of protruding sequences applicable to DNA concatenation was 240/2 = 120 combinations. Then, based on the GC content and the appearance order in which the constituent G and C bases were aligned, these combinations were divided into groups of combinations of protruding ends as follows.

(Group I) 6 combinations of protruding ends consisting of A and T alone (AAAA/TTTT, TAAA/TTTA, ATAA/TTAT, AATA/TATT, AAAT/ATTT, ATTA/TAAT).

(Group II) All 32 combinations consisting of 3 bases selected from A and T and 1 base selected from C and G (CAAA/TTTG, ACAA/TTGT, AACA/TGTT, AAAC/GTTT, GAAA/TTTC, AGAA/TTCT, AAGA/TCTT, AAAG/CTTT, CAAT/ATTG, ACAT/ATGT, AACT/AGTT, AATC/GATT, GAAT/ATTC, AGAT/ATCT, AAGT/ACTT, AATG/CATT, CATA/TATG, ACTA/TAGT, ATCA/TGAT, ATAC/GTAT, GATA/TATC, AGTA/TACT, ATGA/TCAT, ATAG/CTAT, CTTA/TAAG, TCTA/TAGA, TTCA/TGAA, TTAC/GTAA, GTTA/TAAC, TGTA/TACA, TTGA/TCAA, TTAG/CTAA).

(Group III) 44 combinations, left by subtracting 8 palindromic combinations from all 52 combinations consisting of 2 bases selected from A and T and 2 bases selected from C and G (AACC/GGTT, AACG/CGTT, AAGC/GCTT, AAGG/CCTT, ACAC/GTGT, ACAG/CTGT, ACCA/TGGT, ACCT/AGGT, ACGA/TCGT, ACTC/GAGT, ACTG/CAGT, AGAC/GTCT, AGAG/CTCT, AGCA/TGCT, AGGA/TCCT, AGTC/GACT, AGTG/CACT, ATCC/GGAT, ATCG/CGAT, ATGC/GCAT, ATGG/CCAT, CAAC/GTTG, CAAG/CTTG, CACA/TGTG, CAGA/TCTG, CATC/GATG, CCAA/TTGG, CCTA/TAGG, CGAA/TTCG, CGTA/TACG, CTAC/GTAG, CTCA/TGAG, CTGA/TCAG, CTTC/GAAG, GAAC/GTTC, GACA/TGTC, GAGA/TCTC, GCAA/TTGC, GCTA/TAGC, GGAA/TTCC, GGTA/TACC, GTCA/TGAC, GTGA/TCAC, TCCA/TGGA).

(Group IV) 16 combinations with no 3 consecutive bases selected from C and G, out of all 32 combinations consisting of 1 base selected from A and T and 3 bases selected from C and G (CACC/GGTG, CCAC/GTGG, CTCC/GGAG, CCTC/GAGG, CACG/CGTG, CCAG/CTGG, CTCG/CGAG, CCTG/CAGG, CAGC/GCTG, CGAC/GTCG, CTGC/GCAG, CGTC/GACG, GAGC/GCTC, GGAC/GTCC, GTGC/GCAC, GGTC/GACC).

(Group V) All 16 combinations with 3 consecutive bases selected from C and G, out of all 32 combinations consisting of 1 base selected from A and T and 3 bases selected from C and G (ACCC/GGGT, CCCA/TGGG, TCCC/GGGA, CCCT/AGGG, ACCG/CGGT, CCGA/TCGG, TCCG/CGGA, CCGT/ACGG, ACGC/GCGT, CGCA/TGCG, TCGC/GCGA, CGCT/AGCG, AGGC/GCCT, GGCA/TGCC, TGGC/GCCA, GGCT/AGCC).

(Group VI) All 6 combinations consisting of bases selected from C and G alone (CCCC/GGGG, GCCC/GGGC, CGCC/GGCG, CCGC/GCGG, CCCG/CGGG, CGGC/GCCG).



[0053] Boundaries between a DNA vector and a DNA unit fragment in Examples 1 and 2 were selected from Group 1 among the groups divided as above. Boundaries between two DNA unit fragments as candidates were selected from 60 combinations in total of protruding ends included in Group III (44 combinations) and Group IV (16 combinations). Selection of a combination of protruding ends was conducted by determining the full-length final base sequence made up by the sequences to be assembled and then determining ideal dividing boundaries that divided the full-length base sequence into equal parts. The base sequence used in Example 1 is described below referring to specific examples.

[0054] Example 1 is an experiment of reconstruction of a 48522-bp molecule consisting of the 48502-bp full-length lambda phage genome, to which a 16-bp cos site and a 4-bp protruding sequence required for assembly are added. Table 1 below shows ideal dividing boundaries and actual dividing boundaries within DNA assemblies and protruding base sequences of the DNA assemblies in Example 1. Reconstruction was attempted by first dividing the molecule devoid of a plasmid vector for assembly into 50 DNA unit fragments having substantially the same size, and then joining these 50 DNA unit fragments together. Ideally, all of the 50 fragments are divided to have the same length. In order to avoid changing any base in the sequences to be assembled, it was necessary to construct 5' end protruding of 4 bases to be used for assembly, depending on the originally existing sequence. In reality, there was almost no chance that each single one of the ideal dividing boundaries had one of the protruding sequences described above, which means that it was impossible to divide the original sequence into equal DNA unit fragments at the ideal dividing boundaries. Therefore, in this example, in order to make the size of the unit as close to the size of the ideal dividing unit as possible, simulation was conducted to assign a protruding-end combination to each boundary. The simulation was conducted as follows: first, the full-length original molecule (48522 bp) was divided into 50 equal-sized ideal DNA unit fragments of 970 bp, which were then named as Fragment No. 01, Fragment No. 02, Fragment No. 03,..., and Fragment No. 50 in order of increasing absolute base number; and, then, the presence of any 4-base protruding end candidate was searched for within a 4-base sequence that extended the same distance from an absolute position of each ideal boundary (the ideal dividing boundaries lay between the 970th base and the 971th base, between the 1940th base and the 1941th base, between the 2910th base and the 2911th base,..., and between the 47530th base and the 47531th base), with the 4-base sequence being sequentially enlarged by 1 base at a time to each side of the ideal dividing boundary, namely, the 4-base sequence becoming sequentially enlarged to a 6-base sequence, an 8-base sequence, a 10-base sequence, a 12-base sequence, a 14-base sequence, a 16-base sequence, an 18-base sequence, a 20-base sequence, a 22-base sequence, and a 24-base sequence. This procedure is explained in the following specific example (Table 1). The ideal dividing boundary between Fragment No. 01 and Fragment No. 02 lay between the 970th base and the 971th base. Within the 16-base sequence extending the same distance from the ideal dividing boundary (the base sequence from the 963th base to the 988th base, namely, 5'-ATGCTGCTGGGTGTTT-3'), 7 protruding-end combination candidates were found (ACAC/GTGT, AGCA/TGCT, ATGC/GCAT, CACC/GGTG, CAGC/GCTG, CCAG/CTGG, CTGC/GCAG). This procedure was conducted for all the 49 ideal dividing boundaries, in an attempt to find at least one protruding sequence candidate within each base sequence of a certain length lying near each of the ideal dividing boundaries. When the length was extended to 24 bp, each base sequence had at least one 4-base protruding sequence candidate. Then, for each base sequence, a specific protruding sequence was selected from the protruding candidates, as follows: the least common protruding-end combination found (or not taken yet) in all of the (remaining) base sequences was assigned, preferentially, to the base sequence with the least number of protruding-end combination candidates; and this procedure was repeated so that a unique protruding-end combination was assigned to all the boundaries.
[Table 1]
Ideal dividing boundary60 Bases near ideal dividing boundary ("|" indicates each ideal dividing boundary)Actual dividingProtruding sequenceComplementary sequence
-1|1 tgagacgtctcggcctgtttggccattaCG|GGGCGGCGACCTCGCGGGTTTTCGCTATTT -7/-6 ATTA TAAT
970|971 TGCCCGTGTCGGTTATTCCAAAATGCTGCT|GGGTGTTTATGCCTACTTTATAGAGCATAA 962/963 ATGC GCAT
1940|1941 GACTCCCAGCTGGACCGCTACGAAATGCGC|GTATGGGGATGGGGGCCGGGTGAGGAAAGC 1942/1943 ATGG CCAT
2910|2911 ACATCGCTGCGCGAATATGCCGGTTATCAC|GGCGGTGGCAGCGGATTTGGAGGGCAGTTG 2907/2908 CACG CGTG
3880|3881 TGAACCTGCAGACGGCTCAGGATACGGATA|ACGGCTACTCCGTGTTTGAGCAGTCACTGC 3879/3880 AACG CGTT
4850|4851 GGATGGTGGCGGGGGCATTTGACTGCGCTG|ACATCATCGCCCGTGTGCGTGACATAAAAC 4847/4848 CTGA TCAG
5820|5821 CAGTGACCCGGCTCATACCGCAACCGCGCC|CGGCGGATTGAGTGCGAAAGCGCCTGCAAT 5824/5825 GGAT ATCC
6790|6791 TTCCTTCAAAGCCGTCAAGGAGAAGCTGGA|TACCCGTCGTGGCTCTAATTCCGAGCTGGA 6790/6791 TACC GGTA
7760|7761 TGGTGTTTTTGATGACCCTGAAAATATCAG|CTATGCCGGACAGGGCGTGCGCGTTGAAGG 7759/7760 GCTA TAGC
8730|8731 CGAAGAGCTGGACAGCGATACCTGGCAGGC|GGAGCTGCATATCGAAGTTTTCCTGCCTGC 8731/8732 GAGC GCTC
9700|9701 AGAAATTACCGTCACCGCCAGTTAATCCGG|AGAGTCAGCGATGTTCCTGAAAACCGAATC 9700/9701 AGAG CTCT
10670|10671 GAAAGTGATGCGAAAAAAACAGCGGCAGTC|GTTGAACAGTCGCTGAGCCGACAGGCGCTG 10666/10667 AGTC GACT
11640|11641 GGGATGATCGTGAAAAGGCCCGTCTTGCGC|TTGAAGCCGCCCGAAAGAAGGCTGAGCAGC 11642/11643 GAAG CTTC
12610|12611 CACCCGTTCCGTGCTGTCCATGATGACAGA|AATTCTGCTTAAGCAGGCAATGGTGGGGAT 12606/12607 CAGA TCTG
13580|13581 GCAGAACGAAAAAGGTGAGCCGGTCACCTG|GCAGGGGCGACAGTATCAGCCGTATCCCAT 13577/13578 CTGG CCAG
14550|14551 TCTGGCGGGGATTGAGATGCCGGACTTTCA|TCGTGAGGATGACTGGTGGCGTAACGGCCA 14550/14551 TCGT ACGA
15520|15521 ATGGAGCGTGAGGAATGGGTAAAGGAAGCA|GTAAGGGGCATACCCCGCGCGAAGCGAAGG 15516/15517 AGCA TGCT
16490|16491 GGAGCCGCGCATCACCTGTAATGCGTACCT|GACCACACAGCGTAAGGCGTGGGATGTGCT 16487/16488 OCTG CAGG
17460|17461 ACACCGAAGGTGGTGAAGGGCGTGAGTTTC|CTGCTCCGTCTGACCGTAACAGCGGACGAC 17452/17453 TGAG CTCA
18430|18431 TGAATGCGAACTCCGGGACGCTCAGTAATG|TGACGATAGCTGAAAACTGTACGATAAACG 18428/18429 TGTG CACA
19400|19401 TGGATTACCGTAAGACGGAAATCACTCCCG|GGTATATGAAAGAGACGACCACTGCCAGGG 19394/19395 CTCC GGAG
20370|20371 AGGCCGCCACTTCAGCACGAGATGCGGTGG|CCTCAAAAGAGGCAGCAAAATCATCAGAAA 20366/20367 GTGG CCAC
21340|21341 TTTGACAAATCAGCCTACCCAAAACTTGCT|GTCGCGTATCCATCGGGTGTGCTTCCTGAT 21340/21341 GTCG CGAC
22310|22311 AGGGGAATATCAGAAGTGGAACGGCACAGC|CTGGGTGAAGGATACGGAAGCAGAAAAACT 22303/22304 GCAC GTGC
23280|23281 AATGACAATTTGCTTATGGAGTAATCTTTT|AATTTTAAATAAGTTATTCTCCTGGCTTCA 23268/23269 GAGT ACTC
24250|24251 GGGTGTTGAATGATTTCCAGTTGCTACCGA|TTTTACATATTTTTTGCATGAGAGAATTTG 24243/24244 CTAC GTAG
25220|25221 ACTACTAAGGTTGTAGGCTCAAGAGGGTGT|GTCCTGTCGTAGGTAAATAACTGACCTGTC 25220/25221 GTCC GGAC
26190|26191 TCCAATATAAAAGTATTGTGTACCTTTTGC|TGGGTCAGGTTGTTCTTTAGGAGGAGTAAA 26192/26193 GGTC GACC
27160|27161 TCTGCTTCCTTTTGGATAACCCACTGTTAT|TCATGTTGCATGGTGCACTGTTTATACCAA 27152/27153 ACTG CAGT
28130|28131 TTATCAAGTGTTTCCTTCATTGATATTCCG|AGAGCATCAATATGCAATGCTGTTGGGATG 28128/28129 CGAG CTCG
29100|29101 AAGTACATCGCAAAGTCTCCGCAATTACAC|GCAAGAAAAAACCGCCATCAGGCGGCTTGG 29096/29097 ACAC GTGT
30070|30071 CAGGATGGCGAACAACAAGAAACTGGTTTC|CGTCTTCACGGACTTCGTTGCTTTCCAGTT 30071/30072 GTCT AGAC
31040|31041 CTGGTTTCTCTCATCTGCTTCTGCTTTCGC|CACCATCATTTCCAGCTTTTGTGAAAGGGA 31041/31042 ACCA TGGT
32010|32011 AGCTCTCACATCGATCCCGGTACGCTGCAG|GATAATGTCCGGTGTCATGCTGCCACCTTC 32008/32009 AGGA TCCT
32980|32981 GCGTTGCAAATGATCGATGCATAGCGATTC|AAACAGGTGCTGGGGCAGGCCTTTTTCCAT 32984/32985 AGGT ACCT
33950133951 AGATAAAAAATCGCCCTCACACTGGAGGGC|AAAGAAGATTTCCAATAATCAGAACAAGTC 33942/33943 TGGA TCCA
34920|34921 TTGAGCTTGGTGTGTTGAACAAAACTTTTT|CCCGATGGAATGGAAAGCATATATTATTCC 34918/34919 TTCC GGAA
35890|35891 AACAAGGATGCATATATGAATGAACGATGC|AGAGGCAATGCCGATGGCGATAGTGGGTAT 35894/35895 GCAA TTGC
36860|36861 AACAAAAAAGATGGGAATCCCAATGATTCG|TCATCTGCGAGGCTGTTCTTAATATCTTCA 36858/36859 CGTC GACG
37830|37831 CCTGACTGCCCCATCCCCATCTTGTCTGCG|ACAGATTCCTGGGATAAGCCAAGTTCATTT 37822/37823 TGTC GACA
38800|38801 ACGCCAGACTATCAAATATGCTGCTTGAGG|CTTATTCGGGCGCAGATCTGACCAAGCGAC 38804/38805 TTCG CGAA
39770|39771 AGCCTGGCTAACCGTGACCAGAACGAAGTG|AACGAAATCCGTCGCCAGTGGGTTCTGGCT 39760/39761 GAAC GTTC
40740|40741 AAATCCTTCCAGACCCAACCAAACCAATCG|TAGTAACCATTCAGGAACGCAACCGCAGCT 40738/40739 CGTA TACG
41710|41711 GCCTGCAAAGATGAGGAGGGATTGCAGCGT|GTTTTTAATGAGGTCATCACGGGATCCCAT 41704/41705 CAGC GCTG
42680|42681 TTAAAGCCCCGCAGTTACTGGATTAAACAA|GCCCAACAAGCCGTAAACGCCTTCATCAGA 42682/42683 CCAA TTGG
43650|43651 AAAAATATGTTATCTGCCACGCCGATTATC|CCTTTGACGAATACGAGTTTGGAAAGCCAG 43650/43651 CCTT AAGG
44620|44621 ATGGGTTAATTCGCTCGTTGTGGTAGTGAG|ATGAAAAGAGGCGGCGCTTACTACCGATTC 44614/44615 AGTG CACT
45590|45591 CGGACGTCAGAAAACCAGAAATCATGGTTA|TGACGTCATTGTAGGCGGAGAGCTATTTAC 45590/45591 TGAC GTCA
46560|46561 TACGAATGTTTGCTGGGTTTCTGTTTTAAC|AACATTTTCTGCGCCGCCACAAATTTTGGC 46559/46560 CAAC GTTG
47530|47531 TTTTATCGTTTCAATCTGGTCTGACCTCCT|TGTGTTTTGTTGATGATTTATGTCAAATAT 47528/47529 CTTG CAAG
48500|48501 ACGGGTCCTTTCCGGTGATCCGACAGGTTA|CGGGGCGGCGACCTCGaaaaggccttcttg 48516/48517 AAAA TTTT

(Example 1, Construction of lambda phage point mutant with assembly comprising 50 DNA unit fragments and DNA vector)


<Lambda phage>



[0055] A lambda phage is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli, and is studied in the molecular biology field the most widely among other phages. Its genome is 48502-bp double-stranded DNA at its full-length, and the entire base sequence has been identified. It has various variants, many of which have been identified. In this example, construction of a lambda phage point mutant from a short DNA unit fragment of about 1 kb was attempted.

<Division design of lambda phage genome>



[0056] As a lambda phage, λ phage DNA manufactured by Toyobo Co., Ltd. was used. This product had a linear cos site. The full-length genome sequence of the phage was sequenced (SEQ ID NO:3), revealing 6 differences (g.138delG, g.14266_14267insG, g.37589C>T, g.37743C>T, g.43082G>A, g.45352 G>A) from a base sequence registered in the database (Accession No. J02459.1) (the full-length sequence shown under SEQ ID NO:3 had a size of 48526 bp, consisting of 48522 bp as described above and 4 bases of the other protruding end). In order to divide this 48522-bp full-length base sequence (including duplicated cos sites) into parts having substantially the same length, ideal dividing boundaries were designated every 970 bp, followed by the procedure described above in (Designing DNA unit fragment's dividing regions). As a result, a unique 5' protruding end that was a 4-base sequence to the right of a corresponding cleavage site was successfully assigned to each DNA unit fragment group, as shown in Table 1.

<Selection of kind of restriction enzyme for forming protruding end>



[0057] Examples of a Type IIS restriction enzyme for forming an arbitrary 4-base protruding sequence include AarI (5'-CACCTGC(N)4/- 3',5'-/(N)8 GCAGGTG-3'), BbsI (5'-GAAGAC(N)2/-3',5'-/(N)6 GTCTTC-3'), BbvI (5'-GCAGC(N)8/-3',5'-/(N)12 GCTGC-3'), BcoDI (5'-GTCTCN/-3',5'- /(N)5 GAGAC-3'), BfuAI (5'-ACCTGC(N)4/-3',5'-/(N)8 GCAGGT-3'), BsaI (5'-GGTCTCN/-3',5'-/(N)5 GAGACC-3'), BsmAI (a BcoDI isoschizomer), BsmBI (5'-CGTCTCN/-3',5'-/(N)5 GAGACG-3'), BsmFI (5'-GGGAC(N)10/- 3',5'-/(N)14 GTCCC-3'), BspMI (a BfuAI isoschizomer), BtgZI (5'-GCGATG(N)10/-3',5'-/(N)14CATCGC-3'), FokI (5'-GGATG(N)9/-3'5'-/(N)13CATCC-5'), and SfaNI (5'-GCATC(N)9/-3',5'-/(N)13 GATGC-5'). These restriction enzymes were screened for any restriction enzyme that did not have its recognition site in an Escherichia coli plasmid vector used for gene fragment subcloning (pMD19, Simple, TAKARA), or any restriction enzyme that had its recognition site in there but was capable of forming a fragment longer enough or shorter enough than the ideal dividing unit. As a result, a total of 6 kinds of restriction enzyme candidates were found, including 5 restriction enzymes (AarI, BbsI, BfuAI, BsmFI, and BtgZI) that did not had no cleavage and 1 restriction enzyme (BsmBI) that had its recognition sequence in the vector but was capable of forming a fragment longer enough or shorter enough than the ideal dividing unit. As for these restriction enzyme site candidates, the distribution of the restriction enzyme site within the entire lambda phage, namely, across Fragment No. 01 to Fragment No. 50 was searched. As a result, each of these restriction enzymes had its restriction enzyme recognition sites within the lambda phage genome, namely, 12 sites for AarI, 24 sites for BbsI, 41 sites for BfuAI, 38 sites for BsmFI, 45 sites for BtgZI, and 14 sites for BsmBI. Then, for each DNA unit fragment, a restriction enzyme that did not cleave inside the DNA unit fragment itself was used. It was confirmed that it is sufficient that the fewest number of the kinds of restriction enzymes to be used was only 3, namely, BbsI, AarI, and BsmBI. Each of these Type IIS restriction enzymes was assigned for cleaving a certain group of DNA unit fragments, as follows.

[0058] The group of fragments to be cleaved with BbsI consisted of Fragments Nos. 01 to 08, 12, 16 to 22, 24, 27, 28, 33 to 39, 43, and 45 to 50, a total of 33 fragments; the group to be cleaved with AarI consisted of Fragments Nos. 09 to 11, 13, 23, 25.30, 32, and 44, a total of 9 fragments; and the group to be cleaved with BsmBI consisted of Fragments Nos. 14, 15, 26, 29, 31, and 40 to 42, a total of 8 fragments.

<Cloning of gene fragment>



[0059] All of the 50 fragments, from Fragment No. 01 to Fragment No. 50, were amplified from the full-length lambda phage genome by PCR. First, to the 5' end of a primer for amplifying a DNA sequence between combinations of protruding-end sequences determined above, a corresponding restriction enzyme recognition site among those determined above was attached so that a protruding end was to be formed at the intended position. Then, to the resulting 5' end, a primer to which a TAG sequence was further attached was used. A pair of these primers made in this way was used to amplify a certain DNA fragment in the specified region from the full-length lambda phage genome. PCR reaction was allowed to proceed under the conditions where 50 µl for one cycle consisted of 5 µl of KOD Plus 10× buffer Ver.2, 3 µl of 25-mM MgSO4, 5 µl of dNTP (2 mM each), 1 µl of KOD Plus (1 unit/µl), 48 pg of lambda phage DNA (Toyobo Co., Ltd.), 15 pmol of primers (an F primer and an R primer respectively), and sterilized water, and on a GeneAmp PCR System 9700 (Applied Biosystems Inc.) programmed as follows.

[0060] One cycle consisted of incubation at 94°C for 2 min, at 98°C for 10s, 55°C for 30s, and then at 68°C for 1 min. The cycle was repeated 30 times, followed by incubation at 68°C for 7 min. The amplified DNA unit fragments were separated in 1% agarose gel (UltraPure Agarose, Invitrogen Ltd.) made of 1× TAE buffer (prepared by diluting "Tris-acetate-EDTA stock buffer (50× concentrated) pH8.3 (at 25°C)" manufactured by Nacalai Tesque, Inc. 50 times with milliQ water) containing 2 mg/ml of Crystal Violet (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.), on an electrophoresis system (i-MyRun. NC, Cosmo Bio Co., Ltd.) at a voltage of 100 V for 10 min of electrophoresis. The DNA band in question was cut out from the electrophoresis gel with a razor to recover as the gel segment weighed about 200 mg. From this gel segment, a DNA unit fragment was purified with a Concert Rapid Gel Extraction System (Life Technologies). The specific procedure was as follows: L1 Buffer having a volume 3 times the weight of the gel segment was added to the gel segment; the gel segment was dissolved at 45°C in a block incubator for about 10 min; the resulting solution was added into a spin column cartridge supplied (a 2-ml centrifuge tube into which a spin column was attached); centrifugation was conducted at 20,000 × g for 1 min and the flow-through was discarded; 750 µl of L2 Buffer was then added to the spin column; and centrifugation was conducted at 20,000 × g for 1 min and the flow-through was discarded. In order to remove as much residue such as the L2 Buffer remaining in the spin column as possible, the following procedure was conducted: the spin column was centrifuged at 20,000 × g for 1 min; the spin column was transferred from the 2-ml centrifuge tube which was discarded to a 1.5-ml centrifuge tube; into the spin column, 30 µl of TE buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH8.0) was added; and the spin column was left for 2 min and was then centrifuged at 20,000 × g for 1 min to recover a DNA solution. The resulting DNA was preserved at - 20°C until it was used. The resulting DNA unit fragment was cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmid vector by the following TA cloning method.

[0061] To 8 µl of the DNA unit fragment solution, 1 µl of 10× Ex-Taq Buffer that came with TAKARA PCR reaction enzyme Ex-Taq, 0.5 µl of 100-mM dATP, and 0.5 µl of Ex-Taq was added, followed by incubation at 65°C at 10 min. As a result, a protrusion of A was added to the 3' end of the DNA unit fragment. To 1 µl of the DNA unit fragment solution, 1 µl of TAKARA pMD19-Simple and 3 µl of sterilized water were added and mixed, and thereto, 5 µl of TAKARA Ligation (Mighty) Mix was added, followed by incubation at 16°C for 30 min. A 5-µl portion of the ligation solution was added to 50 µl of Escherichia coli DH5α chemically competent cell, followed by incubation on ice for 15 min, heat shock at 42°C for 30 sec, and then being left on ice for 2 min. Thereto, 200 µl of an LB medium was added, followed by incubation at 37°C for 1h. The culture was streaked onto an LB plate supplemented with carbenicillin (100 µg/ml) and containing 1.5% agar-agar, followed by overnight culture at 37°C. As a result, a transformant transformed with the plasmid was obtained. A resulting colony was treated with a PCR template DNA preparation reagent (Cica Geneus DNA preparation reagent, KANTO CHEMICAL CO., INC.), and a PCR template DNA molecule was prepared. Specifically, Reagent a and Reagent b in the reagent kit were mixed in a ratio of 1:10, and into 2.5 µl of the resulting solution, a fraction of a colony taken from the plate with a toothpick was suspended, followed by treatment at 72°C for 6 min and then at 94°C for 3 min. To the resulting liquid, 2.5 µl of TAKARA Ex-Taq 10× enzyme, 2 µl of 2.5-mM dNTP solution, 0.25 µl of 10-pmol/µl M13F primer, 0.25 µl of 10-pmol/µl M13R primer, 17 µl of sterilized water, and 0.5 µl of Ex-TaqHS were added, followed by incubation at 94°C for 5 min. A cycle of incubation at 98°C for 20 sec, at 55°C for 30 sec, and at 72°C for 1 min was repeated 30 times for DNA amplification. The base sequence of the PCR product was analyzed to confirm complete agreement of it with the intended sequence. Consequently, all the clones gave the correct sequences. In this process, one of the variants obtained from Fragment No. 10 was found to have synonymous substitution within its gene-V-coding region (g.9515 G>C). Due to this mutation, in the phage genome, a restriction enzyme AvaI recognition site newly appears (FIG. 2). In this example, for the purpose of clearly demonstrating that the phage was artificially constructed, this variant with synonymous substitution (g.9515 G>C) was used instead of the wild-type one, as for Fragment No. 10.

<High-purity purification of plasmid harboring DNA unit fragment>



[0062] Each of the all 50 kinds of Escherichia coli transformants each harboring a plasmid into which a corresponding one of Fragments Nos. 01 to 50 having the intended sequence had been cloned was cultured overnight at 37°C for 120 spm in 50 ml of an LB medium supplemented with 100 µg/ml of carbenicillin. The resulting bacterial cells were subjected to purification with QIAfilter Plasmid Midi Kit (QIAGEN). To 50 µl of the resulting crude plasmid solution, 5 µl of a 3-M potassium acetate-acetic acid buffer solution (pH5.2) and 125 µl of ethanol were added, followed by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 10 min for ethanol precipitation of the DNA. The resulting precipitate was rinsed with 70% ethanol, and the residue was removed, followed by re-dissolution in 50 µl of TE (pH8.0). A 1-µl sample was taken from the crude plasmid solution for measurement of the DNA concentration with a spectrophotometer for trace amount detection (ND-2000, Thermo). The amount of DNA in the crude plasmid solution at this time was about 0.5 µg/µl to 4 µg/µl. Referring to the measurement value, 5 µg of DNA was taken from each crude plasmid solution and collected into a 1.5-ml tube, into which sterilized water was added so as to achieve a total volume of 50 µl. Thereto, 6 µl of Plasmid Safe (Epicentre) 10× reaction buffer, 2.4 µl of 25-mM ATP solution, and 2 µl of Plasmid Safe enzyme solution were added and mixed, followed by incubation at 37°C for 1h in the programmable block incubator BI-526T (ASTEC) and then incubation at 75°C for 30 min for enzyme inactivation. The resulting solution was purified with PCR purification kit (QIAGEN). In the final step of purification with the kit, the DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted off not with the elution buffer that came with the kit but with 25 µl of TE buffer (pH8.0) so as to give a highly-pure plasmid solution. The plasmid harboring Fragment No. 01 and the plasmid harboring Fragment No. 21 before and after purification were analyzed by DNA electrophoresis (UltraPure Agarose, Invitrogen Limited), confirming incorporation of the intended fragments (DNA unit fragments) (FIG. 3).

<Precisely adjusting concentrations of plasmids each harboring DNA unit fragment, and combining equal moles of plasmids>



[0063] The resulting DNA solution was reanalyzed with a spectrophotometer for trace amount detection so as to determine the concentration of the highly-pure plasmid solution. The concentration of each sample was within the range from about 100 ng/µl to 200 ng/µl reflecting the degree of purification of the crude plasmid solution, where the theoretical maximum concentration was 200 ng/µl. Based on the measurement result, 15 µl of each plasmid solution was taken into a 1.5-ml tube, to which TE was added so as to achieve a concentration of each plasmid of 100 ng/µl. Reanalysis of the concentration of the resulting highly-pure plasmid solution with a spectrophotometer for trace amount detection showed variation from the target value of 100 ng/µl within the range of about several percent. As for each highly-pure plasmid solution, the volume (µl) of the solution containing 500 ng of the DNA was accurately calculated to the second decimal place. A portion of the DNA solution in an amount of this volume (about 5 µl) was combined with the other such portions that were to be cleaved later with the same kind of restriction enzyme (the BbsI group, the AarI group, and the BsmBI group). Between the portions combined together, the numbers of moles of the DNA unit fragments were adjusted to be substantially the same.

<Cleavage of same-mole-number plasmids combined together, in one session with restriction enzyme>



[0064] The total volume of the combined same-mole-number plasmid solution was about 165 µl for the BbsI group, about 45 µl for the AarI group, and about 40 µl for the BsmBI group. The combined solution of each group was tripled in volume with sterilized water, giving a highly-pure plasmid solution having a volume of 495 µl, 135 µl, or 120 µl, which was cleaved with the corresponding kind of restriction enzyme as follows.

[0065] To the highly-pure plasmid solution of the BbsI group, 55 µl of 10× NEB buffer #2 and 27.5 µl of the restriction enzyme BbsI (NEB) were added to give about 577 µl of the resulting plasmid solution, which was subjected to reaction at 37°C for 2h. To the highly-pure plasmid solution of the AarI group, 15 µl of 10× Buffer for AarI that came with the restriction enzyme, 3 µl of 50× Oligonucleotide for activation of cleavage that also came with the restriction enzyme, and 7.5 µl of the restriction enzyme AarI (Thermo) were added to give about 160 µl of the resulting plasmid solution, which was subjected to reaction at 37°C for 2h. To the highly-pure plasmid solution of the BsmBI group, 13.3 µl of 10× NEB Buffer #3 and 6.3 µl of the restriction enzyme BsmBI (NEB) were added to give about 140 µl of the resulting plasmid solution, which was subjected to reaction at 55°C for 2h. After 2h, a portion was taken from each plasmid solution without the same-mole-number relationship being lost, in other words, 33 µl from the BbsI group, 9 µl from the AarI group, and 8 µl from the BsmBI group were taken. A 5-µl sample from each portion was analyzed by DNA electrophoresis, and cleavage of the plasmids with the corresponding restriction enzyme was confirmed (FIG. 4).

<Fractionation, in one session, of 50 DNA unit fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis, and purification>



[0066] After the confirmation above, an equal amount of phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) (Nacalai Tesque, Inc.) was added to and mixed well with each plasmid solution for restriction enzyme inactivation. The resulting mixture of the plasmid solution and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) was combined with the other mixtures into a single tube, followed by centrifugation (20,000 × g, 10 min) for separation into a phenol phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase (about 900 µl) was transferred to another 1.5-ml tube, to which 500 µl of 1-butanol (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.) was added and mixed well, and the resultant was centrifuged (20,000 × g, 1 min) so as to remove water-saturated 1-butanol. This series of procedure was repeated until the aqueous phase was reduced to a volume of 450 µl or lower. To the resultant, 50 µl of a 3-M potassium acetate-acetic acid buffer (pH5.2) and 900 µl of ethanol were added, followed by centrifugation (20,000 × g, 10 min) to precipitate the DNA, which was rinsed with 70% ethanol and dissolved in 20 µl of TE. To the resultant, 2 µl of 10× Dye for electrophoresis was added. The entire mixture was subjected to electrophoresis in 0.7% agarose gel with low melting temperature (2-Hydroxyethyl Agarose Type VII, Sigma) in the presence of 1× TAE (Tris-Acetate-EDTA Buffer) buffer on a commercially available agarose gel electrophoresis system (i-MyRun. N, nucleic acid electrophoresis system, Cosmo Bio Co., Ltd.) at a voltage of 35 V (about 2 V/cm) for 4h of electrophoresis. As a result, Fragments Nos. 01 to 50 were separated from the plasmid vectors (FIG. 5). The gel after electrophoresis was stained in 100 ml of 1× TAE buffer containing 1 µg/ml of ethidium bromide (Sigma) for 30 min, followed by irradiation with ultraviolet having a long wavelength (366 mn). The band attributed to Fragments Nos. 01 to 50 (near about 1 kb) thus visualized was cut out with a razor, and was transferred into a 1.5-ml tube. To the agarose gel with low melting temperature (about 300 mg), 1× TAE buffer was added to achieve a total volume of about 700 µl, followed by incubation at 65°C for 10 min for gel dissolution. To the resulting gel solution, 500 µl of 1-butanol was added, and centrifugation (20,000 × g, 1 min) was conducted for separation into an aqueous phase and a butanol phase, followed by discarding water-saturated butanol. This series of procedure was repeated until the aqueous phase was reduced to a volume of 450 µl or lower. To the resulting liquid, 50 µl of a 3-M potassium acetate-acetic acid buffer solution (pH 5.2) and 900 µl of ethanol were added, followed by centrifugation (20,000 × g, 1 min) to precipitate the DNA, which was rinsed with 70% ethanol and dissolved in 20 µl of TE. A 1-µl sample was taken from the resultant for measurement of the concentration with a spectrophotometer for trace amount detection.

[0067] In order to confirm the number of moles contained in each group before and after size-based selection was determined by quantitative PCR. FIG. 6 shows distribution of the number of molecules of each DNA unit fragment before and after size-based selection, and FIG. 7 shows the percentage change in the number of molecules of each DNA unit fragment. It was confirmed that the molar ratio between the 50 fragments was substantially the same and was maintained after recovery.

<Gene assembly>



[0068] The resulting same-mole-number mixture of Fragments Nos. 01 to 50 had a DNA concentration by weight of 98 ng/µl and a sum of the lengths of the base sequences of 48,522 bp. On the other hand, the DNA vector (pGETS118-AarI/AarI) had a DNA concentration by weight of 190 ng/µl, and its full length was 15,139 bp. This length-weight ratio was used for obtaining a same-mole-number mixture of the both DNA molecules, in other words, the same-mole-number mixture of Fragments Nos. 01 to 50 was mixed with the DNA vector at a ratio of 6.21 µl:1.00 µl. To 7.2 µl of the resulting same-mole-number mixed solution, 8.2 µl of 2× ligation buffer was added, and the entire mixture was incubated at 37°C for 5 min. Thereto, 1 µl of T4 DNA ligase (Takara) was added, followed by incubation at 37°C for 4h. A portion of the resulting mixture was analyzed by electrophoresis, and successful ligation was confirmed (FIG. 8). An 8-µl portion of the mixture was collected to a tube, to which 100 µl of a Bacillus subtilis competent cell was added, followed by rotation culture at 37°C for 30 min in a duck rotor. After 300 µl of an LB medium was added thereto, another session of rotation culture was conducted at 37°C for 1h in a culture rotator. The resulting culture medium was spread onto an LB plate supplemented with 10 µg/ml tetracycline, followed by overnight culture at 37°C. As a result, 250 colonies were obtained.

<Checking structures of plasmid in transformant>



[0069] 12 strains of colonies were randomly selected, and each of them was cultured overnight in an LB medium supplemented with 2 ml of 10 µg/ml tetracycline. For increasing the number of copies of the plasmid inside, IPTG was added to achieve a final concentration of 1 mM, followed by culturing at 37°C for 3h. The plasmid was extracted from the resulting bacterial cells, followed by double digestion with the restriction enzymes HindIII and SfiI. Electrophoresis analysis was conducted, and 4 out of the 12 strains gave the desired cleavage pattern (FIG. 9). Each of these 4 strains was subjected to cesium chloride-ethidium bromide density gradient ultracentrifugation to give a large amount of the plasmid, and the plasmid was cleaved with 13 kinds of restriction enzymes. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that all the cleaved fragments derived from each of the 4 strains gave expected patterns (FIG. 10). Further, the entire region, except for the vector region, of the plasmid derived from each of the 4 strains was sequenced, and, as a result, the resulting base sequence was in complete agreement with the expected base sequence.

<Checking functions of gene assemblies>



[0070] Lambda phage functions of the plasmid derived from each of the 4 strains were checked in terms of plaque-forming ability, as follows. Each of the assembly-harboring plasmids called #3, #4, #6, and #12 was cleaved with lambda terminase (Lambda terminase, Epicentre) to give a vector part and a gene assembly part. The latter was added to a lambda packaging extract (Gigapack III Plus Packaging Extract, Agilent Technologies). Escherichia coli (strain VCS257) was infected with the resultant, and was spread on an LB plate, followed by overnight culture at 37°C. As a result, plaque formation was observed. It was confirmed that the shape of the plaques was similar to that of the plaques concurrently obtained by lambda phage DNA manufactured by Toyobo Co., Ltd. (FIG. 11). Phage DNA was purified from the plaques formed by the plasmid, and was cleaved with the restriction enzyme AvaI for checking the presence of the mutation introduced. As shown in FIG. 12, the resulting cleavage pattern displayed was different from the one displayed by the lambda phage DNA manufactured by Toyobo Co., Ltd., and the presence of an AvaI site was confirmed in each phage as planned. Thus, it was confirmed that the lambda phage genome constructed by assembling all the 50 fragments, namely, Fragments Nos. 01 to 50, was fully adequate in terms of its base sequence and its plaque-forming ability.

[0071] These results showed that the 50 DNA unit fragments as constituents of lambda phage DNA and the DNA vector (pGETS118-AarI/AarI), a total of 51 DNA fragments, were successfully joined together.

(Example 2, Construction of artificial operon of mevalonate pathway by assembling 55 DNA unit fragments and DNA vector)



[0072] The isoprenoids are known to be a large class of compounds having an isoprene unit as a skeleton and are synthesized from a common starting compound, which is isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). There are two pathways known for IPP production starting from the glycolytic pathway, namely, the mevalonate pathway and the non-mevalonate pathway. Both of these pathways may be present in a single living organism, but Escherichia coli only has the non-mevalonate pathway. In order to enhance the ability of Escherichia coli to produce IPP, a part of the genes coding for the mevalonate pathway in yeast, a eukaryote, was artificially constructed by assembling synthetic DNA fragments according to the frequency in use of codons occurring in Escherichia coli, as follows.

<Designing sequence of artificial operon of mevalonate >



[0073] There are 3 genes (ERG10 (1.2 kb), ERG13 (1.5 kb), and HMG1 (3.2 kb)) necessary in the first half of the mevalonate pathway in yeast, namely, the metabolic pathway starting from acetyl CoA to mevalonic acid. The codons in these 3 genes were redesigned according to the frequency in use of codons occurring in Escherichia coli to give 3 artificial genes, which were then made into an artificial operon (5,951 bp) (SEQ ID NO:4) (the full-length sequence shown under SEQ ID NO:4 had a size of 5,955 bp including 4 bases to serve as a protruding end), as described below. The redesigning of the gene codons in yeast to gene codons in Escherichia coli was conducted by ranking yeast synonymous codons based on the frequency in appearance of them occurring among all genes in yeast, also ranking Escherichia coli synonymous codons based on the frequency in appearance of them occurring among all genes in Escherichia coli, and exchanging between codons in the same rank.

<Designing DNA unit fragment>



[0074] A restriction enzyme that had no potential to cleave the 5,951-bp DNA sequence after the exchange between synonymous codons was looked for, in the same manner as in Example 1. The result showed that the DNA sequence contained no recognition sequence of the restriction enzyme AarI and therefore had no potential to be cleaved with AarI. Therefore, AarI was selected for cleaving in the process of all clone preparation. The full-length sequence (5,951 bp) was divided into 55 fragments, each of which was 108 bp long on average. This size was designated as the size of each ideal dividing unit. Near boundaries between these dividing units, the presence of any one of particular sequences (60 combinations in total, consisting of 44 combinations left by subtracting 8 palindromic combinations from all 52 combinations consisting of 2 bases in total selected from A and T and 2 bases in total selected from C and G (Group III described above) and all 16 combinations with no 3 consecutive bases selected from C and G out of all 32 combinations consisting of 1 base in total selected from A and T and 3 bases in total selected from C and G (Group IV described above)) was searched for. As a result, one of these particular sequences were found to be occurred within ±7 bp to each side of the ideal dividing boundary. Based on these results, the full-length sequence was divided into 55 fragments, each having a size from 98 bp to 115 bp. Table 2 shows the dividing units and the protruding base sequences within a DNA assembly in Example 2. To the boundary between a mevalonate-pathway gene group and a gene-assembling vector, the protruding sequences (ATTA and AAAA) consisting only of A and/or T were utilized.
[Table 2]
FragmentSequence (including AarI site; the underlined 4-base section indicating each protruding sequence; 5'→3')Full-length (bp)
MEV001 cacctgcacgtattaGGCCTgttTGGCCGTGACACCGGACAATGAGTAatgTCGGAAAATGTGTACATTGTCTCAACCGCACGCACTGCGATTGGCTCCTTCCAAGGCTCGTTGTCacgtgcaggtg 127
MEV002 cacctgcacgtTGTCTTCTAAGACGGCCGTAGAACTGGGCGCGGTGGCGTTAAAAGGAGCACTGGCGAAGGTGCCGGAACTGGATGCCTCTAAGGATTTTGACGAAATTATTTTTGGCAATGTGCTCTCacgtgcaggtg 140
MEV003 cacctgoacgtTCTCGGCAAACCTGGGACAGGCGCCCGCACGCCAGGTGGCQCTGGCGGCAGGCCTGAGCAACCATATAGTGGCCAGTACGGTGAATAAGGTTTGCGCCTCTGCGATGacgtgcaggtg 129
MEV004 cacctgcagtGATGAAGGCCATAATTCTGGGCGCGCAGTCTATAAAATGCGGCAACGCGGATGTGGTTGTCGCGGGCGGCTGCGAATCGATGACCAATGCCCCGTACTACATGCCGGCCGCACGacgtgcaggtg 136
MEV005 cacctgcacgtCACGGGCTGGCGCAAAA 136
MEV006 cacctgcacgtGCACGGGATTGGGATATTACCCGCGAACAGCAGGACAACTTTGCAATAGAATCTTACCAGAAATCGCAGAAATCGCAGAAGGAAGGCAAATTCGACAACGAAATTGTCCacrtgcaggtg 131
MEV007 cacctgcacgtGTCCCAGTGACTATTAAGGGTTTTCGCGGCAAGCCAGATACCCAGGTTACAAAGGACGAGGAACCAGCGCGCTTACACGTGGAAAAACTGCGCTCGGCCCGTACCGTGTTCCAacgtgcaggtg 135
MEV008 cacctgcacgtTCCAGAAAGAAAATGGCACCGTGACCGCAGCGAATGCGTCGCCGATAAATGATGGCGCGGCCGCAGTTATACTGGTGTCTGAAAAAGTGCTGAAGGAAAAGAACCTGAAGCCACTGacgtgcaggtg 138
MEV009 cacctgcacgtACTGGCGATTATAAAAGGCTGGGGCGAGGCAGCGCATCAGCCGGCGGATTTTACGTGGGCGCCGTCGCTCGCCGTGCCGAAGGCGCTGAAACATGCGGGAATAGAAGACATAAACTCacgtgcaggtg 139
MEV010 cacctgcacatACTCGGTGGATTACTTTGAATTCAACGAAGCATTTTCAGTGGTTGGCCTGGTAAATACCAAGATTCTGAAGTTGGACCCGTCGAAGGTGAACGTCTATGGCGGCGCGGTGGacgtgcaggtg 133
MEV011 cacctgcacgtGTGGCGTTGGGCCACCCGCTGGGCTCGGGCGCGCGCGTAGTGGTGACGCTTTTGTCTATATTACAACAGGAAGGTGGCAAGATAGGCGTGGCAGCAATTTGCAACacgtgcaggtg 130
MEV012 cacctgcacgtCAACCGCGGCGCCGQCGCGTCTTCGATTGTTATTGAAAAGATCtgaTGGCCAACGCGGAGATTTTTcAtgAAACTATCCACCAAACTCTGCTGGTGCGGACATTAAAGGTacgtgaggtg 140
MEV013 cacctgcacgtAGGTCGCCTCCCCAGAAGCAGTTACACAACACGAATCTGGATCACCGAATTAACAGAAAACTCGCCCACAACGacgtgcaggtg 129
MEV014 cacotgcacgtAACGTTGGCATTAAAGGCATACAGATTTACATACCGACCCAGTGCGTTAATCAGTCGGAGTTGGAGAAATTTGATGGAGTGTCGCAGGGCAAATACACGATTGGCCTTGGACAGacgtgcaggtg 13"
MEV015 nacctgcacgtACAGACTAATATGTCGTTTGTTAACGACCGCGAAGATATATACTCAATGTCTTTGACCGTGCTGTCGAAGCTGATAAAGAGCTACAATATAGACACTAATAAAATTGGacgtgcaggtg 130
MEV016 cacctgcacgtTTGGCCGCTTAGAAGTTGGCACCGAAACCCTTATTGACAAGTCTAAGTCGGTTAAGTCGGTTCTGA TGCAGCTGTTTGGCGAAAATACCGACGTTGAAGGCATTGACACACTCAacgtgcaggtg 136
MEV017 cacctgcacgtCTCAACGCATGCTACGGCGGCACTAATGCTCTGTTCAATTCGCTGAATTGGATTGAATCGAATGCCTGGGATGGCCGCCACGCAATTGTCGTGTGTGGCGATATTGCAATATACGacgtgcaggtg 137
MEV018 cacctgcacgtTACGATAAGGGCGCAGCCCGCCCGACTGGCGGCGCAGGCACCGTGGCGATGTGGATAGGCCCAGATGCGCCGATTGTCTTTGACTCGGTCCGCGCGTCGTACATGGAACacgtgcaggtg 131
MEV019 cacctgcacgtGAACACGCATACGATTTTTACAAGCCGGATTTCACTAGTGAATATCCATACGTTGATGGCCATTTTTCCTTAACCTGCTACGTTAAGGCGCTCGATCAGGTGTACAAGAGCTAacgtgcaggtg 135
MEV020 cacctgcagtGCTATTCTAAGAAGGCGATTTCGAAAGGGCTGGTGAGTGATCCTGCGGGCTCAGATGCGCTGAATGTGCTGAAATATTTCGACTACAATGTGTTOCATGTGCCGACTTGCAAacgtgcaggtg 134
MEV021 cacctgcacgtGCAAACTGGTTACGAAATCCTACGGCCGCTTATTGTATAATGATTTCCGCGCAAACCCACAGCTGTTCCCGGAAGTGGACGCAGAATTAGCGACCAGAGATTATGACGAATCGacgtgcaggtg 135
MEV022 cacctgcacgtATCGTTAACTGATAAGAATATTGAAAAAACCTTTGTGAACGTGGCGAAGCCGTTCCACAAAGAGCGCGTGGCACAGTCGCTGATTGTGCCGACGAATACGGGCAATATGTACACTGCacgcaggtg 139
MEV023 cacctgcacgtCTGCCTCGGTGTATGCAGCATTTGCCTCGTTGTTAAATTATGTGGGTTCGGACGACTTACAGGGAAAGCGGGTGGGCTTATTTTCGTACGGCTCTGGCTTAGCGGCCTCGacgtgcaggtg 132
MEV024 cacctgcacgtCTCGTTGTATTCGTGTAAAATTGTGGGCGACGTTCAGCATATTATAAAGGAATTAGATATTACCAATAAATTAGCAAAGCGCATAACTGAAACCCCGAAGGATTACGAAacgtgcaggtg 131
MEVD25 cacctgcacgtGGAAGCGGCAATAGAACTGCGCGAAAACGCACATCTGAAGAAGAATTTCAAACCACAGGGCTCTATTGAGCATCTGCAGAGCGGCGTGTACTACCTGACTAATATAGATGACacgtgcaggtg 134
MEV026 cacctgcacgtTGACAAATTTCGCCGCTCGTACHATGTHAAAAAAtaaGGCCTcgaTGGCCGTAACTGGATAGTGAAATAatgCCCCCCTTGTTCAAGGGTCTTAAACAAATGGCCAAGacgtgcaggtg 131
MEV027 cacctgcacgtCAAGCCGATTGCATATGTGTCCCGCTTTTCAGCTAAACGACCGATTCATATCATCCTCTTTTCGTTGATAATCTCGCCATTCGCGTAATTTGTCTGTTATTCAACGGCTGGacgtgcaggtg 143
MEV028 cacctgcacgtCTGGCAGTTGGATTCCAACAGCGTGTTTGAAACCGCGCCGAACAAAGACTCTAATACCTTGTTTCAGGAATGCTCTCATTACTACCGCGATTCTTCGTTGGATGGCTGGGTCTacgtgcaggtg 135
MEV029 cacctgcacgtGTCTCCATAACTGCTCATGAAGCGAGCGAGTTACCGGCACCGCACCATTACTATTTGTTAAATCTTAATTTCAACAGCCCAAACGAAACCGACTCTATTCCGGAAacgtgcaggtg 127
MEV030 cacctgcacgtGGAATTGGCGAATACAGTGTTTGAGAAAGATAACACGAAATATATTCTTCAGGAAGATCTAAGCGTGTCTAAAGAAATTTCGTCGACCGATGGTACAAAATGGCGTTTACGCAGGGACCacgtgcaggtg 141
MEV031 cacctgcacgtGACCGCAAAAGCCTCTTCGACGTCAAGACATTAGCCTATTCGCTATACGATGTCTTTTCCGAAAACGTCACTCAGGGCGACCCCTTTGACGTTCTCATTATGGTacgtgcaggtg 126
MEV032 cacctgcacgtTGGTGACCGCATACTTGATGATGTTCTACACTATCTTCGGACTATTCAACGACATGCGTAAGACTGGGTCCAACTTTTGGCTGAGTGCATCGACGGTAGTTAACTCGGCCTCCTacgtgcaggtg 136
MEVO33 cacctgcacgtTCCTCCCTCTTCTTACCCCTCTATCTTACTCAGTCCATTTTGCOAAAACAACTGTCTCCCTTAACCCTCTTTCAAGCCCTCCCATTCATTCTCCTCGTCGTCCCCTTCAACCAacgtgcaggtg 135
MEV034 cacctgcacgtAGCACAAAATAAAGATTGCACAATATGCACTTGAGAAATTTGAACGCGTTGGCTTATCGAAACGTATTACCACTGATGAAATAGTGTTTGAATCTGTAAGTGAAGAGGGCGGCCGGCTGacgtgcaggtg 141
MEV035 cacctgcacgtGCTGATTCAGGACCATCTGCTCTGCATTTTTGCATTTATAGGTTGTTCGATGTATGCGCACCAGCTGAAGACCCTGACGAATTTCTGTATCTTATCCGCCTTacgtgcaggtg 124
MEV036 cacctgcacgtCCTTTATATTGATTTTTGAACTGATTTTAACCCCAACGTTTTATTCGGCGATATTAGCTCTCCGCCTTGAAATGAACGTGATACAGCGCTCGACCATTATAAAGCAGACGTTAGAAGacgtgcaggtg 139
MEV037 cacctgcacgtGAAGAAGACGGCGTGGTGCCGTCGACGGCCCGCATAATTTCGAAAGCCGAAAAGAAATCTGTCTCGTCGTTCTTAAACCTAAGCGTAGTGGTTATTATAATGAAACTATCGGTTacgtgcaggtg 136
MEV038 cacctgcacgtGGTTACTCCTTCTGTTTGTTTTCATAAATTTTTATAATTTTGGCGCCAACTGGGTTAACGATGCATTCAACTCCCTGTACTTCGATAAGGAACGGGTGTCGTTGCCGGATacgtgcaggtg 131
MEV039 cacctgcacgtGGATTTTATTACTTCAAACGCATCGGAAAATTTTAAAGAGCAGGCGATTGTGAGCGTTTACTCCGTTATTATATTCAAACCTATTAAGTCTTACCAGAGAATTGAGGATATGGTGCTCacgtgcaggtg 140
MEV040 cacctgcacgtGCTCTTGCTGCTCCGAACCTTAGCGTCGCAATTCGGGATCGTTTCGTTAGCAAA TTAGTGCTCTCTGCATTAGTCTGTAGCGCGGTTATAAACGTATATTTACTGAacgtgcaggtg 129
MEV041 cacctgcacgtGTGAACGCGGCGGGCATTOATACTAGCTATACCGCCGACCAGCTGGTAAAAACCGAAGTTACTAAGAAGTCGTTTAGCGCGCCAGTCCAGAAGGCGTCGACGOGGGTGTacgtgcaggtg 131
MEV042 cacctgcacgtGTGTTAACTAACAAAACGGTTATTTCGGGTTCAAAAGTTAAAAGCTTATCCTCGGCTCAGTCAAGTTCCTCCGGTCCATCCTCCTCGAGCGAGGAAGATGATTCTAGAGATATTGAAAGTCacgtgcaggtg 143
MEV043 cacctgoaoctAGTCTGGATAAGAAAATCCGGCCATTAGAAGAATTAGAAGCCTTATTAAGCAGCGGTAACACGAAACAGCTGAAGAATAAAGAGGTTGCGGCACTGGTGATTCACacgtgoaggtg 127
MEV044 cacctgcacgtTCACGGCAAGTTACCACTGTACGCGCTGGAGAAAAAATTAGGCGATACCACACGCGCTGTGGCTGTCCGGCGTAAGGCGCTCTCCATTCTGGCCGAAGCGCCAGTCTTAGCCTCacgtgcaggtg 136
MEV045 cacctgcacgtCCTCGGATCGGTTACCGTATAAAAACTATGACTACGACAGAGTCTTTGGAGCGTGCTGCGAAAACGTGATCGGCTACATGCCACTGGCTGTGGGCGTGATCGGACCTCTGacgtgcaggtg 132
MEV046 cacctgcacgtTCTGGTGATAGATGGCACGTCGTATCATATCCCGATGGCCACCACGGAGGGCTGCCTGGTCGCGTCGGCAATGCGGGGATGCAAGGCCATAAACGCGGGAGGCGGCGCCACGAacgtgcaggtg 135
MEV047 cacctgcacgtACGACCGTGTTAACCAAGGATGGCATGCGCGGACCGGTCGTTCGGTTCCCGACCCTGAAACGCTCGGGCGCATGCAAGATCTGGTTAGACTCCGAAGAGGGTCAGAATGCCATacgtgcaggtg 138
MEV048 cacctacacgtCCATTAAAAAAGCGTTTAATTCGACGTCCCGCTTTGCCCGGCTTCAGCATATTCAGACCTGCTTGGCCGGTGATTTACTATTCATGCGCTTTCGCACGACCACCGGCGACacgtgcaggtg 132
MEV049 cacctgcacCGACGCCATGGGCATGAACATGATTTCGAAAGGCGTTGAATACTCCTTAAAGCAGATGGTCGAAGAGTATGGATGGGAAGATATGGAGGTGGTTTCTGTGTCGGGCAATTACTGCACTacgtgcaggtg 140
MEV050 cacctgcacgtCACTGACAAAAAACCGGCGGCAATAAATTGGATAGAAGGCCGGGGCAAGAGCGTTGTTGCCGAAGCGACCATTCCAGGCGATGTGGTTCGCAAAGTATTAAAAAGCacgtgcaggtg 128
MEV051 cacctgcacgtAAGCGATGTGTCTGCCCTGGTGGAGCTGAATATTGCGAAGAACCTGGTGGGTTCGGCCATGQCGGGGTCGGTGGGCGGTTTTAATGCCCATGCCGCAACTTAGTAACGGCGGTGacgtgcaggtg 137
MEV052 cacctgcacgtGGTGTTCCTGGCCTTAGGTCAGGATCCAGCCCAGAACGTGGAAAGCTCTAATTGCATCAGCTGATGAAAGAAGTAGACGGCGATCTGCGCATTTCGTGTCTATGCCGTCacgtgcaggtg 133
MFV053 cacctgcacgtCGTCTATAGAAGTCGGCACTATAGGCGGCGGCACCGTGTTGGAACCGCAGGGCGCAATGCTGGACTTATTAGGCGTCCGCGGACCCCATGCGACTGCGCCAGGCACTAATGCacgtgcaggtg 134
MEV054 cacctgcacgtATGCCCGGCAGTTAGCCCGCATCGTGGCATGCGCAGTTCTGGCCGGCGAATTATCTTTATGCGCGGCATTGGCCGCAGGACATCTGGTGCAGAGCCATATGACTCACAacgtgcaggtg 130
MEV055 cacctgcacgtCACAATCGTAAACCAGCGGAACCGACGAAACCAAATAACCTGGACGCAACCGATATCAACCGGCTGAAAGATGGGTCTGTTACTTGTATTAAATCTtaaGGCCTTCTTGGCCaaaaacgtgcaggcg 136

<Construction of DNA unit fragment from synthetic DNA>



[0075] Each of the divided fragments obtained was prepared with 2 molecules of chemically synthesized 80-base DNA, according to a method by Rossi et al. (Rossi, J. J., and Itakura, K. 1982. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 9226-9229 (1982)). Specifically, each of the resulting divided fragments had these 2 chemically synthesized DNA molecules hybridizing to each other at the 3' end for a span of several tens bp, and also had an AarI recognition site introduced to the 5' end side so that the above-designed protruding sequence was to be formed between the AarI cleavage site and the 5' end by digestion. The hybridization between these 2 synthetic DNA molecules followed by template-dependent elongation reaction gave a double-stranded DNA unit fragment, which was then amplified by PCR in the way to be described below. The resultant double-stranded DNA unit fragment as well as a pair of PCR primers designed to hybridize with the AarI recognition site on each end, namely, a total of 3 kinds of DNA molecules, were used to be added in the PCR reaction, and consequently a DNA unit fragment flanked by AarI cleavage sites was obtained. The resultant DNA unit fragment was joined to Escherichia coli plasmid vector pMD19 by TA cloning method, followed by transformation of Escherichia coli for cloning method. Sequencing was then conducted to select a clone having a base sequence desirable for each fragment.

<Mixing same mole numbers of plasmids each harboring DNA unit fragment>



[0076] Each of the 55 strains of Escherichia coli each harboring the resulting desired clone was cultured and then subjected to treatment with Plasmid mini-prep (QIAGEN), whereby 50 µl of a crude plasmid solution was obtained. A 1-µl sample of the resultant was analyzed with a spectrophotometer for trace amount detection, and the DNA concentration of it was determined as 82 ng/µl to 180 ng/µl. Each plasmid weighing about 5 µg was treated with Plasmid Safe, followed by enzyme inactivation by heating. Purification with Mini-elute PCR purification Kit (QIAGEN) gave 25 µl of a highly-pure plasmid solution. A 1-µl sample of the resultant was analyzed with a spectrophotometer for trace amount detection, and the concentration of it was determined as 108 ng/µl to 213 ng/µl. A 20-µl portion of the highly-pure plasmid solution was transferred into a separate tube and diluted with TE so as to make the concentration of the plasmid be mathematically 100 ng/µl. The resulting purified plasmid solution was reanalyzed with a microspectrophotometer to calculate the concentration, and, based on the concentration measurement, the volume (µl) of the solution containing 500 ng of the highly pure plasmid was accurately calculated to the second decimal place. A portion of each plasmid solution in an amount of this volume (about 5 µl) was separated into one tube, where this portion was combined with the other such portions. To the resulting same-mole-number plasmid mixture solution, which was about 275 µl in total volume, sterilized water having a volume twice the volume of the same-mole-number plasmid mixture solution, 137.5 µl of 10× Buffer_for_AarI, and 67.5 µl of the restriction enzyme AarI were added, followed by reaction at 37°C overnight.

<Size-based selection of 55 DNA unit fragments in one session>



[0077] To the resulting reaction solution, an equal amount of phenolchloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) was added for AarI inactivation, followed by centrifugation. The resulting supernatant was purified by ethanol precipitation, and the precipitate was dissolved in 20 µl of TE. The resultant, combined with xylene cyanol as a coloring agent for electrophoresis, was subjected to electrophoresis in 2.5% agarose gel with TAE buffer for 30 minutes at 100 V so as to separate the DNA vector pMD19 and the insert DNA unit fragment (FIG. 13). The gel was divided with a razor into segments, and one segment was stained with ethidium bromide to check the position of the target band that was attributed to the same-mole-number mixture of the 55 fragments. Then, from another segment of the gel left unstained, the target DNA band was cut out.

<Purification of same-mole-number mixture of DNA unit fragments>



[0078] DNA purification from the obtained gel segment was conducted with MiniElute Gel Extraction Kit (QIAGEN) as follows.

[0079] The volume of the gel was measured from the weight thereof, and CG Buffer having a volume 15 times the volume thus calculated was added, followed by incubation at 50°C for 10 min for dissolving the gel. Thereto, isopropyl alcohol having a volume 5 times the volume of the gel segment was added, and the resulting liquid was placed in the column, followed by centrifugation to make the DNA adsorbed on the column. To the column, 500 µl of CG Buffer was added, followed by centrifugation for washing, and then 750 µl of PE Buffer was further added, followed by centrifugation for washing. In this way, the column was washed. The column was centrifuged one more time for complete removal of any residue. To the column, 10 µl of TE buffer was added, followed by centrifugation. Thus, a mixed solution of substantially the same number of moles of the 55 DNA unit fragments was obtained.

<Addition of DNA having origin of replication, to same-mole-number mixed solution of DNA unit fragments>



[0080] The mixed solution was analyzed with a spectrophotometer for trace amount detection to measure the concentration, and the DNA concentration thereof was determined as 20 ng/µl. pGET151/AarI was also prepared at the same time in a concentration of 67 ng/µl. In consideration of these results as well as the ratio between the lengths of these (5955 bp:4306 bp), the same-mole-number mixed solution of the 55 fragments and the pGETS151/AarI were mixed in a ratio of 4.63:1.

<Gene assembling>



[0081] To 5.63 µl of the resulting same-mole-number mixed solution, 6.63 µl of 2× ligation buffer was added, followed by incubation at 37°C for 5 min. Thereto, 1 µl of T4 DNA ligase (Takara) was added, followed by incubation at 37°C for 4h. A sample of the resultant was analyzed by electrophoresis for checking whether or not ligation between the DNA unit fragments and the DNA vector in a tandem-repeat structure was successful (FIG. 14). After ligation, 8 µl of the resulting solution was added to a separate tube, to which 100 µl of a Bacillus subtilis competent cell was added, followed by rotation culture at 37°C for 30 min in a duck rotor. Then, after 300 µl of an LB medium was added thereto, another session of rotation culture was conducted at 37°C for 1h in a culture rotator. The resulting culture medium was spread onto an LB plate supplemented with 10 µg/ml tetracycline.

<Transformation, and checking structures of assembly>



[0082] From the resulting 154 colonies, 24 clones were randomly selected and inoculated into an LB medium supplemented with 10 µg/ml tetracycline. IPTG was added thereto so as to achieve a final concentration of 1 mM during the logarithmic phase, followed by culturing to reach the stationary phase. The DNA plasmid was extracted and was treated with the restriction enzyme PvuII, followed by electrophoresis for checking the cleavage pattern (FIG. 15). As a result, 2 clones (#10 and #20) were found to have the expected base sequence, and these plasmids were subjected to treatment with other restriction enzymes and then to electrophoresis for determining their structures in more detail, which were found to be in agreement with the target structure (FIG. 16). It was confirmed that sequencing these plasmids indicated that these clones #10 and #20 had base sequences as designed.

[0083] These results showed that the 55 DNA unit fragments as constituents of the artificial operon of the mevalonate pathway and the DNA vector (pGETS151-pBR), a total of 56 DNA fragments, were successfully joined together.

[0084] Thus, it was confirmed that the method of the present invention of constructing a DNA concatemer was capable of joining 50 or more DNA fragments together. The reason for this many DNA fragments being successfully joined together was probably that the numbers of moles of DNA unit fragments are close to one another more accurately.

[0085] The reason that the numbers of moles of DNA unit fragments in the DNA unit fragment composition prepared by the method of the present invention were close to one another more accurately was probably the following.

[0086] When the concentration of each DNA unit fragment in the solution containing the DNA unit fragment was measured in Examples 1 and 2, the DNA unit fragment being measured had the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto (specifically, a circular DNA plasmid). Even if the base sequences of different kinds of DNA unit fragments varied greatly, the corresponding auxiliary sequences thus attached contributed to reduction in distribution of the lengths of different base sequences being measured. As a result, when the measurement result was used to calculate the number of moles of each kind of DNA unit fragment, errors in the calculation were reduced. Then, when the resulting measurement result was used for taking a portion from each of the solutions so that the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in each portion was adjusted to be substantially the same, the molar ratio between different portions tended to be close to 1. Probably for this reason, the numbers of moles of DNA unit fragments became more accurately substantially the same.

[0087] In Example 1, the standard deviation of the distribution of the sum of the lengths of the base sequence of each DNA unit fragment and the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to the DNA unit fragment was 3691.4 bp ± 6.6 bp, and ranged from -0.18% to 0.18% of the average value of the sum of the lengths. In Example 2, the standard deviation of the distribution of the sum of the lengths of the base sequence of each DNA unit fragment and the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to the DNA unit fragment was 2828.2 bp ± 4.5 bp, and ranged from -0.16% to 0.16% of the average value of the sum of the lengths. In Examples 1 and 2, the standard deviation was smaller than the average value of the sum of the lengths, and probably for this reason, errors in the calculation of the number of moles of each DNA unit fragment conducted based on the measurement result of the DNA concentration in the solution were reduced.

[0088] The ratio of the average length of the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to each DNA unit fragment to the average length of the base sequence of the DNA unit fragment was about 2.7 in Example 1 and about 27 in Example 2. Because the average length of the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to each DNA unit fragment was longer than the average length of the base sequence of the DNA unit fragment, errors in the calculation of the number of moles of each DNA unit fragment conducted based on the measurement of the DNA concentration in the solution were further reduced, and probably for this reason, errors in the calculation of the number of moles of each DNA unit fragment conducted based on the measurement of the DNA concentration in the solution were further reduced.

[0089] In Example 1 and Example 2, designing each DNA unit fragment was conducted in a way that the base sequence of each DNA assembly when divided by the number of kinds of its constituent DNA unit fragments into equal parts had a non-palindromic sequence near each boundary between two adjacent equal parts, and that each DNA unit fragment was separated by the non-palindromic sequence from an adjacent DNA unit fragment. The DNA unit fragments thus designed had substantially the same length. When the DNA unit fragments were subjected to removal of corresponding auxiliary sequences with restriction enzymes and to subsequent electrophoresis for size-based selection, the DNA unit fragments were observed as a band at substantially the same position, allowing recovery of all the DNA unit fragments to be completed in a single session of size-based selection. Therefore, operation efficiency was enhanced.

[0090] In Example 1, the DNA unit fragments were divided into groups, each group for a single restriction enzyme to be used for removal of the corresponding auxiliary sequence (3 kinds of restriction enzymes in Example 1, 1 kind of restriction enzyme in Example 2). In this case, each group consisted of two or more solutions each containing a different DNA unit fragment. The two kinds or more solutions could be mixed together before the removal step. As a result, a separate session of restriction enzyme treatment was not required for respective DNA unit fragment, but, instead, a single session of restriction enzyme treatment was enough to treat an entire restriction-enzyme group. Consequently, the operation efficiency of DNA concatemer construction was enhanced. It was confirmed that even such mixture is used, the number of moles of many DNA unit fragments were substantially the same when mixed together, and therefore the many DNA unit fragments were successfully joined together as described above.

(Test Example 1, Checking level of repeating unit of redundancy (r) of DNA assembly unit required for transformation of Bacillus subtilis DNA plasmid)



[0091] In order to check the level of the repeating number (redundancy) r of DNA assembly unit required for transformation of Bacillus subtilis DNA plasmid, the following test was conducted.

[0092] The plasmid pGETS118-t0-Pr-SfiI-pBR (SEQ ID NO:1) harboring an origin of replication effective in Bacillus subtilis was used to prepare the following DNA molecules (A) to (H).

<Preparation of DNA (A)>



[0093] The DNA (A) was a circular monomeric DNA plasmid with redundancy of r = 1. First, Escherichia coli was transformed with pGETS118-t0-Pr-SfiI-pBR. Most of the plasmids obtained from the resulting transformant were the DNA (A), but a small amount of multimers were also contained. In order to remove the multimers, all the plasmids obtained were subjected to electrophoresis in agarose gel with low melting temperature for DNA-size-based selection, and only the monomeric DNA plasmid region was cut out from the gel and purified. Thus, the DNA (A) was prepared.

<Preparation of DNA (B)>



[0094] The DNA (B) was a linear monomeric DNA plasmid with redundancy of r = 1. The DNA (B) was prepared by treating the DNA (A) with the restriction enzyme BlpI (the recognition site thereof was (5'-GC/TNAGC-3')).

<Preparation of DNA (C)>



[0095] The DNA (C) was a tandem-repeat linear multimeric DNA plasmid with redundancy of r > 1. BlpI used for preparing the DNA (B) above formed a 3-base non-palindromic protruding sequence at the 5' end. Accordingly, by joining molecules of the DNA (B) to each other with DNA ligase, a continuous linear multimeric DNA plasmid having its plasmid units arranged in a certain orientation was prepared, which was the DNA (C).

<Preparation of DNA (D)>



[0096] The DNA (D) was a linear monomeric DNA plasmid with redundancy of r = 1. The DNA (D) was prepared by treating the DNA (A) with the restriction enzyme EcoRI (the recognition site thereof was (5'-G/AATTC-3')).

<Preparation of DNA (E)>



[0097] The DNA (E) was a linear multimeric DNA plasmid including a portion with partially redundancy of r > 1 and composed of molecules of the DNA (D) joined together in a random orientation. EcoRI used for preparing the DNA (D) above formed a 3-base palindromic protruding sequence at the 5' end. Accordingly, by joining DNA plasmids that were cleaved with EcoRI, it was possible to construct a multimeric DNA plasmid having its plasmid units joined in a random orientation. The DNA (E) was prepared by joining molecules of the DNA (D) above to each other with DNA ligase.

<Preparation of DNA (F)>



[0098] The DNA (F) was a linear semi-monomeric mixture with r ≒ 1. The DNA (F) was prepared as follows: the DNA (A) was cleaved only at a single site with the restriction enzyme KasI, dephosphorylated, and then cleaved with BlpI at a site near the above-cleaved site to give a DNA fragment; the DNA (A) was cleaved only at a single site with the restriction enzyme AfeI, dephosphorylated, and then cleaved with BlpI at a site near the above-cleaved site to give a DNA fragment; and mixing both of these resulting DNA fragments in equal amount. Each of the DNA fragments in the mixture (F) had redundancy r which is slightly lower than 1.

<Preparation of DNA (G)>



[0099] The DNA (G) was a linear semi-dimer DNA plasmid with redundancy of r = 1.98. The DNA (G) was prepared by joining 2 DNA fragments (F) above with DNA ligase, and the orientation therein was regulated by its BlpI sites alone.

<Preparation of DNA (H)>



[0100] The cleavage site in the DNA (B) and the cleavage site in the DNA (D) were away from each other. The DNA (H) was a mixture prepared by not joining but mixing the DNA (B) and the DNA (D) in equal number of moles.

<Transformation of Bacillus subtilis competent cell with DNA (A) to DNA (H)>



[0101] A Bacillus subtilis competent cell was transformed with each of the DNA (A) to the DNA (H). Based on the appearance number of the tetracycline-resistant strains as index, the number of transformants per 1 µg was determined. Each of the DNA (A) to the DNA (H) for use in transformation was dissolved in ligation buffer regardless of whether the DNA was to be subjected to ligation reaction. FIG. 17 is a photograph showing the result of electrophoresis analyzing the DNA (A) to the DNA (H), and FIG. 18 shows the appearance number of transformants obtained by transformation of Bacillus subtilis competent cell with the DNA (A) to the DNA (H). It is noted that in the photograph of electrophoresis in FIG. 17, the lanes of the DNA (C) and the DNA (E) had DNA molecules of various sizes widely distributed across each lane, making the bands difficult to distinguish. As for the lane "G" in FIG. 17, the upper band was attributed to the DNA (G) with redundancy of r = 1.97, and the lower band was attributed to DNA with redundancy of r = 0.95 as a contaminant in the DNA (G).

[0102] It was confirmed that these results showed that transformants were obtained only with the ligation, namely, the DNA (C), the DNA (E), and the DNA (G), with the circular DNA (A) not counted. As indicated by these results, no transformant would be obtained with redundancy being r = 1 or r < 1 even when the DNA molecule was prepared by mixing 2 kinds of linear plasmid molecules having different cleavage sites that would be able to compensate for each other. As a result, it was indicated that redundancy of a linear DNA molecule needed to satisfy r > 1 at lowest.

(Simulation 1, Ligation simulation)


<Setting algorithm for ligation simulation>



[0103] Simulation was programmed on VBA of spreadsheet software Excel (registered trademark) 2007. The DNA fragment F used in virtual ligation was expressed as 3 parameters, Fi(Ni, Li, Ri). "i" referred to the identification number of the fragment, more specifically the number on the cell in the row i on Excel. "N" referred to the number of DNA unit fragments in a single ligation DNA fragment molecule in virtual ligation. "L" referred to an arbitrary natural number that represented the sequence of the left protruding end of the ligation product. Similarly to "L", "R" referred to an arbitrary natural number that represented the sequence of the right protruding end of the ligation product. When L = R, the 2 protruding sequences were complementary to each other. Therefore, the relationship L = R defines that ligation was eligible to occur. Ligation simulation was conducted as follows.

[0104] The random number j that satisfied i ≠ j was obtained by generating a uniform random number between 0 and 1 by the RAND () method, multiplying the resulting number by m (described below), and rounding off the resulting number to give an integer. This resulting integer was applied to the fragment Fi(Ni, Li, Ri) to give the fragment Fj(Nj, Lj, Rj). Whether these 2 fragments were to be successfully joined together was determined according to the following discrimination formulae, and when they were to be successfully joined together, the parameters of these fragments were converted as follows.

[0105] When Li = Rj was satisfied, in other words, when the left end of Fi and the right end of Fj were to be successfully joined together, conversion was made to give the fragment Fi(new) (Ni(old) +Nj(old), Lj(old), Ri(old)) and the fragment Fj(new) (0, 0, 0). In contrast, when Ri = Lj was satisfied, in other words, when the right end of the fragment Fi and the left end of the fragment Fj were to be successfully joined together, conversion was made to give the fragment Fi(new) (Ni(old) +Nj(old), Li(old), Rj(old)) and the fragment Fj(new) (0, 0, 0). When Li ≠ Rj and Ri ≠ Lj were satisfied, no conversion was made (giving (the fragment Fi(new) (Ni(old), Li(old), Ri(old)) and the fragment Fj (new) (Nj(old), Lj (old), Rj(old))), where no virtual ligation was to occur. The same calculation conducted sequentially with i = 1 → m was defined as 1 cycle of virtual ligation. Here, the variable m referred to the total number of DNA fragments in the virtual ligation cycles, and for the 1st simulation cycle, the variable m referred to the total number of DNA unit fragments to start with. After calculation for the 1st cycle of virtual ligation, calculation for the next cycle of virtual ligation was conducted by rearranging the fragments Fi by the sorting function (the Sort method) in the VBA command of Excel 2007 so that the values Li were arranged in descending order, counting the total number of the fragments Fi except for the fragment F(0, 0, 0), and using the resulting total number as a variable m for the new cycle. Virtual ligation was repeated until the number of fragments reached the minimum mmin where there were no more protruding fragments complementary to each other and therefore no more cycle of virtual ligation was possibly conducted. The value mmin was determined according to the following calculation based on data about the starting DNA unit fragments, namely, the pre-ligation DNA unit fragments.


<Ligation simulation>



[0106] Virtual DNA unit fragment groups each of which consisted of 6 fragments, 13 fragments, 26 fragments, or 51 fragments assembled together were formed as follows. The virtual DNA unit fragment groups contained a fixed number, 640, of DNA unit fragments on average, and had a coefficient of variation (CV) that was set to increase sequentially by 1% from 0% to 20%.

[0107] The virtual DNA unit fragment groups were formed respectively by generating a group of random numbers from 0 to 1 corresponding to each assembly size by the uniform random number command RAND () of Excel, standardizing the group of random numbers with average value of 0 and variance of 1, multiplying each standardized random number by (fragment average value *CV(%)/100), and adding the average value of fragments to the resulting number. For each assembly size, independent 20 groups of random numbers were constructed each for one of the CV (%) values. Each of these groups of random numbers underwent virtual ligation by the simulation, which was conducted until mmin was reached. The resulting 20 virtual ligation fragments were combined together, and the total number of ligation fragments for each N value was obtained. The ratio of (N value × number of ligation fragments) to the total number of DNA unit fragments used in ligation was determined. A 100-% stacked graph was created such that the value attributed to a molecule with a higher N value was plotted lower in the graph. Such graphs are shown in FIG. 19. FIG. 19 shows distribution of the sizes of ligation products to which the starting DNA unit fragments were eventually taken up. FIG. 19A is a graph for the 6-fragment assembly, FIG. 19B is a graph for the 13-fragment assembly, FIG. 19C is a graph for the 26-fragment assembly, and FIG. 19D is a graph for the 51-fragment assembly. In the case of the 6-fragment assembly, redundancy of r = 1 region was reached at n = 6 and the upper right region indicated where redundancy satisfied r < 1. These results showed that: in the case of the 6-fragment assembly, most DNA unit fragments were taken up by DNA fragments that had redundancy of r > 1, at any CV value; and, in contrast, in the case of the 51-fragment assembly, redundancy was lower than 1 in most of the region except for the region where CV was near 0%.

<Obtaining theoretical formula for ligation from ligation simulation>



[0108] The results of the ligation simulation were numerically analyzed in order to obtain a general formula for the ligation mechanism. First, whether it was possible to plot a fitting curve for the distribution of the sizes of ligation products for each CV value for each assembly size was evaluated. FIG. 20 is a diagram for the case of the 6-fragment assembly comprising 640 fragments on average, and it shows distribution of the number of DNA unit fragments contained in a ligation product at CV = 20%. In FIG. 20, different patterns that filled the rectangles drawn for the same redundancy (0 < r < 1, 1 < r < 2, 2 < r < 5, or 5 < r < 10) indicated the different components generated by dividing N for each pattern by r for each redundancy range (5 components in the case of the 6-fragment assembly, calculated by subtracting 1 component that gave a reminder of 0 when dividing N by r and therefore was not eligible for logarithmic transformation, from 6 components each of which gave a remainder of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5). Rectangles with the same pattern across different redundancy ranges were attributed to the same kind of component generated by dividing N value by r. Each linear approximation curve in the diagram shown in FIG. 20 was plotted for components that shared the same pattern.

[0109] The number of molecules contained in a ligation product for each N value shown in the histogram had a general tendency to exponentially decrease as N value increased, and appeared to be close to geometric distribution, which was one type of discrete probability distribution. Microscopically, however, the histogram displayed a periodic model consisting of cycles each of the size of the gene assembly, namely, the size of one redundancy unit (6 in the case of the 6-fragment assembly). The histogram displayed a characteristic pattern where no fragment occurred for N value being equal to an integral multiple of the size of the gene assembly. This particular characteristic was not in complete agreement with geometric distribution or with exponential distribution regarded as continuous probability distribution. However, when converting the axis that showed the number of molecules in a ligation product into logarithmic expression, selecting and taking out, from each cycle, the components that constituted the same microscopic cycle, in other words, the components that gave the same remainder when N was divided by 6 or the size of the assembly, and plotting a linear approximation curve, the resulting linear approximation curve had the second power of a very high correlation coefficient (0.94 or greater). Therefore, it was considered that there was no problem when a linear approximation curve created for each component displayed exponential distribution. The same distribution as displayed by the case of the 6-fragment assembly where CV value as variation in the concentration was 20%, shown in FIG. 20, was also observed for other assembly sizes and other CVs. Thus, based on the assumption that this mechanism was eligible to be heuristically approximated to exponential distribution, fitting to exponential distribution function (f(n) = λ*exp(-λ*n)) was conducted hereinafter.

[0110] Specific procedure was as follows: (1) in the results of simulation conducted for each assembly size described above, the number of molecules for about 3 cycles as for each of the components that gave the same remainder when N was divided by the size of the assembly was subjected to logarithmic transformation, and the resulting values were used to create a linear approximation curve, followed by determining the slope (-λ) of the straight line and calculating the value λ;
and (2) next, in consideration that the average value of f(N) in the exponential distribution function was the reciprocal of the parameter λ, namely, 1/λ, the average value of N of ligation products for the 20 groups of random numbers was determined, and the reciprocal of the resulting average value was used to determine λ for each CV (%) (CV (%)). The results of (1) and (2) were plotted, with setting the abscissa showing the CV (%) value of variation of concentrations of DNA unit fragments and the ordinate showing the λ value. As a result, it was shown that all the plottings for each size of the gene assembly were on a direct proportional straight line passing through a certain original point. A linear approximation curve was determined for each set of these plottings, as shown in FIG. 21. In FIG. 21, A is a graph showing the relationship between the slope λ determined for the 3 cycles in (1) and variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments, and B is a graph showing the relationship between λ determined from the reciprocal of the average N value in (2) and variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments. From (2) with higher accuracy, the general formula of these linear approximation curves was derived: f(N) = 0. 0058*CV (%) *exp (-0. 0058*CV (%) *N). From FIG. 21, it was found that the second power of correlation coefficient of λ = 0.0058*CV(%) was expressed as 0.99, indicating high correlation. Thus, this general formula was confirmed to have no problem.

<Qualitative analysis of reaction rate of ligation>



[0111] The ligation simulation described above was intended to represent a state where ligation between all reasonable protruding-end combinations had been fully completed. Here, in order to examine how close the ligation reaction conditions in actual gene assembly were to reaction conditions in simulation, the kinetics of ligation reaction were analyzed.

[0112] First, in ligation reaction conducted under the conditions in actual gene assembly, samples of the ligation products were taken at various reaction times. A 51-fragment concatemer for λ phage reconstruction was used, and all the 51 joints were qualitatively analyzed to evaluate the degree of actual joining. The average concentration of the DNA unit fragments used in ligation was about 0.2 fmol/µl. To the DNA unit fragment solution, T4 DNA ligase was added. After 0 minute, 1.25 minutes, 2.5 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 40 minutes, 80 minutes, 160 minutes, and 320 minutes at 37°C, a sample of each reaction solution was taken. Then the progress of ligation of each fragment was evaluated using a primer set for quantitative PCR designed to amplify DNA stretching across the joint between 2 DNA unit fragments being reasonably joined, a primer set for quantitative PCR designed to amplify only inside each DNA unit fragment, and, as an indicator, the dilution series of DNA that was produced by cleaving with a restriction enzyme a commercially available λ phage genomic DNA (Toyobo Co., Ltd.) or an assembly-harboring plasmid constructed in advance and then rendering the resulting DNA fragment linear. The results showed that ligation had been completed in about 10 minutes at any joint under these reaction conditions, indicating that ligation would be substantially fully completed in the actual reaction time of 4 hours (240 minutes). The results also showed that the ratio of the number of joints after sufficient time (after 40 minutes) to the number of the kind of the DNA unit fragments that was fewer than the other was substantially 1, indicating that most of the ligated DNA fragments joined to their correct ligation partners.

<Estimation of misligation rate>



[0113] The state of ligation was studied in more detail. Among the assemblies obtained in the experiment above of reconstruction of λ phage genome, all the clones except for clones #3, #4, #6, and #12 with their entire base sequences completely determined (namely, clones #1, #2, #5, #7, #8, #9, #10, and #11) were subjected to base sequencing in order to identify ligation site between a wrong combination. FIG. 22 shows misligation sites for each of these clones. The results showed that each of the 7 clones except for the clone #11 had 1 or 2 misligation sites within the sequence, and all of these misligation sites were successfully identified. The clone #11 had the same DNA unit fragments occurring repeatedly within the DNA assembly and was found to have 6 misligation sites in total. No thorough structural identification was conducted. As for all the clones except for the clone #11 with its accurate number of DNA unit fragments unknown, the appearance frequency of misligation was determined. As a result, the rate of misligation was found to be about 1 in 46 joints, which was equal to a relatively low rate of misligation of about 2.2%. These results were in agreement with the results from quantitative PCR above.

<Distribution of sizes of actual ligation products, and verification of agreement with simulation>



[0114] From these two analyses described above, namely, estimation of the misligation rate and qualitative analysis of reaction rate of ligation, it was presumed that ligation would be substantially fully completed in actual ligation reaction after a sufficient amount of time of 4 hours and that the probability of misligation was low. Then, as for actual DNA unit fragment groups with variation occurring in the concentration of the starting DNA unit fragments, whether distribution of the sizes of actual ligation products was predictable by simulation was studied, as follows.

[0115] Analysis was conducted on the groups used in the experiment of reconstruction of λ phage genome. The groups had variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments with 7.5% of CV as observed by quantitative PCR. An observed value resulting from quantitative PCR involved measurement errors of CV = 3.6%. Therefore, the true CV value for DNA unit fragment variation was presumably and possibly lower than CV = 7.5%. Simulation was conducted to determine a CV value that was potentially the true CV value. As a result, when the true CV value was 6.6%, the observed value was presumably and possibly CV = 7.5% due to measurement errors of CV = 3.6%. In consideration of the true DNA unit fragment variation being CV = 6.6%, simulation was conducted so as to simulate ligation of 51 kinds of starting DNA unit fragments under conditions of average 640 fragments prepared for the RAND () method and CV = 6.6%. The simulation reaction was conducted until not only mmin indicating 100% reaction rate was reached but also a designated m value was reached. The designated m value was obtained by determining m values for ligation-eligible rates of 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, and 99% ligation, preparing 100 independent groups of random numbers for each m value, and determining the designated m value. The distribution patterns of obtained ligation products displayed by these 100 groups were combined together, and the length (bp) of DNA of each virtual ligation product of DNA unit fragments was determined by using the parameters F(N, L, R). Then, the actual DNA unit fragment groups used in experiment of reconstruction of λ phage genome with variation in the number of fragments of CV = 6.6% were, as described in the paragraph "Qualitative analysis of reaction rate of ligation" above, subjected to reaction at 37°C for 4 hours, followed by electrophoresis on a CHEF-type pulsed-field gel electrophoresis system (manufactured by Bio Craft Co., Ltd.) for 16 hours under electrophoresis conditions of 0.5× TBE, 5 V/cm, and 30 sec per cycle, in order to see the actual distribution of the molecular weight of DNA. FIG. 23 is a photograph showing the result of the electrophoresis. From the resulting electrophoresis photograph, a DNA density distribution pattern was acquired on NIH image software, and the pattern thus acquired was overlaid with expected DNA distribution patterns obtained for each ligation efficiency determined from simulation, for comparison. The results are shown in FIG. 24. FIG. 24 showed that the distribution pattern of the molecular weight of DNA resulting from the electrophoresis was in near agreement with the expected DNA distribution patterns for ligation efficiency from 98% to 100%. In particular, the maximum molecular weight indicating the maximum concentration was in excellent agreement with the expected DNA distribution pattern for ligation efficiency of 98%. These simulation results showed that ligation was substantially fully completed within 4 hours of ligation reaction and simulation was able to nearly perfectly reproduce ligation with mere misligation of about 2%.

<Generalization of ligation simulation>



[0116] DNA unit fragments used in actual assembly cannot be free from variation in the concentration. How well actual variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments needed to be regulated was summarized based on the general formula f(N) = 0.0058*CV (%) *exp (-0.0058*CV(%)*N) determined above, and was shown in FIG. 25. Although variation in DNA concentration was approximately CV(%) = 6.6 in the gene-assembling experiment above, FIG. 25 shows that, when CV(%) = 6.6, about 40% of the DNA unit fragments used in the 51-fragment assembly was taken up by a ligation product with an r value of greater than 1. FIG. 25 also shows that, when a novel 102-fragment gene assembly, twice the size of the 51-fragment assembly, is designed, it is necessary to achieve CV(%) = 3.3 in order to obtain the same level of assembly efficiency as for the 51-fragment assembly. By the formula f (N) = 0. 0058*CV (%) *exp (-0. 0058*CV (%) *N), the relationship between variation in the concentrations of DNA unit fragments and the average number of DNA unit fragments in one ligation product was determined. The results are shown in FIG. 26. It was shown that, the formula f(N) = 0.0058*CV(%)*exp(-0.0058*CV(%)*N) made it possible to easily presume the average number of DNA unit fragments contained in one ligation product with a CV (%) value.

[Sequence listing]


SEQUENCE LISTING



[0117] 

<110> Keio University

<120> Method for Preparation of Unit DNA Composition and Method for Production of DNA-linked body

<130> P10000002348

<160> 10

<170> PatentIn version 3.5

<210> 1
<211> 17749
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Artificial plasmid

<400> 1



















<210> 2
<211> 6912
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Artificial plasmid

<400> 2









<210> 3
<211> 48526
<212> DNA
<213> Bacteriophage lambda

<400> 3





















































<210> 4
<211> 5955
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Artificial Operon

<400> 4







<210> 5
<211> 26
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Artificial Primer

<400> 5
tagggtctca aagcggccgc aagctt   26

<210> 6
<211> 25
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Artificial Primer

<400> 6
tagggtctca gcggccaaga aggcc   25

<210> 7
<211> 30
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Artificial Primer

<400> 7
tagggtctca ccgcccttcc cggtcgatat   30

<210> 8
<211> 42
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Artificial Primer

<400> 8
tagggtctca tattagctta attgttatcc gctcacaatt cc   42

<210> 9
<211> 43
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Artificial Primer

<400> 9
tagggtctca aataactgga aaaaattagt gtctcatggt tcg   43

<210> 10
<211> 33
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Artificial Primer

<400> 10
tagggtctca gcttaagtgg tgggtagttg acc   33




Claims

1. A method of constructing a DNA concatemer to be used for microbial cell transformation, the DNA concatemer comprising more than one DNA assembly unit, each of the more than one DNA assembly unit comprising a DNA vector harboring an origin of replication effective in a host microorganism and a DNA assembly,
comprising:

a step of preparing a DNA unit fragment composition in a solution, the step including;

a step of preparing solutions containing multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments, each solution containing one of the multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments, each DNA unit fragment being attached to a corresponding auxiliary sequence; and

a step of, after preparing each solution, measuring the concentration of each kind of DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto in each of the solutions, and then based on the measurement result, taking a portion from each of the solutions so that the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in one portion is close to the number of moles of DNA unit fragment in another portion;

a step of preparing the DNA vector;

a step of removing with a restriction enzyme a corresponding auxiliary sequence from each DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto contained in the solution after preparation; and

a step of, after the removal step, joining the DNA vector and each of the DNA unit fragment together,
wherein

each of the DNA vector and the DNA unit fragment is structurally capable of being joined repeatedly while maintaining a certain order, and

each DNA assembly comprises of a DNA molecule in which the DNA unit fragment is joined to one another; and

a step of, based on a relation between the yield of a DNA fragment comprising a target number of DNA unit fragments joined together and a coefficient of variation for the concentration of this DNA fragment, the yield being equal to the product of the number of DNA unit fragments per assembly unit and the number of the assembly unit, adjusting a coefficient of variation for the concentrations of the DNA vector and each DNA unit fragment in the joining step.


 
2. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to claim 1, wherein each DNA unit fragment with the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached thereto has a circular structure, and each corresponding auxiliary sequence is a plasmid DNA sequence harboring an origin of replication.
 
3. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the distribution of the sum of the lengths of the base sequence of each DNA unit fragment and the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to the DNA unit fragment has a standard deviation ranging from -20% to 20% with relative to the average value of the sum of the lengths.
 
4. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the average length of the base sequence of the corresponding auxiliary sequence attached to each DNA unit fragment is twice or greater than the average length of the base sequence of the DNA unit fragment.
 
5. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein each DNA unit fragment is not longer than 1600 bp.
 
6. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein
the DNA unit fragments are used to construct a DNA concatemer, the DNA concatemer comprising DNA assemblies each comprising the DNA unit fragments, and
the step of preparing solutions containing multiple kinds of DNA unit fragments comprises a step of designing each DNA unit fragment, the designing being conducted in a way that the base sequence of each DNA assembly when divided by the number of kinds of its constituent DNA unit fragments into equal parts has a non-palindromic sequence near each boundary between two adjacent equal parts, and that each DNA unit fragment has such a non-palindromic sequence at an end and is separated by the non-palindromic sequence from an adjacent DNA unit fragment.
 
7. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the restriction enzyme is a Type II restriction enzyme.
 
8. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of claims 1 to 7, further comprising:
a step of, before the removal step, mixing two or more solutions containing DNA unit fragments selected from the solutions containing DNA unit fragments.
 
9. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of claims 1 to 8, further comprising:
a step of, after the removal step and before the joining step, inactivating the restriction enzyme.
 
10. The method of constructing a DNA concatemer according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the microorganism is Bacillus subtilis.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers für die Verwendung zur Transformation von Mikrobenzellen, wobei das DNA-Concatemer mehr als eine DNA-Zusammenlagerungseinheit umfasst, wobei jede der mehr als einen DNA-Zusammenlagerungseinheit einen DNA-Vektor, der einen in einem Wirtsmikroorganismus wirksamen Replikationsursprung enthält, und eine DNA-Zusammenlagerung umfasst,
umfassend:

einen Schritt der Herstellung einer DNA-Einheitsfragment-Zusammensetzung in einer Lösung, wobei der Schritt Folgendes beinhaltet:

einen Schritt der Herstellung von Lösungen, die mehrere Arten von DNA-Einheitsfragmenten enthalten, wobei jede Lösung eine der mehreren Arten von DNA-Einheitsfragmenten enthält, wobei jedes DNA-Einheitsfragment an eine entsprechende Hilfssequenz gebunden ist; und

nach der Herstellung jeder Lösung, einen Schritt des Messens der Konzentration jeder Art des DNA-Einheitsfragments mit der entsprechenden daran gebundenen Hilfssequenz in jeder der Lösungen und dann, auf der Basis des Messergebnisses, des Entnehmens eines Anteils aus jeder der Lösungen, so dass die Anzahl der Mole an DNA-Einheitsfragment in einem Anteil nahezu der Anzahl der Mole an DNA-Einheitsfragment in einem anderen Anteil entspricht,

einen Schritt der Herstellung des DNA-Vektors,

einen Schritt des Entfernens, mit einem Restriktionsenzym, einer entsprechenden Hilfssequenz von jedem DNA-Einheitsfragment mit der entsprechenden daran gebundenen Hilfssequenz, die in der Lösung nach der Herstellung vorhanden sind, und

nach dem Entfernungsschritt, einen Schritt des Verbindens des DNA-Vektors und jedes der DNA-Einheitsfragmente miteinander,
wobei

jeder aus dem DNA-Vektor und dem DNA-Einheitsfragment strukturell fähig ist, wiederholt verbunden zu werden, wobei eine bestimmte Reihenfolge beibehalten wird, und

jede DNA-Zusammenlagerung aus einem DNA-Molekül besteht, in dem das DNA-Einheitsfragment miteinander verbunden ist, und

auf der Basis einer Beziehung zwischen der Ausbeute an einem DNA-Fragment, das eine Ziel-Anzahl von miteinander verbundenen DNA-Einheitsfragmenten umfasst, und einem Variationskoeffizienten für die Konzentration dieses DNA-Fragments, wobei die Ausbeute gleich dem Produkt aus der Anzahl an DNA-Einheitsfragmenten pro Zusammenlagerungseinheit und der Anzahl der Zusammenlagerungseinheit ist, einen Schritt des Einstellens eines Variationskoeffizienten für die Konzentrationen des DNA-Vektors und jedes DNA-Einheitsfragments im Verbindungsschritt.


 
2. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers nach Anspruch 1, wobei jedes DNA-Einheitsfragment mit der entsprechenden daran gebundenen Hilfssequenz eine zirkuläre Struktur aufweist und jede entsprechende Hilfssequenz eine Plasmid-DNA-Sequenz ist, die einen Replikationsursprung enthält.
 
3. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Verteilung der Summe der Längen der Basensequenz jedes DNA-Einheitsfragments und der Basensequenz der entsprechenden an das DNA-Einheitsfragment gebundenen Hilfssequenz eine Standardabweichung im Bereich von -20% bis 20% in Bezug auf den Durchschnittswert der Summe der Längen aufweist.
 
4. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei die durchschnittliche Länge der Basensequenz der entsprechenden an jedes DNA-Einheitsfragment gebundenen Hilfssequenz das Doppelte oder mehr der durchschnittlichen Länge der Basensequenz des DNA-Einheitsfragments beträgt.
 
5. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei jedes DNA-Einheitsfragment nicht länger als 1600 bp ist.
 
6. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei
die DNA-Einheitsfragmente dazu verwendet werden, ein DNA-Concatemer zu konstruieren, wobei das DNA-Concatemer DNA-Zusammenlagerungen umfasst, die jeweils die DNA-Einheitsfragmente umfassen, und
der Schritt der Herstellung von Lösungen, die mehrere Arten von DNA-Einheitsfragmenten enthalten, umfassen einen Schritt der Gestaltung jedes DNA-Einheitsfragments umfasst, wobei die Gestaltung derart durchgeführt wird, dass die Basensequenz jeder DNA-Zusammenlagerung, wenn sie durch die Anzahl der Arten der sie ausmachenden DNA-Einheitsfragmente in gleiche Teile geteilt wird, eine nicht-palindromische Sequenz nahe jeder Grenze zwischen zwei benachbarten gleichen Teilen aufweist und dass jedes DNA-Einheitsfragment eine solche nicht-palindromische Sequenz an einem Ende aufweist und durch die nicht-palindromische Sequenz von einem benachbarten DNA-Einheitsfragment getrennt wird.
 
7. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei das Restriktionsenzym ein Typ II-Restriktionsenzym ist.
 
8. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, das ferner Folgendes umfasst:
vor dem Entfernungsschritt, einen Schritt des Mischens von zwei oder mehr Lösungen, die DNA-Einheitsfragmente enthalten, ausgewählt aus den Lösungen, die DNA-Einheitsfragmente enthalten.
 
9. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, das ferner Folgendes umfasst:
nach dem Entfernungsschritt und vor dem Verbindungsschritt, einen Schritt des Inaktivierens des Restriktionsenzyms.
 
10. Verfahren zum Konstruieren eines DNA-Concatemers nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, wobei der Mikroorganismus Bacillus subtilis ist.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN à utiliser pour transformation de cellule microbienne, le concatémère d'ADN comprenant plus d'une unité d'assemblage d'ADN, chacune des plusieurs unités d'assemblage d'ADN comprenant un vecteur à ADN comportant une origine de réplication efficace dans un micro-organisme hôte et un assemblage d'ADN,
comprenant :

une étape de préparation d'une composition de fragment d'unité d'ADN dans une solution, l'étape comprenant ;

une étape de préparation de solutions contenant des types multiples de fragments d'unité d'ADN, chaque solution contenant l'un des types multiples de fragments d'unité d'ADN, chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN étant lié à une séquence auxiliaire correspondante ; et

une étape de, après préparation de chaque solution, mesure de la concentration de chaque type de fragment d'unité d'ADN avec la séquence auxiliaire correspondante liée à celui-ci dans chacune des solutions, et ensuite sur la base du résultat de mesure, prélèvement d'une partie de chacune des solutions de sorte que le nombre de moles de fragment d'unité d'ADN dans une partie soit proche du nombre de moles de fragment d'unité d'ADN dans une autre partie ;

une étape de préparation du vecteur à ADN ;

une étape de retrait, avec une enzyme de restriction, d'une séquence auxiliaire correspondante à partir de chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN avec la séquence auxiliaire correspondante liée à celui-ci contenu dans la solution après préparation ; et

une étape, après l'étape de retrait, d'assemblage du vecteur à ADN et de chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN conjointement, dans lequel

chacun du vecteur à ADN et du fragment d'unité d'ADN peut être structurellement assemblé de façon répétée tout en maintenant un certain ordre, et

chaque assemblage d'ADN comprend une molécule d'ADN dans laquelle le fragment d'unité d'ADN est assemblé l'un à l'autre ; et

une étape, sur la base d'une relation entre le rendement d'un fragment d'ADN comprenant un nombre cible de fragments d'unité d'ADN assemblés conjointement et d'un coefficient de variation de la concentration de ce fragment d'ADN, le rendement étant égal au produit du nombre de fragments d'unité d'ADN par unité d'assemblage et du nombre de l'unité d'assemblage, d'ajustement d'un coefficient de variation pour les concentrations du vecteur à ADN et de chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN dans l'étape d'assemblage.


 
2. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN selon la revendication 1, dans lequel chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN avec la séquence auxiliaire correspondante liée à celui-ci a une structure circulaire, et chaque séquence auxiliaire correspondante est une séquence d'ADN plasmidique comportant une origine de réplication.
 
3. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel la distribution de la somme des longueurs de la séquence de bases de chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN et la séquence de bases de la séquence auxiliaire correspondante liée au fragment d'unité d'ADN a un écart type dans la plage de -20 % à 20 % par rapport à la valeur moyenne de la somme des longueurs.
 
4. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel la longueur moyenne de la séquence de bases de la séquence auxiliaire correspondante liée à chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN est deux fois ou plus la longueur moyenne de la séquence de bases du fragment d'unité d'ADN.
 
5. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN n'a pas une longueur supérieure à 1600 pb.
 
6. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel
les fragments d'unité d'ADN sont utilisés pour construire un concatémère d'ADN, le concatémère d'ADN comprenant des assemblages d'ADN comprenant chacun les fragments d'unité d'ADN, et
l'étape de préparation de solutions contenant des types multiples de fragments d'unité d'ADN comprend une étape de conception de chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN, la conception étant conduite de telle manière que la séquence de bases de chaque assemblage d'ADN, lorsqu'elle est divisée par le nombre de types de ses fragments d'unité d'ADN constituants en parties égales, comporte une séquence non palindromique à proximité de chaque limite entre deux parties égales adjacentes, et que chaque fragment d'unité d'ADN ait une telle séquence non palindromique à une extrémité et soit séparé par la séquence non palindromique d'un fragment d'unité d'ADN adjacent.
 
7. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel l'enzyme de restriction est une enzyme de restriction de type II.
 
8. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, comprenant en outre :
une étape, avant l'étape de retrait, de mélange de deux ou plus de deux solutions contenant des fragments d'unité d'ADN choisis parmi les solutions contenant des fragments d'unité d'ADN.
 
9. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, comprenant en outre :
une étape de, après l'étape de retrait et avant l'étape d'assemblage, inactivation de l'enzyme de restriction.
 
10. Procédé de construction d'un concatémère d'ADN selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel le micro-organisme est Bacillus subtilis.
 




Drawing










































































Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description