(19)
(11)EP 3 103 900 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/37

(21)Application number: 15746712.7

(22)Date of filing:  06.02.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C40B 30/06(2006.01)
G01N 33/68(2006.01)
C40B 40/06(2006.01)
G01N 33/58(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/KR2015/001226
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/119447 (13.08.2015 Gazette  2015/32)

(54)

HIGH-THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS METHOD OF INTERACTION BETWEEN MATERIALS, USING PROTEIN FUSION DISPLAY TECHNIQUE

HOCHDURCHSATZ-ANALYSEVERFAHREN ZUR INTERAKTION ZWISCHEN MATERIALIEN MIT FUSIONSPROTEINANZEIGEVERFAHREN

PROCÉDÉ D'ANALYSE À HAUT DÉBIT D'INTERACTIONS ENTRE MATÉRIAUX, À L'AIDE DE TECHNIQUE D'AFFICHAGE DE FUSION DE PROTÉINE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 07.02.2014 KR 20140014334

(43)Date of publication of application:
14.12.2016 Bulletin 2016/50

(73)Proprietor: Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (KR)

(72)Inventors:
  • LEE, Seung-Goo
    Daejeon 305-806 (KR)
  • KIM, Yu Jung
    Daejeon 305-806 (KR)
  • GAM, Jongsik
    Daejeon 305-806 (KR)
  • KIM, Haseong
    Daejeon 305-806 (KR)
  • LEE, Dae-Hee
    Daejeon 305-806 (KR)
  • JUNG, Heung-Chae
    Daejeon 305-806 (KR)

(74)Representative: Sonn & Partner Patentanwälte 
Riemergasse 14
1010 Wien
1010 Wien (AT)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-2006/099486
KR-A- 20130 023 057
US-A1- 2008 153 111
US-A1- 2013 052 660
WO-A2-2013/048185
US-A1- 2006 257 887
US-A1- 2009 105 089
  
  • SU-LIM CHOI ET AL: "Controlled Localization of Functionally Active Proteins to Inclusion Bodies Using Leucine Zippers", PLOS ONE, vol. 9, no. 6, 4 June 2014 (2014-06-04), page e97093, XP055365344, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097093
  • HUANG, Z. ET AL.: 'Active inclusion bodies of acid phosphatase PhoC: aggregation induced by GFP fusion and activities modulated by linker flexibility' MICROBIAL CELL FACTORIES vol. 12, no. 1, 14 March 2013, page 25, XP021141764
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Technical Field



[0001] The present invention relates to a method for analyzing the interaction between a binding protein and a target material, including measuring the interaction between the binding protein and a target material using an interaction trapper (IT) cell. The IT cell has the binding protein displayed on the surface of intracellular inclusion bodies by expressing a fusion protein which forms active protein particles containing the binding protein, i.e., insoluble aggregates (inclusion bodies). The method includes increasing cell permeability which has no effect on the activity of the binding protein displayed on the active inclusion bodies and genetic information. Additionally, the present invention relates to a method for screening a library, further including a recovery by an individual cell unit. Additionally, the present invention relates to a cell and a cell library, which has a characteristic that can introduce a target material from the outside of a cell into the cells-while conserving the activity of the binding protein displayed on the surface of intracellular inclusion bodies, and genetic information; and includes a construct containing a polynucleotide encoding the fusion protein, or the fusion protein such that a binding protein is displayed on active inclusion bodies.

Background Art



[0002] All the processes carried out by living organisms are established by interaction network complexes mediated by intracellular proteins (interactomes). Any problem in the control of the interaction can influence the entire network and may cause a disease. Accordingly, it is a platform to understand and control the proteins involved in interaction for the understanding of network complexes and it is also very important for the studies of disease treatment and development of therapeutic agents.

[0003] In this regard, various screening methods for understanding in-vivo protein interactions have been studied by constructing protein libraries (interaction partners of intracellular proteins) by targeting at the intracellular proteins with known functions and characteristics; selecting only the proteins which interact with the targets from the libraries and confirming their characteristics (Hening Lin and Virginia W. Cornish., 2002. Screening and Selection Methods for Large-Scale Analysis of Protein Function. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed 41; 4402 - 25).

[0004] Currently, most library screening methods can be largely divided into a cell-free system and a surface display system. As conventional library screening methods, examples of the representative cell-free system may include ribosome display and in-vitro compartmentalization (IVC) methods and examples of the surface display system may include phage display and bacteria/yeast display methods.

[0005] First, ribosome display is a method for amplifying the mRNA of peptides, which are conjugated to a target by forming an mRNA-ribosome-peptide triple complex, by RT-PCR after dissociation thereof from the complex. Ribosome display has an advantage in that it can provide a library with a maximum size up to 1013 because the entire process is carried out in-vitro, thus not requiring transformation. However, ribosome display has disadvantages in that only 27% is present as complexes and the protein size to be displayed on the mRNA-ribosome is limited, and also has limits in terms of stability of ribosome complexes and technical sensitivity, etc. (Hanes, J and Pluckthun, A., 1997. In vitro selection and evolution of functional proteins by using ribosome display. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 4937 - 42).

[0006] In-vitro compartmentalization (IVC) is a method for compartmentalizing genes based on the aqueous emulsion dispersed in oils instead of in-vivo, and the compartmentalized genes are transcribed and translated within the emulsion, thereby forming a protein library. At least 109 droplets can be made with a volume of 1 mL and these droplets can have the role of an independent microreactor which is stable at various external conditions (temperature, pH, salt concentration). However, the emulsion can be destroyed using an organic solvent during protein recovery, and the organic solvent used may reduce the activities of proteins and the thus-recovered proteins may not exhibit activities in-vivo (Dan S. Tawfik and Andrew D. Griffiths., 1998. Man-made cell-like compartments for molecular evolution. Nat. Biotechnol. 16; 652 - 56).

[0007] Phage display, which is most conventionally used in library screening at present, is a method for screening libraries based on the binding affinity to the immobilized target using the library proteins displayed by being conjugated to the pIII protein at the end of the phage display, and phage display has an advantage in that it can easily screen a large number of clones in libraries. However, since 1 to 5 binding proteins are displayed on the pIII protein of phage and a target is used after immobilizing it to beads and plate bottom, several bindings may occur simultaneously, thereby causing an avidity effect, i.e., a problem showing a difference in the real affinity of an individual protein to the target. Additionally, due to the characteristics of the method, an elution step is required. In this regard, there is a limit in that the displayed protein cannot be easily eluted from the immobilized phase when the displayed protein has a high binding affinity to the target. Additionally, the panning method used for screening libraries in phage display has a limit in that it has a low signal-to-noise ratio and thus at least 3 to 5 panning processes are required for obtaining proteins having a binding affinity to the target, and also there is a limit in that it has a high false positive rate (George P. Smith and Valery A. Petrenko, 1997. Phage Display. Chem. Rev. 97: 391 - 410).

[0008] Surface display, which was developed to overcome the limits of phage display, is a method for stably expressing proteins on the surface of a microorganism such as bacteria and yeasts, as a surface anchoring motif, and the surface display method has an advantage in that it enables high-throughput screening (1×109 cells/h) due to the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) when screening libraries using a fluorescence probe-conjugated target, and also has a lower nonspecific background compared to the panning method of phage display.

[0009] However, the surface display system requires that the protein library be successfully projected outside of the cell wall, and simultaneously, the proteins which have successfully passed through membrane be stably displayed to the cell surface and no three-dimensional structural change of the proteins conjugated to the cell surface (i.e., maintain protein activities). For this purpose, a very effective signal sequence that can aid the passage of the proteins through membrane for their arrival at the cell surface, and also the proteins, need to be successfully projected outside of the cell, and thus the surface display system has limits with respect to the protein size and the number of proteins to be displayed on the cell surface, etc., (Eric T. Boder and K. Dane Wittrup, 1997. Yeast surface display for screening combinatorial polypeptide libraries. Nat. Biotech. 15; 553 - 57).

[0010] Accordingly, in order to overcome the limits of the existing screening systems, it is necessary to develop an effective and efficient screening system, which has an improved screening sensitivity and is thus capable of screening targets having various binding affinities (in the range of a few millimoles to a few nanomoles), and also has a high signal-to-noise ratio and is thus capable of easily screening the desired proteins and binding proteins with specific bindings in cells among the numerous proteins in libraries.

[0011] To resolve the problems described above, a method of amplifying the detection signal when linking several binding proteins to a target by immobilizing them to a single matrix and increasing the signal-to-noise ratio using a fluorescence-mediated detection method was suggested. Examples of the analysis methods developed as such with these characteristics may include a method of interactive detection between materials via a nanoassembly using ferritin, a protein having a self-assembly property (Sangkyu Lee et al., 2011. Small-Molecule-Based Nanoassemblies as Inducible Nanoprobes for Monitoring Dynamic Molecular Interactions Inside Live Cells. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 50; 8709 - 13), a method of using nanoparticles as an immobilized matrix for their utilization in interactions and catalytic actions with biological molecules (Wenwan Zhong., 2009. Nanomaterials in fluorescence-based biosensing., 394; 47 - 59).

[0012] Recently, studies utilizing biocatalysis by immobilizing the enzymes into inclusion bodies (IBs) proteins, which are insoluble precipitates of proteins, were reported (Jozef Nahalka, Bernd Nidetzky, 2007. Fusion to a pull-down domain: a novel approach of producing trigonopsis variabilis D-amino acid oxidase as insoluble enzyme aggregates. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 97; 454 - 61).

[0013] Inclusion bodies (IBs) generally refer to inactive aggregates, however, a recent report revealed that some inclusion bodies are active protein particles capable of maintaining most of the intrinsic biochemical properties of proteins (Antonio Villaverd et al., 2005. Aggregation as bacterial inclusion bodies does not imply inactivation of enzymes and fluorescent proteins. Microbial Cell Factories 4; 1 - 6). When the active protein particles were used as an immobilized matrix, thereby immobilizing an enzyme and a fluorescent protein thereto, and the activities of the enzyme and a fluorescent protein were measured, it was shown to maintain up to 30% to 100% of their activities compared to the activities of the non-immobilized enzyme and the fluorescent protein, exhibiting their effectiveness in providing improved stability of enzymes, recyclability, etc., and thus studies are actively involved in the utilization of the active protein particles in the enzyme industry.

[0014] US 2013/052660 A1 relates to a method of detecting protein-protein interactions in living cells.

[0015] Previously, the present inventors had confirmed that family II cellulose-binding domain (CBD) derived from Cellulomonas fimi forms inclusion bodies (IB) via self-aggregation in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and thus developed a method for observing the interactions between biomolecules in-vivo using the phenomenon that the proteins simultaneously expressed in eukaryotic cells as well as in bacterial cells are simultaneously accumulated into the inclusion body particles (Korean Patent Application Publication No. 10-2013-0023057). However, the above method has limits in that it only allows observation of the interactions between intracellular biomolecules expressed simultaneously in-vivo, and due to its low signal-to-noise ratio, it is difficult to effectively compartmentalize and recover the binding material interacted to the target material as an individual cell unit. Additionally, the method has a limit in that the target material must be limited to materials that can be synthesized in cells, such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, etc., and that only fluorescent proteins must be used as the fluorescence signal. That is, the method has disadvantages in that various forms of target materials that can be introduced from the outside cannot be used and that various kinds of fluorescent chemical materials cannot be used as the fluorescence signal.

Disclosure


Technical Problem



[0016] The present inventors have developed a system which enables a direct observation of the interactions occurring between biomolecules and foreign materials by increasing permeability of a cell wall to prevent any influence on the activity of the binding protein displayed on the inclusion bodies and genetic information and introducing a foreign target material into a cell to be interacted to the binding protein displayed on the inclusion bodies present in the cell, and as a result, they have confirmed that the signal-to-noise ratio was improved 450-fold or more, thus enabling a direct observation of the interactions between materials at the single-cell level. Additionally, the present inventors have in fact constructed a library and performed a screening, and as a result, they have confirmed that binding proteins which can interact with a target protein can be selectively recovered via high-throughput screening of the interactions between molecules, and have confirmed that high-affinity binders at a nanomolar level can be detected by repeating the screening two times at maximum, thereby completing the present invention.

Technical Solution



[0017] Disclosed is a method for screening a library, including providing a cell library including a construct, which contains a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein; expressing the fusion protein in the cell library, thereby forming interaction trapper (IT) cells, wherein the binding protein is displayed on the inclusion body; introducing a fluorescence material-conjugated target material into the cells according to step (b) via increasing cell permeability; and measuring the interaction between the binding protein and the target material based on the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescence material conjugated to the target material; wherein the increasing of permeability comprises making the cell membrane or the cell wall cracked, and the making comprises:(i) freezing the cell according to step (b);(ii) thawing the frozen cell; and(iii) treating the thawed cell with an acidic solution or a chelating agent.

[0018] The present invention provides a method for analyzing the interaction between a binding protein and a target material, including (a) providing a cell, which includes a construct containing a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of the binding protein and an active inclusion body protein; (b) expressing the fusion protein in the cell, thereby forming an interaction trapper (IT) cell, wherein the binding protein is displayed on the inclusion body; (c) introducing a fluorescence material-conjugated target material into the cell according to step (b) by increasing cell permeability, wherein the cell maintains the activity and genetic information of the binding protein; and (d) measuring the interaction between the binding protein and the target material which is introduced from the outside of the cell, based on the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescence material conjugated to the target material; wherein the increasing of permeability comprises making the cell membrane or the cell wall cracked, and the making comprises:(i) freezing the cell according to step (b);(ii) thawing the frozen cell; and(iii) treating the thawed cell with an acidic solution or a chelating agent.

[0019] The present invention provides a cell, which includes a construct containing a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein, wherein the cell has a permeability-increased cell membrane or cell wall while maintaining the activity and genetic information of the binding protein; wherein the increasing of permeability comprises making the cell membrane or the cell wall cracked, and the making comprises:(i) freezing the cell according to step (b);(ii) thawing the frozen cell; and(iii) treating the thawed cell with an acidic solution or a chelating agent.

[0020] The present invention provides a cell library, which includes a construct containing a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein, wherein the cell has a permeability-increased cell membrane or cell wall while maintaining the activity and genetic information of the binding protein; wherein the increasing of permeability comprises making the cell membrane or the cell wall cracked, and the making comprises:(i) freezing the cell according to step (b);(ii) thawing the frozen cell; and(iii) treating the thawed cell with an acidic solution or a chelating agent.

[0021] Disclosed is an interaction trapper (IT) cell and a cell library, wherein a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein is expressed and the binding protein is displayed on the inclusion body.

Advantageous Effects



[0022] The method of the present invention enables a sensitive labeling of a target material, which interacts, due to the overexpression of a binding protein, and thereby provides an improved screening efficiency due to a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio (a 450-fold increase) compared to the conventional screening methods, and the method of the present invention also enables an easy isolation of cell by an individual cell unit, and thus can provide a high-throughput screening (HTS) technology that can screen and isolate interacting proteins from a large number of libraries using a fluorescence microscope and flow cytometer. Additionally, the interactions between biomolecules in any foreign target material with a difficulty of in-vivo expression can be readily analyzed at high speed by introduction thereof into cells after extracellular expression. The present invention can be used in various fields including developing antibodies/artificial antibodies, preparing novel interacting proteins, and analyzing and optimizing the interactions between target proteins and drug candidates.

Brief Descriptions of the Drawings



[0023] 

FIG. 1 shows the representative drawing of the present invention illustrated in a schematic diagram regarding the intracellular particle display enabling high-speed analysis between materials and the results of analysis of interactions between materials using the same.

FIG. 2 shows an entire schematic diagram of the intracellular particle display technique from the methodological point of view.

FIG. 3 shows the images of the interaction trapper (IT) cells, in which a binding protein (VLR) and a fluorescent protein (mRFP) are displayed using a CBD protein capable of forming active inclusion bodies, and only the inclusion bodies separated from the IT cells by ultrasonication observed under a fluorescence microscope.

FIG. 4 shows the results of analysis the effect of a cell thawing/freezing process for increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention according to the presence/absence of active inclusion body display of the binding protein.

FIG. 5 shows the results of flow cytometry analysis confirming that although the cell freezing process during the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention could maintain the activity and expression of the binding protein displayed on the active inclusion bodies, it was not sufficient to introduce a foreign target material.

FIG. 6 shows the results of flow cytometry analysis confirming the introduction of a foreign target material by treating the inclusion body cells, which underwent a cell-freezing process, with an acidic solution during the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention, in which A and B show the results of the introduction of a foreign target material according to the kind of the acidic solution and pH, and C shows the result of a permeability between EDTA (a chelating agent capable of penetrating external cell membranes) and acidic solutions.

FIG. 7 shows the results confirming the interactions between a binding protein and a foreign target material introduced into a cell by the optimized permeability in FIG. 6, in which A shows the fluorescent images confirming the interactions between the binding protein and the target material and B shows the result confirming the level of intracellular introduction of the target material according to the culture hours after increasing the permeability of the IT cells through the interactions between the target material and the binding protein based on the fluorescence intensity of the target material.

FIG. 8 shows the results of flow cytometry analysis confirming that the interaction between the binding protein and the target material is a specific binding capable of maintaining the intrinsic property by the active inclusion bodies through the optimized method of increasing cell permeability.

FIG. 9 shows the results of observation of the intracellular and extracellular changes by increasing cell permeability of the active inclusion body cells, in which FIG. 9A shows the results of the changes in the intracellular proteins by increasing cell permeability analyzed using the protein analysis system, Experion™ Pro260 (Bio-rad), and FIG. 9B shows the results of the changes in the active inclusion body cells before and after increasing cell permeability observed under an electron microscope.

FIG. 10 shows the results confirming that the genetic information of intracellular binding proteins was mostly maintained due to the active inclusion bodies even after the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention, based on quantitative PCR (RT-PCR).

FIG. 11a shows the results confirming the intracellular particle display which underwent the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention using a model protein and a model target material, and shows the results of flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence images confirming the interactions between the binding protein and the target material due to the introduction of a foreign target material by increasing cell permeability.

FIG. 11b shows the results confirming the intracellular particle display which underwent the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention using a model protein and a model target material, and shows the results confirming that the genetic information of binding proteins in the IT cells was mostly maintained even after the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention, analyzed based on quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis.

FIG. 11c shows the results confirming the intracellular particle display which underwent the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention using a model protein and a model target material, and shows the results confirming the changes in the active inclusion body cells before and after increasing cell permeability observed using a flow cytometer and an electron microscope.

FIG. 12 shows the analysis results of the level of cell permeability by the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention via dextran-FITC treatment having various kinds of molecular weight using C20, which is a dextran-FITC conjugate obtained by the intracellular particle display technique.

FIG. 13 shows the fluorescence images (A), the analysis results by a flow cytometer (B) of interactions between proteins according to the presence/absence of affinity for a binding protein by introducing a target material into a cell by the optimized method of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention, and the analysis results by a flow cytometer (C) of interactions between a binding protein and a target material according to the presence/absence of a difference in affinity by introducing a target material into a cell by the optimized method of increasing cell permeability.

FIG. 14 shows the results confirming that libraries can be screened using intracellular particle display. Illustrated are the results of screening efficiency analyzed by PCR amplification by recovering 10,000 E. coli cells (PPI+) with high GFP fluorescence after analyzing the cells, in which a binding protein is involved in an interaction with a target material, by the fluorescence of GFP conjugated to the target material using a flow cytometer, after establishing a library-analogous environment by mixing inclusion body cells (PPI+) with an interaction between a binding protein and the target material and inclusion body cells (PPI-) without an interaction between a binding protein and the target material.

FIG. 15a shows the results of screening performed using real libraries via intracellular particle display, and illustrated are the results of the screening process looking for protein binderss for various kinds of targets.

FIG. 15b shows the results of screening performed using real libraries via intracellular particle display, and illustrated is a schematic diagram of the entire structure, in which amino acid residues are indicated, for the construction of a random library of repebody used as a model binding protein.

FIG. 15c shows the results of screening performed using real libraries via intracellular particle display, and confirmed the interactions between each of the selected protein binders from the library screening and targets using a flow cytometer.

FIG. 16 shows the measurement results of binding affinity of H2, which is an sfGFP protein binder obtained as a result of screening the real libraries, by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC).

FIG. 17 shows the images of active inclusion bodies proteins of a CBD observed under an electron microscope.

FIG. 18 shows the comparison results between the library screening system of the present invention and the conventional library screening systems.


Best Mode



[0024] To achieve the above objects, in an aspect, the present invention provides a method for screening a library specific to a target material, including: (a) providing a cell library comprising a construct, which comprises a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein; (b) expressing the fusion protein in the cell library, thereby forming interaction trapper (IT) cells, wherein the binding protein is displayed on the inclusion body; (c) introducing a fluorescence material-conjugated target material into the cells according to step (b) by increasing cell permeability, wherein the cell maintains the activity and genetic information of the binding protein; and (d) measuring the interaction between the binding protein and the target material based on the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescence material conjugated to the target material and optionally recovering the cell by an individual cell unit; wherein the increasing of permeability comprises making the cell membrane or the cell wall cracked, and the making comprises:(i) freezing the cell according to step (b);(ii) thawing the frozen cell; and(iii) treating the thawed cell with an acidic solution or a chelating agent.

[0025] The step (c) of increasing cell permeability may be performed without limitation by a method conventionally used in the art, as long as the process of increasing cell permeability does not affect the activity of the binding protein displayed on the intracellular inclusion bodies and genetic information and also allows the target material to be introduced into a cell through the cracked membrane. In particular, the process of increasing cell permeability may include freezing cells, thawing frozen cells, and treating cells with an acidic solution, for example, (i) freezing cells at -80°C to -10°C; (ii) thawing the frozen cells at room temperature to 37°C; and (iii) treating the thawed cells with an acidic solution. The kind and pH of the acidic solution may not be particularly limited, and the acidic solution may have a pH of 4 to 6. The process may be an optimized method of increasing cell permeability which does not affect the activity of the binding protein displayed on the intracellular inclusion bodies and genetic information and also allows the target material to be introduced into a cell through the cracked membrane, thereby allowing a foreign target material to be introduced into a cell and enabling the interactions between the binding protein and the target material.

[0026] In an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the process of increasing cell permeability was performed by forming pellets by centrifugation of the cells in step (b), in which the binding protein was expressed, and freezing the resultant cells; thawing the frozen cells at 37°C; and treating with an acidic solution, and specifically with 0.1 M citric acid (pH 4).

[0027] The method of screening libraries of the present disclosure may further include obtaining fusion proteins present in the cells recovered in an individual cell unit, and isolating and amplifying genes encoding the fusion proteins. The protein recovery or isolation and amplification of genes may be performed by any method widely used in the art.

[0028] The above method of the present disclosure can replace the conventional library screening methods such as ribosome display, phage display, and cell surface display. The method of the present invention is a method for analyzing interactions capable of easily detecting interactions by direct observation of the phenomenon that a foreign target protein is co-localized in the active inclusion bodies with the binding protein displayed on the inclusion bodies, in which active protein particles containing the binding protein, i.e., a CBD protein tag, are formed into inclusion bodies within a cell to be used as IT cells. In particular, the method of the present invention has advantages in that it allows overexpression of the intracellular binding proteins into inclusion bodies with high density (≒ 3×105 proteins/cell, cf) and sensitive labeling of the target material interacting with the yeast surface expression system (3×104 proteins/cell), thus providing a higher screening efficiency due to a significantly high signal-to-noise ratio compared to the conventional screening methods and also being applicable to various binding affinities. Additionally, the method of the present invention has advantages in that it provides high signal intensity even with a trace amount of a target material and thus can confirm the interaction with a target material having a low expression rate and it is a high-throughput screening system, which can analyze the cells having interactions between the target material and the binding protein based on the fluorescence conjugated to the target material using a flow cytometer and can screen libraries with easy experiments and simple methods because it is an E. coli-based system.

[0029] The present disclosure confirmed that the family II cellulose-binding domain (CBD) derived from Cellulomonas fimi is self-aggregated to form inclusion bodies within E. coli, and developed a method for observing interactions between intracellular biomolecules using the phenomenon that the proteins simultaneously expressed in eukaryotic cells as well as in bacterial cells are simultaneously accumulated into the inclusion body particles (Korean Patent Application Publication No. 10-2013-0023057).

[0030] Accordingly, the present disclosure in the above patent application formed IT cells, in which binding proteins with intrinsic properties (antibodies, antibody mimics, interacting proteins, ligand-binding proteins, drug-target proteins, etc.) were displayed, using a CBD protein capable of trapping interactions by the active inclusion bodies. The present inventors have developed a protein library screening system, which enables a direct observation of the interactions between the fluorescence-conjugated target materials (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, or low molecular weight materials) and the binding proteins displayed on the inclusion bodies by introducing the target materials from the outside into the cells by the optimized method of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention, and also enables a selective recovery of the binding proteins interacting with the target materials via high-throughput detection of molecular interactions at the single-cell level (FIG. 1).

[0031] In particular, the process of increasing cell permeability developed as a special feature in the present invention is characterized by being capable of stably maintaining genetic information of the binding proteins within the cells without losing most thereof while stably maintaining the activities and expression of the binding proteins displayed on the active inclusion bodies within the cells.

[0032] Generally, the process of increasing cell permeability is a method for increasing the permeability of a cell wall/membrane by a chemical/physical method or a method for extracellular secretion of in-vivo biomolecules by perfectly removing the cell wall/membrane. That is, it may be a method for perfectly disrupting a cell by osmosis, an ultrasonic crusher, etc., or a method for extracellular secretion of not only the intracellular proteins but also the genetic information while maintaining the cell shape using toluene, etc. (Hansruedi Felix., 1982. Permeabilized cells. Analytical Biochemistry 120; 211 - 34).

[0033] The optimized method of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention is characterized in that the intracellular/extracellular proteins, even after increasing cell permeability to the degree that free movement is allowed, do not lose the binding proteins displayed on the active inclusion bodies and the genetic information to the outside of the cell and maintain the cell shape.

[0034] Additionally, in an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, it was confirmed that the presence of active inclusion bodies can affect the presence of genetic information in the binding proteins, and this result agrees with a previous report that ribosomal RNA, RNA polymerase, etc., are discovered in the inclusion bodies (Ursula Rinas and James E. Bailey., 1992. Protein compositional analysis of inclusion bodies produced in recombinant Escherichia coli, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 37; 609 - 14).

[0035] That is, the present inventors have overcome the limitations of the existing surface expression systems (the size and number of proteins for display and the problem of cell surface secretion) by overexpressing the binding protein within a cell, and the binding protein, which is displayed in inclusion bodies in high-density, has an advantage in that it can sensitively label the target material interacting with the binding protein and thus can show a signal intensity a few hundred to a few hundred thousand times higher than that obtained by the existing cell surface expression, and as a result, has a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio than the existing screening methods, thereby enabling an easy analysis of interactions between biomaterials (FIG. 18).

[0036] Additionally, not only can the present invention maintain the endogenous activity of the binding protein, but also the genetic information of the binding protein is rarely lost even after the optimized method of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention, because the binding protein is displayed on the active inclusion bodies.

[0037] As used herein, the term "fusion protein" refers to a protein produced by a fusion between two or more proteins, and in particular, the fusion protein includes a binding protein and CBD proteins. Additionally, the fusion protein of the present invention may be produced by a genetic recombination method, and specifically, the expression of a binding protein can be confirmed by a method of transforming a construct to a host cell. Additionally, the fusion protein may further include a fluorescent protein.

[0038] The construct of the present disclosure is a recombinant vector to which a polynucleotide encoding the constituting elements of the fusion protein of the present invention is operably connected. As used herein, the term "operably connected" refers that the expression control sequence is connected to be able to control the transcription and translation of the polynucleotide encoding the constituting elements of the fusion protein, and it also includes the maintenance of an accurate translation frame so that the constituting elements of the fusion protein encoded by the polynucleotide sequence can be produced by the expression of the polynucleotide under the control of the expression control sequence (including a promoter).

[0039] As used herein, the term "binding protein" refers to a protein which can interact with a target material. The binding protein may include a protein that may need to be produced on a large scale for commercial use, and may refer to a binding protein selected from antibodies, antibody mimics, interaction proteins, ligand-binding proteins, drug-targeting proteins, etc., that may become a subject of interaction with a target material, but is not limited thereto. Additionally, the binding protein may refer to not only a native protein that can interact with a target protein, but also a domain or a part of polypeptide responsible for the binding function, but is not limited thereto.

[0040] Specifically, the polynucleotide encoding the binding protein may be one derived from a library including genes encoding various proteins. It may be obtained from the entire genome of a bioorganism, such as an entire genomic DNA and cDNA library. Additionally, the polynucleotides which encode the binding protein and the target material may be obtained from a subset of the entire genome such as a subtracted library or a sized library. For example, the binding protein may be In-VLR5-c or In-VLR5c-D3E8, which is an artificial antibody protein in which the N-terminus of internaline B (InB) protein, a modified repeated module of variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) protein, and the C-terminus of VLR protein are conjugated together (Korean Patent No. 10 - 1255682).

[0041] As used herein, the term "active inclusion bodies" refers to a protein which has the characteristics enabling the display of a binding protein while maintaining the endogenous activity of the binding protein expressed in the inclusion bodies, for example, cellulose-binding domain (CBD) protein, PhaC protein (polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from Cupriavidus necator; Bjorn Steinmann, Andreas Christmann, Tim Heiseler, Janine Fritz, Harald Kolmar., 2010. In Vivo Enzyme Immobilization by Inclusion Body Display. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76; 5563 - 69), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 capsid protein (Antonio Villaverd et al., 2005. Aggregation as bacterial inclusion bodies does not imply inactivation of enzymes and fluorescent proteins. Microbial Cell Factories 4; 1 - 6), etc., are included.

[0042] As used herein, the term "cellulose-binding domain (CBD) protein" refers to a family II protein derived from Cellulomonas fimi capable of binding to cellulose. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the CBD protein may include those proteins which can form inclusion bodies in E. coli, form intracellular active particles which do not affect the activities or characteristics of endogenous proteins conjugated thereto, and form all active inclusion bodies without being limited to CBD proteins.

[0043] According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure D3E8, which is one of the variants of leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) protein InB-VLR (Korean Patent No. 10-1255682), was used as a binding protein. D3E8 is a protein having a binding affinity of 2 nM for IL6 (i.e., a target material), and a protein conjugated to a binding protein was designed as follows. For the production of a fusion protein consisting of only InVLR5c, which is a binding protein without a binding affinity for IL6; mRFP, which is a fluorescent protein; and family II CBD; a pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD plasmid vector was prepared by genetic recombination. For the production of a fusion protein consisting of InVLR5c-D3E8, which is a binding protein with a binding affinity for IL6; mRFP, which is a fluorescent protein; and family II CBD; a pD3E8-mRFP-CBD plasmid vector was prepared by genetic recombination. These vectors were transformed into an E. coli host and used as a factor for producing fusion proteins (Example 2).

[0044] As used herein, the term "cell" refers to a basic functional, structural unit of all bioorganisms. The cell may be a cell of an animal, a plant, a yeast, or a bacteria, and may be a cell of bacteria such as E. coli, Streptomyces, and Salmonella typimurium; a cell of yeasts such as Pichia pastoris; a cell of fungi; a cell of insects such as Drosophila and Spodoptera Sf9 cell; a cell of animals such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), COS, NSO, 293, bow melanoma cell, although not particularly limited thereto, and specifically, a bacteria cell, and more specifically E. coli. Specifically, the cell of the present invention may be a bacteria cell in which active inclusion bodies are formed by the overexpression of a CBD protein and the active inclusion bodies can be used as IT cells.

[0045] As used herein, the term "IT cells" refers to cells in which the cells transformed with a plasmid capable of expressing a binding protein and a CBD protein are overexpressed to thereby allow the CBD protein to form inclusion bodies while enabling the binding protein expressed in the inclusion bodies to be displayed in high density with the endogenous activity of the binding protein. The IT cells are specifically those which can interact with the binding protein displayed on the inclusion bodies, when the external target material is introduced into the IT cells.

[0046] As used herein, the term "a target material" refers to a material which can interact with a binding protein. Additionally, the target material may not only include a native protein which can interact with a binding protein but also a part of a domain or polypeptide responsible for a function or a compound not present in-vivo. In particular, the target material may be a useful candidate material for use in biotechnology, medical sciences, pharmacology, etc., or a material that can cause in-vivo actions, and in particular, a protein, a nucleic acid, or a compound, e.g., IL6. For the purpose of the present invention, the target material is characterized in that it is not expressed simultaneously with a binding protein in a cell but it is introduced from the outside. That is, the inclusion bodies are used as the IT cells that can display the binding protein and the target material is introduced from the outside.

[0047] As used herein, the term "introduction into a cell" refers to the transport of a material outside of a cell into the cell by a physical or chemical method. In transporting the external material into a cell, the material is a target material and the transport includes a process of increasing the permeability of a cell membrane or cell wall for the transport of the target material into the cell. There are various physical or chemical methods that can temporarily increase the permeability of a cell membrane or cell wall (HANSRUEDI FELIX., 1982. Permeabilized Cells. Anal. Biochem. 120; 211 - 34), e.g., ultrasonication, osmosis, heat treatment, freezing, thawing, acid solution treatment, or a combination thereof. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a foreign target material was introduced into a cell through a cracked membrane while maintaining the activity and genetic information of the binding protein displayed on the inclusion bodies in the cell, by freezing E. coli cells at -20°C, thawing at 37°C, and increasing the permeability of the cell membrane or cell wall by acid solution treatment (Example 5).

[0048] As used herein, the term "a fluorescent material" refers to a material which reacts to a particular energy level or spontaneously emits fluorescence, and in the present invention, it may be used to refer to a fluorescent protein and a fluorescent compound. As used herein, the term "fluorescent protein" may refer to a polypeptide which reacts to a particular energy level or spontaneously emits fluorescence, and may be selected from the group consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), modified green fluorescent protein (mGFP), red fluorescent protein (RFP), monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP), enhanced red fluorescent potein (ERFP), Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed), blue fluorescent protein (BFP), enhanced blue fluorescent protein (EBFP), cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), cyan green fuorescent protein (CGFP), enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), azami green (AzG), Heteractis crispa red fluorescent protein (HcRed), and blue fluorescent protein (BFP), but is not limited thereto. Additionally, the fluorescent compound may refer to a fluorophore which can modify a target material, and may be one selected from the group consisting of the fluorescent protein; a xanthene derivative (fluorescein, rhodamine, Oregon green, eosin, and Texas red); a cyanine derivative (cyanine, indocarbocyanine, oxacarbocyanine, thiacarbocyanine, and merocyanine); a naphthalene derivative (dansyl and prodan derivatives); a coumarin derivative; an oxadiazole derivative (pyridyloxazole, nitrobenzoxadiazole, and benzoxadiazole); a pyrene derivative (cascade blue); an oxazine derivative (Nile red, Nile blue, cresyl violet, and oxazine 170); an acridine derivative (proflavin, acridine orange, and acridine yellow); an arylmethine derivative (auramine, crystal violet, and malachite green); and a tetrapyrrole derivative (porphin, phtalocyanine, and bilirubin); but is not limited thereto.

[0049] In the present disclosure the fluorescent protein, which forms a fusion protein with a binding protein, and the fluorescent material, which modifies a target material, may have fluorescence with different wavelengths. Specifically, they may differ in the wavelengths of the fluorescent signals emitted by each so that a fluorescent signal detector can detect by distinguishing each signal based on the difference.

[0050] In the present disclosure the binding protein may or may not include a fluorescent protein, however, the target material must include the fluorescent protein or fluorescent material.

[0051] In an exemplary embodiment, plasmids pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD and pD3E8-mRFP-CBD, which encode binding proteins, included RFP as a fluorescent protein, and in the case of the target protein, IL6, GFP was included as a fluorescent protein.

[0052] As used herein, the term "a fluorescent signal" refers to the wavelength of an energy caused by a fluorescent protein or a fluorescent material, and it may be expressed in values using a fluorescent signal detector.

[0053] The measurement of an intracellular fluorescent signal is performed using a fluorescent microscope or flow cytometer. In an exemplary embodiment, the fluorescence of GFP and RFP was analyzed by detecting at FL1 (530/30 nm) and FL2 (585/42 nm) PMT using flow cytometer FACS Calibur (BD Biosciences, CA, USA), respectively. The inclusion body cell (PPI+), in which pD3E8-mRFP-CBD having a binding affinity for IL6 (a target material) is expressed, and the inclusion body cell (PPI-), in which pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD having no binding affinity for IL6 (a target material) is expressed, were respectively introduced with IL6 protein, which was bound to GFP by the optimized method of increasing cell permeability, into cells, and the difference in binding affinity for IL6 was confirmed by GFP fluorescence (FIG. 11). Comparing with the result obtained by the existing method where a bait protein and a binding material are simultaneously expressed in a cell (Korean Patent Application Publication No. 10-2013-0023057), the existing method is to analyze the interactions between proteins using the difference between localization and dispersion of fluorescent signals, which are conjugated to binding materials on the intracellular inclusion bodies, according to the presence/absence of an interaction with the bait protein and the binding material, whereas the method of the present invention is to measure the intensity of the fluorescent signal of a target material, which is bound to a binding protein by an interaction after the target material is introduced from the outside into a cell by the optimized method of increasing cell permeability. Accordingly, the method of the present invention showed a distinctive result with a 450-fold or higher difference in the signal-to-noise ratio while the existing method showed a negligible difference of about 2-fold in the signal-to-noise ratio (FIG. 13).

[0054] In an exemplary disclosure D3E8 and InVLR5c were used as binding proteins, CBD proteins of family II derived from Cellulomonas fimi as active inclusion bodies, and IL6 as a target protein. However, the present invention is not limited thereto, but it should be obvious to one of ordinary skill in the art that any kind of binding proteins, target materials, and active inclusion bodies may be applied for the analysis of the interactions between the binding protein and the target material.

[0055] The method of the present disclosure may further include (e) recovering cells by an individual cell unit based on the intensity of fluorescence measured above after step (d), and may further include recovering a fusion protein present in the recovered cells or isolating and amplifying the gene encoding the fusion protein. The recovering the protein and isolating and amplifying the gene may be performed by a method widely used in the art.

[0056] As used herein, the term "recovery" refers to a process of selecting only those cells in which the interaction between the binding protein and the target material was confirmed after measuring the fluorescent signal of a fluorescent material conjugated to a target material from a cell library including a binding protein. The flow cytometer may be a device capable of measuring a cell size, an intracellular composition, and intensity of fluorescence, and specifically, a device capable of isolating and recovering single cells according to the cell size, intracellular composition, and intensity of fluorescence desired by the experimenter.

[0057] As used herein, the term "isolation" refers to a process of separating the polynucleotide encoding a binding protein from a cell when the cell, which was confirmed regarding the interaction between the binding protein and a target material, was recovered from a cell library including the binding protein. The isolation may refer to an isolation of DNA from a cell. The DNA isolation may be performed by any method known in the art as long as it does not run counter to the object of isolating the polynucleotide encoding the binding protein.

[0058] As used herein, the term "amplification" refers to a process of increasing the polynucleotide encoding the binding protein isolated above in a large amount using the general polynucleotide amplification method known in the art. The amplification method may be selected according to the use of the amplified polynucleotide, and the selection can be easily made by one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0059] In an exemplary disclosure, it was examined whether the difference according to the presence/absence of binding affinity can be analyzed by a high-throughput flow cytometer using the difference in fluorescence intensity of GFP conjugated to a target material according to the interaction between a binding protein displayed on the inclusion bodies and a target material; a library-like environment was manipulated by mixing the IT cells (in which D3E8 (PPI+), an LRR protein having a binding affinity for IL6 of about 2 nM, was displayed on the inclusion bodies), the IT cells (in which F11(PPI+), an LRR protein having a binding affinity for IL6 of about 117 nM, was displayed on the inclusion bodies), and the IT cells (in which InVLR5c (PPI-) was displayed on the inclusion bodies) in a 1 : 10 : 10000 ratio, respectively; and 10,000 E. coli cells having high affinity for IL6 were recovered using a flow cytometer (FACSaria) from the sample, which was subjected to the process of increasing permeability and to which protein interaction was induced. Plasmids were purely isolated from the recovered cells and then transformed into DH5α E. coli cells. The thus-formed colonies were subjected to PCR amplification and the presence of gene recovery of the cells recovered based on the phenotype (D3E8-mRFP-CBD protein) was examined (FIG. 14).

[0060] Since the method of the present disclosure employs a binding protein which was overexpressed in a cell and conjugated into the inclusion bodies, the level of signal intensity is a few hundred to a few hundred thousand times higher than the fluorescent signal obtained by the existing cell surface expression, and thus the method of the present invention, based on the result, can be used in various kinds of protein engineering including the protein library screening, which includes a fractionation into an individual cell unit.

[0061] In another aspect, the present invention disclosure a method for analyzing the interaction between a binding protein and a target material, including (a) providing a cell library comprising a construct, which comprises a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein; (b) expressing the fusion protein in the cell library, thereby forming interaction trapper (IT) cells, wherein the binding protein is displayed on the inclusion body; (c) introducing a fluorescence material-conjugated target material into the cells according to step (b) by increasing cell permeability, wherein the cell maintains the activity and genetic information of the binding protein; and (d) measuring the interaction between the binding protein and the target material based on the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescence material conjugated to the target material.

[0062] The process of increasing cell permeability in step (c) may be performed by any method conventionally used in the art, without limitation, as long as the process does not affect the activity and genetic information of the binding protein displayed on the intracellular inclusion bodies and allows the target material to be introduced into the cell through the cracked membrane. In particular, a step of freezing, a step of thawing, and a step of treating with an acid solution may be further included, for example, (i) freezing cells at -80°C to -10°C; (ii) thawing the frozen cells at room temperature to 37°C; and (iii) treating the thawed cells with an acidic solution. The kind and pH of the acid solution are not limited, for example, the acid solution may have a pH 4 to 6. As such, the method may be an optimized process of cell permeability, which enables stable maintenance of the binding protein and genetic information in a cell and an interaction between the binding protein and a target material due to the introduction of a foreign target material.

[0063] In an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the process of increasing cell permeability was performed by a method including: centrifuging the cells in step (b), in which the binding protein was expressed, to form a pellet followed by freezing at -20°C; and thawing the pellet at 37°C and treating with an acid solution, specifically, with 0.1 M citric acid (pH 4).

[0064] As used herein, the term "microorganism" refers to all kinds of cells that can express a fusion protein, which consists of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein of the present invention, thereby displaying the fusion proteins in the intracellular inclusion bodies. The microorganism may be a eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell, but is not limited thereto, and it may be, for example, E. coli.

[0065] The existing technology of increasing cell permeability is a technology that aims at the cell permeability itself for obtaining protein and genetic information by extracellular release of the intracellular proteins and genetic information, and thus it intends to perfectly release the intracellular proteins and genetic information by increasing cell permeability. However, the present inventors have made efforts to establish a process of increasing cell permeability that enables a smooth introduction of a target material into a cell without affecting the activity and genetic information of the binding protein, which is displayed on the active inclusion bodies, and as a result, they have established the process of increasing cell permeability of the present invention.

[0066] Accordingly, the method of increasing cell permeability in a microorganism membrane according to the present invention has novel effects of being capable of stably maintaining the activity and genetic information of the binding protein displayed on the intracellular inclusion body of a microorganism, and introducing a foreign target material into a cell while maintaining the shape of the cell.

[0067] In an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure the process of increasing cell permeability was performed by a method including: centrifuging the microorganism (E. coli) to form a pellet followed by freezing at -20°C; thawing the pellet at 37°C and treating with an acid solution, specifically, with 0.1 M citric acid (pH 4). As such, the external target protein formed IT cells, which were increased with respect to their cell permeability that enabled the free introduction of the external target material into the cell, and it was confirmed that the use of the IT cells enabled the measurement of interactions between proteins with high sensitivity, and thereby making it possible to obtain genetic information.

[0068] In still another aspect, the present disclosure provides a cell including a construct, which contains a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein, wherein the cell has a permeability-increased cell membrane or cell wall while maintaining the activity and genetic information of the binding protein.

[0069] The binding protein, active inclusion body protein, fusion protein, and cell are the same as explained above.

[0070] In an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, the LRR protein was used as a binding protein, the CBD protein as an active inclusion body protein, and the IL6 protein as a target material, and IT cells were formed by transformation of a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein between the binding protein and the CBD protein into an E. coli cell.

[0071] In still another aspect, the present disclosure provides a cell library including a construct, which includes a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein, wherein the cell has a permeability-increased cell membrane or cell wall while maintaining the activity and genetic information of the binding protein. The library may be a DNA library or a cell library transformed with the DNA library.

[0072] The binding protein, active inclusion body protein, fusion protein, and cell are the same as explained above.

[0073] As used herein, the term "cell library" refers to a library consisting of cells which include plasmids encoded by binding proteins interacting with target materials, and specifically, a library consisting of cells in which binding proteins are stably displayed in inclusion bodies and target materials can be introduced into cells. The cell library specifically consists of E. coli cells, but is not limited thereto.

[0074] In an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure the manipulated mimic library prepared by mixing the cells of D3E8 (PPI+) [an LRR protein having an affinity for IL6 (i.e., a target material) of about 2 nM], F11 (PPI+) [an LRR protein having an affinity for IL6 of about 117 nM], and InVLR5c (PPI-) [an LRR protein having no affinity for IL6], which were respectively displayed on the inclusion bodies, in a 1 : 10 : 10000 ratio, was used. In another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a random library was constructed on repebody (LRR protein) for screening using an intracellular particle display system and used as a real library.

[0075] Disclosed are IT cells, where the fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein is expressed and the binding protein is displayed on the inclusion body, and a cell library thereof.

[0076] The binding protein, active inclusion body protein, fusion protein, cell, and cell library are the same as explained above.

Modes for Carrying Out the Invention



[0077] Hereinbelow, the present invention will be described in detail with accompanying examples. However, the examples disclosed herein are only for illustrative purposes and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention.

Example 1: Acquirement of genes and enzymes



[0078] A cellulose-binding domain (CBD) gene of family II was cloned using the exoglucanase gene of Cellulomonas fimi KCTC 9143 strain obtained from the Korean Collection of Type Cultures (KCTC). The improved modified green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was obtained from the pEGFP (Clontech, CA, USA), a commercial vector, and the plasmid vector pRFP including the mRFP1 (monomeric red fluorescent protein 1) gene was provided by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) (Daejeon, Korea). As a variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) protein, In-VLR5-c (Korean Patent Application Publication No. 10-2010-0086055), which has no binding affinity for IL6, and In-VLR5c-D3E8 (KD = 2 nM), In-VLR5c-F11 (KD = 117 nM), which have binding affinity for IL6, were used among the repebody (InB-VLR) family, which is an artificial protein where the N-terminus of internaline B (InB) protein, a modified repeat module, and the C-terminus of VLR protein are conjugated, was used. Human interlukin-6 (hIL6) is a vector in which hIL6 gene is cloned therein. All the above genes were provided by the KAIST (Daejeon, Korea) and all the enzymes used in the present invention were purchased from New England Biolabs (NEB, England).

Example 2: Construction of a recombinant vector



[0079] All of the primers used in the present invention were synthesized by Bioneer Corporation (Daejeon, Korea). The primers are shown in Table 1 below. The restriction sites such as NdeI and KpnI are indicated in bold in Table 1. All genes used in the present invention were amplified using each of the primers shown in Table 1, conjugated by overlap extension PCR, inserted into the restriction sites of NdeI and HindIII of pET21a vector, and recombined using E. coli DH5α cells. The thus-prepared plasmid vectors were designated as pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD, pD3E8-mRFP-CBD, pF11-mRFP-CBD, pGFP-IL6, respectively. Additionally, the pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD plasmid, after treating with the restriction enzymes of NdeI and HindIII, was inserted into the pET21a vector, which was treated with NdeI and HindIII, and recombined using E. coli DH5α cells. The thus-prepared plasmid vector was designated as pInVLR5c-mRFP.
Table 1
Primer NameSequence (5' → 3')SEQ ID NO
ndeI histag VLR F

 
1
 

 
 
gs linker D3E8 R

 
2
gs linker mRFP F

 
3
pt linker mRFP R

 
4
pt linker cex F

 
5
HindIII CBD R CCCCCCAAGCTTTTAGCCGACCGTGCAGGGCG 6
gs linker InVLR5c R

 
7
ndeI histag mGFP F

 
8
gs linker mGFP R

 
9
gs linker IL6 F

 
10
HindIII IL6 R

 
11
D3E8 specific F GCAGCTGTGGGCGAATCAAC 12
InVLR5c specific F GACGTATCTGATTCTGACCGGT 13
mRFP R GAAGCGCATGAACTCCTTGATG 14


[0080] In-VLR5c-D3E8 and In-VLR5c-F11 genes were amplified using primer 1 (SEQ ID NO: 1) and primer 2 (SEQ ID NO: 2) and In-VLR5c gene was amplified using primer 1 (SEQ ID NO: 1) and primer 7 (SEQ ID NO: 7) from each of the vectors where In-VLR5c-D3E8, In-VLR5c-F11, and In-VLR5c genes were cloned, respectively. mRFP1 gene was amplified from a vector where mRFP1 gene was cloned using primer 3 (SEQ ID NO: 3) and primer 4 (SEQ ID NO: 4) and GFP gene was amplified from pEGFP gene using primer 8 (SEQ ID NO: 8) and primer 9 (SEQ ID NO: 9). CBD gene was amplified from CBD using primer 5 (SEQ ID NO: 5) and primer 6 (SEQ ID NO: 6) (see J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008 Mar; 18 (3): 443 - 8) and hIL6 gene was amplified from a vector where hIL6 gene was cloned using primer 10 (SEQ ID NO: 10) and primer 11 (SEQ ID NO: 11).

Example 3: Plasmid isolation



[0081] The pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD, pD3E8-mRFP-CBD, pF11-mRFP-CBD, and pInVLR5c-mRFP plasmids prepared in Example 2 were transformed into E. coli DH5α, inoculated into LB medium (1% bacto-trypton, 0.5% yeast extract, and 1% NaCl) containing ampicillin (50 µg/mL), and incubated in a shaking water bath at 37°C for 24 hours. The cultured cell suspension was centrifuged at 4,470× g for 5 minutes using a centrifuge (Universal 320R, Hettich), and the plasmids were isolated from the pellet freed from the supernatant using the QIAprep® spin miniprep kit, and the isolated plasmids were confirmed on a 1% agarose gel by electrophoresis.

[0082] Additionally, the pGFP-IL6 plasmid prepared in Example 2 was transformed into E. coli DH5α, inoculated into LB medium (1% bacto-trypton, 0.5% yeast extract, and 1% NaCl) containing ampicillin (50 µg/mL), and incubated in a shaking water bath at 37°C for 24 hours. The cultured cell suspension was centrifuged at 4,470× g for 5 minutes using a centrifuge (Universal 320R, Hettich), and the plasmids were isolated from the pellet freed from the supernatant using the QIAprep® Spin Miniprep Kit, and the size and nucleotide sequences of the isolated plasmids were confirmed on a 1% agarose gel by electrophoresis followed by sequencing analysis.

Example 4: Expression and purification of proteins



[0083] The pD3E8-mRFP-CBD, pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD, and pInVLR5c-mRFP plasmids prepared in Example 2 were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3), inoculated into LB medium (1% bacto-trypton, 0.5% yeast extract, and 1% NaCl) containing ampicillin (50 µg/mL), and incubated in a shaking water bath at 37°C. When the optical density at 600 nm reached 0.5, isopropyl-1-thio-β-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG; 200 µM) was added to the culture to induce the CBD inclusion bodies and cultured at 30°C for 5 hours. The presence of proteins and protein inclusion bodies formed in the cultured cells was confirmed using a fluorescence microscope (ZEISS) (FIG. 3).

[0084] The pGFP-IL6 plasmid was transformed into E. coli OrigamiB (DE3), inoculated into LB medium (1% bacto-trypton, 0.5% yeast extract, and 1% NaCl) containing ampicillin (50 µg/mL), and incubated in a shaking water bath at 37°C. When the optical density at 600 nm reached 0.5, isopropyl-1-thio-β-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG; 200 µM) was added to the culture to express hIL6 protein and cultured at 30°C for 5 hours. The expression of GFP-hIL6 protein in the cultured cells was confirmed using a fluorescence microscope. The culture of the cells, in which the expression of the fusion protein was confirmed, was subjected to ultrasonication on ice to crush cell membranes, and the lysed cells were again separated by centrifugation at 20,000× g for 20 minutes to remove precipitates, and only the supernatant was filtrated with a 0.2 µm filter and subjected to a subsequent purification process. The protein was purified using the HiTrap™ Q HP (GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden), which is an affinity chromatography column connected to the fast-performance liquid chromatography (FPLC), using 6X His-tag expressed on the N-terminus of GFP-hIL6, desalted with PBS buffer (pH 7.4), concentrated at a concentration of 40 mg/mL using a centrifugal filter (Sartorius Stedim Biotech), and stored at -20°C for use in Examples described below. The purified GFP-hIL6 protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE.

Example 5: Increase of permeability of IT cells



[0085] For the introduction of a foreign target material into the pD3E8-mRFP-CBD cells or pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD cells cultured in Example 4, the optimized method of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention was performed. The E. coli cell culture was centrifuged at 2,480× g for 5 minutes, and the pellet was frozen at -20°C. The frozen E. coli cells were thawed by PBS buffer (pH 7.4) at 37°C, centrifuged at 2,480× g for 5 minutes, and the supernatant was removed. The resulting E. coli cells were treated with 0.1 M citric acid (pH 4), centrifuged to remove the supernatant, and resuspended with PBS buffer (pH 7.4).

Example 6: Analysis of genes in cracked cells according to the presence of display of inclusion bodies



[0086] The permeability of pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD cells cultured in Example 4 was increased in the same manner as in Example 5, centrifuged at 4,470× g for 5 minutes using a centrifuge (Universal 320R, Hettich) and divided into a cell supernatant and a pellet. The pellet was resuspended with PBS buffer (pH 7.4) in an equal amount to that of the cell supernatant. The cell supernatant and the pellet resuspension were respectively mixed with the iQTM SYBR® Green supermix (Bio-rad) in a 1 : 1 ratio, respectively treated with 10 pmol of primer 13 (SEQ ID NO: 13) and primer 14 (SEQ ID NO: 14), and the amount of DNA was analyzed using the CFX96 (Bio-rad), a quantitative PCR instrument.

Example 7: Construction of a protein structure-based library of binding proteins



[0087] For the construction of a library of repebody, which is an LRR protein used as a model binding protein, the method used in Korean Patent No. 10-1356075 was applied in the same manner. Six amino acid residues at positions 91, 93, 94, 115, 117, and 118 located at the concave region of two mutation modules (LRRV modules 1 and 2) were selected using repebody. Then, the selected amino acids were substituted with an NNK degenerate codon and thereby synthesized mutagenic primers for library construction. Subsequently, overlap PCR was performed with respect to the two modules using the primers to obtain library DNA, and a library gene was substituted and inserted on the position of the InVLR5c gene of the recombined vector, pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD, thereby securing the library plasmid connected to the mRFP-CBD gene. The thus-secured library was introduced into E. coli DH5α by electroporation to obtain transformants, thereby constructing a library with a variety at 1×107 level.

Example 8: Construction of an expression library displayed on active inclusion bodies



[0088] The library colonies prepared in Example 7 were recovered using storage buffer (2xTY medium, 50% glycerol, 20% glucose) and centrifuged at 4,470× g for 5 minutes. After discarding the supernatant, library plasmids were isolated from the pellet using the QIAprep® Spin Miniprep Kit. The isolated library plasmids (1 µg) were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) by electroporation and thereby an expression library with a variety at 1×107 level was constructed. The expression library colonies were recovered with storage buffer and the cells with the OD600 value of 0.05 were collected, inoculated into LB medium (1% bacto-trypton, 0.5% yeast extract, and 1% NaCl) containing ampicillin (50 µg/mL), and incubated in a shaking water bath at 37°C. When the OD600 value reached 0.5, the culture was treated with 200 µM IPTG to induce CBD inclusion bodies and cultured at 30°C for 3 hours. The cultured cells were centrifuged and the supernatant was discarded, and the pellet was frozen at -20°C.

Example 9: Analysis of interactions between proteins by a flow cytometer



[0089] The IT cell suspensions, in which pD3E8-mRFP-CBD (PPI+) or pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD (PPI-) which underwent a process of increasing cell permeability was expressed, were respectively treated with GFP-IL6 protein (10 µM) purified and isolated in Example 4, stirred for 30 minutes for introducing a foreign target material into cells, thereby inducing an interaction between proteins. 30 minutes thereafter, the cells were washed with PBST, PBS buffer (pH 7.4) and the interaction between the binding protein and the target material was analyzed by a fluorescence microscope (A of FIG. 13) or a flow cytometer (B of FIG. 13). Flow cytometry was performed using the FACS Calibur (BD Biosciences, CA, USA) and the analysis gate was set based on SSC and FSC parameters. GFP and RFP fluorescence were detected with FL1 (530/30 nm) and FL2 (585/42 nm) PMT, respectively; the compensation was set in a ratio (FL1-FL2 : FL2-FL1 = 16% : 16%); and 10,000 events were counted in each sample. Data was collected using the BD CellQuest Pro (version 4.0.2, 145 BD Biosciences) software and analyzed using the Flowjo software (version 10).

Example 10: Library screening by intracellular particle display



[0090] After increasing the cell permeability of the frozen pellet prepared in Example 8 by the method of Example 5, various kinds of targets (mGFP-IL6, sfGFP. Fluorescein, and dextran-FITC) conjugated to GFP were induced to have an interaction with the inclusion bodies, in which a binding protein library is displayed, respectively, and the interacting cells were recovered. The interacting cells were sorted using the FACSaria™ III (BD Biosciences, CA, USA) and the analysis gate was set based on SSC and FSC parameters. GFP and RFP fluorescence were detected with FL1 (530/30 nm)- and FL2 (585/42 nm) PMT, respectively; the compensation was set in a ratio (PE-FITC : FITC-PE = 28.62 : 4.29); and 10,000 events were counted in each sample. Data was collected using the BD FACS Diva (version 7.0 BD Biosciences) software and analyzed using the Flowjo software (version 10).

Example 11: Analysis by electron microscopes (SEM, TEM)



[0091] E. coli cells that underwent the treatment of Example 5 were pre-fixed in a paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixative (4°C, phosphate buffer, pH 7.2) for 2 hours, washed 3 times with phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.2) for 10 minutes per wash, and post-fixed in 1% OsO4 (25°C, 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2) for 2 hours. The materials, upon completion of fixation, were washed several times with the same buffer, dehydrated with an increasing concentration of ethanol, substituted with isoamyl acetate, dried using a critical point dryer, coated to a thickness of 20 nm using the SC502 sputter coater, and observed using the FEI Quanta 250 FEG (FEI, USA) scanning electron microscope (SEM), installed in the facility of Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), at 10 kV.

[0092] For the observation by a transmission electron microscope, the cut-off part was pre-fixed in a paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixative (4°C, phosphate buffer, pH 7.2) for 2 hours, washed 3 times with phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.2) for 10 minutes per wash, and post-fixed in 1% OsO4 (25°C, 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2) for 2 hours. The materials, upon completion of fixation, were washed several times with the same buffer, dehydrated with an increasing concentration of ethanol, substituted with propylene oxide, dried using a critical point dryer, coated to a thickness of 20 nm using the SC502 sputter coater, embedded with Epon-812, and polymerized in a 60°C oven for 36 hours. The embedded tissue was prepared into ultrathin sections using the ultra-microtome (ULTRACUT E, Leica Microsystems, Australia), double-stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and observed using the transmission electron microscope (TEM, CM 20, Philips, the Netherlands), at 10 kV.

Example 12: Display of a binding protein on inclusion bodies



[0093] In order to confirm that the CBD inclusion bodies are active inclusion bodies capable of stably maintaining the activity and expression of displayed binding proteins, VLR (InVLR5c), which is a binding protein, and mRFP, which is a fluorescent protein, were conjugated to a CBD tag and overexpressed in E. coli, thereby forming inclusion body cells. The inclusion bodies were separated alone by ultrasonication and examined by a fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence of mRFP, a fluorescent protein, was observed in the location of inclusion bodies, thus confirming that the binding proteins such as VLR and mRFP were displayed on the CBD inclusion bodies. The fluorescence of mRFP was also observed in the inclusion bodies separated by ultrasonication, thus confirming that the CBD inclusion bodies can stably display binding proteins while maintaining the activity of the binding proteins (FIG. 3).

Example 13: Effect of increasing cell permeability on inside/outside of cells



[0094] In order to confirm the effect of the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention on cells, experiments were performed using the VLR-mRFP-CBD cell, in which a binding protein and an RFP protein are displayed on the inclusion bodies, and the VLR-mRFP cells, in which a binding protein and an RFP fusion proteins are not displayed. A two-step process of increasing cell permeability (freezing/thawing and acid solution treatment) was performed using the VLR-mRFP-CBD cell, in which a binding protein was displayed on active inclusion bodies, and the VLR-mRFP cell without inclusion bodies, and the differences between the two different cells were observed using a flow cytometer and a fluorescence microscope.

[0095] The intracellular changes according to the presence/absence of inclusion bodies after freezing and thawing during the process of increasing cell permeability were analyzed using a flow cytometer and fluorescent images (FIG. 4). As a result, it was confirmed that when binding proteins were displayed on the active inclusion bodies, the binding proteins stably maintained their expression in the cell even after the freezing/thawing process, whereas when the binding proteins were not displayed on the inclusion bodies most of the binding proteins were lost in the cell. This shows a result that the freezing/thawing process increased the cell permeability of the cell wall thereby releasing intracellular molecules to the outside of the cell, or since binding proteins were stably displayed on the inclusion bodies they remained in the cell without being lost to the outside of the cell.

[0096] Additionally, regarding the introduction of a foreign target material into a cell, it was confirmed that although the intracellular introduction cannot be achieved by the freezing/thawing process alone (FIG. 5), the intracellular introduction can be made possible when the inclusion body cell that underwent the freezing/thawing process is treated with an acid solution or EDTA, a chelating agent (FIG. 6). As illustrated in FIG. 6, it was confirmed that the most effective method for the intracellular introduction of a foreign target material is to treat with 0.1 M citric acid (pH 4), thereby completing the optimized membrane treatment.

[0097] The interaction between a foreign target material and a binding protein, which moves to the inside of a cell and becomes displayed on the inclusion bodies, was observed in fluorescent images through the optimized process of increasing cell permeability (A of FIG. 7), and as a result of flow cytometry, where a target material moves to the inside of a cell within a short period of time (1 minute) and interacts with a binding protein (B of FIG. 7), it was confirmed that the cracked cell membrane is in a state that the target material can easily move.

[0098] FIG. 8 shows the result confirming that the interaction between the external target material, which is introduced into the inside of a cell through the optimized process of increasing cell permeability, and the binding protein, which is displayed on the inclusion body, is not a non-specific interaction but a specific interaction that interacts based on the degree of affinity for the target material, in a state maintaining the endogenous activity of the binding protein.

[0099] In order to confirm the maintenance of genetic information of a binding protein according to the presence/absence of the display of the active inclusion body, the VLR-mRFP-CBD cell, where the binding protein is displayed on the inclusion body, and the VLR-mRFP cell without inclusion bodies were separated into a pellet and a supernatant by the optimized process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention. Then, the presence/absence of the plasmid, which possesses the genetic information of the binding protein between two different cells according to the process of increasing cell permeability, was confirmed by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). As a result, it was confirmed that most of the genetic information of the binding protein displayed on the active inclusion body was stably maintained while the genetic information of the binding protein not displayed on the active inclusion body was lost to the outside of the cell (FIG. 10).

[0100] Example 14: Validation of an intracellular particle display In order to validate the intracellular particle display technology by the optimized process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention, experiments were performed using a model binding protein and a model target material. A of FIG. 11 shows data that a foreign target material can be introduced into the inside of a cell only after the two-step process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention, and the introduced target material can be co-localized into the inclusion bodies by interacting with the binding protein displayed on the inclusion body.

[0101] B of FIG. 11 shows an experiment for confirming the maintenance of genetic information in a cell after the process of increasing cell permeability. Specifically, the repebody-mRFP-CBD cell, in which a binding protein is displayed into the active inclusion bodies, was separated into a pellet and a supernatant, respectively, by the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention, and the pellet was resuspended with an equal amount of PBS buffer (pH 7.4). The presence/absence of the plasmid possessing the genetic information of the binding protein was confirmed by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) using the pellet suspension and the supernatant. Additionally, the intracellular plasmid before and after the process of increasing cell permeability was isolated and confirmed by electrophoresis. As a result, it was confirmed that the genetic information of the binding protein displayed on the active inclusion bodies was stably maintained in the cell regardless of the process of increasing cell permeability.

[0102] This is the result confirming that the present invention is a system enabling a protein library screening, which includes: fractionating into an individual cell unit using the interaction between a binding protein and a target material, due to the characteristics that the binding protein is displayed on the intracellular active inclusion bodies and that the genetic information of the binding protein is maintained due to the process of increasing cell permeability; and recovering the genetic information in the individual cell unit.

[0103] C of FIG. 11 shows the result of the cell shape before and after the process of increasing cell permeability confirmed by a flow cytometer and an electron microscope, and it was confirmed that the cell shape was stably maintained even after the process of increasing cell permeability.

[0104] That is, the result supports that the process of increasing cell permeability developed in the present invention is a unique method distinctively different from other existing methods of increasing cell permeability, which can stably introduce external target materials into cells by increasing the permeability of cell walls and cell membranes without destroying the cells, while stably maintaining the binding proteins displayed on the active inclusion bodies and the genetic information thereof simultaneously.

[0105] FIG. 12 shows the results of an experiment which confirmed the size of a target material that can be introduced by the optimized process of increasing cell permeability, in which interaction trapper cells, where the C20 (PPI+) (a dextran-FITC binding protein obtained from a screening using an intracellular particle display system) and a binding protein (negative control, which does not bind to dextran-FITC) were displayed on the inclusion bodies, were used. After treating each cell (PPI+ and PPI-) with a process of increasing cell permeability, dextran-FITC at various sizes (molecular weight of 3,000 to 5,000; 70,000; and 250,000) was introduced into the cells to induce interactions. As a result, it was confirmed that the dextran-FITC with a molecular weight of 250,000 was approved into cells, thereby interacting with the binding proteins displayed on the intracellular inclusion bodies, and this confirms that the process of increasing cell permeability of the present invention can easily introduce even macromolecules into cells, and a protein binder can be obtained via library screening by inducing an interaction using the macromolecules as targets.

Example 15: Analysis of protein interactions using an intracellular particle display technique



[0106] In order to confirm the interactions between proteins by intracellular particle display using the optimized process of increasing cell permeability in Examples above, D3E8 (Kd = 2 nM, which has an affinity for IL6), and the InVLR5c protein (which has no affinity for IL6) were used as model binding proteins and displayed on the inclusion bodies, respectively. The pD3E8-mRFP-CBD and pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD plasmids were transformed into E. coli and their fusion proteins were expressed, respectively. GFP-IL6 protein, a target material, was introduced into cells by the optimized process of increasing cell permeability of Example 5, and then the cells were observed using a fluorescence microscope and a flow cytometer.

[0107] As a result, it was observed that the GFP-IL6 fluorescence was co-localized with the RFP fluorescence displayed on the intracellular inclusion bodies along with the binding proteins in the inclusion body cells (PPI+), in which the pD3E8-mRFP-CBD having an affinity for IL6 was expressed, whereas, in the pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD (PPI-) cells, in which the LRR protein having no affinity for IL6 was expressed, the GFP fluorescence of the binding proteins was not observed at all but only the RFP fluorescence of the binding proteins was observed (A of FIG. 13). That is, the presence of interactions between proteins was apparently confirmed based on the fluorescence intensity of target materials bound to the binding proteins via interactions. In short, these results support that the active inclusion bodies do not hinder the appropriate folding and formation in native forms of the proteins displayed thereon and also that the active inclusion bodies have the role of immobilizing the displayed proteins in an active form. That is, these results prove that the method of the present invention enables an analysis of the interactions between the proteins while not affecting the real structures and endogenous activities of the binding proteins.

[0108] Additionally, as a result of flow cytometry analysis, it was confirmed that the inclusion body cells (PPI+), in which D3E8 (a binding protein where an interaction with the target material (IL6) is present) was displayed), showed a significant increase in the GFP fluorescence by the interaction with the target material, i.e., IL6 protein which was introduced into cells by a process of increasing cell permeability (solid red line), and also a distinct difference in fluorescence compared with that of InVLR5c, which is a binding protein having no affinity for IL6 (solid grey line) (PPI- : PPI+ = 1x101 : 5.5×103), 450-fold due to the presence of an interaction between proteins (a signal-to-noise ratio), thus confirming that the method of the present invention can clearly determine the presence of interactions between proteins (B of FIG. 13). Additionally, as a result of the analysis on the interactions between proteins according to the affinity for binding proteins, it was confirmed that the intensity of the fluorescence conjugated to a target material increased along with the increase in the affinity of binding proteins, thus confirming that the method of the present invention is a method for analyzing the interactions between proteins enabling a quantitative analysis (C of FIG. 13).

[0109] The above results support that the method of the present invention enables the isolation and recovery of inclusion bodies cell on an individual cell unit according to the affinity and interactions between the binding proteins displayed on the inclusion bodies and the target materials using a fluorescence microscope as well as using a flow cytometer based on the fluorescence intensity of the target materials. Additionally, since the present invention can determine the presence of an interaction according to the intensity of fluorescence conjugated to the target materials introduced from the outside, the difference in the signal-to-noise ratio becomes a very clear advantage.

Example 16: Library screening using an intracellular particle display technique



[0110] It was confirmed that a library screening can be performed using the intracellular particle display technique developed in the present invention. The inclusion body cells, in which D3E8 (Kd = 2 nM) and F11 (Kd = 117 nM) proteins (i.e., binding proteins having an affinity for IL6, a target material) were displayed, respectively, and the inclusion body cells, in which InVLR5c (PPI-) protein (an LRR protein having no affinity for IL6) was displayed, were mixed in a 1 : 10 : 10000 ratio to manipulate a library-like environment, and 10,000 E. coli cells having high binding affinity for IL6 were sorted from the samples, which underwent the optimized process of increasing cell permeability by the method of Example 5 and proteins interactions were induced therein, using a flow cytometer (FACSaria). Plasmids were isolated from the sorted cells and then transformed into E. coli DH5α cells. The colonies formed as a result were subjected to PCR amplification and the gene recovery in the cells recovered based on the phenotype (D3E8(F11)-mRFP-CBD protein) was confirmed. The PCR amplification was performed by mixing the primer 12 (SEQ ID NO: 12), primer 13 (SEQ ID NO: 13), and primer 14 (SEQ ID NO: 14) shown in Table 1, and the recovery of the cells in which interactions exist was confirmed based on the size of the amplified genes.

[0111] As a result, it was confirmed that a single screening can show about 30,000-fold screening efficiency considering the initial mixing ratio (1/1000) (FIG. 14). The result supports that the present invention can selectively classify only the inclusion body cells in which interactions between proteins exist using a high-throughput device, the flow cytometer (FACS), from a cell library of interaction trapper cells, in which the binding proteins were displayed on active inclusion bodies, and the present invention can provide a library screening system which can effectively recover the genes encoding the interaction proteins in the selectively classified cells.

[0112] Based on the above result, a real library was constructed using the repebody, which was used as a model binding protein, and screening work searching for the protein binders for various kinds of targets was performed using the library (FIGS. 15A to 15C). After increasing the cell permeability of the expression library prepared in Example 8, various kinds of targets (mGFP-IL6, sfGFP, fluorescein, and dextran-FITC), to which GFP was bound were treated with the cell library of interaction trapper cells to induce interactions, and the cells of the parts having increased signals (the presence of interactions) in FACS were sorted (FIG. 15A). Only the repebody gene part of the sorted cells was subjected to PCR and the library genes were substituted and inserted into the position of the InVLR5c gene of pInVLR5c-mRFP-CBD to obtain plasmids which were linked to the mRFP-CBD gene. The plasmids were introduced into E. coli BL21 (DE3) by electroporation to obtain transformants, and the sequence of the repebody gene was confirmed by sequencing after random selection of each of the colonies. As a result, various kinds of protein binders that can bind to each of the targets were easily obtained by performing only two repeated screenings at most. In particular, in the case of a library screening targeting at sfGFP, it was possible to selectively recover only the binding protein cells with a desired binding affinity for the targets in the FACS analysis. From the above results, it was proved that the intracellular particle display technique is a library-screening system that enables rapid and easy obtaining of protein binders formed by protein interactions.

<110> Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology

<120> High throughput screening of molecular interaction by intracellular particles display

<130> OPA15006-PCT

<150> KR10-2014-0014334
<151> 2014-02-07

<160> 14

<170> KopatentIn 2.0

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<223> ndeI histag VLR F

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<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> gs linker D3E8 R

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ggacccagag ccgctaccgg taccggtcgg gcaaataatg ctacgc   46

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<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> gs linker mRFP F

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ggtagcggct ctgggtccat ggcctcctcc gaggacg   37

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<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> pt linker mRFP R

<400> 4
tcggagggaa ttcaccggaa ccgcgtggca ccagaccggc gccggtggag tggc   54

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<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> pt linker cex F

<400> 5
ttccggtgaa ttccctccga cgccgacccc gactagtggt ccggccgggt g   51

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<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> HindIII CBD R

<400> 6
ccccccaagc ttttagccga ccgtgcaggg cg   32

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<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> gs linker InVLR5c R

<400> 7
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<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> gs linker mGFP R

<400> 9
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<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> gs linker IL6 F

<400> 10
ggtagcggct ctgggtccga attcgcccca gtacccccag gagaag   46

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<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> HindIII IL6 R

<400> 11
ccccccaagc ttttacattt gccgaagagc cctcagg   37

<210> 12
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<212> DNA
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<220>
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<400> 12
gcagctgtgg gcgaatcaac   20

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<213> Artificial Sequence

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<400> 13
gacgtatctg attctgaccg gt   22

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gaagcgcatg aactccttga tg   22




Claims

1. A method for analyzing the interaction between a binding protein and a target material, comprising:

(a) providing a cell comprising a construct, which comprises a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein;

(b) expressing the fusion protein in the cell thereby forming interaction trapper (IT) cell, wherein the binding protein is displayed on the inclusion body;

(c) introducing a fluorescence material-conjugated target material into the cell by increasing permeability of the cell according to step (b), wherein the cell maintains the activity and genetic information of the binding protein; and

(d) measuring the interaction between the binding protein and the target material, which is introduced from the outside of the cell, based on the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescence material conjugated to the target material;

wherein the increasing of permeability comprises making the cell membrane or the cell wall cracked, and the making comprises:

(i) freezing the cell according to step (b);

(ii) thawing the frozen cell; and

(iii) treating the thawed cell with an acidic solution or a chelating agent.


 
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein optionally

(i) the target material is a protein, a nucleic acid, or a compound;

(ii) the fusion protein further comprises a fluorescent protein;

(iii) the active inclusion body protein is a cellulose-binding domain (CBD) protein; and/or

(iv) the fluorescence intensity in the cells is measured using a fluorescence microscope or a flow cytometer.


 
3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the fluorescent protein and the fluorescence material conjugated to the target material have mutually different wavelengths.
 
4. The method according to claim 2, wherein the fluorescent protein is selected from the group consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), modified green fluorescent protein (mGFP), red fluorescent protein (RFP), monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP), enhanced red fluorescent protein (ERFP), Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed), blue fluorescent protein (BFP), enhanced blue fluorescent protein (EBFP), cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), cyan green fluorescent protein (CGFP), enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), azami green (AzG), Heteractis crispa red fluorescent protein (HcRed), and blue fluorescent protein (BFP).
 
5. A method for screening a cell specific to a target material, comprising:
analyzing the interaction between the binding protein and the target material by the method according to any of claims 1 to 4, and recovering the cell by an individual cell unit.
 
6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the cell comprises a cell library.
 
7. A method for screening a binding protein specific to a target material, comprising:
isolating a gene encoding a binding protein specific to a target material in the cell recovered by the method according to claim 5.
 
8. A method for preparing a binding protein specific to a target material, comprising:
isolating a gene encoding a binding protein specific to a target material in the cell recovered by the method according to claim 5.
 
9. The method according to claim 7 or claim 8, wherein the isolating further comprises amplifying the isolated gene.
 
10. A cell comprising a construct, which comprises a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein,
wherein the cell has a permeability-increased cell membrane or cell wall while maintaining the activity and genetic information of the binding protein,
wherein the permeability-increased cell membrane or cell wall is obtained by a method comprising:

(i) freezing the cell;

(ii) thawing the frozen cell; and

(iii) treating the thawed cell with an acidic solution or a chelating agent.


 
11. A cell library comprising a construct, which comprises a polynucleotide encoding a fusion protein consisting of a binding protein and an active inclusion body protein,
wherein the cell has a permeability-increased cell membrane or cell wall while maintaining the activity and genetic information of the binding protein,
wherein the permeability-increased cell membrane or cell wall is obtained by a method comprising:

(i) freezing the cell;

(ii) thawing the frozen cell; and

(iii) treating the thawed cell with an acidic solution or a chelating agent.


 
12. The cell library according to claim 11, wherein the library is a DNA library or a cell library transformed with the DNA library.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zur Analyse der Interaktion zwischen einem Bindungsprotein und einem Zielmaterial, umfassend:

(a) Bereitstellen einer Zelle, umfassend ein Konstrukt, welches ein Polynukleotid umfasst, das ein Fusionsprotein kodiert, bestehend aus einem Bindungsprotein und einem aktiven Einschlusskörperchenprotein;

(b) Exprimieren des Fusionsproteins in der Zelle, dadurch Bilden einer Interaktions-Trapper- (IT) -Zelle, wobei das Bindungsprotein auf dem Einschlusskörperchen präsentiert wird;

(c) Einführen eines Fluoreszenzmaterial-konjugierten Zielmaterials in die Zelle durch Erhöhen der Durchlässigkeit der Zelle gemäß Schritt (b), wobei die Zelle die Aktivität und genetische Information des Bindungsproteins beibehält; und

(d) Messen der Interaktion zwischen dem Bindungsprotein und dem Zielmaterial, das von außen in die Zelle eingeführt wird, basierend auf der Fluoreszenzintensität des an das Zielmaterial konjugierten Fluoreszenzmaterials;

wobei das Erhöhen der Durchlässigkeit das Rissigmachen der Zellmembran oder der Zellwand umfasst, und dieses Rissigmachen umfasst:

(i) Einfrieren der Zelle gemäß dem Schritt (b);

(ii) Auftauen der gefrorenen Zelle; und

(iii) Behandeln der aufgetauten Zelle mit einer sauren Lösung oder einem Chelatbildner.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei optional

(i) das Zielmaterial ein Protein, eine Nukleinsäure oder eine Verbindung ist;

(ii) das Fusionsprotein außerdem ein Fluoreszenzprotein umfasst;

(iii) das aktive Einschlusskörperchenprotein ein cellulosebindendes Domäne-(CBD) -Protein ist;
und/oder

(iv) die Fluoreszenzintensität in den Zellen unter Verwendung eines Fluoreszenzmikroskops oder eine Durchflusszytometers gemessen wird.


 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, wobei das Fluoreszenzprotein und das an das Zielmaterial konjugierte Fluoreszenzmaterial voneinander verschiedene Wellenlängen aufweisen.
 
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, wobei das Fluoreszenzprotein ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus grün fluoreszierendem Protein (GFP), verbessertem grün fluoreszierendem Protein (EGFP), modifiziertem grün fluoreszierendem Protein (mGFP), rot fluoreszierendem Protein (RFP), monomerem rot fluoreszierendem Protein (mRFP), verbessertem rot fluoreszierendem Protein (ERFP), rot fluoreszierendem Protein aus Discosoma sp. (DsRed), blau fluoreszierendem Protein (BFP), verbessertem blau fluoreszierendem Protein (EBFP), cyanfluoreszierendem Protein (CFP), cyan-grün fluoreszierendem Protein (CGFP), verbessertem cyanfluoreszierendem Protein (ECFP), gelb fluoreszierendem Protein (YFP), verbessertem gelb fluoreszierendem Protein (EYFP), Azami-Grün (AzG), rot fluoreszierendem Protein aus Heteractis crispa (HcRed) und blau fluoreszierendem Protein (BFP).
 
5. Verfahren für das Screening auf eine für ein Zielmaterial spezifische Zelle, umfassend:
Analysieren der Interaktion zwischen dem Bindungsprotein und dem Zielmaterial mittels des Verfahrens gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 und Gewinnen der Zelle anhand einer individuellen Zelleinheit.
 
6. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 5, wobei die Zelle eine Zellbibliothek umfasst.
 
7. Verfahren für das Screening auf ein für ein Zielmaterial spezifisches Bindungsprotein, umfassend:
Isolieren eines Gens, das ein Bindungsprotein kodiert, das für ein Zielmaterial in der mittels des Verfahrens gemäß Anspruch 5 gewonnenen Zelle spezifisch ist.
 
8. Verfahren zur Präparation eines für ein Zielmaterial spezifischen Bindungsproteins, umfassend:
Isolieren eines Gens, das ein Bindungsprotein kodiert, das für ein Zielmaterial in der mittels des Verfahrens gemäß Anspruch 5 gewonnenen Zelle spezifisch ist.
 
9. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 7 oder Anspruch 8, wobei das Isolieren außerdem das Amplifizieren des isolierten Gens umfasst.
 
10. Zelle, umfassend ein Konstrukt, welches ein Polynukleotid umfasst, das ein Fusionsprotein kodiert, bestehend aus einem Bindungsprotein und einem aktiven Einschlusskörperchenprotein,
wobei die Zelle eine Zellmembran oder Zellwand mit erhöhter Durchlässigkeit unter Beibehaltung der Aktivität und genetischen Information des Bindungsproteins aufweist,
wobei die Zellmembran oder Zellwand mit erhöhter Durchlässigkeit mittels eines Verfahrens erhalten ist, das umfasst:

(i) Einfrieren der Zelle;

(ii) Auftauen der gefroreren Zelle; und

(iii) Behandeln der ausgetauten Zelle mit einer sauren Lösung oder einem Chelatbildner.


 
11. Zellbibliothek, umfassend ein Konstrukt, welches ein Polynukleotid umfasst, das ein Fusionsprotein kodiert, bestehend aus einem Bindungsprotein und einem aktiven Einschlusskörperchenprotein,
wobei die Zelle eine Zellmembran oder Zellwand mit erhöhter Durchlässigkeit unter Beibehaltung der Aktivität und genetischen Information des Bindungsproteins aufweist,
wobei die Zellmembran oder Zellwand mit erhöhter Durchlässigkeit mittels eines Verfahrens erhalten ist, das umfasst:

(i) Einfrieren der Zelle;

(ii) Auftauen der gefroreren Zelle; und

(iii) Behandeln der ausgetauten Zelle mit einer sauren Lösung oder einem Chelatbildner.


 
12. Zellbibliothek gemäß Anspruch 11, wobei die Bibliothek eine DNA-Bibliothek oder eine mit der DNA-Bibliothek transformierte Zellbibliothek ist.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé d'analyse de l'interaction entre une protéine de liaison et un matériau cible, comprenant :

(a) la fourniture d'une cellule comprenant une construction, qui comprend un polynucléotide codant pour une protéine de fusion constituée d'une protéine de liaison et d'une protéine active de corps d'inclusion ;

(b) l'expression de la protéine de fusion dans la cellule pour ainsi former une cellule de piégeage d'interaction (IT), dans lequel la protéine de liaison est présentée sur le corps d'inclusion ;

(c) l'introduction d'un matériau cible conjugué à un matériau de fluorescence dans la cellule en augmentant la perméabilité de la cellule selon l'étape (b), dans lequel la cellule conserve l'activité et l'information génétique de la protéine de liaison ; et

(d) la mesure de l'interaction entre la protéine de liaison et le matériau cible, qui est introduit par l'extérieur de la cellule, sur la base de l'intensité de fluorescence du matériau de fluorescence conjugué au matériau cible ;

dans lequel l'augmentation de la perméabilité comprend la fissuration de la membrane cellulaire ou de la paroi cellulaire, et ceci comprend :

(i) la congélation de la cellule selon l'étape (b) ;

(ii) la décongélation de la cellule congelée ; et

(iii) le traitement de la cellule décongelée avec une solution acide ou un agent de chélation.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel facultativement

(i) le matériau cible est une protéine, un acide nucléique ou un composé ;

(ii) la protéine de fusion comprend en outre une protéine fluorescente ;

(iii) la protéine active de corps d'inclusion active est une protéine de domaine de liaison à la cellulose (CBD) ; et/ou

(iv) l'intensité de la fluorescence dans les cellules est mesurée au moyen d'un microscope à fluorescence ou d'un cytomètre en flux.


 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la protéine fluorescente et le matériau de fluorescence conjugué au matériau cible présentent des longueurs d'onde mutuellement différentes.
 
4. Procédé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la protéine fluorescente est sélectionnée dans le groupe consistant en la protéine fluorescente verte (GFP), la protéine fluorescente verte améliorée (EGFP), la protéine fluorescente verte modifiée (mGFP), la protéine fluorescente rouge (RFP), la protéine fluorescente rouge monomère (mRFP), la protéine fluorescente rouge améliorée (ERFP), la protéine fluorescente rouge de Discosoma sp. (DsRed), la protéine fluorescente bleue (BFP), la protéine fluorescente bleue améliorée (EBFP), la protéine fluorescente cyan (CFP), la protéine fluorescente verte cyan (CGFP), la protéine fluorescente cyan améliorée (ECFP), la protéine fluorescente jaune (YFP), la protéine fluorescente jaune améliorée (EYFP), le vert azami (AzG), la protéine fluorescente rouge de Heteractis crispa (HcRed), et la protéine fluorescente bleue (BFP).
 
5. Procédé de criblage d'une cellule spécifique d'un matériau cible, comprenant :
l'analyse de l'interaction entre la protéine de liaison et le matériau cible par le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, et la récupération de la cellule par une unité cellulaire individuelle.
 
6. Procédé selon la revendication 5, dans lequel la cellule comprend une banque de cellules.
 
7. Procédé de criblage d'une protéine de liaison spécifique d'un matériau cible, comprenant :
l'isolement d'un gène codant pour une protéine de liaison spécifique d'un matériau cible dans la cellule récupérée par le procédé selon la revendication 5.
 
8. Procédé de préparation d'une protéine de liaison spécifique d'un matériau cible, comprenant :
l'isolement d'un gène codant pour une protéine de liaison spécifique d'un matériau cible dans la cellule récupérée par le procédé selon la revendication 5.
 
9. Procédé selon la revendication 7 ou la revendication 8, dans lequel l'isolement comprend en outre l'amplification du gène isolé.
 
10. Cellule comprenant une construction, qui comprend un polynucléotide codant pour une protéine de fusion constituée d'une protéine de liaison et d'une protéine active de corps d'inclusion,
dans laquelle la cellule présente une membrane cellulaire ou paroi cellulaire à perméabilité accrue tout en conservant l'activité et l'information génétique de la protéine de liaison,
dans laquelle la membrane cellulaire ou paroi cellulaire à perméabilité accrue est obtenue par un procédé comprenant :

(i) la congélation de la cellule ;

(ii) la décongélation de la cellule congelée ; et

(iii) le traitement de la cellule décongelée avec une solution acide ou un agent de chélation.


 
11. Banque de cellules comprenant une construction, qui comprend un polynucléotide codant pour une protéine de fusion constituée d'une protéine de liaison et d'une protéine active de corps d'inclusion,
dans laquelle la cellule présente une membrane cellulaire ou paroi cellulaire à perméabilité accrue tout en conservant l'activité et l'information génétique de la protéine de liaison,
dans laquelle la membrane cellulaire ou paroi cellulaire à perméabilité accrue est obtenue par un procédé comprenant :

(i) la congélation de la cellule ;

(ii) la décongélation de la cellule congelée ; et

(iii) le traitement de la cellule décongelée avec une solution acide ou un agent de chélation.


 
12. Banque de cellules selon la revendication 11, dans laquelle la banque est une banque d'ADN ou une banque de cellules transformée avec la banque d'ADN.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description