(19)
(11)EP 3 118 413 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 16166715.9

(22)Date of filing:  22.04.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F01D 5/18(2006.01)
F01D 5/20(2006.01)

(54)

TURBINE AIRFOIL TIP SHELF AND SQUEALER POCKET COOLING

TURBINENSCHAUFELSPITZENSOCKEL- UND -SQUEALERTASCHENKÜHLUNG

REBORD DE PROFIL AÉRODYNAMIQUE DE TURBINE ET REFROIDISSEMENT DE POCHE DE NERVURE D'AMINCISSEMENT


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 24.06.2015 US 201514748666

(43)Date of publication of application:
18.01.2017 Bulletin 2017/03

(73)Proprietor: United Technologies Corporation
Farmington, CT 06032 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • MONGILLO, Dominic J. Jr.
    West Hartford, CT Connecticut 06107 (US)
  • GAUTSCHI, Steven Bruce
    Worcester, MA Massachusetts 01602 (US)
  • QUACH, San
    Southington, CT Connecticut 06489 (US)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Brides House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 1 298 285
EP-A2- 2 154 333
WO-A1-2013/158194
EP-A2- 1 927 727
EP-A2- 2 469 030
US-A1- 2014 030 102
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND



    [0001] This invention relates generally to turbomachinery, and specifically to turbine rotor components. In particular, the invention concerns rotor blades for a gas turbine engine.

    [0002] Gas turbine engines are rotary-type combustion turbine engines built around a power core made up of a compressor, combustor and turbine, arranged in flow series with an upstream inlet and downstream exhaust. The compressor compresses air from the inlet, which is mixed with fuel in the combustor and ignited to generate hot combustion gas. The turbine extracts energy from the expanding combustion gas, and drives the compressor via a common shaft. Energy is delivered in the form of rotational energy in the shaft, reactive thrust from the exhaust, or both.

    [0003] Gas turbine engines provide efficient, reliable power for a wide range of applications, including aviation and industrial power generation. Smaller-scale engines such as auxiliary power units typically utilize a one-spool design, with co-rotating compressor and turbine sections. Larger-scale jet engines and industrial gas turbines are generally arranged into a number of coaxially nested spools, which operate at different pressures and temperatures, and rotate at different speeds.

    [0004] The individual compressor and turbine sections in each spool are subdivided into a number of stages, which are formed of alternating rows of rotor blade and stator vane airfoils. The airfoils are shaped to turn, accelerate and compress the working fluid flow, or to generate lift for conversion to rotational energy in the turbine.

    [0005] Aviation applications include turbojet, turbofan, turboprop and turboshaft engines. In turbojet engines, thrust is generated primarily from the exhaust. Modern fixed-wing aircraft generally employ turbofan and turboprop designs, in which the low pressure spool is coupled to a propulsion fan or propeller. Turboshaft engines are typically used on rotary-wing aircraft, including helicopters.

    [0006] Turbofan engines are commonly divided into high and low bypass configurations. High bypass turbofans generate thrust primarily from the fan, which drives airflow through a bypass duct oriented around the engine core. This design is common on commercial aircraft and military transports, where noise and fuel efficiency are primary concerns. Low bypass turbofans generate proportionally more thrust from the exhaust flow, providing greater specific thrust for use on high-performance aircraft, including supersonic jet fighters. Unducted (open rotor) turbofans and ducted propeller engines are also known, in a variety of counter-rotating and aft-mounted configurations.

    [0007] Turbofan engine performance depends on precise control of the working fluid flow, including flow across the airfoil tip. Where clearance, abrasion and temperature effects are of concern, moreover, these factors often pose competing design demands on compressor and turbine rotor geometry, particularly in the tip region of the airfoil.

    [0008] WO 2013/158194 A1 discloses a prior art airfoil as set forth in the preamble of claim 1.

    [0009] US 2014/030102 A1 discloses a prior art turbine bucket.

    SUMMARY



    [0010] According to the invention, there is provided an airfoil as set forth in claim 1.

    [0011] Features of embodiments of the invention are set forth in the dependent claims.

    [0012] Persons of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that other aspects and embodiments of the present invention are possible in view of the entirety of the present disclosure, including the accompanying figures, as long as the resulting embodiment contains at least all features of the independent claim.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0013] 

    FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a gas turbine engine.

    FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a rotor airfoil for the gas turbine engine, with a tip shelf and squealer pocket falling outside the scope of the claims.

    FIG. 3 is perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing the tip shelf and squealer pocket.

    FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing another configuration for the tip shelf.

    FIG. 5A is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing the squealer pocket with a squealer discharge flow channel configuration.

    FIG. 5B is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing the squealer pocket with an alternate squealer discharge flow channel configuration.

    FIG. 6A is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing another configuration for the tip shelf and the squealer pocket.

    FIG. 6B is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing another configuration for the tip shelf and the squealer pocket.

    FIG. 7A is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing another configuration for the tip shelf and the squealer pocket.

    FIG. 7B is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing another configuration for the tip shelf and the squealer pocket.

    FIG. 8A is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing another configuration for the tip shelf.

    FIG. 8B is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil falling outside the scope of the claims, showing another configuration for the tip shelf.

    FIG. 9A is a perspective view of a tip section of the airfoil according to the invention, showing a configuration for the tip shelf.

    FIG. 9B is an elevation view of the tip section and pressure side of the airfoil shown in FIG. 9A.



    [0014] While the above-identified drawing figures set forth one or more embodiments of the invention, other embodiments are also contemplated. In all cases, this disclosure presents the invention by way of representation and not limitation. It should be understood that numerous other modifications and embodiments can be devised by those skilled in the art, which fall within the scope of the invention as defined by appended claims. The figures may not be drawn to scale, and applications and embodiments of the present invention may include features and components not specifically shown in the drawings. Like reference numerals identify similar structural elements.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0015] FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of gas turbine engine 10, in a turbofan configuration. In this configuration, gas turbine engine 10 includes propulsion fan 12 mounted inside bypass duct 14 upstream of fan exit guide vane 13. The power core is formed by compressor section 16, combustor 18 and turbine section 20. Rotor blades (or airfoils) 21 in at least one of compressor section 16 and turbine section 20 are provided with squealer tip and tip shelf feature, for improved performance and reliability as described below.

    [0016] In the two-spool, high bypass configuration of FIG. 1, compressor section 16 includes low pressure compressor 22 and high pressure compressor 24. Turbine section 20 includes high pressure turbine 26 and low pressure turbine 28.

    [0017] Low pressure compressor 22 is rotationally coupled to low pressure turbine 28 via low pressure shaft 30, forming the low pressure spool or low spool. High pressure compressor 24 is rotationally coupled to high pressure turbine 26 via high pressure shaft 32, forming the high pressure spool or high spool.

    [0018] In operation of gas turbine engine 10, fan 12 accelerates air flow from inlet 34 through bypass duct 14, generating thrust. The core airflow is compressed in low pressure compressor 22 and high pressure compressor 24, then mixed with fuel in combustor 18 and ignited to generate combustion gas.

    [0019] The combustion gas expands to drive high and low pressure turbines 26 and 28, which are rotationally coupled to high pressure compressor 24 and low pressure compressor 22, respectively. Expanded combustion gases exit through exhaust nozzle 36, which is shaped to generate additional thrust from the exhaust gas flow.

    [0020] In advanced turbofan designs, low pressure shaft 30 is coupled to fan 12 via geared drive mechanism 37, providing improved fan speed control for increased efficiency and reduced engine noise. Propulsion fan 12 may also function as a first-stage compressor for gas turbine engine 10, with low pressure compressor 22 performing as an intermediate-stage compressor or booster. Alternatively, the low pressure compressor stages are absent, and air from fan 12 is provided directly to high pressure compressor 24, or to an independently rotating intermediate compressor spool.

    [0021] Gas turbine engine 10 thus encompasses a range of different shaft and spool geometries, including one-spool, two-spool and three-spool configurations, in both co-rotating and counter-rotating designs. Gas turbine engine 10 may also be configured as a low bypass turbofan, an open-rotor turbofan, a ducted or unducted propeller engine, or an industrial gas turbine.

    [0022] FIG. 2, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is a perspective view of rotor airfoil 21 for gas turbine engine 10 of FIG. 1. Tip shelf 38 and squealer tip cavity 40 are formed in tip section 42 of airfoil 21, providing improved tip cooling and resistance to oxidation, erosion and burn-through.

    [0023] As installed in the fan or compressor section of a gas turbine engine or other turbomachine, airfoil 21 extends axially from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46, and radially from root section 48, adjacent inner diameter platform 50, to tip section 42. Root section 48 typically has fillet radius R along leading edge 44, trailing edge 46 or both, forming a smooth aerodynamic and stress relief transition to platform 50 with attachment 51.

    [0024] Pressure surface 52 (front) and suction surface 54 (back) extend axially from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46, defining the profile of airfoil 21 therebetween. Pressure (concave) surface 52 and suction (convex) surface 54 extend radially from root section 48 and platform 50 to tip section 42, defining span height H of airfoil 21.

    [0025] Tip shelf 38 forms an open radial recess along tip section 42 of airfoil 21, extending axially from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46 along pressure surface 52. Squealer pocket 40 forms a closed radial recess in tip section 42 of airfoil 21, extending axially from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46, between pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54.

    [0026] When airfoil 21 is exposed to high temperature flow, for example in the turbine and high pressure compressor sections of a low-bypass turbofan for military applications, tip section 42 experiences oxidation, erosion, burn-through and other high temperature effects. To address this problem, tip section 42 of airfoil 21 is formed with a combined tip shelf and squealer pocket structure, with tip shelf 38 extending along pressure surface 52, adjacent squealer tip cavity 40 between tip shelf 38 and suction surface 54.

    [0027] Squealer tip cavity (or squealer pocket) 40 maintains a region or pocket of cooling fluid (e.g., air) along tip section 42 of airfoil 21, between pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54. Tip shelf 38 maintains a region or pocket of cooling fluid along pressure surface 52, between leading edge 44 and trailing edge 46 in tip section 42. The pockets of cooling fluid provide a more uniform cooling temperature along tip section 42, for better oxidation resistance, reduced erosion and less burn-through.

    [0028] FIG. 3, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is perspective view showing tip section 42 of airfoil 21. Tip shelf 38 extends adjacent pressure surface 52 (front) of airfoil 21, from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46 along tip section 42. Squealer tip cavity 40 extends between tip shelf 38 and suction surface 54 (back) of airfoil 21, from leading edge 44 toward trailing edge 46.

    [0029] As shown in FIG. 3, tip shelf 38 defines an open perimeter radial recess in tip section 42 of airfoil 21. That is, the tip shelf recess is open along pressure surface 52, extending axially from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46, with tip shelf 38 defined between pressure surface 52 and vertical wall 56.

    [0030] Vertical (tip shelf) wall 56 extends radially or vertically upward from tip shelf 38, as shown in FIG. 3, adjacent squealer tip cavity 40. Tip shelf wall 56 also extends axially along tip section 42, from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46. Tip shelf wall 56 is thus defined between tip shelf 38 and squealer tip cavity 40, spaced from pressure surface 52 by tip shelf 38, and spaced from suction surface 54 by squealer tip cavity 40.

    [0031] Tip shelf wall 56 defines an open perimeter cavity for tip shelf 38, extending more than 90% of chord length L between leading edge 44 and trailing edge 46 of airfoil 21 at tip section 42, or more than 95% of the chord length. In particular, tip shelf 38 extends along tip section 42 of airfoil 21 for substantially all of chord length L, including leading edge region A, within 5-10% of chord length L from leading edge 44, midchord region B, between 5-10% and 90-95% of chord length L, and trailing edge region C, within 5-10% of chord length L from trailing edge 46.

    [0032] In this configuration, tip shelf 38 extends substantially all of the way along pressure surface 52 to trailing edge 46, for example within 2% or 5% of chord length L of trailing edge 46, in order to prevent localized oxidation in this region. Similarly, tip shelf 38 extends substantially all of the way along pressure surface 52 to leading edge 44, for example within 2% or 5% of chord length L of leading edge 44, in order to prevent localized oxidation in that region.

    [0033] Squealer tip cavity 40 defines a closed perimeter radial recess in tip section 42 of airfoil 21, between tip shelf wall 56 and squealer tip wall 58. Squealer tip wall 58 extends axially along suction surface 54 of airfoil 21 at tip section 42, from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46.

    [0034] Squealer tip wall 58 is coextensive with suction surface 54, and spaced from tip shelf wall 56 by squealer tip cavity 40 in midchord region B. Tip shelf wall 56 and squealer tip wall 58 meet in leading edge region A, along leading edge 44, and in trailing edge region C, along trailing edge 46.

    [0035] First (tip shelf) and second (squealer tip) walls 56 and 58 define a closed perimeter cavity for squealer tip cavity 40, where cavity 40 extends for more than 75% of chord length L, but less than 90% of chord length L. In particular, squealer tip cavity 40 extends along tip section 42 of airfoil 21 through midchord region B to leading edge region A, within 5-10% of chord length L from leading edge 44. Squealer tip cavity 40 also extends along through midchord region B to terminate in aft region D, at least 10-25% of chord length L from trailing edge 46.

    [0036] Squealer tip cavity 40 does not extend into trailing edge region C, within 5-10% of chord length L from trailing edge 46. Thus, tip shelf 38 is longer than squealer tip cavity 40 along chord L. This configuration decreases tip leakage over substantially the entire length of airfoil 21 along tip section 42, improving rotor stage efficiency by reducing the tip loss penalty.

    [0037] Airfoil 21 also includes internal cooling channels 60. Internal cooling channels 60 provide cooling fluid (i.e., air) flow to tip shelf 38 via tip shelf cooling holes 62, and to squealer tip cavity 40 via squealer tip cooling holes 64. In some designs, internal cooling channels 60 also provide additional cooling flow, for example to trailing edge cooling holes or cooling slots 66 along trailing edge 46. In additional designs, leading edge 44 is provided with additional structure, such as leading edge indentation (recessed trench) 68 which reduces the heatflux into the leading edge airfoil and increases the residence time of the leading edge showerhead film cooling in the recess trenched region improving the heat transfer and flow characteristics along the leading edge stagnation region.

    [0038] Tip shelf cooling holes 62 maintain a pocket or region of cooling fluid in tip shelf recess 38, extending between tip shelf wall 56 and pressure surface 52 of airfoil 21, from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46 along tip section 42. Squealer tip cooling holes 64 maintain a pocket or region of cooling fluid in squealer tip recess 40, extending between tip shelf wall 56 and squealer tip wall 58, from leading edge 44 toward trailing edge 46 along tip section 42. In addition, tip shelf wall 56 forms a lip of metal between tip shelf 38 and squealer tip cavity 40, increasing heat loss and reducing leakage across tip section 42 of airfoil 21.

    [0039] The combination of tip shelf 38 and squealer tip cavity 40 also reduces the heat transfer coefficient across tip section 42, which reduces the net heat flux into airfoil tip region 42, improving the performance and service life of airfoil 21. In particular, the heat transfer coefficient may be substantially proportional to the Reynold's Number, which in turn may be substantially proportional to the mass flow. The structure of tip shelf 38 and squealer tip cavity 40 reduces mass flow, so the heat transfer coefficient goes down in airfoil tip 42. That is, there is less heat transfer from the hot gas (working fluid) into airfoil tip section 42, resulting in decreases thermal effects and improved service life for airfoil 21.

    [0040] Additionally, transient thermal strains are reduced due to the removal of hot metal volume with the incorporation of squealer pocket 40. Conventional airfoil tip designs that do not incorporate a squealer pocket have significant hot metal volume locally in the tip region. During transient operation of the gas turbine engine, there is interaction between the airfoil blade tip surface and the blade outer airseal (BOAS). As a result of this rub/friction interaction, heat is generated along the tip airfoil surface due to the frictional interaction, and blade airfoil tip metal temperatures become hotter.

    [0041] Interaction of the blade tip and blade outer airseal is desirable in that it ensures minimum (or lower) tip clearance during engine operation. Reductions in tip clearance minimize (or reduce) leakage flow over the blade tip region, with lower losses and increased turbine efficiency. The interaction, however, does not come without penalty to airfoil blade tip cooling performance, impacting durability.

    [0042] Due to the cyclic nature of gas turbine operations, transient thermal response rates of the airfoil metal are relevant to mitigating compressive (or thermal) strains. Thermal strains result from differences in the relative transient response rates of local metal temperatures, including the tip region of the airfoil, which historically has significant hot metal mass that transiently responds at a different (or slower) rate than the surrounding pressure and suction side walls.

    [0043] As a result of the difference in relative cooling and heating rates, compressive (or thermal) strain is induced in the airfoil tip region during transient operation. In other designs, without the improvements described here, the cyclic nature of gas turbine engine operations, combined with locally high strain, may result in the initiation and propagation of thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) cracking.

    [0044] To alleviate compressive (or thermal) strains it is desirable to more closely match the transient response rates of tip section 42 of airfoil 21 with the local airfoil walls 52 and 54. Removing (in operation, hot) metal volume with the incorporation of squealer pocket 40 enables the transient response of airfoil tip region 42 and airfoil walls 52 and 54 to be more closely matched, eliminating (or reducing) a propensity to initiate and propagate TMF cracks (e.g., through-wall TMF cracks) in airfoil tip region 42, improving durability and performance of airfoil 21 in tip region 42 and reducing premature oxidation erosion distress, which effects could otherwise increase airfoil tip clearance and tip leakage flow. The net effect of these improvements to airfoil 21 is an improvement in turbine efficiency and overall engine performance, which positively impacts fuel burn and engine on-wing time and service life performance.

    [0045] FIG. 4, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is a perspective view showing tip section 42 of airfoil 21. Tip shelf 38 extends adjacent pressure surface 52 (front) of airfoil 21, as described above, from leading edge 44 to trailing edge 46 along tip section 42. Squealer tip cavity 40 extends between tip shelf 38 and suction surface 54 (back) of airfoil 21, from leading edge 44 toward trailing edge 46.

    [0046] In this configuration, the length of tip shelf (or trench) 38 is extended through region A to wrap tip shelf 38 around leading edge surface 44, extending tip shelf 38 onto suction surface (or suction side) 54 of airfoil 21 in tip section 42. In addition, the length of tip shelf 38 is extended along pressure surface 52 so that tip shelf 38 extends through region C to extreme trailing edge surface 46, terminating approximately at the downstream intersection of pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54.

    [0047] This example, however, is merely representative. In other designs, tip shelf 38 wraps around leading edge 44 and extends onto suction surface 54, but tip shelf 38 does not extend to trailing edge 46. Instead, tip shelf 38 terminates at a location upstream of trailing edge 46 along pressure surface 52, as described above.

    [0048] Alternatively, tip shelf 38 extends to extreme trailing edge surface 46, terminating approximately at the downstream intersection between pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54, but tip shelf 38 does not wrap around leading edge 44. Instead, tip shelf 38 terminates at extreme leading edge surface 44, or approximately the upstream intersection of pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54, or tip shelf 38 terminates at a location downstream of leading edge 44 along pressure surface 52, as described above.

    [0049] FIG. 5A, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is a perspective view showing tip section 42 of airfoil 21, with squealer discharge flow channel 70 extending from squealer tip cavity (or squealer pocket) 40 to trailing edge 46. In this configuration, tip shelf 38 terminates at a location upstream from trailing edge 46, spaced from squealer discharge flow channel 70.

    [0050] Squealer discharge flow channel 70 extends from squealer tip cavity 40 to the downstream intersection of pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54, at extreme trailing edge surface 46. Squealer discharge flow channel 70 is configured to reduce the magnitude of vortex flow in tip leakage flow f by axially aligning squealer discharge flow channel 70 at trailing edge 46 and reducing penetration of leakage flow over blade tip 42 by discharging a portion of the coolant flow from tip shelf 38 and squealer pocket 40 in a predominately axial direction aligned with suction side 54 streamlines adjacent tip section 42 and trailing edge 46, which streamlines are predominately axial in nature. This alignment of flow f from squealer pocket 40 at trailing edge 46 reduces the magnitude and strength of the tip leakage vortex (or tip leakage vortex flow), improving efficiency, performance and durability.

    [0051] FIG. 5B, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is a perspective view showing tip section 42 of airfoil 21, with squealer discharge flow channel 70 extending from squealer tip cavity (or squealer pocket) 40 to trailing edge 46. In this configuration, tip shelf 38 extends through region C to extreme trailing edge surface 46, terminating approximately at the downstream intersection of pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54. That is, in this configuration tip shelf 38 terminates approximately at the location of squealer discharge flow channel 70.

    [0052] In some designs, cooling fluid flow from tip shelf 38 and squealer discharge flow channel 70 merge at or upstream of extreme trailing edge surface 46. In these designs, squealer discharge flow channel 70 discharges a portion of the cooling fluid flow from tip shelf 38 and squealer pocket 40, so that tip discharge flow f include contributions of cooling fluid flow from tip shelf 38 and squealer pocket 40. In some designs, squealer pocket 40 extends from within 5-10% of chord length L measured from leading edge 44 to terminate less than 85% of chord length L measured from trailing edge 46. As discussed below, the configurations shown in FIGS. 6A-7B disclose squealer pocket 40 of tip section 42 terminating between 25% and 80% of chord length L measured from trailing edge 46.

    [0053] FIG. 6A, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is a perspective view of tip section 42 of airfoil 21, showing another configuration for tip shelf 38 and squealer pocket 40. As shown in FIG. 6A, the closed perimeter recess of squealer pocket 40 extends along tip section 42 of airfoil 21 through midchord region B to leading edge region A, within 5-10% of chord length L from leading edge 44. Squealer pocket 40 also extends along through midchord region B to terminate at aft region D, which is approximately 25% of chord length L measured from trailing edge 46 of airfoil 21. The closed perimeter recess of squealer pocket 40 extends along tip section 42 of airfoil 21 for more than 20% of chord length L and less than 75% of chord length L.

    [0054] The length of tip shelf 38, as shown in FIG. 6A, can be extended through region A to wrap tip shelf 38 around leading edge surface 44, extending tip shelf 38 onto suction surface (or suction side) 54 of airfoil 21 in tip section 42, similar to the embodiment shown in FIG. 4. The length of tip shelf 38 can also extend along pressure surface 52 so that tip shelf 38 extends through region C to extreme trailing edge surface 46, terminating approximately at the downstream intersection of pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54.

    [0055] FIG. 6B, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is a perspective view of tip section 42 of airfoil 21, showing another configuration for tip shelf 38 and squealer pocket 40. As shown in FIG. 6B, the closed perimeter recess of squealer pocket 40 extends along tip section 42 of airfoil 21 through midchord region B to leading edge region A, within 5-10% of chord length L from leading edge 44. Squealer tip cavity 40 also extends along through midchord region B to terminate in aft region D, which is approximately between 45% and 60% of chord length L measured from trailing edge 46.

    [0056] For example, region D can be 50% of chord length L measured from trailing edge 46 of airfoil 21 such that squealer pocket 40 extends for more than 15% of chord length L and less than 75% of chord length L. The length of tip shelf 38, as shown in FIG. 6B can be similar to the embodiment shown in FIG. 6A.

    [0057] FIGS. 7A and 7B will now be discussed concurrently. FIG. 7A, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is a perspective view of tip section 42 of airfoil 21, showing another configuration for tip shelf 38. Squealer pocket 40, as shown in FIG. 7A, is similarly configured to the embodiment shown in FIG. 6A. FIG. 7B, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is also a perspective view of tip section 42 of airfoil 21, showing another configuration for tip shelf 38. Squealer pocket 40, as shown in FIG. 7B, is similarly configured to the embodiment shown in FIG. 6B. The open perimeter recess of tip shelf 38 can extend 90-95% of chord length L along pressure surface 52 from region A to region C. Region A is within 2%-10% of chord length L measured from leading edge 44 of airfoil 21, and to region C is within 2%-10% of chord length L measured from trailing edge 46 of airfoil 21.

    [0058] Tip shelf cooling holes 62 are formed in tip shelf 38 to maintain a pocket of cooling fluid along tip section 42 of airfoil 21 between tip shelf wall 56 and concave pressure surface 52. As shown in FIGS. 7A and 7B, each of tip shelf cooling holes 62 formed in tip shelf 38 can include a transition opening that tapers inward into tip shelf 38 to diffuse the cooling fluid as it exits tip shelf cooling holes 62. Diffusing the cooling fluid as it exits tip shelf cooling holes 62 reduces the speed of the cooling fluid and increases surface area covered by the cooling fluid exiting tip shelf cooling holes 62.

    [0059] FIGS. 8A and 8B will now be discussed concurrently. FIG. 8A, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is a perspective view of tip section 42 of airfoil 21, showing another configuration for tip shelf 38. Squealer pocket 40, as shown in FIG. 8A, is similarly configured to the embodiments shown in FIGS. 6A and 7A. FIG. 8B, which falls outside the scope of the claims, is also a perspective view of tip section 42 of airfoil 21, showing another configuration for tip shelf 38. Squealer pocket 40, as shown in FIG. 8B, is similarly configured to the embodiments shown in FIGS. 6B and 7B.

    [0060] Similar to the embodiments shown in FIGS. 6A-7B, tip shelf 38 and the open perimeter recess defined by the tip shelf 38 can extend around leading edge 44 and onto suction surface 54 to terminate on suction surface 54 between leading edge 44 and trailing edge 46 of airfoil 21. Tip shelf 38 can also extend to trailing edge 46 of airfoil 21 to terminate at a downstream intersection of pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54 such that tip shelf 38 communicates with both pressure surface 52 and suction surface 54 proximate to trailing edge 46. Similar to the embodiments shown in FIGS. 2-7B, leading edge 44 in the embodiments shown in FIGS. 8A and 8B can comprises a leading edge indentation (recessed trench) 68 formed on airfoil leading edge 44. Indentation 68 can extend along leading edge 44 between root section 48 of airfoil 21 and tip section 42 of airfoil 21 and can intersect tip shelf 38 at leading edge 44.

    [0061] As shown in FIGS. 8A and 8B, airfoil 21 can also include a plurality of cooling holes 72 formed in tip shelf 38 proximate leading edge 44 of airfoil 21, and a plurality of cooling holes 74 formed in the leading edge indentation (recessed trench) 68 formed on leading edge 44 of airfoil 21. Similar to the plurality of cooling holes 62 formed in tip shelf 38 proximate concave pressure surface 52, both pluralities of cooling holes 72 and 74 can be fluidically connected to internal cooling channels 60 of airfoil 21 such that internal cooling channels 60 provide cooling fluid (i.e., air) flow to leading edge 44 via cooling holes 72 and 74. The pluralities of cooling holes 72 and 74 can extend the pocket or region of cooling fluid on tip shelf 38 around leading edge 44 and into indentation 68. As discussed below with reference to FIGS. 9A and 9B, cooling holes 62, 72, and 74 can include a variety of geometries and orientations.

    [0062] FIGS. 9A and 9B will now be discussed concurrently. FIG. 9A is a perspective view of tip section 42 of airfoil 21, showing a configuration for tip shelf 38 in accordance with the invention. FIG. 9B is an elevation view of tip section 42 shown in FIG. 9A. As shown in FIGS. 9A and 9B, the embodiment of airfoil 21 can include tip shelf 38 without a squealer pocket. Airfoil 21 can include core print out hole 73 in tip section 42, core print out hole 73 being formed during casting of airfoil 21 by a core print and used by airfoil 21 to purge particulate matter out of airfoil 21 that may be deposited inside airfoil 21 by the cooling fluid.

    [0063] At least one of the plurality of cooling holes 72 formed in tip shelf 38 proximate leading edge 44 can extend at least partially in a radial direction, the radial direction being defined as the direction in which airfoil 21 extends from root section 48 (shown in FIG. 2). Because cooling holes 72 formed in tip shelf 38 proximate leading edge 44 can extend partially in the vertical direction, the length of cooling holes 72 between tip shelf 38 and internal cooling channels 60 is longer than a cooling hole that merely extends axially or laterally between tip shelf 38 and internal cooling channels 60. Increasing the length of cooling holes 72 is beneficial because the increased length of cooling holes 72 increases the convective surface area of each of cooling holes 72, thereby increasing the thermal efficiency of cooling holes 72. Similar to cooling holes 72, at least one of the plurality of cooling holes 74 formed in indentation (recessed trench) 68 can extend at least partially in the radial direction. Cooling holes 62 and 62A formed in tip shelf 38 proximate pressure surface 52 can also extend at least partially in the radial direction.

    [0064] As shown in FIGS. 9A and 9B, cooling holes 62, 62A, 72, and 74 can include an oval-shaped cross-sectional profile. The oval-shaped cross-sectional profiles of cooling holes 62, 62A, 72, and 74 can help cooling fluid diffuse over leading edge 44 and tip shelf 38 as the cooling fluid exits cooling holes 62, 62A, 72, and 74 to protect tip section 42 of airfoil 21 from thermal degradation. At least one of cooling holes 62, 62A, 72, and cooling holes 74 can also include a transition opening that tapers inward into the tip shelf 38 and leading edge 44 respectively to further diffuse the cooling fluid as it exits cooling holes 62, 62A, 72, and 74. Diffusing the cooling fluid as it exits cooling holes 62, 62A, 72, and 74 reduces the speed of the cooling fluid and increases surface area covered by the cooling fluid exiting cooling holes 62, 62A, 72, and 74. Thus, cooling holes 62, 62A, 72, and 74 can include various hole type geometries, such as cylindrical and circular holes, holes with shaped diffusers having lateral expansion, holes with shaped diffusers having both lateral expansion and stream-wise expansion, slots, and rectangular slots. In addition, holes 62, 62A, 72, and 74 can utilize a single hole geometry (such as a circular geometry shown in FIGS. 8A-8B), or holes 62, 62A, 72, and 74 can include a combination of various hole geometries (such as circular holes and rectangular slots).

    [0065] In accordance with the invention, tip shelf 38 also includes step/transition 76 disposed between 55% and 25% of the chord length measured from trailing edge 46 of airfoil 21. Step/transition 76 shifts a portion of tip shelf 38 generally radially outward toward tip section 42. Tip shelf 38 can also narrow in width at step/transition 76, the width of tip shelf 38 being defined as the dimension that extends between pressure surface 52 and vertical wall 56. Including step/transition 76 and narrowing the width of tip shelf 38 at step/transition 76 allows the downstream portion of tip section 42 to maintain enough thickness to reduce the likelihood of deformation of tip section 42 as tip section 42 interacts with a blade outer airseal of a gas turbine engine. Between leading edge 44 and step/transition 76, cooling holes 62 and 62A can be disposed on tip shelf 38 in two rows that decreases to a single row of cooling holes 62 between step/transition 76 and trailing edge 46. Cooling holes 62 and 62A can be reduced to a single row of cooling holes 62 between step/transition 76 and trailing edge 46 due to tip shelf 38 narrowing in width between step/transition 76 and trailing edge 46.

    [0066] In one embodiment, an airfoil includes a pressure surface and a suction surface extending from a root section of the airfoil to a tip section of the airfoil. The airfoil also includes a leading edge and a trailing edge defining a chord length of the airfoil therebetween. The airfoil further includes a tip shelf formed along the tip section of the airfoil between the pressure surface and a tip shelf wall. The tip shelf wall is spaced between the pressure surface and the suction surface and the tip shelf extends from within 10% of the chord length measured from the leading edge to within 10% of the chord length measured from the trailing edge.

    [0067] The airfoil of the preceding paragraph can optionally include, additionally and/or alternatively, any one or more of the following features, configurations and/or additional components:

    a squealer pocket formed along the tip section of the airfoil between the tip shelf wall and a squealer tip wall extending from the suction surface;

    the tip shelf extends around the leading edge and onto the suction surface to terminate on the suction surface between the leading edge and the trailing edge of the airfoil;

    the leading edge further comprises an indentation formed on the leading edge, the indentation extending along the leading edge between the root section of the airfoil and the tip section of the airfoil, and wherein the indentation intersects the tip shelf at the leading edge;

    a plurality of cooling holes formed in the indentation formed on the leading edge of the airfoil;

    at least one of the plurality of cooling holes formed in the indentation extends partially in a radial direction;

    at least one of the plurality of cooling holes formed in the indentation includes a transition opening that tapers inward into the leading edge of the airfoil;

    the tip shelf extends to the trailing edge of the airfoil to terminate at a downstream intersection of the pressure and suction surfaces such that the tip shelf communicates with both the pressure surface and the suction surface proximate to the trailing edge;

    a plurality of cooling holes formed in the tip shelf proximate the pressure surface of the airfoil;

    the plurality of cooling holes are arranged in at least two rows on the tip shelf for a first portion of the chord length and the plurality of cooling holes are arranged in a single row for a second portion of the chord length;

    a plurality of cooling holes formed in the tip shelf proximate the leading edge of the airfoil;

    at least one of the plurality of cooling holes formed in the tip shelf proximate the leading edge of the airfoil includes a transition opening that tapers inward into the tip shelf;

    at least one of the plurality of cooling holes formed in the tip shelf proximate the leading edge of the airfoil includes an oval cross-sectional profile; and/or

    at least one of the plurality of cooling holes formed in the tip shelf extends at least partially in a radial direction.



    [0068] In another embodiment, a gas turbine engine blade includes an airfoil comprising convex and concave surfaces extending from a root section to a tip section and from a leading edge to a trailing edge, the leading and trailing edges defining a chord length therebetween. The gas turbine engine blade also includes a tip shelf defining an open perimeter recess between the concave surface and a tip shelf wall. The tip shelf wall is spaced between the convex surface and the concave surface and the open perimeter recess extends from a region within 5% of the chord length measured from the leading edge of the airfoil to a region within 5% of the chord length measured from the trailing edge of the airfoil.

    [0069] The gas turbine engine blade of the preceding paragraph can optionally include, additionally and/or alternatively, any one or more of the following steps, features, and/or configurations:

    a squealer pocket defining a closed perimeter recess between the tip shelf wall and a squealer tip wall extending congruently from the convex surface, wherein the closed perimeter recess extends from a region within 5% of the chord length measured from the leading edge of the airfoil to terminate in a region between 25% and 80% of the chord length measured from the trailing edge of the airfoil;

    the open perimeter recess defined by the tip shelf extends from an intersection of the convex and concave surfaces at the trailing edge and around the leading edge of the airfoil onto the convex surface, the open perimeter recess and the tip shelf terminating on the convex surface proximate the leading edge;

    a plurality of cooling holes formed in the tip shelf at the leading edge and proximate to the concave surface;



    [0070] Any relative terms or terms of degree used herein, such as "substantially", "essentially", "generally" and the like, should be interpreted in accordance with and subject to any applicable definitions or limits expressly stated herein. In all instances, any relative terms or terms of degree used herein should be interpreted to broadly encompass any relevant disclosed embodiments as well as such ranges or variations as would be understood by a person of ordinary skill in the art in view of the entirety of the present disclosure, such as to encompass ordinary manufacturing tolerance variations, incidental alignment variations, transitory vibrations and sway movements, temporary alignment or shape variations induced by operational conditions, and the like.

    [0071] While this invention has been described with reference to exemplary embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention, without departing from the essential scope thereof. Therefore, the invention is not limited to the particular embodiments disclosed herein, but includes all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. An airfoil (21) comprising:

    a pressure surface (52) and a suction surface (54) extending from a root section (48) of the airfoil (21) to a tip section (42) of the airfoil (21);

    a leading edge (44) and a trailing edge (46) defining a chord length (L) of the airfoil (21) therebetween; and

    a tip shelf (38) formed along the tip section (42) of the airfoil (21) between the pressure surface (52) and a tip shelf wall (56), wherein the tip shelf wall (56) is spaced between the pressure surface (52) and the suction surface (54), the tip shelf (38) defining an open perimeter recess between the pressure surface (52) and the tip shelf wall (56), the open perimeter recess extending from a region within 5% of the chord length (L) measured from the leading edge (44) of the airfoil (21), the open perimeter recess defined by the tip shelf (38) extending from the trailing edge (46) and around the leading edge (44) of the airfoil (21) onto the suction surface (54), and the open perimeter recess and the tip shelf (38) terminating on the suction surface (54) proximate the leading edge (44);

    characterised in that:
    the tip shelf (38) comprises a step (76) disposed between 55% and 25% of the chord length (L) measured from the trailing edge (46) of the airfoil (21), wherein the step (76) shifts a portion of the tip shelf (38) generally radially outward toward the tip section (42).


     
    2. The airfoil (21) of claim 1, wherein the airfoil (21) further comprises:
    a squealer pocket (40) formed along the tip section (42) of the airfoil (21) between the tip shelf wall (56) and a squealer tip wall (58) extending from the suction surface (54).
     
    3. The airfoil (21) of claim 1 or 2, wherein the tip shelf (38) extends around the leading edge (44) and onto the suction surface (54) to terminate on the suction surface (54) between the leading edge (44) and the trailing edge (46) of the airfoil (21), the leading edge (44) further comprising an indentation (68) formed on the leading edge (44), the indentation (68) extending along the leading edge (44) between the root section (48) of the airfoil (21) and the tip section (42) of the airfoil (21), and wherein the indentation (68) intersects the tip shelf (38) at the leading edge (44).
     
    4. The airfoil (21) of claim 3, further comprising a plurality of cooling holes (74) formed in the indentation (68) formed on the leading edge (44) of the airfoil (21), wherein at least one of the plurality of cooling holes (74) formed in the indentation (68) extends partially in a radial direction.
     
    5. The airfoil (21) of claim 4, wherein at least one of the plurality of cooling holes (74) formed in the indentation (68) includes a transition opening that tapers inward into the leading edge (44) of the airfoil (21).
     
    6. The airfoil (21) of any preceding claim, wherein the tip shelf (38) extends to the trailing edge (46) of the airfoil (21) such that the tip shelf (38) communicates with both the pressure surface (52) and the suction surface (54) proximate to the trailing edge (46).
     
    7. The airfoil (21) of any preceding claim, further comprising a plurality of cooling holes (62) formed in the tip shelf (38) proximate the pressure surface (52) of the airfoil (21), wherein the plurality of cooling holes (62) are arranged in at least two rows on the tip shelf (38) for a first portion of the chord length (L) and the plurality of cooling holes (62) are arranged in a single row for a second portion of the chord length (L).
     
    8. The airfoil (21) of any preceding claim, further comprising a plurality of cooling holes (72) formed in the tip shelf (38) proximate the leading edge (44) of the airfoil (21), wherein at least one of the plurality of cooling holes (72) formed in the tip shelf (38) extends at least partially in a radial direction.
     
    9. The airfoil (21) of claim 8, wherein at least one of the plurality of cooling holes (72) formed in the tip shelf (38) proximate the leading edge (44) of the airfoil (21) includes a transition opening that tapers inward into the tip shelf (38), and an oval cross-sectional profile.
     
    10. The airfoil (21) of any preceding claim, further comprising:
    a squealer pocket (40) defining a closed perimeter recess between the tip shelf wall (56) and a squealer tip wall (58) extending congruently from the suction surface (54), wherein the closed perimeter recess extends from a region within 5% of the chord length (L) measured from the leading edge (44) of the airfoil (21) to terminate in a region between 25% and 80% of the chord length (L) measured from the trailing edge (46) of the airfoil (21).
     
    11. The airfoil (21) of any preceding claim, further comprising a plurality of cooling holes (62) formed in the tip shelf (38) at the leading edge (44) and proximate to the pressure surface (52).
     
    12. The airfoil (21) of claim 11, wherein each of the plurality of cooling holes (62) formed in the tip shelf (38) includes a transition opening that tapers inward into the tip shelf (38).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Schaufel (21), die Folgendes umfasst:

    eine Druckfläche (52) und eine Ansaugfläche (54), die sich von einem Wurzelbereich (48) der Schaufel (21) zu einem Spitzenbereich (42) der Schaufel (21) erstrecken;

    eine Vorderkante (44) und eine Hinterkante (46), die eine Sehnenlänge (L) der Schaufel (21) dazwischen definieren; und

    einen Spitzensockel (38), der entlang des Spitzenbereichs (42) der Schaufel (21) zwischen der Druckfläche (52) und einer Spitzensockelwand (56) ausgebildet ist, wobei die Spitzensockelwand (56) zwischen der Druckseite (52) und der Ansaugseite (54) beabstandet ist, wobei der Spitzensockel (38) eine offene Umfangsvertiefung zwischen der Druckfläche (52) und der Spitzensockelwand (56) definiert, wobei die offene Umfangsvertiefung sich von einer Region innerhalb von 5 % der Sehnenlänge (L) von der Vorderkante (44) der Schaufel (21) gemessen erstreckt, wobei die offene Umfangsvertiefung, die durch den Spitzensockel (38) definiert ist, sich von der Hinterkante (46) und um die Vorderkante (44) der Schaufel (21) auf die Ansaugfläche (54) erstreckt und die offene Umfangsvertiefung und der Spitzensockel (38) auf der Ansaugfläche (54) in der Nähe der Vorderkante (44) enden;

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass:
    der Spitzensockel (38) eine Stufe (76) umfasst, die zwischen 55 % und 25 % der Sehnenlänge (L) von der Hinterkante (46) der Schaufel (21) gemessen angeordnet ist, wobei die Stufe (76) einen Abschnitt des Spitzensockels (38) im Allgemeinen radial nach außen in Richtung des Spitzenbereichs (42) verschiebt.


     
    2. Schaufel (21) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Schaufel (21) ferner Folgendes umfasst:
    eine Squealertasche (40), die entlang des Spitzenbereichs (42) der Schaufel (21) zwischen der Spitzensockelwand (56) und einer Squealerspitzenwand (58), die sich von der Ansaugfläche (54) erstreckt, ausgebildet ist.
     
    3. Schaufel (21) nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der Spitzensockel (38) sich um die Vorderkante (44) und auf die Ansaugfläche (54) erstreckt, um auf der Ansaugfläche (54) zwischen der Vorderkante (44) und der Hinterkante (46) der Schaufel (21) zu enden, wobei die Vorderkante (44) ferner eine Einbuchtung (68) umfasst, die auf der Vorderkante (44) ausgebildet ist, wobei die Einbuchtung (68) sich entlang der Vorderkante (44) zwischen dem Wurzelbereich (48) der Schaufel (21) und dem Spitzenbereich (42) der Schaufel (21) erstreckt, und wobei die Einbuchtung (68) den Spitzensockel (38) an der Vorderkante (44) schneidet.
     
    4. Schaufel (21) nach Anspruch 3, ferner umfassend eine Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (74), die in der Einbuchtung (68) ausgebildet sind, die an der Vorderkante (44) der Schaufel (21) ausgebildet ist, wobei mindestens eines der Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (74), die in der Einbuchtung (68) ausgebildet sind, sich teilweise in eine radiale Richtung erstreckt.
     
    5. Schaufel (21) nach Anspruch 4, wobei mindestens eines der Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (74), die in der Einbuchtung (68) ausgebildet sind, eine Übergangsöffnung einschließt, die sich nach innen in die Vorderkante (44) der Schaufel (21) verjüngt.
     
    6. Schaufel (21) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der Spitzensockel (38) sich derart zu der Hinterkante (46) der Schaufel (21) erstreckt, dass der Spitzensockel (38) in der Nähe der Hinterkante (46) sowohl mit der Druckfläche (52) als auch mit der Ansaugfläche (54) kommuniziert.
     
    7. Schaufel (21) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend eine Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (62), die in dem Spitzensockel (38) in der Nähe der Druckfläche (52) der Schaufel (21) ausgebildet sind, wobei die Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (62) für einen ersten Abschnitt der Sehnenlänge (L) in mindestens zwei Reihen auf dem Spitzensockel (38) angeordnet sind und die Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (62) für einen zweiten Abschnitt der Sehnenlänge (L) in einer einzigen Reihe angeordnet sind.
     
    8. Schaufel (21) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend eine Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (72), die in dem Spitzensockel (38) in der Nähe der Vorderkante (44) der Schaufel (21) ausgebildet sind, wobei mindestens eines der Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (72), die in dem Spitzensockel (38) ausgebildet sind, sich mindestens teilweise in eine radiale Richtung erstreckt.
     
    9. Schaufel (21) nach Anspruch 8, wobei mindestens eines der Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (72), die in dem Spitzensockel (38) in der Nähe der Vorderkante (44) der Schaufel (21) ausgebildet sind, eine Übergangsöffnung, die sich nach innen in den Spitzensockel (38) verjüngt, und ein ovales Querschnittsprofil einschließt.
     
    10. Schaufel (21) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend:
    eine Squealertasche (40), die eine geschlossene Umfangsvertiefung zwischen der Spitzensockelwand (56) und einer Squealerspitzenwand (58), die sich kongruent von der Ansaugfläche (54) erstreckt, definiert, wobei die geschlossene Umfangsvertiefung sich von einer Region innerhalb von 5 % der Sehnenlänge (L) von der Vorderkante (44) der Schaufel (21) gemessen erstreckt, um in einer Region zwischen 25 % und 80 % der Sehnenlänge (L) gemessen von der Hinterkante (46) der Schaufel (21) zu enden.
     
    11. Schaufel (21) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend eine Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (62), die in dem Spitzensockel (38) an der Vorderkante (44) und in der Nähe der Druckfläche (52) ausgebildet sind.
     
    12. Schaufel (21) nach Anspruch 11, wobei jedes der Vielzahl von Kühllöchern (62), die in dem Spitzensockel (38) ausgebildet sind, eine Übergangsöffnung einschließt, die sich nach innen in den Spitzensockel (38) verjüngt.
     


    Revendications

    1. Profil aérodynamique (21) comprenant :

    une surface de pression (52) et une surface d'aspiration (54) s'étendant d'une section d'emplanture (48) du profil aérodynamique (21) à une section de pointe (42) du profil aérodynamique (21) ;

    un bord d'attaque (44) et un bord de fuite (46) définissant une longueur de corde (L) du profil aérodynamique (21) entre eux ; et

    un rebord (38) formé le long de la section de pointe (42) du profil aérodynamique (21) entre la surface de pression (52) et une paroi de rebord (56), dans lequel la paroi de rebord (56) est espacée entre la surface de pression (52) et la surface d'aspiration (54), le rebord (38) définissant un évidement de périmètre ouvert entre la surface de pression (52) et la paroi de rebord (56), l'évidement de périmètre ouvert s'étendant d'une région située à moins de 5 % de la longueur de corde (L) mesurée à partir du bord d'attaque (44) du profil aérodynamique (21), l'évidement de périmètre ouvert défini par le rebord (38) s'étendant du bord de fuite (46) et autour du bord d'attaque (44) du profil aérodynamique (21) sur la surface d'aspiration (54), et l'évidement de périmètre ouvert et le rebord (38) se terminant sur la surface d'aspiration (54) à proximité du bord d'attaque (44) ;

    caractérisé en ce que :
    le rebord (38) comprend un redan (76) disposé entre 55 % et 25 % de la longueur de corde (L) mesurée à partir du bord de fuite (46) du profil aérodynamique (21), dans lequel le redan (76) déplace une partie du rebord (38) généralement radialement vers l'extérieur en direction de la section de pointe (42).


     
    2. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le profil aérodynamique (21) comprend en outre :
    une poche de nervure d'amincissement (40) formée le long de la section de pointe (42) du profil aérodynamique (21) entre la paroi de rebord (56) et une paroi de pointe de nervure d'amincissement (58) s'étendant à partir de la surface d'aspiration (54).
     
    3. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel le rebord (38) s'étend autour du bord d'attaque (44) et sur la surface d'aspiration (54) pour se terminer sur la surface d'aspiration (54) entre le bord d'attaque (44) et le bord de fuite (46) du profil aérodynamique (21), le bord d'attaque (44) comprenant en outre une indentation (68) formée sur le bord d'attaque (44), l'indentation (68) s'étendant le long du bord d'attaque (44) entre la section d'emplanture (48) du profil aérodynamique (21) et la section de pointe (42) du profil aérodynamique (21), et dans lequel l'indentation (68) se croise avec le rebord (38) au niveau du bord d'attaque (44) .
     
    4. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon la revendication 3, comprenant en outre une pluralité de trous de refroidissement (74) formée dans l'indentation (68) formée sur le bord d'attaque (44) du profil aérodynamique (21), dans lequel au moins l'un de la pluralité de trous de refroidissement (74) formée dans l'indentation (68) s'étend partiellement dans une direction radiale.
     
    5. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon la revendication 4, dans lequel au moins l'un de la pluralité de trous de refroidissement (74) formée dans l'indentation (68) comprend une ouverture de transition qui se rétrécit vers l'intérieur du bord d'attaque (44) du profil aérodynamique (21).
     
    6. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel le rebord (38) s'étend jusqu'au bord de fuite (46) du profil aérodynamique (21) de sorte que le rebord (38) communique avec les deux surfaces de pression (52) et la surface d'aspiration (54) à proximité du bord de fuite (46).
     
    7. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, comprenant en outre une pluralité de trous de refroidissement (62) formée dans le rebord (38) à proximité de la surface de pression (52) du profil aérodynamique (21), dans lequel la pluralité de trous de refroidissement (62) est disposée sur au moins deux rangées sur le rebord (38) pour une première partie de la longueur de corde (L) et la pluralité de trous de refroidissement (62) est disposée sur une seule rangée pour une seconde partie de la longueur de corde (L).
     
    8. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, comprenant en outre une pluralité de trous de refroidissement (72) formée dans le rebord (38) à proximité du bord d'attaque (44) du profil aérodynamique (21), dans lequel au moins l'un de la pluralité de trous de refroidissement (72) formée dans le rebord (38) s'étend au moins partiellement dans une direction radiale.
     
    9. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon la revendication 8, dans lequel au moins l'un de la pluralité de trous de refroidissement (72) formée dans le rebord (38) à proximité du bord d'attaque (44) du profil aérodynamique (21) comprend une ouverture de transition qui se rétrécit vers l'intérieur du rebord (38), et un profil de section transversale ovale.
     
    10. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, comprenant en outre :
    une poche de nervure d'amincissement (40) définissant un évidement de périmètre fermé entre la paroi de rebord (56) et une paroi de pointe de nervure d'amincissement (58) s'étendant de manière congruente de la surface d'aspiration (54), dans lequel l'évidement de périmètre fermé s'étend d'une région située à moins de 5 % de la longueur de corde (L) mesurée à partir du bord d'attaque (44) du profil aérodynamique (21) pour se terminer dans une région entre 25 % et 80 % de la longueur de corde (L) mesurée à partir du bord de fuite (46) du profil aérodynamique (21).
     
    11. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, comprenant en outre une pluralité de trous de refroidissement (62) formée dans le rebord (38) au niveau du bord d'attaque (44) et à proximité de la surface de pression (52).
     
    12. Profil aérodynamique (21) selon la revendication 11, dans lequel chacun de la pluralité de trous de refroidissement (62) formée dans le rebord (38) comprend une ouverture de transition qui se rétrécit vers l'intérieur du rebord (38).
     




    Drawing
































    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description