(19)
(11)EP 3 119 314 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
06.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/19

(21)Application number: 15764121.8

(22)Date of filing:  17.03.2015
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61B 34/30  (2016.01)
A61B 18/00  (2006.01)
A61B 90/00  (2016.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2015/021074
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/142930 (24.09.2015 Gazette  2015/38)

(54)

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR BREAKAWAY CLUTCHING IN AN ARTICULATED ARM

SYSTEM UND VERFAHREN ZUR LÖSBAREN KUPPLUNG IN EINEM GELENKARM

SYSTÈME ET PROCÉDÉ D'EMBRAYAGE DE SÉPARATION DANS UN BRAS ARTICULÉ


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 17.03.2014 US 201461954120 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
25.01.2017 Bulletin 2017/04

(60)Divisional application:
20161333.8

(73)Proprietor: Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • MILLER, Daniel
    Sunnyvale, California 94086 (US)
  • SWARUP, Nitish
    Sunnyvale, California 94087 (US)
  • TURNER, Michael
    Sunnyvale, California 94086 (US)
  • HOURTASH, Arjang M.
    Santa Clara, California 95051 (US)
  • GRIFFITHS, Paul G.
    Santa Clara, California 95054 (US)
  • MOHR, Paul W.
    Mountain View, California 9040 (US)

(74)Representative: MacDougall, Alan John Shaw et al
Mathys & Squire LLP The Shard 32 London Bridge Street
London SE1 9SG
London SE1 9SG (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
DE-A1-102011 004 371
US-A- 4 606 695
US-A1- 2011 264 112
US-A1- 2014 052 154
US-A- 4 592 697
US-A- 4 717 003
US-A1- 2014 052 154
US-B2- 8 401 702
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS



    [0001] The present disclosure claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/954,120 entitled "System and Method for Breakaway Clutching in an Articulated Arm" filed March 17, 2014.

    TECHNICAL FIELD



    [0002] The present disclosure relates generally to operation of devices with articulated arms and more particularly to breakaway clutching of the articulated arms.

    BACKGROUND



    [0003] More and more devices are being replaced with autonomous and semiautonomous electronic devices. This is especially true in the hospitals of today with large arrays of autonomous and semiautonomous electronic devices being found in operating rooms, interventional suites, intensive care wards, emergency rooms, and the like. For example, glass and mercury thermometers are being replaced with electronic thermometers, intravenous drip lines now include electronic monitors and flow regulators, and traditional hand-held surgical instruments are being replaced by computer-assisted medical devices.

    [0004] These electronic devices provide both advantages and challenges to the personnel operating them. Many of these electronic devices may be capable of autonomous or semiautonomous motion of one or more articulated arms and/or end effectors. Before these articulated arms and their end effectors may be used, they are typically moved to or near a desired working position and orientation. This movement may be performed by teleoperation or remote operation using one or more user input controls. As the complexity of these electronic devices increases and the articulated arms include large numbers of degrees of freedom, movement into the desired working position and orientation by teleoperation may become complex and/or time consuming. To streamline this operation, some articulated arms include a clutched or float state where one or more of the brakes and/or the actuators on the joints of articulated arms are released, allowing an operator to manually change the positions and/or the orientations of the articulated arms via direct manipulation. In this way the articulated arms may be quickly and easily positioned and/or oriented as desired. The clutch or float state is often engaged by manually activating one or more clutch controls on the articulated arm and/or selecting the clutch or float state at an operator console. This type of manual activation may be inconvenient and/or imprudent.

    [0005] Accordingly, improved methods and systems for clutching articulated arms is desirable.

    [0006] US 2014/0052154 A1 discloses robotic and/or surgical devices, systems, and methods including kinematic linkage structures and associated control systems configured to facilitate preparation of the system for use. One or more kinematic linkage sub-systems may include joints that are actively driven, passive, or a mix of both. A set-up mode employs an intuitive user interface in which one or more joints are initially held static by a brake or joint drive system. The user may articulate the joint(s) by manually pushing against the linkage with a force, torque, or the like that exceeds a manual articulation threshold. Articulation of the moving joints is facilitated by modifying the signals transmitted to the brake or drive system. The system may sense completion of the reconfiguration from a velocity of the joint(s) falling below a threshold, optionally for a desired dwell time. The system may provide a detent-like manual articulation that is not limited to mechanically pre-defined detent joint configurations.

    [0007] US 2011/0264112 A1 discloses telerobotic, telesurgical, and/or surgical robotic devices, systems, and methods which employ surgical robotic linkages that may have more degrees of freedom than an associated surgical end effector in space. A processor can calculate a tool motion that includes pivoting of the tool motion that includes pivoting of the tool about an aperture site. Linkages movable along a range of configurations for a given end effector position may be driven toward configurations which inhibit collisions. Refined robotic linkages and method for their use are also provided.

    SUMMARY



    [0008] The present invention provides a computer-assisted medical device according to independent claim 1 comprising: an articulated arm comprising a plurality of joints and a control unit coupled to the articulated arm and comprising one or more processors, wherein the control unit: operates at least one joint in a locked state and a float state, wherein movement of the at least one joint is restricted in the locked state, and wherein movement of the at least one joint is permitted in the float state; switches the at least one joint from the locked state to the float state when a stimulus on a first subset of the plurality of joints exceeds an unlock threshold; switches the at least one joint from the float state to the locked state when a velocity of a second subset of the plurality of joints is below a lock threshold; and on a condition that the at least one joint is in the float state, commands the at least one joint to a commanded position or a commanded velocity, wherein the commanded position is based on an actual position of the at least one joint, and wherein the commanded velocity is based on an actual velocity of the at least one joint; wherein each joint of the plurality of joints has a respective lock threshold and a respective unlock threshold, and wherein: each of the unlock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint, or each of the lock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint.

    [0009] The present invention also provides a method according to independent claim 14 of moving a medical device to a desired working position and orientation prior to using the medical device, the method comprising: operating at least one joint of an articulated arm comprising a plurality of joints in a locked state and a float state, wherein movement of the at least one joint is restricted in the locked state, and wherein movement of the at least one joint is permitted in the float state; switching the at least one joint from the locked state to the float state when a stimulus on a first subset of the plurality of joints exceeds an unlock threshold; switching the at least one joint from the float state to the locked state when a velocity of a second subset of the plurality of joints is below a lock threshold; and on a condition that the at least one joint is in the float state, commanding the at least one joint to a commanded position or a commanded velocity, wherein the commanded position is based on an actual position of the at least one joint, and wherein the commanded velocity is based on an actual velocity of the at least one joint; wherein each joint of the plurality of joints has a respective lock threshold and a respective unlock threshold, and wherein: each of the unlock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint, or each of the lock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint.

    [0010] The present invention also provides a non-transitory machine-readable medium comprising according to independent claim 15 a plurality of machine-readable instructions which when executed by one or more processors associated with a medical device are adapted to cause the one or more processors to perform a method comprising: operating at least one joint of an articulated arm of the medical device, the articulated arm comprising a plurality of joints in a locked state and a float state, wherein movement of the at least one joint is restricted in the locked state, and wherein movement of the at least one joint is permitted in the float state; switching the at least one joint from the locked state to the float state when a stimulus on a first subset of the plurality of joints exceeds an unlock threshold; switching the at least one joint from the float state to the locked state when a velocity of a second subset of the plurality of joints is below a lock threshold; and on a condition that the at least one joint is in the float state, commanding the at least one joint to a commanded position or a commanded velocity, wherein the commanded position is based on an actual position of the at least one joint, and wherein the commanded velocity is based on an actual velocity of the at least one joint; wherein each joint of the plurality of joints has a respective lock threshold and a respective unlock threshold, and wherein: each of the unlock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint, or each of the lock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint. Preferred embodiments are defined by the dependent claims.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0011] 

    Figure 1 is a simplified diagram of a computer-assisted system according to some embodiments.

    Figure 2 is a simplified diagram showing an articulated arm according to some embodiments.

    Figure 3 is a simplified diagram of a method of breakaway clutching according to some embodiments.



    [0012] In the figures, elements having the same designations have the same or similar functions.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0013] In the following description, specific details are set forth describing some embodiments consistent with the present disclosure. Various optional exemplary embodiments and aspects are disclosed that do not form part of the invention but are described merely to aid in understanding the invention. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art, however, that some embodiments may be practiced without some or all of these specific details. The specific embodiments disclosed herein are meant to be illustrative but not limiting. One skilled in the art may realize other elements that, although not specifically described here, are within the scope of this disclosure. In addition, to avoid unnecessary repetition, one or more features shown and described in association with one embodiment may be incorporated into other embodiments unless specifically described otherwise or if the one or more features would make an embodiment non-functional.

    [0014] Figure 1 is a simplified diagram of a computer-assisted system 100 according to some embodiments. As shown in Figure 1, computer-assisted system 100 includes a device 110 with one or more movable or articulated arms 120. Each of the one or more articulated arms 120 may support one or more end effectors. In some examples, device 110 may be consistent with a computer-assisted surgical device. The one or more articulated arms 120 each provide support for surgical instruments, imaging devices, and/or the like. Device 110 may further be coupled to an operator workstation (not shown), which may include one or more master controls for operating the device 110, the one or more articulated arms 120, and/or the end effectors. In some embodiments, device 110 and the operator workstation may correspond to a da Vinci® Surgical System commercialized by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. of Sunnyvale, California. In some embodiments, computer-assisted surgical devices with other configurations, fewer or more articulated arms, and/or the like may be used with computer-assisted system 100.

    [0015] Device 110 is coupled to a control unit 130 via an interface. The interface may include one or more cables, connectors, and/or buses and may further include one or more networks with one or more network switching and/or routing devices. Control unit 130 includes a processor 140 coupled to memory 150. Operation of control unit 130 is controlled by processor 140. And although control unit 130 is shown with only one processor 140, it is understood that processor 140 may be representative of one or more central processing units, multi-core processors, microprocessors, microcontrollers, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), and/or the like in control unit 130. Control unit 130 may be implemented as a stand-alone subsystem and/or board added to a computing device or as a virtual machine. In some embodiments, control unit may be included as part of the operator workstation and/or operated separately from, but in coordination with the operator workstation.

    [0016] Memory 150 may be used to store software executed by control unit 130 and/or one or more data structures used during operation of control unit 130. Memory 150 may include one or more types of machine readable media. Some common forms of machine readable media may include floppy disk, flexible disk, hard disk, magnetic tape, any other magnetic medium, CD-ROM, any other optical medium, punch cards, paper tape, any other physical medium with patterns of holes, RAM, PROM, EPROM, FLASH-EPROM, any other memory chip or cartridge, and/or any other medium from which a processor or computer is adapted to read.

    [0017] As shown, memory 150 includes a motion control application 160 that may be used to support autonomous and/or semiautonomous control of device 110. Motion control application 160 may include one or more application programming interfaces (APIs) for receiving position, motion, and/or other sensor information from device 110, exchanging position, motion, and/or collision avoidance information with other control units regarding other devices, and/or planning and/or assisting in the planning of motion for device 110, articulated arms 120, and/or the end effectors of device 110. And although motion control application 160 is depicted as a software application, motion control application 160 may be implemented using hardware, software, and/or a combination of hardware and software.

    [0018] In some embodiments, computer-assisted system 100 may be found in an operating room and/or an interventional suite. And although computer-assisted system 100 includes only one device 110 with two articulated arms 120, one of ordinary skill would understand that computer-assisted system 100 may include any number of devices with articulated arms and/or end effectors of similar and/or different design from device 110. In some examples, each of the devices may include fewer or more articulated arms and/or end effectors.

    [0019] Figure 2 is a simplified diagram showing an articulated arm 200 according to some embodiments. For example, the articulated arm 200 may be a portion of one of the articulated arms 120 in device 110. As shown in Figure 2, the articulated arm 200 includes various links and joints. At the most proximal end of the articulated arm 200 is coupled to a platform 210. In some examples, platform 210 may be at a distal end of additional joints and links (not shown) from a computer-assisted device. Coupled to platform 210 is a series of set-up joints and links 220. The set-up joints and links 220 is rotationally coupled to platform 210 via a first set-up linkage joint 222. In some examples, additional set-up links and joints for other articulated arms (not shown) may be rotationally coupled to platform 210 using additional first set-up linkage joints. Coupled to the first set-up linkage joint 222 is a set-up base linkage 224 that is coupled to a proximal end of a set-up linkage extension link 226 via a first set-up linkage prismatic joint 228. A distal end of the set-up linkage extension link 226 is coupled to a proximal end of a set-up linkage vertical link 230 via a second set-up linkage prismatic joint 232. A distal end of the set-up linkage vertical link 230 is rotationally coupled to a proximal end of a support link 234 via a second set-up linkage joint 236. A first rotational joint 238 is coupled to a distal end of the support link 234. The first rotational joint 238 provides rotational control over the additional links and joints located distal to the first rotational joint 238. In some examples, a central axis 250 of the first rotational joint 238 may be aligned with a remote center 290 that may be fixed in location during teleoperation of the articulated arm 200.

    [0020] A coupling link 240 couples the first rotational joint 238 to a second rotational joint 242. The second rotational joint 240 is coupled to a yaw joint 252 via a yaw link 254. Coupled distal to the yaw joint 252 is a parallelogram pitch mechanism 260. At a proximal end of the parallelogram pitch mechanism 260 is a first pitch link 262 coupling the yaw joint 252 to a first pitch joint 264. A second pitch link 266 couples the first pitch joint 264 to a second pitch joint 268. A third pitch link 270 couples the second pitch joint 268 to a third pitch joint 272. An instrument carriage is coupled to the third pitch joint 272 and includes an instrument shaft 280. One or more end effectors may be coupled to a distal end of the instrument shaft 280. In some examples, the parallel pitch mechanism 260 may be controlled to maintain the instrument shaft 280 in alignment with the remote center 290.

    [0021] As shown in Figure 2, the articulated arm 200 includes numerous linkages 224, 226, 230, 234, 240, 254, 262, 266, 270, and 280 whose relative positions and/or orientations may be adjusted using numerous prismatic joints 228 and 232 as well as numerous rotational joints 222, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, and 272. Each of the prismatic and rotational joints may include one or more sensors for sensing position, rotation, movement, force, torque, and/or the like on the respective joints.

    [0022] Depending upon the desired ability to control the articulated arm 200 each of the various joints may be non-actuated or actuated joints. In some examples, a non-actuated joint may not include any actuators so that it is not capable of motion via teleoperation and/or motion control commands from a control unit for the articulated arm 200. In some examples, the non-actuated joint may include a brake the permits the control unit to prevent and/or restrict motion in the non-actuated joint. In the examples, of Figure 2, joints 228, 232, and/or 236 may be non-actuated joints. In some examples, an actuated joint may include one or more actuators that may control motion of the actuated joint via teleoperation and/or motion commands. In some examples, an actuated joint may further include a brake.

    [0023] In some embodiments, to prevent unwanted movement the various joints and links in the articulated arm 200 may be placed in a locked state where each of the non-actuated joint brakes are activated and each of the actuated joint actuators are commanded to hold the actuated joints at a commanded position. In some examples, the locked state may additionally prevent unwanted motion due to gravity acting on the articulated arm 200. Although not shown in Figure 2, the articulated arm 200 may include one or more clutch buttons or controls. In some examples, the clutch buttons may be located at various locations along the instrument carriage. In some examples, additional clutch controls may be activated via operator controls at an operator console. By activating one or more of the clutch buttons or controls, one or more joints of the articulated arm may be switched from the locked state to a clutched or float state in which at least some of the non-actuated joint brakes may be at least partially released and at least some of the of the actuated joint actuators may permit motion of the joint away from the commanded positions. For example, activation of a clutch button located on the articulated arm 200 may place the articulated arm 200 in the float state while other portions of the computer-assisted device coupled to the platform 210 remain in the locked state. While the joints of the articulated arm 200 are in the float state, an operator may manually position and/or orient the articulated arm 200 into a desired working position and orientation.

    [0024] In some embodiments, manual activation of the clutching mechanisms of the articulated arm 200 may not always be practical and/or prudent. In some examples, location of the clutch buttons or controls may not be convenient for easy activation by an operator. In some examples, the operator may not have a free finger and/or hand to operate the clutch controls. In some examples, coordination of the clutch controls with another operator located at an operator console may not be possible and/or practical. In some examples, the operator may not be able to operate the clutch controls without breaking a sterile field established around portions of the articulated arm 200. Thus, it would be advantageous to have at least portions of the articulated arm 200 enter the float state without activation of a clutch control by an operator.

    [0025] In some embodiments, movement of the articulated arm 200 may be desired without manual clutch activation. In some examples, inadvertent collisions may occur between the operator, a patient, and/or an object and one or more links and/or joints of the articulated arm 200. In some examples, these inadvertent collisions may result in injury to the operator, injury to the patient, damage to the object, and/or damage to the articulated arm 200 due to the rigid position and/or orientation being maintained by the articulated arm 200. In some examples, being able to detect an inadvertent collision and have the articulated arm 200 automatically enter the float state may reduce injury to the operator, injury to the patient, damage to the object, and/or damage to the articulated arm 200.

    [0026] Figure 3 is a simplified diagram of a method 300 of breakaway clutching according to some embodiments. One or more of the processes 310-360 of method 300 may be implemented, at least in part, in the form of executable code stored on non-transient, tangible, machine readable media that when run by one or more processors (e.g., the processor 140 in control unit 130) may cause the one or more processors to perform one or more of the processes 310-360. In some embodiments, the method 300 may be performed by an application, such as motion control application 160.

    [0027] At a process 310, a locked state is entered. Joints of an articulated arm, such as articulated arms 120 and/or 200 may be placed in the locked state by default. In the locked state, motion of the articulated arm may be prevented and/or reduced by activating brakes in each of the non-actuated joints of the articulated arm and holding each of the actuated joints of the articulated arm at a respective commanded position using corresponding actuated joint actuators.

    [0028] At a process 320, external stimulus on one or more joints is determined. The one or more sensors associated with each of the joints of the articulated arm are periodically read and/or monitored to determine whether there is any external stimulus being applied to the one or more joints of the articulated arm. In some examples, linear sensors associated with prismatic joints and/or rotation sensors associated with rotational joints are monitored to determine actual positions of respective joints. In some examples, position errors may be determined based on differences between the actual positions and commanded positions in actuated joints and/or braked positions in non-actuated joints. In some examples, the position errors may be converted to approximate forces and/or torques on the respective joints by using one or more kinematic models, inverse Jacobian transposes, and/or control models for the respective joints. In some examples, the forces and/or torques on the respective joints may be measured using force and/or torque sensors, respectively, monitoring the respective joints. In some examples, joint velocities of the actuated joints may also be determined using one or more velocity sensors associated with actuated joints or numerically based on changes in the actual positions of the actuated joints.

    [0029] At a process 330, it is determined whether the external stimulus on any of the joints exceeds an unlock threshold. The external stimulus values of each of the joints determined during process 320 is compared to one or more unlock thresholds to see whether any of the unlock thresholds are exceeded. According to the invention, joints of the articulated arm are switched to the float state using a process 340 when any one of the external joint stimulus values exceeds a respective unlock threshold. In some examples, joints of the articulated arm may be switched to the float state when a combination of two or more of the external joint stimulus values exceed respective unlock thresholds. In some examples, joints of the articulated arm may be switched to the float state when a weighted and/or un-weighted aggregation of external stimulus values from two or more joints exceeds a composite unlock threshold. In some examples, the aggregation may include an average, a median, a sum of squares, a minimum, a maximum, and/or like.

    [0030] According to the invention, each of the unlock thresholds for the respective joints are different depending upon the location and/or purpose of the respective joints in the articulated arm. In some examples, the unlock thresholds may be adjusted based on a current pose, position, and/or orientation of the articulated arm. In some examples, the unlock threshold for a respective joint may be adjusted and/or disabled when the respective joint is beyond a soft stop near an end of possible motion for the respective joint. In some examples, the float state may be activated by default when the respective joint is beyond a soft stop. According to the invention, determination of whether the external stimulus exceeds a threshold is limited to a subset of the joints in the articulated arm. In some examples, external stimulus on non-actuated joints, which are braked, may not be monitored during process 320 and may not have corresponding unlock thresholds. In some examples, the unlock thresholds may be adjusted based on a size and/or a mass of the articulated arm. In some examples, the unlock thresholds may be large enough to avoid accidental switching to the float state due to gravitational forces and/or errors in the joint sensors.

    [0031] In some examples, an unlock threshold may correspond to a threshold value associated with a position error between an actual position of a joint and a commanded and/or braked position of the joints. In some examples, the threshold value may be between 0.02 and 5 millimeters for a prismatic joint. In some examples, the threshold value may be between 0.03 and 0.5 degrees for a rotational joint. In some examples, one or more unlock thresholds may correspond to a force and/or torque being applied to the joint, either as measured and/or as determined during process 320. In some examples, the threshold value may be between 1 and 30 N for a force on a prismatic joint. In some examples, the threshold value may be between 1 and 30 N-m for a torque on a rotational joint. In some examples, the threshold value may exceed a force and/or torque saturation value for the joint.

    [0032] In some embodiments, the unlock thresholds should be exceeded for a predetermined period of time before switching the articulated arm to the float state. In some examples, joints of the articulated arm may be switched to the float state when a respective external stimulus value exceeds a corresponding unlock threshold continuously for the predetermined period of time. In some examples, joints of the articulated arm may be switched to the float state when an aggregate, such as an average, of a respective external stimulus value over the predetermined period of time exceeds a respective stimulus value. In some examples, a sliding window and/or exponential smoothing may be used to determine the aggregate. In some examples, a filter may be used on the sensed external stimulus which puts an emphasis on mid-frequencies in order to better isolate disturbances due to human intention from disturbances due to gravity and other environmental factors which may be at low frequencies. In some examples, the mid-frequencies may extend from approximately 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz. In some examples, a discrete wavelet transform may be used in place of or combined with a filter to better isolate disturbances due to human intention. In some examples, the predetermined period of time may be set by an operator. In some examples, the predetermined period of time may be between 50 and 150 milliseconds. In some examples, the predetermined period of time may be different a first time breakaway clutching is activated, to avoid accidental switching to the float state due to residual momentum in the articulated arm due to other recently completed motion and/or static disturbances from the environment being confused with user input. In some examples, the locked state should be established with the external stimulus below the unlock threshold for a predetermined period of time before the first time breakaway clutching is activated, to avoid accidental switching to the float state due to likely transient situations, such as when an articulated arm is undocked from a patient, an end effector is attached or removed from the articulated arm, and/or the like. In some examples, the predetermined time may be extended between an additional 100 and 250 milliseconds after breakaway clutching is enabled.

    [0033] When the external stimulus does not exceed the one or more unlock thresholds, the external stimulus is determined again using process 320. When the external stimulus exceeds the one or more unlock thresholds, joints of the articulated arm are switched to the float state using process 340.

    [0034] At the process 340, the float state is entered. One or more of the joints of the articulated arm are placed in a float state where free and/or mostly free movement of the joints is permitted. According to the invention, the joints being placed in the float state is a subset of the joints in the articulated arm. In some examples, this permits breakaway clutching to apply to those portions of the articulated arm subject to the external stimulus. In some examples, the brakes on each of the non-actuated joints being placed in the float state may be released allowing motion of each of the non-actuated joints. In some examples, each of the actuated joints being placed in the float state may be commanded to move to the actual positions determined during process 320 or while the actuated joints remain in the float state. In some examples, each of the actuated joints being placed in the float state may also be commanded to match the joint velocities determined during process 320 or while the actuated joints remain in the float state. In some examples, setting the command positions of a feedback controller of the actuated joints to the actual positions and/or the command velocities of the feedback controller to the actual joint velocities gives the impression that the actuated joints are moving freely, and when gravity compensation is also being applied, then also with the impression of apparent weightlessness.

    [0035] In some embodiments, the movement of the joints in the float state may be subject to damping. To reduce and/or prevent unrestricted and/or wild movement of the articulated arm while in the float state, one or more of the joints placed in the float state may be subject to some form of damped motion. For example, it may not be desirable for an articulated arm subject to a strong external stimulus, such as a hard collision, to move away from the strong external stimulus without some limitation. Constraining the clutched movement may reduce the risks of injury and/or damage caused by a fast moving articulated arm. In some examples, the damped motion may be implemented on non-actuated joints by partially releasing the brakes so as to place a drag on movement of the non-actuated joints. In some examples, the brakes may be partially released by controlling one or more voltage, currents, duty cycles, and/or the like of signals used to control the brakes. In some examples, the damped motion may be implemented on actuated joints by commanding the actuated joints to move a portion of the distance behind the actual position based on direction of motion, by increasing a derivative constant in the feedback controller without significantly affecting its stability margins, and/or by introducing a backward current and/or voltage on the actuators of the actuated joints to emulate a resisting force and/or torque. In some examples, the damped motion may be implemented on actuated joints by commanding the velocities of the actuated joints to a value below the joint velocities determined during process 320 or while the actuated joints remain in the float state. In some examples, the damped motion may be adjusted to account for a current pose, position, and/or orientation of the articulated arm, a size and/or a mass of the articulated arm, and/or the like.

    [0036] In some embodiments, one or more of the joints in the articulated arm that are not placed in the float state may be subject to compliant motion restrictions. In some examples, the joints not placed in the float state may be commanded in response to detected movements of the joints placed in the float state. In some examples, the joints not placed in the float state may be commanded to one or more positions and/or orientations. In the examples, of Figure 2, one or more of the joints in the parallelogram pitch mechanism 260 may be commanded to maintain intersection of the instrument shaft 280 with the central axis 250 at the remote center 290.

    [0037] At a process 350, joint velocities are determined. The one or more sensors associated with each of the joints of the articulated arm are periodically read and/or monitored to determine the velocities of each of the joints that are in the float state. In some examples, changes in linear and/or rotational position between two consecutive monitoring intervals are used to estimate the joint velocities. In some examples, numerical and/or other differentiation techniques may be used to determine the joint velocities from the sensed positions. In some examples, velocity sensors on the joints may be monitored.

    [0038] At a process 360, it is determined whether the joint velocities drop below a lock threshold. During breakaway clutching, the joints of the articulated arm are kept in the float state as long as continued motion of the articulated arm is detected. The joint velocities determined during process 350 are compared to one or more lock thresholds to see whether any continuing motion is detected in the articulated arm. In some examples, each of the joint velocities may be compared to a corresponding lock threshold. When each of the joint velocities is below its corresponding lock threshold, lack of motion is detected and the joints of the articulated arm are switched to the locked state using process 310. In some examples, joints of the articulated arm may be switched to the locked state using process 310 when a weighted and/or un-weighted aggregation of joint velocities from each of the joints is below a composite lock threshold. In some examples, the aggregation may include an average, a median, a sum of squares, a minimum, a maximum, and/or like.

    [0039] According to the invention, each of the lock thresholds for respective joints is different depending upon the location and/or purpose of the respective joints in the articulated arm. In some examples, the lock thresholds may be adjusted based on a current, pose position, and/or orientation of the articulated arm. In some examples, the lock threshold for a respective joint may be adjusted and/or disabled when the respective joint is beyond a soft stop near an end of possible motion for the respective joint. In some examples, the locked state may be activated by default when the respective joint is beyond a soft stop. According to the invention, determination of whether the joint velocities are below the lock thresholds is limited to a subset of the joints in the articulated arm. In some examples, the lock thresholds may be adjusted based on a size and/or a mass of the articulated arm. In some examples, the lock thresholds may be large enough to avoid accidental switching to the lock due to errors in the joint sensors.

    [0040] In some examples, the lock threshold may be between 0.1 and 10 millimeters per second for a prismatic joint. In some examples, the threshold value may be between 0.25 and 10 degrees per second for a rotational joint.

    [0041] In some embodiments, the joint velocities should remain below the lock thresholds for a predetermined period of time before switching the joints of the articulated arm to the locked state. In some examples, joints of the articulated arm may be switched to the locked state when the joint velocities are below a corresponding lock threshold continuously for the predetermined period of time. In some examples, joints of the articulated arm may be switch to the locked state when an aggregate, such as an average, of a respective joint velocity over the predetermined period of time is below a respective lock threshold. In some examples, a sliding window and/or exponential smoothing may be used to determine the aggregate. In some examples, the predetermined period of time may be set by an operator. In some examples, the predetermined period of time may be between 100 and 200 milliseconds.

    [0042] When the joint velocities remain above the lock thresholds, the joint velocities are determined again using process 350. When the joint velocities are below the lock thresholds, the joints of the articulated arm are switched to the locked state using process 310.

    [0043] As discussed above and further emphasized here, Figure 3 is merely an example which should not unduly limit the scope of the claims. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, alternatives, and modifications. According to some embodiments, the breakaway clutching of method 300 may be disabled during certain operating modes of the articulated arm. In some examples, breakaway clutching may be disabled when the articulated arm is in a hard locked state during storage and/or when a cart on which the articulated arm is mounted is being transported between locations. In some examples, breakaway clutching may be disabled when the articulated arm is in an actuated teleoperation mode and/or executing commanded motion, such as when docked to a patient. In some examples, disabling breakaway clutching during actuated operation may reduce the likelihood that manual interference and/or collision with the articulated arm will interfere with the teleoperation and/or commanded motion and thus reduce the further likelihood of damaging objects being manipulated and/or causing injury to a patient on which the articulated arm is being used. In some examples, breakaway clutching may be adjusted, forced, or disabled when any of the joints in the articulated arm is beyond a soft stop position.

    [0044] Some examples of control units, such as control unit 130 may include non-transient, tangible, machine readable media that include executable code that when run by one or more processors (e.g., processor 140) may cause the one or more processors to perform the processes of method 300. Some common forms of machine readable media that may include the processes of method 300 are, for example, floppy disk, flexible disk, hard disk, magnetic tape, any other magnetic medium, CD-ROM, any other optical medium, punch cards, paper tape, any other physical medium with patterns of holes, RAM, PROM, EPROM, FLASH-EPROM, any other memory chip or cartridge, and/or any other medium from which a processor or computer is adapted to read.

    [0045] Although illustrative embodiments have been shown and described, a wide range of modification, change and substitution is contemplated in the foregoing disclosure and in some instances, some features of the embodiments may be employed without a corresponding use of other features. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, alternatives, and modifications. Thus, the scope of the invention should be limited only by the following claims.


    Claims

    1. A computer-assisted medical device (100) comprising:

    an articulated arm (120) comprising a plurality of joints; and

    a control unit (130) coupled to the articulated arm (120) and comprising one or more processors (140), wherein the control unit (130) is configured to:

    operate at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in a locked state and a float state, wherein movement of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is restricted in the locked state, and wherein movement of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is permitted in the float state;

    switch the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the locked state to the float state when a stimulus on a first subset of the plurality of joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) exceeds an unlock threshold;

    switch the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the float state to the locked state when a velocity of a second subset of the plurality of joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is below a lock threshold; and

    on a condition that the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is in the float state, command the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) to a commanded position or a commanded velocity, wherein the commanded position is based on an actual position of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), and wherein the commanded velocity is based on an actual velocity of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272);

    wherein each joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) of the plurality of joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) has a respective lock threshold and a respective unlock threshold, and wherein:

    each of the unlock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), or

    each of the lock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272).


     
    2. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein the lock or unlock threshold is altered based on a current pose, position, or orientation of the articulated arm (120).
     
    3. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein
    the control unit (130) switches the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the locked state to the float state when the stimulus on the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) exceeds the unlock threshold by: switching the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the locked state to the float state when an aggregate stimulus on the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) over a predetermined period of time exceeds respective stimulus value.
     
    4. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein
    the control unit (130) switches the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the locked state to the float state when the stimulus on the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) exceeds the unlock threshold by: switching the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the locked state to the float state when the stimulus on the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) exceeds the unlock threshold continuously for a predetermined period of time; or
    the control unit (130) switches the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the locked state to the float state when the stimulus on the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) exceeds the unlock threshold by: holding the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in the locked state for a predetermined period of time before switching the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) to the float state a first time.
     
    5. The device (100) of any of claims 1 to 4 wherein the stimulus corresponds to:

    a position error between a commanded position of the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) and a current position of the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), wherein the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) comprises one or more actuated joints (222, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272); or

    a position error of the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) between a braked position of the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) and a current position of the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), wherein the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) comprises one or more non-actuated joints (228, 232, 236); or

    a force or a torque on the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272).


     
    6. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein
    the control unit (130) switches the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the float state to the locked state when the velocity of the second subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is below the lock threshold by: switching the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the float state to the locked state when an aggregate of the velocity of the second subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) over a predetermined period of time is below the lock threshold; or
    the control unit (130) switches the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the float state to the locked state when the velocity of the second subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is below the lock threshold by: switching the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the float state to the locked state when the velocity of the second subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is below the lock threshold continuously for the predetermined period of time.
     
    7. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein the at least one joint comprises a first joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) and a second joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), and wherein the control unit (130) switches the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the float state to the locked state when the velocity of the second subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is below the lock threshold by:
    switching both of the first and second joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the float state to the locked state when the velocity on each of the joints of the second subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is below a respective lock threshold.
     
    8. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein
    the unlock threshold is based on whether one or more joints of the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is beyond a soft stop position.
     
    9. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein
    the lock threshold is based on whether one or more joints of the second subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is beyond a soft stop position.
     
    10. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein
    the control unit (130) switches the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the locked state to the float state when the first subset (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is beyond a soft stop position.
     
    11. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is a non-actuated joint (228, 232, 236), and wherein:

    the control unit (130) activates one or more brakes on the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in the locked state, or

    the control unit (130) at least partially releases the one or more brakes on the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in the float state.


     
    12. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is an actuated joint, and wherein
    the control unit (130) holds the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) to a commanded position in the locked state, or
    the control unit (130) commands the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) to the actual position in the float state, or
    the control unit (130) commands the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) to the actual velocity in the float state.
     
    13. The device (100) of claim 1 wherein the control unit (130) prevents switching of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) to the float state when the articulated arm (120) is in a predetermined operating mode, wherein the predetermined operating mode comprises a mode selected from a group consisting of: a transport mode, a teleoperation mode, a commanded motion mode, and a docked to a patient mode.
     
    14. A method of moving a medical device (100) to a desired working position and orientation prior to using the medical device, the method comprising:

    operating at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) of an articulated arm (120) comprising a plurality of joints in a locked state and a float state, wherein movement of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is restricted in the locked state, and wherein movement of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is permitted in the float state;

    switching the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the locked state to the float state when a stimulus on a first subset of the plurality of joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) exceeds an unlock threshold;

    switching the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the float state to the locked state when a velocity of a second subset of the plurality of joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is below a lock threshold; and

    on a condition that the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is in the float state, commanding the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) to a commanded position or a commanded velocity, wherein the commanded position is based on an actual position of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), and wherein the commanded velocity is based on an actual velocity of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272);

    wherein each joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) of the plurality of joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) has a respective lock threshold and a respective unlock threshold, and wherein:

    each of the unlock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), or

    each of the lock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272).


     
    15. A non-transitory machine-readable medium (150) comprising a plurality of machine-readable instructions which when executed by one or more processors (140) associated with a medical device (100) are adapted to cause the one or more processors (140) to perform a method comprising:

    operating at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) of an articulated arm (120) of the medical device (100), the articulated arm (120) comprising a plurality of joints in a locked state and a float state, wherein movement of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is restricted in the locked state, and wherein movement of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is permitted in the float state;

    switching the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the locked state to the float state when a stimulus on a first subset of the plurality of joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) exceeds an unlock threshold;

    switching the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) from the float state to the locked state when a velocity of a second subset of the plurality of joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is below a lock threshold; and

    on a condition that the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) is in the float state, commanding the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) to a commanded position or a commanded velocity, wherein the commanded position is based on an actual position of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), and wherein the commanded velocity is based on an actual velocity of the at least one joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272);

    wherein each joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) of the plurality of joints (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) has a respective lock threshold and a respective unlock threshold, and wherein:

    each of the unlock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), or

    each of the lock thresholds is determined based on the respective joint (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272).


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Computerassistierte medizinische Vorrichtung (100), die Folgendes umfasst:

    einen Gelenkarm (120) mit mehreren Gelenken; und

    eine Steuereinheit (130), die mit dem Gelenkarm (120) gekoppelt ist und einen oder mehrere Prozessoren (140) umfasst, wobei die Steuereinheit (130) konfiguriert ist zum:

    Betätigen wenigstens eines Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in einem verriegelten Zustand und einem Schwebezustand, wobei die Bewegung des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im verriegelten Zustand eingeschränkt ist und wobei die Bewegung des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im Schwebezustand zugelassen wird;

    Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom verriegelten Zustand in den Schwebezustand, wenn ein Reiz auf einem ersten Teilsatz der mehreren Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) eine Entriegelungsschwelle übersteigt;

    Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom Schwebezustand in den verriegelten Zustand, wenn eine Geschwindigkeit eines zweiten Teilsatzes der mehreren Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) unter einer Verriegelungsschwelle liegt; und

    Befehlen, unter der Bedingung, dass das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im Schwebezustand ist, des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in eine befohlene Position oder eine befohlene Geschwindigkeit, wobei die befohlene Position auf einer Ist-Position des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) basiert und wobei die befohlene Geschwindigkeit auf einer Ist-Geschwindigkeit des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) basiert;

    wobei jedes Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) der mehreren Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) eine jeweilige Verriegelungsschwelle und eine jeweilige Entriegelungsschwelle hat, und wobei:

    jede der Entriegelungsschwellen auf der Basis des jeweiligen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) bestimmt wird, oder

    jede der Verriegelungsschwellen auf der Basis des jeweiligen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) bestimmt wird.


     
    2. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Ver-oder Entriegelungsschwelle auf der Basis einer aktuellen Lage, Position oder Orientierung des Gelenkarms (120) verändert wird.
     
    3. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom verriegelten Zustand in den Schwebezustand umschaltet, wenn der Reiz auf dem ersten Teilsatz (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) die Entriegelungsschwelle übersteigt, durch Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom verriegelten Zustand in den Schwebezustand, wenn ein Gesamtreiz auf dem ersten Teilsatz (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) über eine vorbestimmte Zeitperiode einen jeweiligen Reizwert übersteigt.
     
    4. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom verriegelten Zustand in den Schwebezustand umschaltet, wenn der Reiz auf dem ersten Teilsatz (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) die Entriegelungsschwelle übersteigt, durch Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom verriegelten Zustand in den Schwebezustand, wenn der Reiz auf dem ersten Teilsatz (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) die Entriegelungsschwelle kontinuierlich für eine vorbestimmte Zeitperiode übersteigt; oder
    die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom verriegelten Zustand in den Schwebezustand umschaltet, wenn der Reiz auf dem ersten Teilsatz (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) die Entriegelungsschwelle übersteigt, durch Halten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im verriegelten Zustand für eine vorbestimmte Zeitperiode vor dem erstmaligen Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in den Schwebezustand.
     
    5. Vorrichtung (100) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei der Reiz Folgendem entspricht:

    einem Positionsfehler zwischen einer befohlenen Position des ersten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) und einer aktuellen Position des ersten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), wobei der erste Teilsatz (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) ein oder mehrere betätigte Gelenke (222, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) umfasst; oder

    einem Positionsfehler des ersten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) zwischen einer gebremsten Position des ersten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) und einer aktuellen Position des ersten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), wobei der erste Teilsatz (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) ein oder mehrere nicht betätigte Gelenke (228, 232, 236) umfasst; oder

    einer Kraft oder einem Drehmoment auf dem ersten Teilsatz (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272).


     
    6. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei
    die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom Schwebezustand in den verriegelten Zustand umschaltet, wenn die Geschwindigkeit des zweiten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) unter der Verriegelungsschwelle liegt, durch Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom Schwebezustand in den verriegelten Zustand, wenn eine Geschwindigkeitssumme des zweiten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) über eine vorbestimmte Zeitperiode unter der Verriegelungsschwelle liegt; oder
    die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom Schwebezustand in den verriegelten Zustand umschaltet, wenn die Geschwindigkeit des zweiten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) unter der Verriegelungsschwelle liegt, durch Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom Schwebezustand in den verriegelten Zustand, wenn die Geschwindigkeit des zweiten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) für eine vorbestimmte Zeitperiode kontinuierlich unter der Verriegelungsschwelle liegt.
     
    7. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das wenigstens eine Gelenk ein erstes Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) und ein zweites Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) umfasst und wobei die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom Schwebezustand in den verriegelten Zustand umschaltet, wenn die Geschwindigkeit des zweiten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) unter der Verriegelungsschwelle liegt, durch
    Umschalten sowohl der ersten als auch der zweiten Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom Schwebezustand in den verriegelten Zustand, wenn die Geschwindigkeit auf jedem der Gelenke des zweiten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) unter einer jeweiligen Verriegelungsschwelle liegt.
     
    8. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Entriegelungsschwelle darauf basiert, ob ein oder mehrere Gelenke des ersten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) jenseits einer Soft-Stop-Position sind.
     
    9. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei
    die Verriegelungsschwelle darauf basiert, ob ein oder mehrere Gelenke des zweiten Teilsatzes (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) jenseits einer Soft-Stop-Position sind.
     
    10. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom verriegelten Zustand in den Schwebezustand umschaltet, wenn der erste Teilsatz (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) jenseits einer Soft-Stop-Position ist.
     
    11. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) ein nicht betätigtes Gelenk (228, 232, 236) ist, und wobei:

    die Steuereinheit (130) eine oder mehrere Bremsen an dem wenigstens einen Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im verriegelten Zustand aktiviert, oder

    die Steuereinheit (130) die ein oder mehreren Bremsen an dem wenigstens einen Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im Schwebezustand wenigstens teilweise löst.


     
    12. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) ein betätigtes Gelenk ist und wobei
    die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in einer befohlenen Position im verriegelten Zustand hält, oder
    die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in die Ist-Position im Schwebezustand befiehlt, oder
    die Steuereinheit (130) das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in die Ist-Geschwindigkeit im Schwebezustand befiehlt.
     
    13. Vorrichtung (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Steuereinheit (130) ein Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in den Schwebezustand verhindert, wenn der Gelenkarm (120) in einem vorbestimmten Betriebsmodus ist, wobei der vorbestimmte Betriebsmodus einen Modus umfasst, der ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus einem Transportmodus, einem Teleoperationsmodus, einem befohlenen Bewegungsmodus und einem an einem Patienten angedockten Modus.
     
    14. Verfahren zum Bewegen einer medizinischen Vorrichtung (100) in eine gewünschte Arbeitsposition und - orientierung vor dem Benutzen der medizinischen Vorrichtung, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes beinhaltet:

    Betätigen wenigstens eines Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) eines Gelenkarms (120), der mehrere Gelenke in einem verriegelten Zustand und einem Schwebezustand umfasst, wobei die Bewegung des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im verriegelten Zustand eingeschränkt ist und wobei die Bewegung des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im Schwebezustand zugelassen wird;

    Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom verriegelten Zustand in den Schwebezustand, wenn ein Reiz auf einem ersten Teilsatz der mehreren Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) eine Entriegelungsschwelle übersteigt;

    Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom Schwebezustand in den verriegelten Zustand, wenn eine Geschwindigkeit eines zweiten Teilsatzes der mehreren Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) unter einer Verriegelungsschwelle liegt; und

    Befehlen, unter der Bedingung, dass das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im Schwebezustand ist, des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in eine befohlene Position oder eine befohlene Geschwindigkeit, wobei die befohlene Position auf einer Ist-Position des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) basiert und wobei die befohlene Geschwindigkeit auf einer Ist-Geschwindigkeit des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) basiert;

    wobei jedes Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) der mehreren Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) eine jeweilige Verriegelungsschwelle und eine jeweilige Entriegelungsschwelle hat, und wobei:

    jede der Entriegelungsschwellen auf der Basis des jeweiligen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) bestimmt wird oder

    jede der Verriegelungsschwellen auf der Basis des jeweiligen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) bestimmt wird.


     
    15. Nichtflüchtiges maschinenlesbares Medium (150), das mehrere maschinenlesbare Anweisungen umfasst, die bei Ausführung durch einen oder mehrere mit einer medizinischen Vorrichtung (100) assoziierte Prozessoren (140) ausgelegt sind zum Bewirken, dass die ein oder mehreren Prozessoren (140) ein Verfahren durchführen, das Folgendes beinhaltet:

    Betätigen wenigstens eines Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) eines Gelenkarms (120) der medizinischen Vorrichtung (100), wobei der Gelenkarm (120) mehrere Gelenke in einem verriegelten Zustand und einem Schwebezustand umfasst, wobei eine Bewegung des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im verriegelten Zustand eingeschränkt ist und wobei eine Bewegung des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im Schwebezustand zugelassen wird;

    Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom verriegelten Zustand in den Schwebezustand, wenn ein Reiz auf einem ersten Teilsatz der mehreren Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) eine Entriegelungsschwelle übersteigt;

    Umschalten des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) vom Schwebezustand in den verriegelten Zustand, wenn eine Geschwindigkeit eines zweiten Teilsatzes der mehreren Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) unter einer Verriegelungsschwelle liegt; und

    Befehlen, unter der Bedingung, dass das wenigstens eine Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) im Schwebezustand ist, des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) in eine befohlene Position oder eine befohlene Geschwindigkeit, wobei die befohlene Position auf einer Ist-Position des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) basiert und wobei die befohlene Geschwindigkeit auf einer Ist-Geschwindigkeit des wenigstens einen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) basiert;

    wobei jedes Gelenk (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) der mehreren Gelenke (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) eine jeweilige Verriegelungsschwelle und eine jeweilige Entriegelungsschwelle hat, und wobei:

    jede der Entriegelungsschwellen auf der Basis des jeweiligen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) bestimmt wird oder

    jede der Verriegelungsschwellen auf der Basis des jeweiligen Gelenks (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) bestimmt wird.


     


    Revendications

    1. Dispositif médical assisté par ordinateur (100) comprenant :

    un bras articulé (120) comprenant une pluralité d'articulations; et

    une unité de commande (130) couplée au bras articulé (120) et comprenant un ou plusieurs processeurs (140), dans lequel l'unité de commande (130) est configurée pour :

    faire fonctionner au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dans un état verrouillé et un état flottant, dans lequel le mouvement de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est limité dans l'état verrouillé, et dans lequel le mouvement de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est autorisé dans l'état flottant;

    faire passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état verrouillé à l'état flottant lorsqu'un stimulus sur un premier sous-ensemble de la pluralité d'articulations (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dépasse un seuil de déverrouillage;

    faire passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état flottant à l'état verrouillé lorsque la vitesse d'un second sous-ensemble de la pluralité d'articulations (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est inférieure à un seuil de verrouillage; et

    à condition que la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) soit dans l'état flottant, commander la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dans une position commandée ou une vitesse commandée, dans lequel la position commandée est basée sur une position réelle de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), et dans lequel la vitesse commandée est basée sur une vitesse réelle de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) ;

    dans lequel chaque articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de la pluralité d'articulations (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) a un seuil de verrouillage respectif et un seuil de déverrouillage respectif, et dans lequel :

    chacun des seuils de déverrouillage est déterminé en fonction de l'articulation respective (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), ou

    chacun des seuils de verrouillage est déterminé en fonction de l'articulation respective (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272).


     
    2. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le seuil de verrouillage ou de déverrouillage est modifié sur la base d'une pose, d'une position ou d'une orientation actuelles du bras articulé (120).
     
    3. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel
    l'unité de commande (130) fait passer ladite au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état verrouillé à l'état flottant lorsque le stimulus sur le premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dépasse le seuil de déverrouillage en : faisant passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état verrouillé à l'état flottant lorsqu'un stimulus global sur le premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) sur une période de temps prédéterminée dépasse la valeur de stimulus respective.
     
    4. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel
    l'unité de commande (130) fait passer ladite au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état verrouillé à l'état flottant lorsque le stimulus sur le premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dépasse le seuil de déverrouillage en : faisant passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état verrouillé à l'état flottant lorsque le stimulus sur le premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dépasse le seuil de déverrouillage de façon continue pendant une période de temps prédéterminée; ou
    l'unité de commande (130) fait passer ladite au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état verrouillé à l'état flottant lorsque le stimulus sur le premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dépasse le seuil de déverrouillage en : maintenant la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dans l'état verrouillé pendant une période de temps prédéterminée avant le passage de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) à l'état flottant une première fois.
     
    5. Dispositif (100) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel le stimulus correspond à :

    une erreur de position entre une position commandée du premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) et une position actuelle du premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), dans lequel le premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) comprend une ou plusieurs articulations actionnées (222, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) ; ou

    une erreur de position du premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) entre une position de freinage du premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) et une position actuelle du premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), dans lequel le premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) comprend une ou plusieurs articulations non actionnées (228, 232, 236) ; ou

    une force ou un couple de rotation sur le premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272).


     
    6. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel
    l'unité de commande (130) fait passer ladite au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état flottant à l'état verrouillé lorsque la vitesse du second sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est inférieure au seuil de verrouillage en : faisant passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état flottant à l'état verrouillé lorsqu'une somme de la vitesse du second sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) sur une période de temps prédéterminée est inférieure au seuil de verrouillage; ou
    l'unité de commande (130) fait passer ladite au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état flottant à l'état verrouillé lorsque la vitesse du second sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est inférieure au seuil de verrouillage en : faisant passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état flottant à l'état verrouillé lorsque la vitesse du second sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est inférieure au seuil de verrouillage de façon continue pendant la période de temps prédéterminée.
     
    7. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la au moins une articulation comprend une première articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) et une seconde articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), et dans lequel l'unité de commande (130) fait passer ladite au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état flottant à l'état verrouillé lorsque la vitesse du second sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est inférieure au seuil de verrouillage en :
    faisant passer à la fois la première et la seconde articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état flottant à l'état verrouillé lorsque la vitesse de chacune des articulations du second sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est inférieure à un seuil de verrouillage respectif.
     
    8. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel
    le seuil de déverrouillage est basé sur le fait de savoir si une ou plusieurs articulations du premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) sont au-delà d'une position d'arrêt programmé.
     
    9. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel
    le seuil de verrouillage est basé sur le fait de savoir si une ou plusieurs articulations du second sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) sont au-delà d'une position d'arrêt programmé.
     
    10. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel
    l'unité de commande (130) fait passer ladite au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état verrouillé à l'état flottant lorsque le premier sous-ensemble (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est au-delà d'une position d'arrêt programmé.
     
    11. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est une articulation non actionnée (228, 232, 236), et dans lequel :

    l'unité de commande (130) active un ou plusieurs freins sur la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dans l'état verrouillé, ou

    l'unité de commande (130) libère au moins partiellement le ou les freins sur la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dans l'état flottant.


     
    12. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est une articulation actionnée, et dans lequel
    l'unité de commande (130) maintient la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dans une position commandée dans l'état verrouillé, ou
    l'unité de commande (130) commande la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dans la position réelle dans l'état flottant, ou
    l'unité de commande (130) commande la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) à la vitesse réelle dans l'état flottant.
     
    13. Dispositif (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'unité de commande (130) empêche le passage de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) à l'état flottant lorsque le bras articulé (120) est dans un mode de fonctionnement prédéterminé, dans lequel le mode de fonctionnement prédéterminé comprend un mode choisi dans un groupe constitué par : un mode de transport, un mode de téléopération, un mode de mouvement commandé, et un mode attaché à un patient.
     
    14. Procédé de déplacement d'un dispositif médical (100) vers une position de fonctionnement et une orientation souhaitées avant l'utilisation du dispositif médical, le procédé comprenant de :

    faire fonctionner au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) d'un bras articulé (120) comprenant une pluralité d'articulations dans un état verrouillé et un état flottant, dans lequel le mouvement de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est limité dans l'état verrouillé, et dans lequel le mouvement de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est autorisé dans l'état flottant;

    faire passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état verrouillé à l'état flottant lorsqu'un stimulus sur un premier sous-ensemble de la pluralité d'articulations (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dépasse un seuil de déverrouillage;

    faire passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état flottant à l'état verrouillé lorsque la vitesse d'un second sous-ensemble de la pluralité d'articulations (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est inférieure à un seuil de verrouillage; et

    à condition que la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) soit dans l'état flottant, commander la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dans une position commandée ou une vitesse commandée, dans lequel la position commandée est basée sur une position réelle de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), et dans lequel la vitesse commandée est basée sur une vitesse réelle de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) ;

    dans lequel chaque articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de la pluralité d'articulations (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) a un seuil de verrouillage respectif et un seuil de déverrouillage respectif, et dans lequel :

    chacun des seuils de déverrouillage est déterminé en fonction de l'articulation respective (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), ou

    chacun des seuils de verrouillage est déterminé en fonction de l'articulation respective (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272).


     
    15. Support lisible par machine non transitoire (150) comprenant une pluralité d'instructions lisibles par machine qui, lorsqu'elles sont exécutées par un ou plusieurs processeurs (140) associés à un dispositif médical (100) sont conçues pour amener les un ou plusieurs processeurs (140) à effectuer un procédé comprenant de :

    faire fonctionner au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) d'un bras articulé (120) du dispositif médical (100), le bras articulé (120) comprenant une pluralité d'articulations dans un état verrouillé et un état flottant, dans lequel le mouvement de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est limité dans l'état verrouillé, et dans lequel le mouvement de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est autorisé dans l'état flottant;

    faire passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état verrouillé à l'état flottant lorsqu'un stimulus sur un premier sous-ensemble de la pluralité d'articulations (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dépasse un seuil de déverrouillage;

    faire passer la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de l'état flottant à l'état verrouillé lorsque la vitesse d'un second sous-ensemble de la pluralité d'articulations (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) est inférieure à un seuil de verrouillage; et

    à condition que la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) soit dans l'état flottant, commander la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) dans une position commandée ou une vitesse commandée, dans lequel la position commandée est basée sur une position réelle de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), et dans lequel la vitesse commandée est basée sur une vitesse réelle de la au moins une articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) ;

    dans lequel chaque articulation (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) de la pluralité d'articulations (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272) a un seuil de verrouillage respectif et un seuil de déverrouillage respectif, et dans lequel :

    chacun des seuils de déverrouillage est déterminé en fonction de l'articulation respective (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272), ou

    chacun des seuils de verrouillage est déterminé en fonction de l'articulation respective (222, 228, 232, 236, 238, 242, 262, 264, 268, 272).


     




    Drawing












    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description