(19)
(11)EP 3 122 334 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 15716288.4

(22)Date of filing:  26.03.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 9/14(2006.01)
A61K 9/28(2006.01)
C12Q 1/6886(2018.01)
A61K 9/20(2006.01)
C12Q 1/68(2018.01)
A61K 31/541(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2015/022792
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/148828 (01.10.2015 Gazette  2015/39)

(54)

PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS OF A PAN-RAF KINASE INHIBITOR, PROCESSES FOR THEIR PREPARATION, AND METHODS OF USE

PHARMAZEUTISCHE FORMULIERUNGEN EINES PAN-RAF-KINASEHEMMERS, VERFAHREN ZU DEREN HERSTELLUNG UND VERFAHREN ZUR VERWENDUNG

FORMULATION PHARMACEUTIQUE D'UN INHIBITEUR DE LA KINASE PAN-RAF, SES PROCÉDÉS DE PRÉPARATION, ET PROCÉDÉS D'UTILISATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
MA

(30)Priority: 26.03.2014 US 201461970595 P
10.09.2014 US 201462048527 P
25.03.2015 PK 1622015
25.03.2015 UY 36046

(43)Date of publication of application:
01.02.2017 Bulletin 2017/05

(73)Proprietor: Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Cambridge, MA 02139 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • BRAKE, Rachael, L.
    Natick, MA 01760 (US)
  • BOZON, Viviana
    West Newton, MA 02465 (US)
  • CHOW, Ching-kuo, J.
    Littleton, MA 01460 (US)
  • DINUNZIO, James, C.
    Bridgewater, NJ 08807 (US)
  • GALVIN, Katherine, M.
    Newton, MA 02459 (US)
  • KANNAN, Karuppiah
    Newton, MA 02465 (US)
  • KODONO, Yuki
    Osaka-shi Osaka 541-0045 (JP)
  • XU, Qunli
    Wellesley, MA 02481 (US)

(74)Representative: Harris, Jennifer Lucy et al
Kilburn & Strode LLP Lacon London 84 Theobalds Road
London WC1X 8NL
London WC1X 8NL (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2013/144923
WO-A2-2009/006389
  
  • MACAULEY D ET AL: "American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 103<rd> Annual Meeting Chicago, Illinois, USA - March 31-April 4, 2012", DRUGS OF THE FUTURE, PROUS SCIENCE, ES, vol. 37, no. 6, 1 June 2012 (2012-06-01), pages 451-455, XP009173753, ISSN: 0377-8282, DOI: 10.1358/DOF.2012.37.6.1820866
  • ZIAI JAMES ET AL: "BRAF mutation testing in clinical practice", EXPERT REVIEW OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS, EXPERT REVIEWS LTD, GB, vol. 12, no. 2, 1 March 2012 (2012-03-01), pages 127-138, XP008176589, ISSN: 1744-8352, DOI: 10.1586/ERM.12.1
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] This application contains a Sequence Listing which is submitted herewith in electronically readable format. The electronic Sequence Listing file was created on March 19, 2015, is named "sequencelisting.txt" and has a size of 21 kb. The entire contents of the Sequence Listing in the electronic sequencelisting.txt file are incorporated herein by this reference.

[0002] The present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the pan-Raf kinase inhibitor (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide (Compound 1) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and processes for their preparation, as defined in the claims. The present invention also relates to the use of these compositions in methods of treating cancer, said methods comprising administering the compositions to a patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen.

[0003] Compound 1 has the chemical structure (A):



[0004] Compound 1 is a potent, small molecule class II pan-Raf kinase inhibitor being developed for the treatment of solid tumors, including locally advanced, metastatic, and/or unresectable melanoma and BRAF and NRAS mutation-positive cancers. The RAF kinases (A-RAF, BRAF, and C-RAF) are key components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that controls cell proliferation and survival signaling. (Downward J. Nature Reviews. Cancer 2003;3(1):11-22; Wellbrock C, et al. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 2004;5(11):875-85). The MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway is a central signal transduction pathway that is dysregulated in a large number of developmental disorders. The MAPK pathway, which is composed of RAS, RAF, MAPK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), integrates signals from receptors on the cell surface including cancer-related receptor tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor, mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Avruch J., Biochim Biophys Acta 2007;1773(8):1150-60). Genetic alterations in the MAPK pathway are among the most common in human cancers. Up to 60% of melanomas harbor BRAF mutations (Davies H., et al. Nature 2002;417(6892):949-54) and KRAS mutations have been estimated in roughly 60%, 30%, and 15% of pancreatic, colon, and lung tumors, respectively (Vakiani E, et al. J Pathol 2011;223(2):219-29). BRAF mutations are also found in 40% of papillary or anaplastic thyroid cancers (Kimura ET, et al. Cancer Res 2003;63(7):1454-7) and in a small percentage of several other types of tumor (Vakiani E, et al.). A majority of reported BRAF mutations are a substitution of glutamic acid for valine at the amino acid position of 600 (the V600E mutation). The BRAF V600E mutation constitutively activates BRAF and downstream signal transduction in the MAPK pathway (Davies H., et al.).

[0005] Compound 1 is an inhibitor of wild-type and mutant Raf kinases and is currently in Phase I clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors followed by a dose expansion in patients with BRAF and NRAS mutation-positive cancers. Compound 1, its preparation and its use in the treatment of Raf-mediated diseases is disclosed in WO 2009/006389, filed June 30, 2008. Additionally, WO 2013/144923 discloses methods for the treatment of non-BRAFV600E mutant melanoma in patients comprising administering a Raf inhibitor and a MEK inhibitor.

[0006] The advancement of Compound 1 has been somewhat hampered by its physical characteristics, specifically its bioavailability. For example, Compound 1 has low aqueous solubility and a moderate log p. Both can adversely affect is oral bioavailability. Any improvement in the physical characteristics of Compound 1, would potentially offer a more beneficial therapy. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a pharmaceutical composition comprising Compound 1 that is stable and which allows for rapid dissolution and enhanced oral bioavailability. Furthermore, it is believed that the efficacy of Compound 1 correlates with drug exposure. Accordingly, it is desirable to be able to administer Compound 1 at the highest possible dose i.e., the highest possible dose at which the side-effect profile is acceptable. A dosing regimen that achieves a higher exposure thereby would provide a meaningful benefit in the treatment of patients with Compound 1. For examples, the dosing regimen of the present invention provides effective treatment of cancer, NRAS and BRAF positive-mutated cancer.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0007] The present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions as described herein with superior properties, including rapid dissolution and increased oral bioavailability. The present invention also provides processes for the preparation of said pharmaceutical compositions. Furthermore, the present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions for use in the improved treatment of cancer, with an intermittent dosing regimen. Accordingly, the present invention relates to the following:
  1. 1) A pharmaceutical composition comprising (1) a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.
  2. 2) A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition, which comprises the steps of:
    1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
    2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.
  3. 3) A pharmaceutical composition for use in a method for the treatment of cancer (for example NRAS or BRAF positive-mutated cancer) in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering an effective amount of said pharmaceutical composition comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, to the patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once or twice a week and the total amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 1000 mg.
  4. 4) A pharmaceutical composition as defined above for use in treatment of a patient diagnosed with cancer, the patient determined as one in which there is an increased likelihood of pharmacological effectiveness of treatment by a method comprising subjecting a nucleic acid sample from a cancer (tumor) sample from the patient to BRAF or NRAS mutational testing or PCR, wherein the presence of at least one mutation in BRAF or NRAS gene indicates an increased likelihood of pharmacological effectiveness of the treatment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0008] 

Figure 1A is a flow diagram illustrating a representative process for the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions of the invention corresponding to tablets produced according to Example 1, 2, or 3.

Figure 1B is a flow diagram illustrating a representative process for the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions of the invention corresponding to tablets produced according to Examples 1, 4, 5, and 6.

Figure 2 is an X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) of Compound 1 tablets, capsules and constituent raw materials used in the manufacture of animal trial and stability samples.

Figure 3 is a dissolution profile for compositions of the invention used in preclinical bioavailability studies (Example 6). Diamond = tablet; Square = capsule.

Figure 4 is a graph which shows the mean plasma profiles over time for formulations of Compound 1 prepared by hot melt extrusion (HME) and spray drying (SDD) in tablet (Tab) and capsule (Cap) form (Example 6).

Figure 5 is a graph which shows the potency difference as a function of the premixing process (bag blend vs. high shear mixing) (Example 7).

Figure 6 is an XRPD spectrum of a solid dispersion extrudate of Compound 1 and copovidone produced according to Example 1, procedure 2.

Figures 7A is an HPLC trace of a solid dispersion extrudate of Compound 1 and copovidone produced according to Example 1, procedure 2.

Figure 7B is an HPLC trace of Compound 1 solid dispersion extrudate produced according to Example 1, procedure 2.

Figure 8 is a representative XRPD pattern of crystalline Compound 1.



[0009] The present invention provides a process for the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition with improved absorption. Compound 1 exhibits a low solubility (< 1 mg/ml) and a moderate log p (3.63), thus the bioavailability of Compound 1 is limited by its solubility. We have found that the dissolution property of Compound 1 can be improved by making amorphous solid dispersions prepared by hot melt extrution. According to the process of the present invention, it is possible to provide, from Compound 1, a formulation wherein the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of the drug are high. Furthermore, the solid dispersion extrudate of the present invention has superior stability at room temperature.

[0010] The pharmaceutical composition of the present invention has superior effects as a medicament in NRAS and/or BRAF positive-mutated cancers. The pharmaceutical composition of the present invention can be administered orally and safely to a patient.

[0011] The present invention provides compositions for use in a method for the treatment of cancer in a patient, wherein the cancer has an NRAS or BRAF positive-mutation, by intermittent administration of said pharmaceutical composition as described here, wherein the intermittent dosing regimen is a weekly administration and the amount administered each week is from 400 mg to 1000 mg. The intermittent dosing regimen provides a higher unit dose, which allows for the achievement of higher concentrations of Compound 1 and a higher degree of pathway inhibition for a window of time within the dosing interval, without compromising overall dose density.

[0012] It is believed, without being bound by theory, that the strong clinical benefits afforded by the pharmaceutical compositions disclosed herein result from improved bioavailability and higher exposures of Compound 1.

Definitions:



[0013] 

As used herein, the term "Compound 1" means the compound (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide. Additional chemical names for Compound 1 are 6-amino-5-chloro-N-[(1R)-1-[5-[[[5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]amino]carbonyl]-2-thiazolyl]ethyl]-4-pyrimidinecarboxamide and 6-amino-5-chloro-N[(1R)-1-(5-{[5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]carbamoyl}-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)ethyl]pyrimidine-4-carboxamide. The chemical structure of Compound 1 is:

As used herein, "effective amount" means an amount of a therapeutic substance (e.g., a composition of the invention) that is (1) sufficient upon appropriate administration to a patient (a) to cause a detectable decrease in the severity of the disorder or disease state being treated; (b) to ameliorate or alleviate the patient's symptoms of the disease or disorder; or (c) to slow or prevent advancement of, or otherwise stabilize or prolong stabilization of, the disorder or disease state being treated (e.g., prevent additional tumor growth of a cancer); and (2) equal to or less than the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). In any form or composition, the clinically effective amount can be expressed as amount of therapeutic substance per patient BSA, e.g., as mg/m2.

As used herein, "patient" means a human being diagnosed with, exhibiting symptoms of or otherwise believed to be afflicted with a disease, disorder or condition.

As used herein, the illustrative terms "include", "such as", "for example" and the like (and variations thereof, e.g., "includes" and "including", "examples"), unless otherwise specified, are intended to be non-limiting. That is, unless explicitly stated otherwise, such terms are intended to imply "but not limited to", e.g., "including" means including but not limited to.

The terms "about" and "approximately" as used herein, are interchangeable, and should generally be understood to refer to a range of numbers around a given number, as well as to all numbers in a recited range of numbers (e.g., "about 5 to 15" means "about 5 to about 15" unless otherwise stated). Moreover, all numerical ranges herein should be understood to include each whole integer within the range.

"Crospovidone" is a cross-linked homopolymer of vinyl pyrrolidone (VP). One brand of crospovidone is Polyplasdone® XL-10.

The term "vinylpyrrolidione-vinyl acetate copolymer" means a polymer comprising vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate. Names and abbreviations for vinylpyrrolidione-vinyl acetate copolymer include, but are not limited to, copovidone, copovidonum, copolyvidone, copovidon, PVP-VAc-Copolymer. Copovidone is a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer comprised of 6 parts of vinylpyrrolidone and 4 parts of vinyl acetate e.g., CAS 25086-89-9. Examples of copovidone commercial products are Kollidon® VA 64 and Kollidon® 64 Fine. Another example is "Plasdone S-630," a 60:40 random copolymer of N-vinyl pyrrolidinone and vinyl acetate.

"Eudragit®" is an anionic copolymer based on methacrylic acic and methyl methacrylate.

"HPMCAS" refers to hypromellose acetate succinate, a polymer containing acetyl and succinoyl groups. There are different types of HPMCAS, which dissolve at different pHs.

"Poloxamer" is a nonionic triblock copolymer composed of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide)) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene.

"w/w" means by weight. For example, 40% w/w means that the mass of the substance is 40% of the total mass of the solution or mixture. For example, 40% extrudate w/w is 3400 g (1360 g Compound 1 + 2040 g copovidone) of a composition having a total mass of 8500 g.

As used herein, the term "substantially amorphous" refers to a solid material having little or no long range order in the position of its molecules. For example, a substantially amorphous material has less than about 30% crystallinity (e.g., less than about 25% crystallinity, less than about 20% crystallinity, less than about 15% crystallinity, less than about 10% crystallinity, less than about 5% crystallinity, less than about 4% crystallinity). It is also noted that the term 'substantially amorphous' includes the descriptor, 'amorphous', which refers to a material having no (0%) crystallinity.

As used herein, the term "crystalline" and related terms used herein, when used to describe a substance, component or product is substantially crystalline as determined by X-ray diffraction and/or FT-Raman microscopy.

As used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" refers to those salts which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of humans and lower animals without undue toxicity, irritation, allergic response and the like, and are commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. A "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" means any non-toxic salt of Compound 1 that, upon administration to a recipient, is capable of providing, either directly or indirectly, Compound 1 or an active metabolite or residue thereof.



[0014] Pharmaceutically acceptable salts are well known in the art. For example, S. M. Berge et al., describe pharmaceutically acceptable salts in detail in J. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1977, 66, 1-19. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of Compound 1 include those derived from suitable inorganic and organic acids and bases. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable, nontoxic acid addition salts are salts of an amino group formed with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and perchloric acid or with organic acids such as acetic acid, oxalic acid, maleic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, succinic acid or malonic acid or by using other methods used in the art such as ion exchange. Other pharmaceutically acceptable salts include adipate, alginate, ascorbate, aspartate, benzenesulfonate, benzoate, bisulfate, borate, butyrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, citrate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecylsulfate, ethanesulfonate, formate, fumarate, glucoheptonate, glycerophosphate, gluconate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxy-ethanesulfonate, lactobionate, lactate, laurate, lauryl sulfate, malate, maleate, malonate, methanesulfonate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, nitrate, oleate, oxalate, palmitate, pamoate, pectinate, persulfate, 3-phenylpropionate, phosphate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, stearate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, thiocyanate, p-toluenesulfonate, undecanoate, valerate salts, and the like. Salts derived from appropriate bases include alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, ammonium and N'(C1-4alkyl)4 salts. This invention also envisions the quaternization of any basic nitrogen-containing groups of Compound 1. Water or oil-soluble or dispersable products may be obtained by such quaternization. Representative alkali or alkaline earth metal salts include sodium, lithium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and the like. Further pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, when appropriate, nontoxic ammonium, quaternary ammonium, and amine cations formed using counterions such as halide, hydroxide, carboxylate, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, loweralkyl sulfonate and aryl sulfonate.

Pharmaceutical Compositions



[0015] The present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the pan-Raf kinase inhibitor Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention includes the following embodiments:
Embodiment [1]: A pharmaceutical composition comprising (1) a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.
Embodiment [2]: A pharmaceutical composition comprising (1) from 10% to 50% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) from 50% to 90% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprising a filler, disintegrant, glidant and lubricant.
Embodiment [3]: A pharmaceutical compositions comprising (1) from 10% to 50% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) from 50% to 90% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprising a filler, disintegrant, glidant, lubricant, film-coating agent, colorant, and plasticizer.
Embodiment [4]: A pharmaceutical composition comprising (1) from 20% to 40% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) from 60% to 80% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprising a filler, disintegrant, glidant and lubricant.
Embodiment [5]: A pharmaceutical composition comprising (1) from 20% to 40% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) from 60% to 80% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprising a filler, disintegrant, glidant, lubricant, film-coating agent, colorant, and plasticizer.
Embodiment [6]: A pharmaceutical composition comprising (1) from 40% to 50% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) from 60% to 50% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprising a filler, disintegrant, glidant and lubricant.
Embodiment [7]: A pharmaceutical composition comprising (1) from 40% to 50% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) from 60% to 50% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprising a filler, disintegrant, glidant, lubricant, film-coating agent, colorant, and plasticizer.
Embodiment [8]: A pharmaceutical composition in the form of a 5 mg tablet or capsule comprising about 10% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) about 90% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [9]: A pharmaceutical composition in the form of a 20 mg tablet or capsule comprising about 20% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) about 80% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [10]: A pharmaceutical composition in the form of a 70 mg tablet or capsule comprising about 32% w/w/ of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) about 68% of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [11]: A pharmaceutical composition in the form of a 100 mg tablet or capsule comprising about 40% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) about 60% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
The percentage by weight (w/w) of solid dispersion in the pharmaceutical compositions described herein is important for the disintegration rate of the composition. In one aspect, a pharmaceutical composition prepared at about 40% w/w solid dispersion exhibited rapid dissolution, achieving full release in less than 10 minutes.
Embodiment [12]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [11], wherein the solid dispersion extrudate comprises Compound 1.
Embodiment [13]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [11], wherein the solid dispersion extrudate comprises the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of Compound 1.
Embodiment [14]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [13], wherein the vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the copovidone is Kollidon® VA 64. In one aspect, the copovidone is Kollidon® VA 64 Fine.
Embodiment [15]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [14], wherein the solid dispersion extrudate is amorphous.
The amorphous character of the solid dispersion extrudate can be detected using analytical methods, including but not limited to, microscopic methods (scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), hot stage microscopy (HSM)), thermal methods (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) modulated DSC (mDSC), diffraction methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and spectroscopic methods (FT-Infrared (IR), FT-Ramen, solid state NMR (ssNMR) and confocal raman microscopy (CRM)). In one aspect, the amorphous character of the solid dispersion extrudate is detected by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). In one aspect, the solid dispersion extrudate exhibits no residual crystalline character. Figure 6 is an XRPD spectrum of a solid dispersion extrudate produced according to Example 1, procedure 1. The XRPD spectrum shows the amorphous character of the solid dispersion extract.
Embodiment [16]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [15], wherein the glass transition temperature (TG) of the solid dispersion extrudate is from 45 °C to 120 °C.
Embodiment [17]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [16], wherein the glass transition temperature (TG) of the solid dispersion extrudate is from 60 °C to 110 °C.
Embodiment [18]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [17], wherein the solid dispersion extrudate comprises < 3% w/w of the S-enantiomer of 2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide.
In one aspect, the total amount of impurities, including the S-enantiomer of 2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide of the solid dispersion extrudate is less than or equal to 3.0% w/w or more than or equal to 97.0% w/w of the desired R-enantiomer, Compound 1. In one aspect, the total amount of the S-enantiomer is ≤ 3%, ≤ 2.7%, ≤ 2.5%, ≤ 2.3%, ≤ 2.1%, ≤ 1.9%, ≤ 1.7%, ≤ 1.5%, ≤ 1.3%, ≤ 1.1%, ≤ 0.9%, ≤ 0.8%, ≤ 0.7%, ≤ 0.5%, ≤ 0.3%, ≤ 0.1%. Figures 7A and 7B are HPLC traces of a solid dispersion extrudate produced according to the method described in Example 1, procedure 2. Optimization of the conditions of the extrusion process reduces formation of the S-enantiomer.
Embodiment [19]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [18], wherein the amount of Compound 1 is from 3% to 17% w/w.
Embodiment [20]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [19], wherein the amount of is from 7% to 17% w/w.
Embodiment [21]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [20], wherein the amount of Compound 1 is from 8% to 16% w/w.
Embodiment [22]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [8] or [12] through [19], wherein the composition is in the form of a 5 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of Compound 1 is about 4% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [23]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [9], or [12] through [21], wherein the composition is in the form of a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of Compound 1 is about 8% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [24]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [10], or [12] through [21], wherein the composition is in the form of a 70 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of Compound 1 is about 13% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [25]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7] or [11] through [21], wherein the composition is in the form of a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of Compound 1 is about 16% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [26]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [25], wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is from 5% to 25% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is from 5% to 25% w/w.
Embodiment [27]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [26], wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is from 12% to 24% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is from 12% to 24% w/w.
Embodiment [28]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [27], wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is from 11% to 24% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is from 11% to 24% w/w.
Embodiment [29]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [8], [12] through [19], [22], or [26], wherein the composition is in the form of a 5 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is about 6% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is about 6% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [30]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [9], [12] through [21], [23], or [26] through [28], wherein the composition is in the form of a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer about 12% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is about 12% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [31]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [10], [12] through [21], [24], or [26] through [28], wherein the composition is in the form of a 70 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer about 19% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is about 19% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [32]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [11] through [21], or [25] through [28], wherein the composition is in the form of a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is about 24% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is about 24% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [33]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [32], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant, wherein the disintegrant comprises croscarmellose sodium. Croscarmellose sodium serves as a disintegrant for immediate release. Disintegration is a function of the type of superdisintegrant and solid dispersion loading within the formulation.
Embodiment [34]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [33], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant, wherein the disintegrant comprises croscarmellose sodium and wherein the amount of croscarmellose sodium is from 4% to 9% w/w.
Embodiment [35]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [34], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant, wherein the disintegrant comprises croscarmellose sodium and wherein the amount of croscarmellose sodium is from 5% to 8% w/w.
Embodiment [36]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [9], [12] through [23], [26] through [30], or [33] through [35], wherein the composition is in the form of a 5 mg or 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant, wherein the disintegrant comprises croscarmellose sodium and wherein the amount of croscarmellose sodium is about 5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [37]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [8], [12] through [19], [22], [26] through [29], or [33] through [35], wherein the composition is in the form of a 5 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant, wherein the disintegrant comprises croscarmellose sodium and wherein the amount of croscarmellose sodium is about 5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [38]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [9], [12] through [21], [23], [26] through [28], [30], or [33] through [36], wherein the composition is in the form of a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant, wherein the disintegrant comprises croscarmellose sodium and wherein the amount of croscarmellose sodium is about 5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [39]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [10] through [21], [24] through [28], or [31] through [35], wherein the composition is in the form of a 70 or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant, wherein the disintegrant is croscarmellose sodium and wherein the amount of croscarmellose sodium is about 8% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [40]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [11] through [21], [25] through [28], [32] through [35], or [39], wherein the composition is in the form of a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant, wherein the disintegrant is croscarmellose sodium and wherein the amount of croscarmellose sodium is about 8% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [41]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [10], [12] through [21], [24], [26] through [28], [31], [33] through [35], or [39], wherein the composition is in the form of a 70 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant, wherein the disintegrant is croscarmellose sodium and wherein the amount of croscarmellose sodium is about 8% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [42]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [41], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide. In one aspect, colloidal silicon dioxide aids the flow property of the formulation blend (blended powder).
Embodiment [43]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [42], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is 0.5% to 6% w/w.
Embodiment [44]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [43], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is 3% to 6% w/w.
Embodiment [45]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [44], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is from 3.5% to 4.5% w/w.
Embodiment [46]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [45], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is about 4.5% w/w.
Embodiment [47]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [43], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is from 0.5% to 5% w/w.
Embodiment [48]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [43] or [47], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is from 0.5% to 2% w/w.
Embodiment [49]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [43] or [47] through [48], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is about 0.5% w/w. In one aspect, the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide provides increased stability. In one aspect, the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide provides increased hardness of the tablet.
Embodiment [50]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [9], [11] through [23], [25] through [30], [32] through [40], or [42] through [47], wherein the composition is in the form of a 5, 20, or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is about 4.5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [51]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [8], [10] through [22], [24] through [29], [31] through [37], or [39] through [49], wherein the composition is in the form of a 5, 70, or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant, wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is about 0.5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [52]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [51], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose.
Embodiment [53]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [52], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 40% to 81% w/w.
Embodiment [54]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [53], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 46% to 81% w/w.
Embodiment [55]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [53], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 40% to 80% w/w.
Embodiment [56]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [55], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 51% to 74% w/w.
Embodiment [57]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [55], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 47% to 70% w/w.
Embodiment [58]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [8], [12] through [19], [22], [26], [29], [33] through [37], [42] through [47], or [50] through [55], wherein the composition is in the form of a 5 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 80% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [59]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [9], [12] through [21], [23], [26] through [28], [30], [33] through [36], [38], [42] through [47], or [50] through [56], wherein the composition is in the form of a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 70% to 74% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [60]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [9], [12] through [21], [23], [26] through [28], [30], [33] through [36], [38], [42] through [47], or [50] through [57], wherein the composition is in the form of a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 70% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [61]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [9], [12] through [21], [23], [26] through [28], [30], [33] through [36], [38], [42] through [47], or [50] through [56], wherein the composition is in the form of a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 74% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [62]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [10], [12] through [21], [24], [26] through [28], [31], [33] through [35], [39], [42] through [49], or [51] through [57], wherein the composition is in the form of a 70 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 59% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [63]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [11] through [21], [25] through [28], [32] through [35], [39] through [40], or [42] through [57], wherein the composition is in the form of a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 47% to 51%w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [64]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [11] through [21], [25] through [28], [32] through [35], [39] through [40], [42] through [49], [52] through [55], or [57], wherein the composition is in the form of a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 47% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [65]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [11] through [21], [25] through [28], [32] through [35], [39] through [40], [42] through [49], or [52] through [57] , wherein the composition is in the form of a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler, wherein the filler comprises microcrystalline cellulose and wherein the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 51%w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [66]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [65], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant, wherein the lubricant comprises magnesium stearate. In one aspect, magnesium stearate provides lubrication of the formulation during compression.
Embodiment [67]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [66], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant, wherein the lubricant comprises magnesium stearate and wherein the amount of magnesium stearate is from 0.3% to 0.7% w/w.
Embodiment [68]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiment [1] through [67], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant, wherein the lubricant comprises magnesium stearate and wherein the amount of magnesium stearate is from 0.4% to 0.5% w/w.
Embodiment [69]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [68], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant, wherein the lubricant comprises magnesium stearate and wherein the amount of magnesium stearate is about 0.5% w/w.
Embodiment [70]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [69], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant, wherein the lubricant comprises magnesium stearate and wherein the composition is in the form of a 5, 20, 70, or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of magnesium stearate is about 0.5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [71]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [9], [11] through [23], [25] through [30], [32] through [40], [42] through [47], or [48] through [70], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant, wherein the lubricant comprises magnesium stearate and wherein the composition is in the form of a 5, 20, or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of magnesium stearate is about 0.5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [72]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [7], [9] through [21], [23] through [28], [30] through [36], [38] through [57], or [59] through [70], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant, wherein the lubricant comprises magnesium stearate and wherein the composition is in the form of a 20, 70, or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of magnesium stearate is about 0.5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.
Embodiment [73]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [72] may further be film coated.
Embodiment [74]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [73], wherein the amount of film-coating agent by weight based on a core tablet is from 1% to 10% w/w.
Embodiment [75]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [74], wherein the amount of film-coating agent by weigh based on a core tablet is from 1.5% to 7% w/w.
Embodiment [76]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [75], wherein the amount of film-coating agent by weight based on a core tablet from 2% to 5% w/w.
Embodiment [77]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [76], wherein the film coating enveloping the core tablet of the film-coated tablet contains at least one or more pharmacutically acceptable film-forming agents.
Embodiment [78]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [77], wherein the film coating enveloping the core tablet of the film-coated tablet contains at least one or more pharmacutically acceptable film-forming agents, wherein the film-forming agent comprises hypromellose.
Embodiment [79]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [78], wherein the film coating of the film-coated tablet may contain one or more plasticisers and/or one or more colored pigments.
Embodiment [80]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [79], wherein film coating of the film-coated tablet may contain one or more plasticisers and/or one or more colored pigments, wherein the plasticiser comprises polyethylene glycol.
Embodiment [81]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [80], wherein film coating of the film-coated tablet may contain one or more plasticisers and/or one or more colored pigments,and wherein the colored pigments comprise titanium dioxide and ferric oxide.
Embodiment [82]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of any one of embodiments [1] through [81], wherein the film coating of the film-coated tablets comprises from 20% to 95% w/w of film forming agent.
Embodiment [83]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [82], wherein the film coating of the film-coated tablets comprises from 50% to 90 %w/w of film forming agent.
Embodiment [84]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [83], wherein the film coating of the film-coated tablets comprises from 5% to 40% w/w of plasticizer.
Embodiment [85]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [84], wherein the film coating of the film-coated tablets comprises from 8% to 30 % w/w of plasticizer.
Embodiment [86]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [85], wherein the film coating of the film-coated tablets comprises from 0.1% to 10 % w/w of colored pigment.
Embodiment [87]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [86], wherein the film coating of the film-coated tablets comprises from 0.3% to 5 % w/w of colored pigment.
Film coats may be prepared from a premix film coating agent, wherein the premix film coating agent comprises the trade name OPADRY®. Examples of film coating agents include OPADRY® Red 03F45081 (1008 g) (manufactured by COLORCON® JAPAN; containing hypromellose 2910, macrogol 6000, titanium oxide and red ferric oxide) and OPADRY® Yellow 03F42240 (2016 g) (manufactured by COLORCON® JAPAN; containing hypromellose 2910, macrogol 6000, titanium oxide and yellow ferric oxide).
Embodiment [88]: A pharmaceutical composition which is:
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
solid dispersion extrudate 10.0
microcrystalline cellulose 80.0
croscarmellose sodium 5.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 4.5
magnesium stearate 0.5
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
solid dispersion extrudate 20.0
microcrystalline cellulose 70.0
croscarmellose sodium 5.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 4.5
magnesium stearate 0.5
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
solid dispersion extrudate 40
microcrystalline cellulose 47.0
croscarmellose sodium 8.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 4.5
Magnesium stearate 0.5
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
Solid Dispersion Extrudate 20.0
microcrystalline cellulose 74.0
croscarmellose sodium 5.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 0.5
magnesium stearate 0.5
total core tablet 100.0
OPADRY® Red (% of core tablet weight) 4.2
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
Solid Dispersion Extrudate 32.4
microcrystalline cellulose 58.6
croscarmellose sodium 8.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 0.5
magnesium stearate 0.5
total core tablet 100.0
OPADRY® Yellow (% of core tablet weight) 3.3
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
Solid Dispersion Extrudate 40.0
microcrystalline cellulose 51.0
roscarmellose sodium 8.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 0.5
magnesium stearate 0.5
total core tablet 100.0
OPADRY® Red (% of core tablet weight) 1.12
OPADRY® Yellow (% of core tablet weight) 2.24

Embodiment [89]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [88], wherein the pharmaceutical composition is substantially amorphous. In one aspect, the substantially amorphous pharmaceutical composition comprises an amount of crystalline Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one aspect, the amount of crystalline Compound 1 is less than 30%, less than 29%, less than 28%, less than 27%, less than 26%, less than 25%, less than 20%, less than 15%, less than 10%, less than 5%, less than 4%. In one aspect, the substantially amorphous pharmaceutical composition is produced upon recrystallization of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a pharmaceutical composition originally comprising amorphous solid dispersion extrudate.
The amorphous character of a pharmaceutical composition can be detected using analytical methods, including but not limited to, microscopic methods (scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), hot stage microscopy (HSM)), thermal methods (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) modulated DSC (mDSC), diffraction methods (XRPD), and spectroscopic methods (FT-Infrared (IR), FT-Ramen, solid state NMR (ssNMR) and confocal raman microscopy (CRM)). In one aspect, the amorphous character of a pharmaceutical composition is detected by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).
In one aspect, the amount of crystalline substance in a substantially amorphous pharmaceutical composition can be determined using a calibration curve based on samples of variable crystalline content (high and low regions). In one aspect, the amount of crystalline Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a substantially amorphous pharmaceutical composition of the invention may affect the solubility of the composition. In one aspect, the amount of crystalline Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a substantially amorphous pharmaceutical composition of the invention may affect the bioavailability of the composition. In one aspect, less than 30% of crystalline Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a substantially amorphous pharmaceutical composition does not reduce the solubility and/or bioavailability of the composition. In another aspect, less than 29%, less than 28%, less than 27%, less than 26%, less than 24%, less than 25%, less than 20%, less than 15%, less than 10%, less than 5%, less than 4% of crystalline Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a substantially amorphous pharmaceutical composition does not significantly reduce the solubility and/or bioavailability of the composition.
Embodiment [90]: A solid dispersion extrudate comprising comprising (1) Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and (2) a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer.
Embodiment [91]: The solid dispersion extrudate of embodiment [90], comprising (1) from 30% to 50% w/w of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and (2) from 70% to 50% w/w of a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer.
Embodiment [92]: The solid dispersion extrudate of any one of embodiments [90] through [91], comprising (1) from 35% to 45% w/w of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and (2) from 65% to 55% w/w of a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer.
Embodiment [93]: The solid dispersion extrudate of any one of embodiments [90] through [92], comprising (1) about 40% w/w of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and (2) about 60% w/w of a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer.
Embodiment [94]: The solid dispersion of any one of embodiments [90] through [93], wherein the solid dispersion extrudate comprises Compound 1. In one aspect, Compound 1 is present as substantially pure. "Substantially pure" means greater than ninety-five percent pure.
Embodiment [95]: The solid dispersion of any one of embodiments [90] through [93], wherein the solid dispersion extrudate comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of Compound 1.
Embodiment [95A]: The solid dispersion of any one of embodiments [90] through [95], wherein the vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is copovidone.

[0016] Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof used in this invention, may be in crystalline form, amorphous form or substantially amorphous form prior to formulation of the solid dispersion. Figure 8 is a representative XRPD pattern of Compound 1 as a crystalline form.

[0017] It will be understood that any of the above embodiments may be combined to form additional embodiments.

Process for Preparing Pharmaceutical Compositions



[0018] The present invention relates to processes for the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions comprising the pan-Raf kinase inhibitor Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Processes for the preparation of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are explained in the following.

[0019] Specifically, the processes for the preparation of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention generally involve an extrusion process followed by a formulation process. Formation of an inactive chiral impurity was observed and determined to be directly related to the thermal production technique employed, necessitating a significant amount of work for the development of the extrusion process. Incorporation of processing additives such as poloxamer and polysorbate failed to show any significant reduction in the level of chiral impurity formation. Additionally, the processing additives appeared to compromise amorphous stability of the solid dispersion. Process optimization studies ultimately achieved a reduction of impurity formation through control of the extrusion conditions related to melt residence time.

[0020] The extrusion process involves the addition of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer e.g., Kollidon® VA 64 to Compound 1 to form a solid dispersion extrudate. The formulation process involves the addition of microcrystalline cellulose, croscamellose sodium, colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium sterarate to the solid dispersion extrudate produced by the extrusion process to form a pharmaceutical composition of the invention. Figure 1A is a flow diagram illustrating a representative process for the preparation of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention according to Example 1, 2, and 3. In Figure 1, pre-extrusion mixing, melt extrusion, and milling are steps in the extrusion process and pre-blending and final blending are steps in the formulation process. Figure 1B is a flow diagram illustrating a representative process for the preparation of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention produced according to Example 1, 4, 5, and 6. In Figure 1B, pre-extrusion mixing, melt extrusion, and milling are steps in the extrusion process and pre-blending, final blending, tablet compression and coating are steps in the formulation process.

[0021] Compound 1 and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer e.g., copovidone are ingredients of the extrusion process. Microcrystalline cellulose, croscamellose sodium, colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium sterarate are ingredients of the formulation process to be added to the resulting solid dispersion extrudate produced by the extrusion process. OPADRY® as film-coating agent is an ingredient of the formulation process to be added to core tablets with the final blended powder.

[0022] Specifically, in the extrusion process, Compound 1 and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer e.g., copovidone are accurately weighed, screened and mixed using high shear mixing to form a pre-extrusion powder mixture.

[0023] A suitable hot melt extruder (e.g. twin screw, Leistritz Nano-16 mm or Micro-18 mm) is set up with the appropriate supporting equipment, including a cooling conveyor (e.g., Dorner model 220M060600D0169 or Nara TBC-309-DC) and feeder with auger (e.g., K-Tron Gravimeteric Feeder e.g., with dual flight 20 mm auger). Example processing parameters are as follows: feed rate: 2.0 kg/hr; screw speed: 250 rpm; and barrel temperature: 170, 140, 90, 50 °C or 1.0 kg/hr; screw speed: 275 rpm; and barrel temperature: 175, 140, 90, 50 °C. Compound 1 exhibits a relatively high melting point at 204 °C and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed Compound 1 to be relatively stable at elevated temperatures below 200 °C.

[0024] The powder mixture is fed into the hot melt extruder, and the resulting solid dispersion extrudate is cooled and milled using a suitable impact mill with hammer forward configuration (e.g., Fizmill L1A hammer mill) or multi pin rotor (e.g., NARA Sample mill SAM). The milled extrudate may be screened using a suitable screen (e.g., 20 mesh operated at 9,000 rpm) to remove oversize material and then screened through a second suitable screen (e.g., 60 mesh). The resulting solid dispersion extrudate is taken forward to the formulation process. Alternatively, only part of the resulting solid dispersion extrude is taken forward to the formulation process.

[0025] In one aspect of the formulation process e.g., Figure 1A, the ingredients are added sequentially to the solid dispersion extrudate: microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., Avicel PH 102, FMC Biopolymer), croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol®, FMC Biopolymer), and may be screened using a suitable screen (e.g., 18-mesh). Colloidal silicon dioxide (Aerosil 200, Evonik) is added and may be screened using a suitable screen (e.g., 40-mesh) to produce a pre-blend, which is blended e.g., for about 20 minutes using a diffusion class blender. Magnesium stearate (Mallinckrodt) is accurately weighed, may be screened with a suitable screen (e.g., 30-mesh) and blended with the pre-blend to produce the final blend. Blend e.g, for 20 minutes using a diffusion class blender. In one aspect, the final blend is compressed on a tablet press into tablets. In another aspect, the final blend is loaded into a capsule.

[0026] In another aspect of the formulation process e.g, Figure 1B, the ingredients are added sequentially to the solid dispersion extrudate: microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., Avicel PH 101, FMC Biopolymer), croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol®, FMC Biopolymer) and colloidal silicon dioxide (Aerosil 200, Evonik) are added to produce a pre-blend, which is blended e.g., for about 15 minutes using a diffusion class blender. Magnesium stearate (Mallinckrodt) is accurately weighed, may be screened with a suitable screen (e.g., seive size 1.0 mm) and blended with the pre-blend to produce the final blend. Blend e.g, for 5 minutes using a diffusion class blender. The final blend is compressed on a tablet press into core tablets. The core tablets are charged into a suitable film coating machine (e.g. Driacoater Vario 500/600) and are coated with the spray suspension with premix film coating agent (e.g. OPADRY®, Colorcon).

[0027] The present invention includes the following embodiments:

Embodiment [96]: A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition, which comprises the steps of:

  1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
  2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

Embodiment [97]: A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition, which comprises the steps of:

  1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
  2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with a filler, disintegrant, and glidant to form a pre-blend; and
  3. (iii) blending a lubricant with the resulting pre-blend.

Embodiment [98]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [97], wherein the process further comprises the step of (iv-A) compressing the pharmaceutical composition resulting from steps (i), (ii), and (iii) into tablet form or loading the pharmaceutical composition from steps (i), (ii), and (iii) into capsule form.

Embodiment [99]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [98], wherein the process further comprises the step of (iv-A) compressing the pharmaceutical composition resulting from steps (i), (ii), and (iii) into tablet form. In one aspect, tablet form provides improved bioavailability.

Embodiment [100]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [99], wherein the process further comprises the step of (v) coating the pharmaceutical composition resulting from step (iv) into a film coated tablet form. In one aspect, the film coated tablet form provides improved bioavailability.

Embodiment [101]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [98], wherein the process further comprises the step of (iv-B) loading the pharmaceutical composition resulting from steps (i), (ii), and (iii) into capsule form.

Embodiment [102]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [101], wherein the mixture in step (i) is Compound 1 and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer.

Embodiment [103]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [101], wherein the mixture in step (i) is the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of Compound 1 and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer.

Embodiment [104]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [103], wherein the vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the copovidone is Kollidon® VA 64. In one aspect, the vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is pre-dried. In one aspect, copovidone is pre-dried at 60 °C for about 8 hours.

Embodiment [105]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [104], wherein the amount of Compound 1 is from 3% to 17% w/w.

Embodiment [106]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [105], wherein the amount of Compound 1 is from 7% to 17% w/w.

Embodiment [107]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [106], wherein the amount of Compound 1 is from 8% to 16% w/w.

Embodiment [108]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [105] for preparing a composition comprising a 5 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of Compound 1 is about 4% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [109]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107] for preparing a composition comprising a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of Compound 1 is about 8% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [110]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107] for preparing a composition comprising a 70 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of Compound 1 is about 13% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [111]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107] for preparing a composition comprising a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of Compound 1 is about 16% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [112]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [111], wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is from 5% to 25% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is from 5% to 25% w/w.

Embodiment [113]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [112], wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer in is from 12% to 24% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is from 12% to 24% w/w.

Embodiment [114]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [105], [108], or [112] through [113], for preparing a composition comprising a 5 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is about 6% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is about 6% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [115]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [109], or [112] through [113], for preparing a composition comprising a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer about 12% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is about 12% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [116]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [110], or [112] through [113], for preparing a composition comprising a 70 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer about 19% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is about 19% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [117]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107] or [111] through [113], for preparing a composition comprising a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is about 24% w/w. In one aspect, the copolymer is copovidone. In one aspect, the amount of copovidone is about 24% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [118]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [117], wherein the process further comprises the step of (i-A) cooling and milling the resulting extrudate prior to step (ii).

Embodiment [119]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [118], wherein the process further comprises the step of (i-A) cooling and milling the resulting extrudate prior to step (ii) and the step of (i-B) screening the milled extrudate after step (i-A) and prior to step (ii).

Embodiment [120]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [119], wherein the process further comprises before step (i) providing a mixture wherein high shear mixing is used to prepare the mixture of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer.
High shear mixing can minimize potency variations (Figure 5).

Embodiment [121]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [120], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder operating at a screw speed of from 225 rpm to 350 rpm.

Embodiment [122]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [121], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder operating at a screw speed of about 250 rpm.

Embodiment [123]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [121], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder operating at a screw speed of about 275 rpm.

Embodiment [124]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [123], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder after the mixture is fed into the extruder at a feed rate of from 0.5 kg/hr to 2.5 kg/hr. The feeding section of the extruder transfers the feed stock into the barrel of the extruder.

Embodiment [125]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [124], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder after the mixture is fed into the extruder at a feed rate of from 1.0 kg/hr to 2.0 kg/hr.

Embodiment [126]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [125], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder after the mixture is fed into the extruder at a feed rate of about 1.0 kg/hr.

Embodiment [127]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [126], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder operating with a barrel temperature comprising a gradient temperature profile ranging from room temperature to 180 °C. In one aspect, implementation of a gradient temperature profile yields a significant reduction in chiral impurity levels during manufacture. For example, increasing the temperature provides a decrease in residual crystalline form of the extrudate.

Embodiment [128]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [127], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder operating with a barrel temperature comprising a gradient temperature profile ranging from 50 °C to 170 °C.

Embodiment [129]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [128], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder operating with a barrel temperature comprising a gradient temperature profile comprising four temperature zones from (1) about 50 °C, (2) about 90 °C, (3) about 140 °C and (4) 170 °C to 175 °C. In one aspect, lower barrel temperatures yields compositions with lower chiral impurity levels.

Embodiment [130]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [129], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder operating with a barrel temperature comprising a gradient temperature profile comprising four temperature zones from (1) about 50 °C, (2) about 90 °C, (3) about 140 °C and (4) about 170 °C. In one aspect, lower barrel temperatures yields compositions with lower chiral impurity levels.

Embodiment [131]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [129], wherein the extruding is carried out in an extruder operating with a barrel temperature comprising a gradient temperature profile comprising four temperature zones from (1) about 50 °C, (2) about 90 °C, (3) about 140 °C and (4) about 175 °C. In one aspect, lower barrel temperatures yields compositions with lower chiral impurity levels.

Embodiment [132]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [131], wherein the solid dispersion extrudate in step (i) is amorphous. For example, the solid dispersion extrudate is amorphous as detected by XRPD (Figure 6). In another aspect, the amorphous character of the solid dispersion extrudate can be detected using differential scanning calorimety (DSC).

Embodiment [133]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [132], wherein the loading of extrudate is from 10% to 50% w/w.

Embodiment [134]: The process of any one of embodiment [96] through [133], wherein the loading of the extrudate is from 10% to 40% w/w.

Embodiment [135]: The process of any one of embodiment [96] through [134], wherein, the loading of extrudate is from 40% to 50% w/w. In one aspect, the loading of the extrudate is important for disintegration rate. In one aspect, a tablet form prepared at about 40% solid dispersion exhibits rapid dissolution, and achieves full release in less than 10 minutes.

Embodiment [136]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [105], [108], [112] through [114], [118] through [134] for preparing a composition comprising a 5 mg tablet or capsule comprising about 10% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) about 90% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [137]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [109], [112] through [113], [115], or [118] through [134] for preparing a composition comprising a 20 mg tablet or capsule comprising about 20% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) about 80% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [138]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [110], [112] through [113], [116], or [118] through [134], for preparing a composition comprising a 70 mg tablet or capsule comprising about 32% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) about 68% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [139]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [111] through [113] or [117] through [135] for preparing a composition of a 100 mg tablet or capsule comprising about 40% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) about 60% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [140]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [139], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant and wherein the disintegrant comprises croscarmellose sodium. In one aspect, carscarmellose sodium serves as a disintegrant for immediate release. In one aspect, disintegration is a function of the type of superdisintegrant and solid dispersion loading within the formulation.

Embodiment [141]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [140], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant and wherein the disintegrant is carscarmellose sodium and the amount of croscarmellose sodium is from 4% to 9% w/w.

Embodiment [142]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [141], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant and wherein the disintegrant is carscarmellose sodium and the amount of croscarmellose sodium is from 5% to 8% w/w.

Embodiment [143]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [109], [112] through [115], [118] through [134], [136] through [137], or [140] through [142] for preparing a composition comprising a 5 mg or 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant and wherein the disintegrant is croscarmellose sodium and the amount of croscarmellose sodium is about 5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [144]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [110], [112] through [113], [116], [118] through [134], [138], or [140] through [142], for preparing a composition comprising a 70 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant and wherein the disintegrant is croscaramellose sodium and the amount of croscarmellose sodium is about 8% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [145]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [111] through [113], [117] through [135], or [139] through [142], for preparing a composition comprising a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a disintegrant and wherein the disintegrant is croscaramellose sodium and the amount of croscarmellose sodium is about 8% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [146]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [145], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant and wherein the glidant comprises colloidal silicon dioxide. In one aspect, the colloidal silicon dioxide aids the flow property of the formulation blend.

Embodiment [147]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [146], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant and wherein the glidant is colloidal silicon dioxide and the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is from 0.5% to 6% w/w.

Embodiment [148]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [147], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant and wherein the glidant is colloidal silicon dioxide and the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is from 3% to 6% w/w.

Embodiment [149]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [146], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant and wherein the glidant is colloidal silicon dioxide and the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is from 3.5 % to 4.5% w/w.

Embodiment [150]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [146], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant and wherein the glidant is colloidal silicon dioxide and the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is from 0.5 % to 5% w/w.

Embodiment [151]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [146], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant and wherein the glidant is colloidal silicon dioxide and the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is from 0.5 % to 2% w/w.

Embodiment [152]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [109], [111] through [115], [117] through [137], [139] through [143], or [145] through [150], for preparing a composition comprising a 5, 20, or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is about 4.5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is capsule. In one aspect, the form is tablet.

Embodiment [153]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [109] through [113], [115] through [135], [135] through [151], for preparing a composition comprising a 20, 70 or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a glidant and wherein the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is about 0.5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is capsule. In one aspect, the form is tablet.

Embodiment [154]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [153], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose.

Embodiment [155]: The process of any one of embodiments [54] through [154], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 46% to 81% w/w.

Embodiment [156]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [155], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 40% to 80% w/w.

Embodiment [157]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [156], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 51% to 74% w/w.

Embodiment [158]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [157], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 47% to 70% w/w.

Embodiment [159]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [105], [108], [112] through [114], [118] through [133], [136], [140] through [143], [146] through [152], or [154] through [156] for preparing a composition comprising a 5 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 80% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [160]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [109], [112] through [113], [115], [118] through [134], [137], [140] through [143], or [146] through [158], for preparing a composition comprising a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 74% to 70% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [161]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [109], [112] through [113], [115], [118] through [134], [137], [140] through [143], or [146] through [158], for preparing a composition comprising a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 70% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [162]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [109], [112] through [113], [115], [118] through [134], [137], [140] through [143], or [146] through [158], for preparing a composition comprising a 20 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 74% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [163]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [110], [112] through [113], [116], [118] through [134], [138], [140] through [142], [144], or [146] through [151], or [154] through [158], for preparing a composition comprising a 70 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 59% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [164]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [111] through [113], [117] through [135], [139] through [142], [145] through [151], [153] through [156], or [158], for preparing a composition comprising a 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a filler and wherein the filler is microcrystalline cellulose and the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is about 47% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [165]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [164], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant and wherein the lubricant comprises magnesium stearate. In one aspect, the magnesium stearate provides lubrication of the formulation during compression.

Embodiment [166]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [165], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant and wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate and the amount of magnesium stearate is from 0.3% to 0.7% w/w.

Embodiment [167]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [166], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant and wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate and the amount of magnesium stearate is from 0.4% to 0.5% w/w.

Embodiment [168]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [167], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant and wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate and the amount of magnesium stearate is about 0.5% w/w.

Embodiment [169]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [107], [109] through [113], [118] through [135], [137] through [143], [146] through [158], or [160] through [168], for preparing a composition comprising a 20, 70, or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant and wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate and the amount of magnesium stearate is about 0.5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [170]: The process of embodiment any one of embodiments [96] through [109], [111] through [114], [116] through [135], [137] through [151], [153] through [156], [158], or [165] through [168], for preparing a composition comprising a 5, 20, or 100 mg tablet or capsule, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a lubricant and wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate and the amount of magnesium stearate is about 0.5% w/w. In one aspect, the form is tablet. In one aspect, the form is capsule.

Embodiment [171]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [170], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a film coating agent. In one aspect, the film coating agent comprises OPADRY®.

Embodiment [172]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [171], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a film coating agent and wherein the film coating agent comprises OPADRY® and wherein the amount of OPADRY® is from 0.5% to 5% w/w.

Embodiment [173]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [172], wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a film coating agent and wherein the film coating agent comprises OPADRY® and the amount of OPADRY® is from 3.3% to 4.2 % w/w.

Embodiment [174]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [173] for preparing a composition comprising a 20 mg tablet, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a film coating agent and wherein the film coating agent is OPADRY® and the amount of OPADRY® is about 4.2 % w/w.

Embodiment [175]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [173] for preparing a composition comprising a 70 mg tablet, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a film coating agent and wherein the film coating agent is OPADRY® and the amount of OPADRY® is about 3.3% w/w.

Embodiment [176]: The process of any one of embodiments [96] through [173] for preparing a composition comprising a 100 mg tablet, wherein one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprises a film coating agent and wherein the film coating agent is OPADRY® and the amount of OPADRY® is about 3.4% w/w.

Embodiment [177]: A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition, which comprises the steps of:

  1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
  2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with filler, disintegrant, and glidant to form a pre-blend; and
  3. (iii) blending a lubricant with the resulting pre-blend;
wherein the pharmaceutical composition prepared comprises:

from 3% to 17% w/w Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

from 5% to 25% w/w vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer;

from 4% to 9% w/w disintegrant;

from 3% to 6% w/w glidant;

from 46% to 81% w/w filler; and

from 0.3% to 0.7% w/w lubricant.

Embodiment [178]: A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition, which comprises the steps of:

  1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 and copovidone to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
  2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with filler, disintegrant, and glidant to form a pre-blend; and
  3. (iii) blending a lubricant with the resulting pre-blend;
wherein the pharmaceutical composition prepared comprises:

from 3% to 17% w/w Compound 1;

from 5% to 25% w/w copovidone;

from 4% to 9% w/w croscarmellose;

from 3% to 6% w/w glidant;

from 46% to 81% w/w filler; and

from 0.3% to 0.7% w/w lubricant.

Embodiment [179]: A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition, which comprises the steps of:

  1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
  2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with filler, disintegrant, and glidant to form a pre-blend; and
  3. (iii) blending a lubricant with the resulting pre-blend;
  4. (iv) compressing the resulting final blend to form core tablets;
  5. (v) coating the core tablets with a film-coating agent;
wherein the pharmaceutical composition prepared comprises:

from 3% to 17% w/w Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;

from 5% to 25% w/w vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer;

from 4% to 9% w/w disintegrant;

from 0.1% to 5% w/w glidant;

from 40% to 80% w/w filler; and

from 0.3% to 0.7% w/w lubricant

from 0.5% to 5% w/w film-coating agent.

Embodiment [180]: A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition, which comprises the steps of:

  1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 and copovidone to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
  2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with filler, disintegrant, and glidant to form a pre-blend; and
  3. (iii) blending a lubricant with the resulting pre-blend;
  4. (iv) compressing the resulting final blend to form core tablets;
  5. (v) coating the core tablets with a film-coating agent;
wherein the pharmaceutical composition prepared comprises:

from 3% to 17% w/w Compound 1;

from 5% to 25% w/w copovidone;

from 4% to 9% w/w croscarmellose;

from 3% to 6% w/w glidant;

from 46% to 81% w/w filler; and

from 0.3% to 0.7% w/w lubricant

from 0.5% to 5% w/w coating agent.

Embodiment [181]: A pharmaceutical composition prepared by the process of any of embodiments [96] through [180].

Embodiment [182]: A pharmaceutical composition prepared by a process comprising the steps of:

  1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
  2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

Embodiment [183]: A pharmaceutical composition prepared by a process comprising the steps of:

  1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
  2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with filler, disintegrant, and glidant to form a pre-blend; and
  3. (iii) blending a lubricant with the resulting pre-blend.

Embodiment [184]: A pharmaceutical composition prepared by a process comprising the steps of:

  1. (i) extruding a mixture of Compound 1 and copovidone to form a solid dispersion extrudate;
  2. (ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with filler, disintegrant, and glidant to form a pre-blend; and
  3. (iii) blending a lubricant with the resulting pre-blend;
wherein the pharmaceutical composition prepared comprises:

from 3% to 17% w/w Compound 1;

from 5% to 25% w/w copovidone;

from 4% to 9% w/w croscarmellose;

from 3% to 6% w/w glidant;

from 46% to 81% w/w filler; and

from 0.3% to 0.7% w/w lubricant.

Embodiment [185]: The pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [181] or [184], wherein the pharmaceutical composition is substantially amorphous. In one aspect, the substantially amorphous pharmaceutical composition comprises an amount of crystalline Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one aspect, the amount of crystalline Compound 1 is less than 30%, less than 29%, less than 28%, less than 27%, less than 26%, less than 25%, less than 20%, less than 15%, less than 10%, less than 5%, less than 4%.

Embodiment [186]: A pharmaceutical composition comprising as an active ingredient Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the active ingredient is in a solid dispersion form comprising vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer.

Embodiment [187]: The pharmaceutical composition of embodiment [186], wherein the copolymer is copovidone.

Embodiment [188]: The pharmaceutical composition of embodiments [186] or [187], wherein the pharmaceutical composition is substantially amorphous. In one aspect, the substantially amorphous pharmaceutical composition comprises an amount of crystalline Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one aspect, the amount of crystalline Compound 1 is less than 30%, less than 29%, less than 28%, less than 27%, less than 26%, less than 25%, less than 20%, less than 15%, less than 10%, less than 5%, less than 4%.

Embodiment [188A]: A method of improving the absorption of Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, by combining with a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer to form an amorphous system.

Embodiment [188B]: The method of embodiment [188A], wherein the vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is copovidone.



[0028] It will be understood that any of the above embodiments may be combined to form additional embodiments.

Utility of the Pharmaceutical Compositions of the Invention



[0029] The MAP kinase pathway is a central signal transduction pathway that is dysregulated in a large number of cancers and developmental disorders. Normally, binding of a growth factor to its receptor switches on RAS, which, in turn, activates one or more of the RAF kinase family members, ARAF, BRAF and CRAF (Raf-1). RAF kinases perpetuate the signal by phosphorylating and activating MEK, another kinase that phosphorylates a third kinase, ERK. ERK then phosphorylates a number of key growth-, survival-, or differentiation-promoting targets.

[0030] Of the proteins in the cascade, RAF kinases have the most complex regulatory mechanisms, including the ability to form dimers. RAF dimerization is acknowledged to be a required step for RAF signaling in multiple cellular contexts including normal RAS-dependent RAF activation. Furthermore in some oncogenic settings, RAF dimerization contributes to the pathogenic role of the pathway. Specifically, RAF signals as a dimer in settings where oncogenic mutations affect NRAS as well as in settings where there are point mutations of the BRAF protein that do not target the amino acid V600 of K601.

[0031] RAF dimerization has also been found to alter the therapeutic response and disease progression in patients treated with type-1 BRAF ATP-competitive inhibitors (such as vemurafenib). In these settings there is inhibitor-induced RAF heterodimerization that leads to the inadvertent activation of the downstream pathway. This phenomenon is known as paradoxical activation of the MAP kinase pathway and is thought to be the mechanism by which type-1 BRAF inhibitors induce certain adverse events, including the formation of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). It is for this reason that treatment with type-1 BRAF inhibitors may be contraindicated in cancer settings where mutations in the RAS family or the V600 or K601 BRAF mutations occur.

[0032] Type-1 BRAF ATP-competitive inhibitors have been developed to target BRAF V600* mutations (such as V600E) that occur in melanoma, thyroid, colon cancer and NSCLC. These type-1 BRAF inhibitors have demonstrated clinical benefit for patients with this mutation. The responses observed in these patients can be explained by differences in RAF signaling. In these settings, BRAF functions as a RAF monomer rather than as a RAF dimer. This RAF monomer, signals independent of upstream growth stimuli and leads to constitutive activation of the BRAF monomeric protein. As discussed above, type-1 BRAF inhibitors may be withheld for cancers in the RAF dimer setting. Whereas, a pan-RAF inhibitor such as Compound 1 could in principle work in settings of RAF dimerization in distinct mutant contexts, e.g., BRAF and NRAS.

[0033] Preclinical models have suggested that a higher maximum tolerated dose of Compound 1 may achieve better stasis or tumor regression. Pharmacodynamic effects of Compound 1 in melanoma tumor tissues further support this hypothesis. Accordingly, it has now been discovered that the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention comprising Compound 1 can be administered so as to achieve a higher maximum tolerated dose, and thus a higher effective amount, if it is administered using an intermittent dosing regimen.

[0034] Accordingly, the present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions for use in methods of treating cancer in settings of RAF dimerization in the context of BRAF and NRAS positive-mutated cancers, said method comprising administering such pharmaceutical compositions described herein to a patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen.

[0035] The present invention includes the following embodiments:

Embodiment [189]: A pharmaceutical composition as described herein, for example, the pharmaceutical compositions described in embodiments [1] through [89] or [181] through [188], for use in a method for the treatment of cancer in a patient in need of such treatment, according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once or twice a week and the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 1000 mg.

Embodiment [190]: A pharmaceutical composition for use in a method for the treatment of cancer in a patient in need of such treatment, wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises (1) a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, and the method comprises administering an effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition to the patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once or twice a week and the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 1000 mg.

Embodiment [191]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of embodiment [190], wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises (1) a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

Embodiment [192]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of embodiment [191], wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises (1) a solid dispersion extrudate comprising Compound 1 and copovidone and (2) one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

Embodiment [193]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [192], wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering to the patient the composition once a week with a rest period of 6 days between each administration.

Embodiment [194]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [193], wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition in a single dose. For example, the amount of the composition to be administered for the week is administered a single dose on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of a 28-day cycle.

Embodiment [195]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [194], wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition in a split dose. For example, "administering the composition in a split dose" means administering at one time point half of the composition to be administered for the week and administering at a later time point the remaining half of the composition. In one aspect, the two half doses are administered on the same day e.g., days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of a 28-day cycle. In one aspect, the two half doses are administered at different time points that are about 12 hours apart. In one aspect, the two half doses are administered at different time points that are 12 hours apart.

Embodiment [196]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of embodiment [195], wherein dosing regimen comprises administering the composition in a split dose on two different days. For example, the two half doses are administered on two different days e.g., days 1 and 2, days 8 and 9, days 15 and 16, and days 22 and 23 of a 28-day cycle.

Embodiment [197]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount of the composition administered each week is from 800 mg to 1000 mg.

Embodiment [198]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 900 mg.

Embodiment [199]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is from 500 mg to 900 mg.

Embodiment [200]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is from 600 mg to 800 mg.

Embodiment [201]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is from 400 mg to 600 mg.

Embodiment [202]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is from 400 mg to 700 mg.

Embodiment [203]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is from 600 mg to 700 mg.

Embodiment [204]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is about 300 mg.

Embodiment [205]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is about 400 mg.

Embodiment [206]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is about 500 mg.

Embodiment [207]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is about 600 mg.

Embodiment [208]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is about 700 mg.

Embodiment [209]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is about 800 mg.

Embodiment [210]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the amount administered each week is about 900 mg.

Embodiment [211]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the cancer is a solid tumor cancer.

Embodiment [212]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the cancer is relapsed.

Embodiment [213]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [196], wherein the cancer is refractory.

Embodiment [214]: The pharmaceutical composition for use any one of embodiments [189] through [213], wherein the cancer is BRAF and/or NRAS positive cancer.



[0036] As used herein, "BRAF" refers to B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase, the gene associated with the mRNA sequence assigned as GenBank Accession No. NM_004333, SEQ ID NO:1 (open reading frame is SEQ ID NO:2, nucleotides 62 to 2362 of SEQ ID NO:1), encoding GenPept Accession No. NP_004324, SEQ ID NO:3). Other names for BRAF include rafB1 and Noonan Syndrome 7 (NS7). BRAF functions as a serine/threonine kinase, has a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway and can be found on chromosome 7q.

[0037] As used herein, "NRAS" refers to neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog, the gene associated with the mRNA sequence assigned as GenBank Accession No. NM_002524, SEQ ID NO:4 (open reading frame is SEQ ID NO:5, nucleotides 255 to 824 of SEQ ID NO:4), encoding GenPept Accession No. NP_002515, SEQ ID NO:6). Other names for NRAS include Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome type IV (ALPS4), NRAS1, and Noonan Syndrome 6 (NS6). NRAS functions as an oncogene with GTPase activity and can be found on chromosome 1p. NRAS interacts with the cell membrane and various effector proteins, such as Raf and RhoA, which carry out its signaling function through the cytoskeleton and effects on cell adhesion (Fotiadou et al. (2007) Mol. Cel. Biol. 27:6742-6755).

[0038] As used herein, the phrase "BRAF positive cancer," "BRAF mutation-positive cancer," "BRAF positive-mutation cancer," or "BRAF positive-mutation cancer" means the cancer has one or more mutations in BRAF gene. As used herein "NRAS positive cancer," "NRAS mutation-positive cancer," "NRAS positive-mutated cancer," or "NRAS positive mutation cancer" means the cancer has one or more mutations in NRAS gene. In one aspect, the cancer is BRAF wild type and has one or more mutations in NRAS gene. In one aspect, the cancer is NRAS wild type and has one or more mutations in BRAF gene. In one aspect, the cancer has one or more mutations in both BRAF gene and NRAS gene.

Embodiment [215]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [214], wherein the cancer is BRAF mutation-positive cancer.

Embodiment [216]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [215], wherein the one or more BRAF mutation is in exon 15 or 11.

Embodiment [217]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [216], wherein the one or more BRAF mutation is in codon 464-469, 600 or 601.

Embodiment [218]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [217], wherein the BRAF mutation is V600 mutation. In one aspect, the V600 mutation is V600E, V600G, V600A, or V600K; V600E, V600D, or V600K; or V600E, V600D, V600M, V600G, V600A, V600R, or V600K. In one aspect, the BRAF mutation is V600E. In one aspect, the BRAF mutation is V600D. In one aspect, the BRAF mutation is V600K. "V600E mutation" means substitution of glutamic acid for valine at the amino acid position of 600. "V600K mutation" means substitution of lysine for valine at the amino acid position of 600. "V600D mutation" means substitution of aspartic acid for valine at the amino acid position of 600. "V600G mutation" means substitution of glycine for valine at the amino acid position of 600. "V600A mutation" means substitution of alanine for valine at the amino acid position of 600. "V600M mutation" means substitution of methionine for valine at the amino acid position of 600. "V600R mutation" means substitution of arginine for valine at the amino acid position of 600.

Embodiment [219]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [218], wherein the one or more BRAF mutation is non-V600E mutation. In one aspect, one or more non-V600E mutation is G466A, G466V, N581S, D594H, R146W, L613F, D565_splice, S394*, P367R, G469A, G469V, G469*, G466V, G464V, G397S, S113I, A762E, G469L, D594N, G596S, G596R, D594N, D594H, or G327_splice. In one aspect, one or more non-V600E mutations are G469R, R95T, A621_splice, V639I, Q609H, G464V, or G466V. The asterisk "*" means a stop codon.

Embodiment [220]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [219], wherein the cancer is NRAS mutation-positive cancer.

Embodiment [221]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [220], wherein one or more NRAS mutation is in exon 3 or exon 4.

Embodiment [222]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [221], wherein one or more NRAS mutation is in codon 59, 61, 117, or 146.

Embodiment [223]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [222], wherein NRAS mutation is Q61. In one aspect, NRAS mutation is Q61R, Q61K, Q61L, Q61H, or Q61P. In one aspect, NRAS mutation is Q61R.

Embodiment [224]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [223], wherein the cancer is skin, ocular, gastrointestinal, thyroid, breast, ovarian, lung, brain, laryngeal, cervical, lymphatic system, genitourinary tract, or bone cancer.

Embodiment [225]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is skin cancer.

Embodiment [226]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is ocular cancer.

Embodiment [227]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is thyroid cancer.

Embodiment [228]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is breast cancer.

Embodiment [229]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is ovarian cancer.

Embodiment [230]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is lung cancer.

Embodiment [231]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is brain cancer.

Embodiment [232]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is laryngeal cancer.

Embodiment [233]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is gastrointestinal cancer.

Embodiment [234]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is cervical cancer.

Embodiment [235]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is lymphatic system cancer.

Embodiment [236]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is genitourinary tract cancer.

Embodiment [237]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is bone cancer. In one aspect, the bone cancer is multiple myeloma.

Embodiment [238]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [225], wherein the cancer is skin cancer. In one aspect, the skin cancer is melanoma. In one aspect, the melanoma is locally advanced, metastatic and/or unresectable melanoma. In one aspect, the melanoma is locally advanced. In one aspect, the melanoma is metastatic. In aspect, the melanoma is unresectable melanoma. In one aspect, the melanoma is BRAF mutation-positive melanoma. In one aspect, the melanoma is BRAF mutation-positive cutaneous melanoma. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is selected from V600E, V600K, and V600D mutation. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is V600E. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is V600K. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is V600D. In one aspect, the melanoma is NRAS mutation-positive melanoma. In one aspect, the melanoma is NRAS mutation-positive cutaneous melanoma. In one aspect, the melanoma is BRAF/NRAS mutation negative cutaneous melanoma (wild type). In one aspect, the melanoma is of cutaneous, uveal, or mucosal origin. In one aspect, the melanoma is of cutaneous origin. In one aspect, the melanoma is of uveal origin. In one aspect, the melanoma is of mucosal origina.

Embodiment [239]: The pharmaceutical composition for use any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is ocular cancer. In one aspect, the ocular cancer is ocular melanoma.

Embodiment [240]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is brain cancer. In one aspect, the brain cancer is glioma, neuroblastoma or astrocytoma. In one aspect, the brain cancer is glioma. In one aspect, the brain cancer is neuroblastoma. In one aspect, the cancer is astrocytoma.

Embodiment [241]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is genitourinary tract cancer. In one aspect, the genitourinary tract cancer is bladder or prostate cancer. In one aspect, the cancer is bladder cancer. In one aspect, the cancer is prostate cancer.

Embodiment [242]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is papillary thyroid cancer.

Embodiment [243]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [224], wherein the cancer is a gastrointestinal cancer. In one aspect, the gastrointestinal cancer is esophageal, stomach, colorectal, liver, renal, pancreatic, or gallbladder cancer. In one aspect the gastrointestinal cancer is esophageal cancer. In one aspect the gastrointestinal cancer is stomach cancer. In one aspect the gastrointestinal cancer is colorectal cancer. In one aspect the gastrointestinal cancer is liver cancer. In one aspect the gastrointestinal cancer is renal cancer. In one aspect, the gastrointestinal cancer is pancreatic cancer. In one aspect the gastrointestinal cancer is gallbladder cancer.

Embodiment [244]: A pharmaceutical composition for use for the treatment of melanoma in a patient in need of such treatment, comprising administering an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition according to any one of embodiments [1] through [89] or [181] through [188] to the patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once weekly and the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 700 mg, wherein the melanoma is BRAF wild type and has a mutation in NRAS gene. In one aspect, NRAS mutation is in exon 3 or 4. In one aspect, NRAS mutation is Q61. In one aspect, the melanoma is relapsed and/or refractory.

Embodiment [245]: A pharmaceutical composition for use for the treatment of melanoma in a patient in need of such treatment, comprising administering an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition according to any one of embodiments [1] through [89] or [181] through [188] to the patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once weekly and the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 700 mg, wherein the melanoma has a mutation in BRAF gene. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is in exon 15 or 11. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is V600. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is V600E. In one aspect, the melanoma is relapsed and/or refractory.

Embodiment [246]: A pharmaceutical composition for use for the treatment of colorectal cancer in a patient in need of such treatment, comprising administering an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition according to any one of embodiments [1] through [89] or [181] through [188] to the patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once weekly and the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 700 mg, wherein the colorectal cancer has a mutation in BRAF gene. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is in exon 15 or 11. In one aspect, the BRAF mutation is V600. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is V600E.

Embodiment [247]: A pharmaceutical composition for use for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in a patient in need of such treatment, comprising administering an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition according to any one of embodiments [1] through [89] or [181] through [188] to the patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once weekly and the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 700 mg, wherein the non-small cell lung cancer has a mutation in BRAF gene. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is non-V600E. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is in exon 15 or 11. In one aspect, the BRAF mutation is V600. In one aspect, BRAF mutation is V600E.

Embodiment [248]: A pharmaceutical composition for use for the treatment of colorectal cancer in a patient in need of such treatment, comprising administering an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition according to any one of embodiments [1] through [89] or [181] through [188] to the patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once weekly and the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 700 mg, wherein the colorectal cancer has a mutation in NRAS gene. In one aspect, NRAS mutation is in exon 3 or 4. In one aspect, NRAS mutation is in codon 59, 61, 117, or 146.

Embodiment [249]: A pharmaceutical composition for use for the treatment of thyroid cancer in a patient in need of such treatment, comprising administering an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition according to any one of embodiments [1] through [89] or [181] through [188] to the patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once weekly and the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 700 mg, wherein the thyroid cancer has a mutation in BRAF gene. In one aspect, the BRAF mutation is in exon 15 or 11. In one aspect, the BRAF mutation is V600. In one aspect, the BRAF mutation is V600E.

Embodiment [250]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [249], wherein the patient is naive to prior therapy with one or more RAF and/or MEK inhibitors.

Embodiment [251]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [249], wherein the patient's response to previous treatment with RAF inhibitors and/or MEK inhibitors has 1) relapsed following an objective response, 2) failed to demonstrate an objective response, and/or 3) could not tolerate such a regimen due to unacceptable toxicity.

Embodiment [252]: The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of embodiments [189] through [249], wherein the patient has received at least one line of prior anticancer therapy. In one aspect, the pharmaceutical composition for use is for treating a patient after failure of at least one standard chemotherapy.

Embodiment [253]: The pharmaceutical composition for use any one of embodiments [189] through [249], wherein the patient is naive to any prior anticancer treatment except for treatment with ipilimumab, anti-PD-1, and/or anti-PDL-1 mAbs.

Reference Embodiment [254]: Also disclosed herein is a method for determining whether to treat a patient with a pharmaceutical composition of any one of embodiments [1] through [89] or [181] through [188] comprising:

  1. a) measuring at least one characteristic of at least one or more BRAF and/or NRAS markers associated with gene mutation in a patient sample comprising tumor cells;
  2. b) identifying whether the at least one characteristic measured in step a) is informative for outcome upon treatment with the pharmaceutical composition; and
  3. c) determining to treat the patient with the pharmaceutical composition if the informative characteristic indicates that the tumor cells comprise at least one marker gene with a BRAF and/or NRAS mutational status that indicates a favorable outcome to treatment with the pharmaceutical composition.

Reference Embodiment [255]: The method of reference embodiment [254], wherein the at least one characteristic is sequence.

Reference Embodiment [256]: The method of reference embodiment [254] or [255], wherein the mutational status of at least one of the BRAF and/or NRAS markers is mutant.

Reference Embodiment [257]: The method of any one of reference embodiments [254] through [256], wherein the mutational status of the BRAF marker is mutant.

Reference Embodiment [258]: The method of any one of reference embodiments [254] through [257], wherein the BRAF mutation is in exon 15 or 11.

Reference Embodiment [259]: The method of any one of reference embodiments [254] through [258], wherein the one or more BRAF mutation is in codon 464-469, 600 or 601.

Reference Embodiment [260]: The method of any one of reference embodiments [254] through [259], wherein the BRAF mutation is V600 mutation. In one aspect, the V600 mutation is V600E, V600G, V600A, or V600K; V600E, V600D, or V600K; or V600E, V600D, V600M, V600G, V600A, V600R, or V600K. In one aspect, the BRAF mutation is V600E.

Reference Embodiment [261]: The method of any one of reference embodiments [254] through [260], wherein the BRAF mutation is a non-V600E mutation.

Reference Embodiment [262]: The method of any one of reference embodiments [254] through [261], wherein the mutational status of the NRAS marker is mutant.

Reference Embodiment [263]: The method of any one of reference embodiments [254] through [262], wherein the one or more NRAS mutation is in exon 3 or exon 4.

Reference Embodiment [264]: The method of any one of reference embodiments [254] through [263], wherein the one or more NRAS mutation is in codon 59, 61, 117, or 146.

Reference Embodiment [265]: The method of any one of reference embodiments [254] through [264], wherein the NRAS mutation is Q61. In one aspect, the NRAS mutation is Q61R, Q61K, Q61L, Q61H, or Q61P. In one aspect, the NRAS mutation is Q61R.

Embodiment [266]: A pharmaceutical composition as described herein for use in treatment of a patient diagnosed with cancer (particularly a cancer selected from those cancers described herein), the patient determined as one in which there is an increased likelihood of pharmacological effectiveness of treatment by a method comprising
subjecting a nucleic acid sample from a cancer (tumor) sample from the patient to BRAF or NRAS mutational testing or PCR, wherein the presence of at least one mutation in BRAF or NRAS gene, such as e.g., one or more of those mutations described herein, indicates an increased likelihood of pharmacological effectiveness of the treatment.

Reference Embodiment [267]: A method of treating a patient having cancer (particularly a cancer described herein), said method comprising:

  1. i) obtaining a nucleic acid sample from a cancer sample from said patient;
  2. ii) subjecting the sample to BRAF or NRAS mutational testing or PCR and identifying the presence of at least one mutation in BRAF or NRAS gene (such as e.g., one or more of those mutations described herein); and
  3. iii) administering an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition as described herein to the patient in whose sample the presence of at least one mutation in BRAF or NRAS gene (such as e.g., one or more of those mutations described herein) is identified.



[0039] It will be understood that any of the above embodiments may be combined to form additional embodiments.

General Procedures



[0040] In some embodiments, a mutation in a marker can be identified by sequencing a nucleic acid, e.g., a DNA, RNA, cDNA or a protein correlated with the marker gene, e.g., a genotype marker gene, e.g., BRAF or NRAS. There are several sequencing methods known in the art to sequence nucleic acids. A nucleic acid primer can be designed to bind to a region comprising a potential mutation site or can be designed to complement the mutated sequence rather than the wild type sequence. Primer pairs can be designed to bracket a region comprising a potential mutation in a marker gene. A primer or primer pair can be used for sequencing one or both strands of DNA corresponding to the marker gene. A primer can be used in conjunction with a probe, e.g., a nucleic acid probe, e.g., a hybridization probe, to amplify a region of interest prior to sequencing to boost sequence amounts for detection of a mutation in a marker gene. Examples of regions which can be sequenced include an entire gene, transcripts of the gene and a fragment of the gene or the transcript, e.g., one or more of exons or untranslated regions or a portion of a marker comprising a mutation site. Examples of mutations to target for primer selection and sequence or composition analysis can be found in public databases which collect mutation information, such as Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (Bethesda, MD) and Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database maintained by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (Cambridge, UK).

[0041] Sequencing methods are known to one skilled in the art. Examples of methods include the Sanger method, the SEQUENOM™ method and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods. The Sanger method, comprising using electrophoresis, e.g., capillary electrophoresis to separate primer-elongated labeled DNA fragments, can be automated for high-throughput applications. The primer extension sequencing can be performed after PCR amplification of regions of interest. Software can assist with sequence base calling and with mutation identification. SEQUENOM™ MASSARRAY® sequencing analysis (San Diego, CA) is a mass-spectrometry method which compares actual mass to expected mass of particular fragments of interest to identify mutations. NGS technology (also called "massively parallel sequencing" and "second generation sequencing") in general provides for much higher throughput than previous methods and uses a variety of approaches (reviewed in Zhang et al. (2011) J. Genet. Genomics 38:95-109 and Shendure and Hanlee (2008) Nature Biotech. 26:1135-1145). NGS methods can identify low frequency mutations in a marker in a sample. Some NGS methods (see, e.g., GS-FLX Genome Sequencer (Roche Applied Science, Branford, CT), Genome analyzer (Illumina, Inc. San Diego, CA) SOLID™ analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA), Polonator G.007 (Dover Systems, Salem, NH), HELISCOPE™ (Helicos Biosciences Corp., Cambridge, MA)) use cyclic array sequencing, with or without clonal amplification of PCR products spatially separated in a flow cell and various schemes to detect the labeled modified nucleotide that is incorporated by the sequencing enzyme (e.g., polymerase or ligase). In one NGS method, primer pairs can be used in PCR reactions to amplify regions of interest. Amplified regions can be ligated into a concatenated product. Clonal libraries are generated in the flow cell from the PCR or ligated products and further amplified ("bridge" or "cluster" PCR) for single-end sequencing as the polymerase adds a labeled, reversibly terminated base that is imaged in one of four channels, depending on the identity of the labeled base and then removed for the next cycle. Software can aid in the comparison to genomic sequences to identify mutations. Another NGS method is exome sequencing, which focuses on sequencing exons of all genes in the genome. As with other NGS methods, exons can be enriched by capture methods or amplification methods.

[0042] In some embodiments, DNA, e.g., genomic DNA corresponding to the wild type or mutated marker can be analyzed both by in situ and by in vitro formats in a biological sample using methods known in the art. DNA can be directly isolated from the sample or isolated after isolating another cellular component, e.g., RNA or protein. Kits are available for DNA isolation, e.g., QIAAMP® DNA Micro Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). DNA also can be amplified using such kits.

[0043] In another embodiment, mRNA corresponding to the marker can be analyzed both by in situ and by in vitro formats in a biological sample using methods known in the art. Many expression detection methods use isolated RNA. For in vitro methods, any RNA isolation technique that does not select against the isolation of mRNA can be utilized for the purification of RNA from tumor cells (see, e.g., Ausubel et al., ed., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, New York 1987-1999). Additionally, large numbers of tissue samples can readily be processed using techniques well known to those of skill in the art, such as, for example, the single-step RNA isolation process of Chomczynski (1989, U.S. Patent No. 4,843,155). RNA can be isolated using standard procedures (see e.g., Chomczynski and Sacchi (1987) Anal. Biochem. 162:156-159), solutions (e.g., trizol, TRI REAGENT® (Molecular Research Center, Inc., Cincinnati, OH; see U.S. Patent No. 5,346,994) or kits (e.g., a QIAGEN® Group RNEASY® isolation kit (Valencia, CA) or LEUKOLOCK™ Total RNA Isolation System, Ambion division of Applied Biosystems, Austin, TX).

[0044] Additional steps may be employed to remove DNA from RNA samples. Cell lysis can be accomplished with a nonionic detergent, followed by microcentrifugation to remove the nuclei and hence the bulk of the cellular DNA. DNA subsequently can be isolated from the nuclei for DNA analysis. In one embodiment, RNA is extracted from cells of the various types of interest using guanidinium thiocyanate lysis followed by CsCl centrifugation to separate the RNA from DNA (Chirgwin et al. (1979) Biochemistry 18:5294-99). Poly(A)+RNA is selected by selection with oligo-dT cellulose (see Sambrook et al. (1989) Molecular Cloning--A Laboratory Manual (2nd ed.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.). Alternatively, separation of RNA from DNA can be accomplished by organic extraction, for example, with hot phenol or phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol. If desired, RNAse inhibitors may be added to the lysis buffer. Likewise, for certain cell types, it may be desirable to add a protein denaturation/digestion step to the protocol. For many applications, it is desirable to enrich mRNA with respect to other cellular RNAs, such as transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Most mRNAs contain a poly(A) tail at their 3' end. This allows them to be enriched by affinity chromatography, for example, using oligo(dT) or poly(U) coupled to a solid support, such as cellulose or SEPHADEX.R™. medium (see Ausubel et al. (1994) Current Protocols In Molecular Biology, vol. 2, Current Protocols Publishing, New York). Once bound, poly(A)+mRNA is eluted from the affinity column using 2 mM EDTA/0.1% SDS.

[0045] A characteristic of a marker of the invention in a sample, e.g., after obtaining a sample (e.g., a a tumor biopsy) from a test subject, can be assessed by any of a wide variety of well known methods for detecting or measuring the characteristic, e.g., of a marker or plurality of markers, e.g., of a nucleic acid (e.g., RNA, mRNA, genomic DNA, or cDNA) and/or translated protein. Non-limiting examples of such methods include immunological methods for detection of secreted, cell-surface, cytoplasmic, or nuclear proteins, protein purification methods, protein function or activity assays, nucleic acid hybridization methods, optionally including "mismatch cleavage" steps (Myers, et al. (1985) Science 230:1242) to digest mismatched, i.e. mutant or variant, regions and separation and identification of the mutant or variant from the resulting digested fragments, nucleic acid reverse transcription methods, and nucleic acid amplification methods and analysis of amplified products. These methods include gene array/chip technology, RT-PCR, TAQMAN® gene expression assays (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), e.g., under GLP approved laboratory conditions, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, FISH (flourescence in situ hybridization), FACS analyses, northern blot, southern blot, INFINIUM® DNA analysis Bead Chips (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA), quantitative PCR, bacterial artificial chromosome arrays, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) or cytogenetic analyses.

[0046] Examples of techniques for detecting differences of at least one nucleotide between two nucleic acids include, but are not limited to, selective oligonucleotide hybridization, selective amplification, or selective primer extension. For example, oligonucleotide probes can be prepared in which the known polymorphic nucleotide is placed centrally (allele- or mutant-specific probes) and then hybridized to target DNA under conditions which permit hybridization only if a perfect match is found (Saiki et al. (1986) Nature 324:163); Saiki et al (1989) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci USA 86:6230; and Wallace et al. (1979) Nucl. Acids Res. 6:3543). Such allele specific oligonucleotide hybridization techniques can be used for the simultaneous detection of several nucleotide changes in different polymorphic or mutated regions of NRAS. For example, oligonucleotides having nucleotide sequences of specific allelic variants or mutants are attached to a solid support, e.g., a hybridizing membrane and this support, e.g., membrane, is then hybridized with labeled sample nucleic acid. Analysis of the hybridization signal thus can reveal the identity of the nucleotides of the sample nucleic acid.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES



[0047] The following examples are given for the purpose of illustrating the present invention and shall not be construed as being limitations on the scope of the invention.

[0048] Manufacture of multi-component pharmaceutical dosage forms with pharmaceutically acceptable polymeric compositions as described herein.

Example 1: Experimental Procedure for Preparation of Solid Dispersion Extrudate



[0049] 
Table A. Solid Dispersion Extrudate
Solid Dispersion Extrudate FormulationProcedure 1Procedure 2Procedure 3 
 Weight (g) for Example 2 and 3AWeight (g) for Example 3BWeight (g) for Example 4, 5 and 6(% w/w)
Compound 1 1200g x 3batches =3600g 2000g x 2batches =4000g 4400g 40
copovidone 1800g x 3batches =5400g 3000g x 2batches =6000g 6600g 60

Procedure 1:



[0050] 1,200 grams of Compound 1 and 1,800 grams of copovidone (e.g., Kollidon VA64, BASF) were accurately weighed, screened with a suitable sieve (e.g. 12 mesh) and mixed using a high shear mixer (e.g., Vector GMX-25 high share mixer) operated at 325 rpm ±25rpm for about five minutes to form a pre-extrusion blended powder.

[0051] A suitable twin screw hot melt extruder (e.g. Leistritz ZSE-18HP) was set up with appropriate supporting equipment, including a cooling conveyor (e.g., Dorner Cooling Conveyor) and feeder with auger (e.g., K-Tron Gravimeteric Feeder). The processing parameters were as follows:

Feed rate: 1.0 kg/hr (Range: 0.5∼1.5 kg/hr);

Screw speed: 250 rpm (Range: 225∼275 rpm);

Barrel temperature: zone1: 50 ±5 °C, zone2: 90 ±5 °C, zone3: 140±5 °C, zone4: 170±5 °C, Die heater: 165±10 °C



[0052] Three batches of the pre-extrusion blended powder were fed into the Hot Melt Extruder, and the resulting extrudate was cooled and milled using a suitable impact mill with hammer forward configuration (e.g., Fizmill model L1A) operated at 9,000±1,000 rpm. The milled extrudate was passed through a suitable screen (e.g., 60 mesh) manually.

Procedure 2:



[0053] 2,000 grams of Compound 1 and 3,000 grams of copovidone (e.g., Kollidon VA64, BASF) were accurately weighed, screened with a suitable sieve (e.g. 12 mesh) and mixed using high shear mixing (e.g. POWREX VG-50 high share vertical granulator) operated at 325 rpm ±25rpm for about ten minutes to form a pre-extrusion blended powder.

[0054] A suitable twin screw hot melt extruder (e.g. Leistritz ZSE-18HP) was set up with appropriate supporting equipment, including a cooling conveyor (e.g., Dorner End Drive Conveyor) and feeder with auger (e.g., K-Tron Gravimeteric Feeder). Processing parameters were as follows:

Feed rate: 1.0 kg/hr (Range: 0.5∼1.5 kg/hr);

Screw speed: 250 rpm (Range: 225∼275 rpm);

Barrel temperature: zone1: 50 ±5 °C, zone2: 90 ±5 °C, zone3: 140±5 °C, zone4: 170±5 °C, Die heater: 165±10 °C;



[0055] Two batches of the pre-extrusion blended powder were fed into the Hot Melt Extruder, and the resulting extrudate was cooled and milled using a suitable impact mill with hammer forward configuration (e.g., Fizmill model M5A) operated at 6,000 rpm ±100rpm. The milled extrudate was passed through a suitable screen (e.g., 60 mesh) manually or using automatic sieve shaker (e.g., Kason sieve shaker).

Procedure 3:



[0056] 4,400 grams of Compound 1 and 6,600 grams of copovidone (e.g., Kollidon VA64, BASF) were accurately weighed and mixed using high shear mixing (e.g. Diosna P100 high share vertical granulator) operated at 200 rpm for about ten minutes to form a pre-extrusion blended powder.

[0057] A suitable twin screw hot melt extruder (e.g. Leistritz ZSE-18HP) was set up with appropriate supporting equipment, including a cooling conveyor (e.g., Nara TBC-309-DC) and feeder with auger (e.g., K-Tron Gravimeteric Feeder). Processing parameters were as follows:

Feed rate: 1.0 kg/hr (Range: 0.5∼1.5 kg/hr);

Screw speed: 275 rpm (Range: 250∼300 rpm);

Barrel temperature: zone1: 50 ±10 °C, zone2: 90 ±10 °C, zone3: 140±10 °C, zone4: 175±10 °C, Die heater: 175±10 °C;



[0058] The pre-extrusion blended powder was fed into the Hot Melt Extruder, and the resulting extrudate was cooled and milled using a suitable pulverizer with multi pin rotor and suitable screen (e.g., NARA Sample mill SAM with 0.5mm screen) operated at 10,000 rpm.

Example 2: Experimental Procedure for Composition of Compound 1, 20 mg Tablet



[0059] 
Table B. 20 mg Tablet Formulation
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
Solid Dispersion Extrudate 20.0
microcrystalline cellulose 70.0
croscarmellose sodium 5.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 4.5
magnesium stearate 0.5


[0060] 1,700 grams of the sieved Extrudate (from Procedure 1), 5,950 grams of microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., Avicel PH 102, FMC Biopolymer), 425.0 grams of croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol®, FMC Biopolymer) and 382.5 grams of colloidal silicon dioxide were accurately weighed. The extrudate, croscarmellose sodium and approximately half of the microcrystalline cellulose were charged into a diffusion mixer (e.g. Bohle LM40 Bin Blender). The colloidal silicon dioxide was combined with the remaining microcrystalline cellulose and screened through a suitable screen (e.g. 40 mesh) and charged into the mixer. And then the powders were blended for 10 minutes at 25 rpm to produce the pre-blend powder. 42.5 grams of magnesium stearate (Mallinckrodt) were accurately weighed, screened with a suitable screen (e.g., 30 mesh) and blended with the pre-blend for 5 minutes at 25 rpm to produce the final blended powder. The final blended powder was compressed by a rotary tablet-making machine (e.g., Stokes B2 16 station tablet press) using 9mm round punch to produce tablets which weight is 250 mg.

Example 3: Experimental Procedures for Composition of Compound 1, 100 mg Tablet



[0061] 
Table C. 100 mg Tablet Formulation
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
Solid Dispersion Extrudate 40
microcrystalline cellulose 47.0
croscarmellose sodium 8.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 4.5
Magnesium stearate 0.5


[0062] 3,400 grams of the sieved Extrudate (from Procedure 1), 3,995 grams of Microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., Avicel PH 102, FMC Biopolymer), 680.0 grams of croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol®, FMC Biopolymer) and 382.5 grams of colloidal silicon dioxide were accurately weighed. The extrudate, croscarmellose sodium and approximately half of the microcrystalline cellulose were charged into a diffusion mixer (e.g. Bohle LM40 Bin Blender). The colloidal silicon dioxide was combined with the remaining microcrystalline cellulose and screened through a suitable screen (e.g. 40 mesh) and charged into the mixer. And then the powders were blended for 10 minutes at 25 rpm to produce the pre-blend powder. 42.5 grams of Magnesium stearate (Mallinckrodt) was accurately weighed, screened with a suitable screen (e.g., 30 mesh) and blended with the pre-blend for 5 minutes at 25 rpm to produce the final blended powder. The final blended powder was compressed by a rotary tablet-making machine (e.g., Stokes B2 16 station tablet press) 8mm by 18 mm caplet punch to produce tablets which weight is 625 mg.
Table D. 100 mg Tablet Formulation
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
Solid Dispersion Extrudate 40
microcrystalline cellulose 47.0
croscarmellose sodium 8.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 4.5
Magnesium stearate 0.5


[0063] 6,600 grams of the sieved Extrudate (from Procedure 2), 7,755 grams of microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., Avicel PH 102, FMC Biopolymer), 1,320 grams of croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol®, FMC Biopolymer) and 742.5 grams of colloidal silicon dioxide (e.g., Aerosil 200, Evonik) were accurately weighed. The extrudate and the croscarmellose sodium were charged into a diffusion mixer (e.g. Showa Kagaku Kikai Kosakusho TM-60S). The colloidal silicon dioxide was combined with the microcrystalline cellulose and screened through a suitable screen (e.g. 30 mesh) and charged into the mixer. And then the powders were blended for 5 minutes at 15 rpm to produce the pre-blended powder. 82.5 grams of Magnesium stearate (Mallinckrodt) was accurately weighed, screened with a suitable screen (e.g., 30 mesh), and blended with the pre-blended powder for 2 minutes at 15 rpm to produce the final blended powder. The final blended powder was compressed by a rotary tablet-making machine (e.g. Kikusui Seisakusho, Ltd AQUARIUS) using 8mm by 18 mm caplet punch to produce tablets which weight was 625 mg.

Example 4: Experimental Procedures for Composition of Compound 1, 20 mg Film Coated Tablet



[0064] 
Table E. 20 mg Film Coated Tablet Formulation
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
Solid Dispersion Extrudate 20.0
microcrystalline cellulose 74.0
croscarmellose sodium 5.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 0.5
magnesium stearate 0.5
total core tablet 100.0
OPADRY® Red (% of core tablet weight) 4.2


[0065] 2,000 grams of the extrudate (from Procedure 3), 7,400 grams of microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., Avicel PH 101, FMC Biopolymer), 500.0 grams of croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol®, FMC Biopolymer) and 50.0 grams of colloidal silicon dioxide were accurately weighed. The colloidal silicon dioxide and a part of the microcrystalline cellulose were charged into a diffusion mixer (e.g. Bohle LM40 Bin Blender with 10L mixing container) and blended for 5 min at 6 rpm. The powders were screened through a suitable screen (e.g. seive size 0.5 mm) and charged into a suitable diffusion mixer (e.g. Bohle LM40 Bin Blender with 40L mixing container). The extrudate, croscarmellose sodium and the remaining microcrystalline cellulose were charged into the mixer. The powders were blended for 15 min at 6 rpm to produce the pre-blend powder. 50.0 grams of magnesium stearate (Mallinckrodt) were accurately weighed, screened with a suitable screen (e.g., seive size 1.0 mm) and blended with the pre-blend for 5 minutes at 6 rpm to produce the final blended powder. The final blended powder was compressed by a rotary tablet-making machine (e.g., Korsch XL 100) using 9mm round punch to produce core tablets which weight is 250 mg. Subsequently, 840.0 gram of OPADRY® RED 03F45081 and 6,160 grams of purified water were added into a tank and the spray suspension was prepared by stirring. The core tablets were charged into a suitable film coating machine (e.g. Driacoater Vario 500/600) and were coated with the spray suspension until the coating amount per tablet reached 10.5mg.

Example 5: Experimental Procedures for Composition of Compound 1, 70 mg Film Coated Tablet



[0066] 
Table F. 70 mg Film Coated Tablet Formulation
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
Solid Dispersion Extrudate 32.4
microcrystalline cellulose 58.6
croscarmellose sodium 8.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 0.5
magnesium stearate 0.5
total core tablet 100.0
OPADRY® Yellow (% of core tablet weight) 3.3


[0067] 3,241 grams of the extrudate (from Procedure 3), 5,859 grams of microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., Avicel PH 101, FMC Biopolymer), 800.0 grams of croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol®, FMC Biopolymer) and 50.0 grams of colloidal silicon dioxide were accurately weighed. The colloidal silicon dioxide and a part of the microcrystalline cellulose were charged into a diffusion mixer (e.g. Bohle LM40 Bin Blender with 10L mixing container) and blended for 5 min at 6 rpm. The powders were screened through a suitable screen (e.g. seive size 0.5 mm) and charged into a suitable diffusion mixer (e.g. Bohle LM40 Bin Blender with 40L mixing container). The extrudate, croscarmellose sodium and the remaining microcrystalline cellulose were charged into the mixer. The powders were blended for 15 min at 6 rpm to produce the pre-blend powder. 50.0 grams of magnesium stearate (Mallinckrodt) were accurately weighed, screened with a suitable screen (e.g., seive size 1.0 mm) and blended with the pre-blend for 5 min at 6 rpm to produce the final blended powder. The final blended powder was compressed by a rotary tablet-making machine (e.g., Korsch XL 100) using a 9mm by 14mm oblong punch to produce core tablets which weighed 540 mg. Subsequently, 667.0 gram of OPADRY® Yellow 03F42240 and 4,889 grams of purified water were added into a tank and the spray suspension was prepared by stirring. The core tablets were charged into a suitable film coating machine (e.g. Driacoater Vario 500/600) and were coated with the spray suspension until the coating amount per tablet reached 18.0 mg.

Example 6: Experimental Procedures for Composition of Compound 1, 100 mg Film Coated Tablet



[0068] 
Table G. 100 mg Film Coated Tablet Formulation
Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation(% w/w)
Solid Dispersion Extrudate 40.0
microcrystalline cellulose 51.0
croscarmellose sodium 8.0
colloidal silicon dioxide 0.5
magnesium stearate 0.5
total core tablet 100.0
OPADRY® Red (% of core tablet weight) 1.12
OPADRY® Yellow (% of core tablet weight) 2.24


[0069] 4,000 grams of the extrudate (from Procedure 3), 5,100 grams of microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., Avicel PH 101, FMC Biopolymer), 800.0 grams of croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol®, FMC Biopolymer) and 50.0 grams of colloidal silicon dioxide were accurately weighed. The colloidal silicon dioxide and a part of the microcrystalline cellulose were charged into a diffusion mixer (e.g. Bohle LM40 Bin Blender with 10L mixing container) and blended for 5 min 6 rpm. The powders were screened through a suitable screen (e.g. seive size 0.5 mm) and charged into a suitable diffusion mixer (e.g. Bohle LM40 Bin Blender with 40L mixing container). The extrudate, croscarmellose sodium and the remaining microcrystalline cellulose were charged into the mixer. The powders were blended for 15 min at 6 rpm to produce the pre-blend powder. 50.0 grams of magnesium stearate (Mallinckrodt) were accurately weighed, screened with a suitable screen (e.g., seive size 1.0 mm) and blended with the pre-blend for 5 min at 6 rpm to produce the final blended powder. The final blended powder was compressed by a rotary tablet-making machine (e.g., Korsch XL 100) using a 9mm by 16mm oval punch to produce core tablets which weight is 625 mg. Subsequently, 224.0 grams of OPADRY® RED 03F45081, 448.0 grams of OPADRY® Yellow 03F42240 and 4,928 grams of purified water were added into a tank and the spray suspension was prepared by stirring. The core tablets were charged into a suitable film coating machine (e.g. Driacoater Vario 500/600) and were coated with the spray suspension until the coating amount per tablet reached 21.0 mg.

Example 7: Hot Melt Extrusion Solid Dispersion Carrier Development



[0070] Due to the limited solubility of Compound 1, an extensive amount of development work was required to produce the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention. Pre-formulation studies, including significant testing related to solubility, dissolution, and stability led to the inital identification of solid dispersion as a strategy for formulation development. Following the pre-formulation work, several different types of solid dispersions were evaluated. For example, complexes with resins were tried in an effort to combine slow release of drug substance without precipitation, and compositions comprising many different types of polymers (solid-based and non-solid based), surfactants, and plasticizers were also prepared, and dissolution characteristics and stability were studied. These solid dispersions were initially prepared by solvent evaporation. Later, hot melted extrusion was tried to avoid the use of solvents in manufacture.

[0071] Melt extrusion was identified as the preferred method of manufacture for solid dispersion of Compound 1 due to the improved oral bioavailability provided by the material. Further feasibility studies were carried out to investigate additional polymer types and other excipients. Optimization of polymer type and drug load during hot melt extrusion was critical in order to avoid racemization and crystallization of drug substance. Critical process parameters such as feed rate and zone temperature were also found to have a significant impact on critical product attributes (amorphous nature, chiral purity) of the solid dispersion.

[0072] Studies indicated that high levels of a chiral impurity (the S-enantiomer of Compound 1) were observed when hot melt extrusion was used for production of the solid dispersion extrudates of Compound 1. Incorporation of processing additives such as poloxamer and polysorbate failed to show any significant reduction in the level of chiral impurity formation. Table E shows the results of one study that was carried out to evaluate the potency, chiral purity, non-sink dissolution, and glass transition values of several solid dispersion compositions. Copovidone (Kollidon® VA 64) was selected as the primary polymer for dispersion due to the low level of formation of chiral impurity. The amount of Compound 1 (the desired R-isomer) was measured by high performance liquid chromatography.
Table E. Potency, Chiral Purity, Non-Sink Dissolution and Glass Transition (TG) Values of Screening Study Batches
Batch NumberCompositionPotency (%)Chiral Impurity (%)Glass Transition (°C)Non-Sink AUC0→6 (µg·hr/ml)
1 Compound 1: Copovidone (45:55) 99.2 9.49 111 366.102
2 Compound 1: Copovidone (45:55) 97.0 4.37 111 3,375.595
3 Compound 1: Copovidone: Tween 80 (45:55:10) NA NA NA NA
4 Compound 1: Copovidone: Tween 80 (30:60:10) 99.2 7.61 84 6,216.536
5 Compound 1: Copovidone: Tween 80 (40:50:10) 99.2 6.07 81 4,613.41
6 Compound 1: Copovidone: Tween 80 (40:50:10) 99.3 17.91 85 NA
7 Compound 1: Eudragit® L100-55:Triethyl Citrate (20:64:16) 99.3 50.54 61 8,794.975
8 Compound 1: Eudragit® L100-55:Triethyl Citrate (40:54:6) 98.8 50.45 86 4,409.724
9 Compound 1:HPMCAS-M (20:80) 100.8 49.29 93 4,489.699
10 Compound 1:HPMCAS-M (40:60) 97.0 45.62 92 4,088.841
11 Compound 1:Eudragit® E PO (30:70) 94.5 48.14 NA 11,687.956 *
12 Compound 1:Copovidone: Poloxamer 407 (40:50:10) 96.8 5.68 109 3,130.347
13 Compound 1:Copovidone: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (40:56:4) 98.4 49.32 NA 5,253.017
14 Compound 1 :Copovidone:Tween 80 (5:85:10) 101.2 15.45 NA 10,726.54
*Dissolution testing conducted in simulated gastric fluid
NT = not tested
HPMCAS-M = hypromellose acetate succinate
Batches 7 to 11 are provided for reference.


[0073] Non-sink dissolution testing was performed using a modified centrifuge method with biosimilar media. Briefly, approximately 4.0 mg of Compound 1 equivalent solid dispersion was accurately weighed and dispersed into a centrifuge vial with 0.5% w/w bile salt (NaTC, POPC), pH 6.5 phosphate media and stored under shaking at 250 rpm. At predetermined time points the centrifuge vial was spun at 13,000 rpm and 25 microliters of supernatant sampled without replacement for analysis by HPLC. The remaining material was briefly vortex mixed prior to returning to the incubated shaker system maintained at 37 °C in order to re-suspend material.

[0074] Samples were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a Diamond DSC. All samples were analyzed from 25 °C to 225 °C using a ramp rate of 10 °C/min and sample size of approximately 8 mg. Natural glass transition temperatures were obtained by analysis of the second heating cycle.

Example 8: Processing Additives



[0075] Selected formulations from Table E (Batch 2, 5, and 12) using the Kollidon® VA 64 carrier were placed on an accelerated (40 °C/75% RH) open dish stability for one month and examined by scanning electron microscopy to assess potential surface recrystallization. Surface images of compositions containing processing additives such as Tween 80 and Poloxamer 407 showed indications of recrystallization. The magnitude of this behavior was significantly influenced by the type of additive selected. Compositions containing Poloxamer 407 exhibited substantial surface recrystallization over the storage period, while formulations using Tween 80 showed only the minimal potential recrystallization. Solid dispersion produced without a processing aid exhibited excellent amorphous stability, showing no indications of recrystallization.

[0076] Kollidon® VA 64 compositions with and without a non-ionic surfactant, Poloxamer 407, from Table E (Batch 2 and 12) were also evaluated for oral bioavailability enhancement in cynomolgus monkeys. The compositions were administered to achieve a target dose of 25 mg/kg body weight of the Compound 1 (R-enantiomer). Formulation development results showed that these compositions provided similar physiochemical properties and also yielded similar non-sink dissolution behavior. A second batch containing Poloxamer 407 was produced for this dosing experiment using a ZSE-18 mm extruder (the original batches were produced using a Nano-16 extruder). Additionally, to enhance disintegration of the compositions, all dosed capsules contained Polyplasdone XL-10 (Crospovidone) at a loading of 4.0%. This second batch yielded similar potency and chiral impurity levels as previously described for equivalent formulations; however presented a significantly reduced oral bioavailability in comparison to the Poloxamer 407 free formulation (Batch 2). The formulations studied presented relative oral bioavailabilities of 104% ± 33% and 38% ± 19% for the Poloxamer 407 free and Poloxamer 407 containing formulations respectively.

Example 9: Bioavailability Study



[0077] Tablet and capsule dosage forms were prepared to support oral bioavailability in cynomologus monkeys. Formulations for each batch are presented in Table F below along with composition attributes.
Table F.
MaterialCompound 1 Tablets, 100 mgCompound 1 Capsules, 100 mg
Extrudate 400 mg/g 40.0% 86.24%
Microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel PH 102 45.0% 6.76%
Polyplasdone XL -- 5.0%
Croscarmellose Sodium, Ac-Di-Sol 10.0% --
Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, Aerosil 200 4.5% 2.00
Magnesium Stearate 0.5% --
Table G.
Solid Dispersion Composition Attributes
MetricCompound 1 Tablets, 100 mg ValueCompound 1 Capsules, 100 mg Value
Potency 104.7% 103.9%
Total Impurities 0.66% 0.66%
RRT 0.79 0.16% 0.16%
RRT 0.84 0.05% 0.05%
RRT 0.84 0.027% 0.027%
Chiral Impurity 3.47% 3.5%
Amorphous Character Amorphous Amorphous


[0078] Tablets prepared to support the animal trial were adjusted based on the measured potency and chiral purity of the extrudate to achieve a target delivery of 100 mg of Compound 1. Potency values for both the tablet and capsule tested at approximately 103.5% to account for the measured chiral impurity level of the extrudate. The composition attributes (Table G) associated with the chemical purity indicated that the dosage forms produced provided a robust product with no significant decomposition induced by the manufacturing process.

[0079] The amorphous nature of the solid dispersion compositions was assessed by XRPD, with representative diffraction patterns for each constituent raw material and the respective dosage forms presented in Figure 2. Results show that only magnesium stearate and crystalline Compound 1 produced characteristic peaks indicative of their crystalline nature. Other materials in the composition were whown to be amorphous due to the absence of characteristic peaks associated with crystalline structure. Testing of both compositions showed that the materials prepared for the study were amorphous, demonstrating amorphous halos characteristic of the major amorphous excipients in the formulations. Based on these results, compositions prepared were shown to be amorphous.

[0080] Dissolution behavior of the compositions produced was also assessed using sink dissolution, with profiles presented in Figure 3 (diamond = tablet; square = capsule). Compound 1 tablets showed rapid dissolution. Capsule formulations showed muted release relative to the tablet formulation.

[0081] Preclinical bioavailability studies were conducted in cynomolgus monkeys (n = 3) at an approximate dose of 25 mg/kg to assess oral bioavailability of tablet and capsule dosage forms prepared by hot melt extrusion and spray drying. Melt extruded compositions were shown to provide superior AUC values compared to spray dried formulations. Mean plasma profiles for each of the formulations are presented in Figure 4.

Example 10: High Shear Mixing Reduces Potency Variation



[0082] Due to the continuous nature of the extrusion process potency variation must be kept to a minimum to yield a robust manufacturing procedure. During the initial development runs significant intra-batch potency variation was observed that could not be accounted for based on a mass balance and suggested heterogeneity of the feed stock during processing. For the preparation of the initial development batches a bag blending procedure was used where Compound 1 and Kollidon® VA 64 were added into a polyethylene bag and manually agitated for a period of up to 5 minutes. Once potency variability within batches was observed, a procedural change was made to prepare feed stock material by screening both components through an 18-mesh screen and mixing in a high shear mixer for two minutes at 1,500 rpm. A retroactive comparison of the potency values, presented in Figure 5, showed that the use of high shear mixing significantly reduced potency variation.

Example 11: Tablet Disintegration



[0083] For the preliminary disintegration study tablets were manually prepared at 100 mg strength using 10.0 mm round, standard concave tooling at compression forces of 4.8, 6.9, 6.2 and 13.9 kN, respectively from blend batches having extrudate levels of 62.5% and 80%. Forces used for compression were selected to yield tablets with approximate hardness values of 10.0 ± 5.0 kP. Disintegration testing was conducted using simulated gastric fluid to assess performance. Results from testing the prototype batches showed limited disintegration, with measured times greater than 180 min for the samples selected. Additional optimization was conducted by sequentially reducing the solid dispersion loading and also modifying the grade of diluent and superdisintegrant used. For this study, four formulation modifications and two tooling types were investigated, as presented in Table H. Results showed that reductions in solid dispersion loading from 62.5% to 50% provided a significant improvement in disintegration performance, with further improvement observed when further reducing to 40%.
Table H. Disintegration Optimization Studies for Compound Tablets, 100 mg
Sample No.FormulationForce (kN)Hardness (kP)Disintegration Time (min)
Variation
1 62.5% extrudate; 22.5% MCC, 10% XL10 4.8 14.7 >180
  10 mm round, standard concave      
2 50% extrudate; 35% MCC, 10% XL10 6.4 10.1 21.3
  10 mm round, standard concave      
3 50% extrudate; 35% MCC, 10% Ac-Di-Sol 6.4 9.2 0.3
  10 mm round, standard concave      
4 50% extrudate; 35% MCC:S1500, 10% XL10 7.7 8.7 24.8
  10 mm round, standard concave      
5 40% extrudate; 45% MCC, 10% Ac-Di-Sol 3.5 8.6 0.3
  8 x 18 mm Caplet Shaped Tooling      
6 50% extrudate; 35% MCC, 10% Ac-Di-Sol 6.4 11.5 0.4
  8 x 18 mm Caplet Shaped Tooling      

Example 12: Compression Optimization



[0084] Compression robustness of each formulation was studied using a manual tablet press to assess the impact of critical process parameters (dwell time and compression force) and disintegration time and tablet hardness. For this study a two level factorial design was implemented, varying the levels of each critical process parameter as shown in Table I.

[0085] Critical product attributes for each formulation condition were evaluated and the results are presented in Table I. Both formulations exhibited tablet hardness values that were dependent on both compression force and dwell time. Disintegration behavior for both formulations was rapid, with measured disintegration times less than 5 min for all tablets studied.
Table I. Compression Optimization Study of 100 mg Tablets
Formulation50% solid dispersion extrudate40% solid dispersion extrudate
35% avicel PH 10245% avicel PH 102
10% Ac-Di-Sol10% Ac-Di-Sol
4.5% Colloidal Silicon Dioxide4.5% Colloidal Silicon Dioxide
0.5% Magnesium Stearate0.5% Magnesium Stearate
Run #Dwell Time (s)Compression Force (kN/psi)Dwell Time (sCompression Force (kN)
1 0 6.4 / 1,700 0 3.5 / 1,000
2 0 8.5 / 2,200 0 5.6 / 1,500
3 0 6.4 / 1,700 5 3.5 / 1,000
4 0 8.5 / 2,200 5 5.6 / 1,500

Reference Example 13: Treatment of Patients



[0086] "An Open-Label, Phase I, Dose Escalation Study of Compound 1 in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors Followed by a Dose Expansion Phase in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma."

[0087] This is a phase 1, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label, dose escalation study. This study is conducted in patients ≥ 18 years of age with advanced solid tumors (excluding lymphoma) (Dose Escalation and PK Expansion cohort) or locally advanced, metastatic, and/or unresectable melanoma (melanoma expansion cohorts) and additional solid tumors.

[0088] The QW arm tests an initial Compound 1 dose of 400 mg once weekly (on Days 1, 8, 15, and 22) in a 28-day cycle. Patients will fast (with the exception of water) for at least 2 hours before and at least 2 hours after taking their dose of Compound 1. Patients may continue treatment for additional cycles until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or the patient discontinues for any other reason. The maximum duration of treatment will be 12 months unless it is determined that a patient would derive benefit from continued therapy beyond 12 months.

[0089] QW Dose Expansion Phase: Once the MTD and/or RP2D of QW Compound 1 has been determined, the study will continue to a QW Dose Expansion phase. The Dose Expansion phase will enroll approximately 16 patients (up to 16 patients per cohort), one cohort of patients with locally advanced, metastatic, and/or unresectable NRAS mutation positive melanoma naive to MEK or RAF inhibitors, and one cohort of patients with BRAF mutionation positive thyroid, colorectal or non-small cell lung cancers. Individual Dose Expansion cohorts may be opened or closed sequentially or in parallel at the sponsor's discretion, based on emerging data.

[0090] Patients in the QW Dose Expansion phase will take Compound 1 orally QW for a 28-day cycle until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or the patient discontinues for any other reason. The maximum duration of treatment will be 1 year unless it is determined that a patient would derive benefit from continued therapy beyond 12 months.

Reference Example


14: Methods for measuring BRAF and/or NRAS markers



[0091] BRAF PCR based Assay (Vendor: Qiagen; Catalog#: 870801) The BRAF RGQ PCR Kit v2 combines two technologies, ARMS® and Scorpions®, to detect mutations in real-time PCR assays. This assay detects BRAFV600 mutations V600E (GAG) and V600E complex (GAA), V600D (GAT), V600K (AAG), V600R (AGG). The kit detects the presence of the V600E (GAG) and V600E complex (GAA) but does not distinguish between them.

ARMS



[0092] Specific mutated sequences are selectively amplified by allele specific primer designed to match a mutated DNA.

Scorpions



[0093] Detection of amplification is performed using Scorpions. Scorpions are PCR primer covalently linked to a fluorescently labeled probe (i.e. FAM™ or HEX™) and a quencher. During PCR when the probe is bound to the amplicon, the fluorophore and quencher become separated resulting in an increase in fluorescence signal.

Procedure



[0094] The BRAF RGQ PCR Kit v2 comprises a two-step procedure. In the first step, the control assay is performed to assess the total amplifiable BRAF DNA in a sample. In the second step, both the mutation and control assays are performed to determine the presence or absence of mutant DNA.

Control assay



[0095] The control assay, labeled with FAM, is used to assess the total amplifiable BRAF DNA in a sample. The control assay amplifies a region of exon 3 of the BRAF gene. The primers and Scorpion probe are designed to amplify independently of any known BRAF polymorphisms.

Mutation assays



[0096] Each mutation assay contains a FAM-labeled Scorpion probe and an ARMS primer for discrimination between the wild-type DNA and a specific mutant DNA.

Data Analysis: ΔCt Method



[0097] Scorpions real-time assays uses the number of PCR cycles necessary to detect a fluorescent signal above a background signal as a measure of the target molecules present at the beginning of the reaction. The point at which the signal is detected above background fluorescence is called the 'cycle threshold' (Ct).

[0098] Sample ΔCt values are calculated as the difference between the mutation assay Ct and control assay Ct from the same sample. Samples are classed as mutation positive if they give a ΔCt less than the Cut-Off ΔCt value for that assay. Above this value, the sample either contains less than the percentage of mutation able to be detected by the kit (beyond the limit of the assays), or the sample is mutation negative.

[0099] When using ARMS primers some inefficient priming could occur, giving a very late background Ct from DNA not containing a mutation. All ΔCt values calculated from background amplification are greater than the cut off ΔCt values and the sample is classed mutation negative.

[0100] For each sample, the ΔCt values are calculated as follows, ensuring that the mutation and control Ct values are from the same sample:

ΔCt = {sample mutation Ct} - {sample control Ct}



[0101] Sample control Ct can range between 27-33
Sample mutation Ct can range between 15-40

Acceptable ΔCt for the mutant call is <6 or 7



[0102] Methods for measuring NRAS mutations are similar to those described above for BRAF. Qiagen NRAS assay for the detection of NRAS Q61 mutations includes:

Q61K (181 C>A)

Q61R (182 A>G)


SEQUENCE LISTING



[0103] 

<110> Bozon, Viviana Millennium Pharmaceuticals, inc.

<120> PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS, PROCESSES
FOR PREPARATION, AND METHODS OF USE

<130> MPI14-005P2RNWOM

<150> US 61/970595
<151> 2014-03-26

<150> US 62/048527
<151> 2014-09-10

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<212> DNA
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<210> 5
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Claims

1. A pharmaceutical composition comprising (1) a solid dispersion extrudate comprising (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.
 
2. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1, comprising (1) from 10% to 50% w/w of a solid dispersion extrudate comprising: (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamideor a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer and (2) from 50% to 90% w/w of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprising a filler, disintegrant, glidant and lubricant.
 
3. The pharmaceutical composition of claims 1 or 2, wherein the vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is copovidone.
 
4. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the solid dispersion extrudate comprises <3% w/w of the S-enantiomer of 2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)ethyl)- N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide.
 
5. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 1-4, wherein:

(a) the solid dispersion extrudate is amorphous; and/or

(b) the glass transition temperature (TG) of the solid dispersion extrudate is from 45 °C to 120 °C.


 
6. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 1-5, wherein:

(a) the amount of (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide is from 3% to 17% w/w; and/or

(b) the amount of vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is from 5% to 25% w/w.


 
7. The pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 1-6, which comprises:

(a) croscarmellose sodium; and/or

(b) colloidal silicon dioxide; and/or

(c) magnesium stearate; and/or

(d) microcrystalline cellulose.


 
8. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 7, wherein:

(a) the amount of croscarmellose sodium is from 4% to 9% w/w; and/or

(b) the amount of colloidal silicon dioxide is from 0.5 % to 6% w/w; and/or

(c) the amount of magnesium stearate is from 0.3% to 0.7% w/w; and/or

(d) the amount of microcrystalline cellulose is from 46% to 81% w/w.


 
9. A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1, which comprises the steps of:

(i) extruding a mixture of (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer to form a solid dispersion extrudate;

(ii) blending the resulting solid dispersion extrudate with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.


 
10. The process of claim 9, wherein:

(a) the vinylpyrrolidinone-vinyl acetate copolymer is copovidone; and/or

(b) the extruding is carried out in an extruder operating with a barrel temperature comprising a gradient temperature profile ranging from room temperature to 180 °C.


 
11. A pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 1-8 for use in a method for the treatment of cancer in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering an effective amount of said pharmaceutical composition to the patient according to an intermittent dosing regimen, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition once or twice weekly and the amount of the composition administered each week is from 400 mg to 1000 mg.
 
12. The pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 11, wherein the dosing regimen comprises administering the composition to the patient once a week with a rest period of 6 days between each administration.
 
13. The pharmaceutical composition for use of claim 11 or 12, wherein the cancer has one or more mutations in BRAF and/or NRAS.
 
14. The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 11-13, wherein:

(a) the cancer has a V600 BRAF mutation; and/or

(b) the cancer has a NRAS mutation; and/or

(c) the cancer has a non-V600E BRAF mutation.


 
15. The pharmaceutical composition for use of any one of claims 11-14, wherein the cancer is skin, ocular, gastrointestinal, thyroid, breast, ovarian, lung, brain, laryngeal, cervical, lymphatic system, genitourinary tract, or bone cancer.
 
16. A pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 1-8 for use in treatment of a patient diagnosed with cancer, the patient determined as one in which there is an increased likelihood of pharmacological effectiveness of treatment by a method comprising
subjecting a nucleic acid sample from a cancer (tumor) sample from the patient to BRAF or NRAS mutational testing or PCR, wherein the presence of at least one mutation in BRAF or NRAS gene indicates an increased likelihood of pharmacological effectiveness of the treatment.
 


Ansprüche

1. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend (1) ein festes Dispersionsextrudat, umfassend (R)-2-(1-(6-Amino-5-chlorpyrimidin-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chlor-4-(trifluormethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-5-carbonsäureamid oder ein pharmazeutisch unbedenkliches Salz davon und ein Vinylpyrrolidinon-Vinylacetat-Copolymer, und (2) einen oder mehrere pharmazeutisch unbedenkliche Exzipienten.
 
2. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, umfassend (1) 10 Gew.-% bis 50 Gew.-% eines festen Dispersionsextrudats, umfassend: (R)-2-(1-(6-Amino-5-chlorpyrimidin-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chlor-4-(trifluormethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-5-carbonsäureamid oder ein pharmazeutisch unbedenkliches Salz davon und ein Vinylpyrrolidinon-Vinylacetat-Copolymer, und (2) 50 Gew.-% bis 90 Gew.-% eines oder mehrerer pharmazeutisch unbedenklicher Exzipienten, umfassend einen Füller, ein Sprengmittel, ein Gleitmittel und ein Schmiermittel.
 
3. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei es sich bei dem Vinylpyrrolidinon-Vinylacetat-Copolymer um Copovidon handelt.
 
4. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-3, wobei das feste Dispersionsextrudat <3 Gew.-% des S-Enantiomers von 2-(1-(6-Amino-5-chlorpyrimidin-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chlor-4-(trifluormethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-5-carbonsäureamid umfasst.
 
5. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-4, wobei:

(a) das feste Dispersionsextrudat amorph ist und/oder

(b) die Glasübergangstemperatur (TG) des festen Dispersionsextrudats 45°C bis 120°C beträgt.


 
6. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-5, wobei:

(a) die Menge an (R)-2-(1-(6-Amino-5-chlorpyrimidin-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chlor-4-(trifluormethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-5-carbonsäureamid 3 Gew.-% bis 17 Gew.-% beträgt und/oder

(b) die Menge an Vinylpyrrolidinon-Vinylacetat-Copolymer 5 Gew.-% bis 25 Gew.-% beträgt.


 
7. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-6, welche Folgendes umfasst:

(a) Croscarmellose-Natrium und/oder

(b) kolloidales Siliciumdioxid und/oder

(c) Magnesiumstearat und/oder

(d) mikrokristalline Cellulose.


 
8. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 7, wobei:

(a) die Menge an Croscarmellose-Natrium 4 Gew.-% bis 9 Gew.-% beträgt und/oder

(b) die Menge an kolloidalem Siliciumdioxid 0,5 Gew.-% bis 6 Gew.-% beträgt und/oder

(c) die Menge an Magnesiumstearat 0,3 Gew.-% bis 0,7 Gew.-% beträgt und/oder

(d) die Menge an mikrokristalliner Cellulose 46 Gew.-% bis 81 Gew.-% beträgt.


 
9. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer pharmazeutischen Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, welches die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

(i) das Extrudieren einer Mischung von (R)-2-(1-(6-Amino-5-chlorpyrimidin-4-carboxamido)ethyl)-N-(5-chlor-4-(trifluormethyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-5-carbonsäureamid oder eines pharmazeutisch unbedenklichen Salzes davon und Vinylpyrrolidinon-Vinylacetat-Copolymer unter Bildung eines festen Dispersionsextrudats,

(ii) das Mischen des erhaltenen festen Dispersionsextrudats mit einem oder mehreren pharmazeutisch unbedenklichen Exzipienten.


 
10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei:

(a) es sich bei dem Vinylpyrrolidinon-Vinylacetat-Copolymer um Copovidon handelt und/oder

(b) das Extrudieren in einem Extruder erfolgt, der bei einer Zylindertemperatur betrieben wird, die ein Temperaturgradientenprofil umfasst, das sich von Raumtemperatur bis 180°C erstreckt.


 
11. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-8 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs bei einem einer solchen Behandlung bedürftigen Patienten, wobei das Verfahren die Verabreichung einer wirksamen Menge der pharmazeutischen Zusammensetzung an den Patienten gemäß einem periodischen Dosierungsprotokoll umfasst, wobei das Dosierungsprotokoll die Verabreichung der Zusammensetzung ein- oder zweimal wöchentlich umfasst und die Menge an jede Woche verabreichter Zusammensetzung 400 mg bis 1000 mg beträgt.
 
12. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 11, wobei das Dosierungsprotokoll die Verabreichung der Zusammensetzung an den Patienten einmal pro Woche umfasst, mit einer Ruheperiode von 6 Tagen zwischen den einzelnen Verabreichungen.
 
13. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 11 oder 12, wobei die Krebserkrankung durch eine oder mehrere Mutationen bei BRAF und/oder NRAS gekennzeichnet ist.
 
14. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 11-13, wobei:

(a) die Krebserkrankung durch eine V600 BRAF-Mutation gekennzeichnet ist und/oder

(b) die Krebserkrankung durch eine NRAS-Mutation gekennzeichnet ist und/oder

(c) die Krebserkrankung durch eine Non-V600E BRAF-Mutation gekennzeichnet ist.


 
15. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 11-14, wobei es sich bei der Krebserkrankung um Hautkrebs, Augenkrebs, eine gastrointestinale Krebserkrankung, Schilddrüsenkrebs, Brustkrebs, Eierstockkrebs, Lungenkrebs, Hirnkrebs, Kehlkopfkrebs, Gebärmutterhalskrebs, eine Krebserkrankung des lymphatischen Systems, eine Krebserkrankung des Urogenitaltrakts oder Knochenkrebs handelt.
 
16. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-8 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung eines Patienten, bei dem eine Krebserkrankung diagnostiziert wurde, wobei durch ein Verfahren, bei dem man eine Nukleinsäureprobe aus einer Krebs(Tumor)probe von dem Patienten einem BRAF- oder NRAS-Mutationstest oder einer PCR unterzieht, wobei das Vorhandensein mindestens einer Mutation beim BRAF- bzw. NRAS-Gen auf eine erhöhte Wahrscheinlichkeit einer pharmakologischen Wirksamkeit der Behandlung hindeutet, festgestellt wurde, dass es sich bei dem Patienten um einen Patienten handelt, bei dem eine erhöhte Wahrscheinlichkeit einer pharmakologischen Wirkung der Behandlung besteht.
 


Revendications

1. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant (1) un extrudat en dispersion solide comprenant du (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)éthyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluorométhyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci et un copolymère vinylpyrrolidinone-acétate de vinyle et (2) un ou plusieurs excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables.
 
2. Composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 1, comprenant (1) de 10 % à 50 % m/m d'un extrudat en dispersion solide comprenant : du (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)éthyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluorométhyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci et un copolymère vinylpyrrolidinone-acétate de vinyle et (2) de 50 % à 90 % m/m d'un ou plusieurs excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables comprenant une charge, un délitant, un agent glissant et un lubrifiant.
 
3. Composition pharmaceutique des revendications 1 ou 2, dans laquelle le copolymère vinylpyrrolidinone-acétate de vinyle est la copovidone.
 
4. Composition pharmaceutique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans laquelle l'extrudat en dispersion solide comprend < 3 % m/m de l'énantiomère S du 2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)éthyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluorométhyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide.
 
5. Composition pharmaceutique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans laquelle :

(a) l'extrudat en dispersion solide est amorphe ; et/ou

(b) la température de transition vitreuse (TG) de l'extrudat en dispersion solide est de 45 °C à 120 °C.


 
6. Composition pharmaceutique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans laquelle :

(a) la quantité de (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)éthyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluorométhyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide est de 3 % à 17 % m/m ; et/ou

(b) la quantité de copolymère vinylpyrrolidinone-acétate de vinyle est de 5 % à 25 % m/m.


 
7. Composition pharmaceutique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, qui comprend :

(a) de la croscarmellose sodique ; et/ou

(b) du dioxyde de silicium colloïdal ; et/ou

(c) du stéarate de magnésium ; et/ou

(d) de la cellulose microcristalline.


 
8. Composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 7, dans laquelle :

(a) la quantité de croscarmellose sodique est de 4 % à 9 % m/m ; et/ou

(b) la quantité de dioxyde de silicium colloïdal est de 0,5 % à 6 % m/m ; et/ou

(c) la quantité de stéarate de magnésium est de 0,3 % à 0,7 % m/m ; et/ou

(d) la quantité de cellulose microcristalline est de 46 % à 81 % m/m.


 
9. Procédé de préparation d'une composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 1, qui comprend les étapes de :

(i) extrusion d'un mélange de (R)-2-(1-(6-amino-5-chloropyrimidine-4-carboxamido)éthyl)-N-(5-chloro-4-(trifluorométhyl)pyridin-2-yl)thiazole-5-carboxamide ou d'un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci et de copolymère vinylpyrrolidinone-acétate de vinyle pour former un extrudat en dispersion solide ;

(ii) mélange de l'extrudat en dispersion solide résultant avec un ou plusieurs excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables.


 
10. Procédé selon la revendication 9, dans lequel :

(a) le copolymère vinylpyrrolidinone-acétate de vinyle est la copovidone ; et/ou

(b) l'extrusion est conduite dans une extrudeuse fonctionnant à une température de cylindre comprenant un profil de gradient de température dans la plage de la température ambiante à 180 °C.


 
11. Composition pharmaceutique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, pour utilisation dans un procédé pour le traitement d'un cancer chez un patient ayant besoin d'un tel traitement, ledit procédé comprenant l'administration d'une quantité efficace de ladite composition pharmaceutique au patient selon un schéma posologique intermittent, le schéma posologique comprenant l'administration de la composition une fois ou deux fois par semaine et la quantité de la composition administrée chaque semaine étant de 400 mg à 1000 mg.
 
12. Composition pharmaceutique pour utilisation selon la revendication 11, le schéma posologique comprenant l'administration de la composition au patient une fois par semaine avec une période de repos de 6 jours entre chaque administration.
 
13. Composition pharmaceutique pour utilisation selon la revendication 11 ou 12, le cancer ayant une ou plusieurs mutations dans BRAF et/ou NRAS.
 
14. Composition pharmaceutique pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 13, où :

(a) le cancer a une mutation de BRAF V600 ; et/ou

(b) le cancer a une mutation de NRAS ; et/ou

(c) le cancer a une mutation de BRAF non-V600E.


 
15. Composition pharmaceutique pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 14, le cancer étant un cancer de la peau, oculaire, gastrointestinal, de la thyroïde, du sein, des ovaires, du poumon, du cerveau, du larynx, du col de l'utérus, du système lymphatique, de l'appareil génito-urinaire ou des os.
 
16. Composition pharmaceutique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 pour utilisation dans le traitement d'un patient diagnostiqué avec un cancer, le patient étant déterminé comme présentant une probabilité accrue d'efficacité pharmacologique du traitement par un procédé comprenant
la soumission d'un échantillon d'acide nucléique d'un échantillon de cancer (tumeurs) du patient à un test de mutation ou une PCR de BRAF ou NRAS, la présence d'au moins une mutation dans le gène BRAF ou NRAS indiquant une probabilité accrue d'efficacité pharmacologique du traitement.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description