(19)
(11)EP 3 130 854 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
24.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/26

(21)Application number: 15461552.0

(22)Date of filing:  13.08.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F23R 3/06(2006.01)
F23M 5/08(2006.01)
F23R 3/08(2006.01)

(54)

COMBUSTOR SHAPE COOLING SYSTEM

BRENNKAMMERFORMKÜHLSYSTEM

SYSTÈME DE REFROIDISSEMENT DE FORME DE CHAMBRE DE COMBUSTION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
15.02.2017 Bulletin 2017/07

(73)Proprietor: Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.
Longueuil, QC J4G 1A1 (CA)

(72)Inventor:
  • STRZEPEK, Jakub
    Montreal Québec J4G 1A1 (CA)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2015/074052
US-A1- 2004 250 548
US-B2- 8 707 706
US-A- 4 773 227
US-B2- 8 146 364
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD



    [0001] The application relates generally to gas turbine engines and, more particularly, to a gas turbine engine combustor having a cooling system.

    BACKGROUND OF THE ART



    [0002] Gas turbine engines have combustors wherein a combustion reaction takes place and generates hot combustion gases to power the turbine of the gas turbine engine. The combustor, particularly an inner side of the combustor wall referred to as the "hot side", is exposed to high temperature gases and must be cooled. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a combustor with a cooling system. Conventional cooling systems are usually defined by holes such as impingement cooling holes, effusion cooling holes, etc. provided in combustor walls or components attached to the combustor walls. Some gas turbine combustors have successive wall sections such as telescoping rings that overlap one another to define entrances therebetween for film cooling air which flows rearwardly along the inside of the combustor wall in the same direction as the combustion gases. However, in present day and future aircraft engines, it is apparent that higher and higher temperatures will be used, which requires more effective combustor cooling systems.

    [0003] Document US8707706 discloses a gas turbine engine according to the preamble of claim 1.

    [0004] Accordingly, there is a need for gas turbine engine combustor configurations having improved cooling systems.

    SUMMARY



    [0005] In one aspect, there is provided a gas turbine engine having a gas generator section including a combustor, the combustor comprising at least one annular wall defining a combustion chamber therein, the at least one annular wall formed by a circumferential array of panels in a loadbearing configuration for bearing substantial loads generated by a combustion reaction taking place in the combustion chamber, the panels extending from an upstream end to a downstream end of the at least one annular wall and inclining toward a circumferential direction, the panels overlapping one with another to define a plurality of radial gaps between respective adjacent two of the panels, the radial gaps being in fluid communication with the combustion chamber and a space outside the combustor to allow air surrounding the at least one annular wall to enter the combustion chamber via the radial gaps for film cooling a hot side of the at least one annular wall.

    [0006] Optionally, there is provided a gas turbine engine having a gas generator section including an annular combustor disposed in an annulus defined radially between annular outer and inner cases of the gas generator section, the combustor comprising an annular outer wall and an annular inner wall to define an annular combustion chamber radially therebetween, each of the annular outer and inner walls being formed by a circumferential array of panels in a loadbearing configuration for bearing substantial loads generated by a combustion reaction taking place in the combustion chamber, the panels extending from an upstream end to a downstream end of the respective annular outer and inner walls and overlapping one with another to define a plurality of radial gaps between respective adjacent two of the panels, the radial gaps in the respective annular outer and inner walls being configured in spiral patterns with respect to a combustor central axis and being in fluid communication with the combustion chamber and a space outside the annular combustor to allow air in the annulus and surrounding the annular combustor to enter the combustion chamber via the radial gaps for film cooling a hot side of the respective annular outer and inner walls.

    DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0007] Reference is now made to the accompanying drawings in which:

    FIG. 1 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of a gas turbine engine as an example illustrating application of the described subject matter;

    FIG. 2 is a partial perspective view of a circumferential segment of a gas generator section of the engine of FIG. 1, showing a combustor assembly according to one embodiment;

    FIG. 3 is a partial perspective view of the combustor assembly of FIG. 2, showing respective annular outer and inner walls thereof formed by a plurality of swept-back combustor panels overlapping one with another;

    FIG. 4 is a partially exploded partial perspective view of the combustor assembly of FIG. 2, showing the connection of a combustor dome wall with the respective annular outer and inner walls;

    FIG. 5 is a perspective view of three swept-back combustor panels overlapping one with another to form a circumferential section of the annular outer wall of the combustor assembly of FIG. 2, showing cooling air passages formed on the cold side of the annular outer wall;

    FIG. 6 is a perspective view of three swept-back combustor panels overlapping one with another to form a circumferential section of the combustor assembly of FIG. 2, showing air flow along a hot side of the annular outer wall for film cooling the same; and

    FIG. 7 is a partial cross-sectional view of two adjacent swept-back combustor panels, showing an overlapping area thereof.



    [0008] It will be noted that throughout the appended drawings, like features are identified by like reference numerals.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0009] Referring to FIG.1 a turbofan gas turbine engine includes a fan case 10, a core casing 13, a low pressure spool assembly which includes a fan assembly 14, a low pressure compressor assembly 16 and a low pressure turbine assembly 18 connected by a shaft 12, and a high pressure spool assembly which includes a high pressure compressor assembly 22 and a high pressure turbine assembly 24, connected by a turbine shaft 20. The core casing 13 surrounds the low and high pressure spool assemblies to define a main fluid path therethrough. The engine includes a gas generator section 25 including a combustor assembly 26 provided in the main fluid path to generate combustion gases to power the high pressure turbine assembly 24 and the low pressure turbine assembly 18.

    [0010] The terms "axial", "radial" and "circumferential" used for various components below, are defined with respect to the main engine axis 28. The terms "upstream" and "downstream" used for various components below, are defined with respect to the flow direction of air or gases flowing in and/or through the main fluid path of the engine.

    [0011] Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the gas generator section 25 of the engine according to one embodiment may be configured with annular outer and inner casings 30, 32 (which are also part of the core casing 13 of the engine) to define an annulus 34 radially therebetween for accommodating compressor air (indicated by arrows 36) discharged from a compressor diffuser 38. The combustor assembly 26 may be disposed in the annulus 34 and supported by the annular outer and inner casings 30, 32. The combustor assembly 26 may be positioned radially spaced apart from the respective annular outer and inner casings 30, 32 and is thus surrounded by the compressor air 36 within the annulus 34.

    [0012] The combustor assembly 26 may be configured with an annular outer wall 40 and an annular inner wall 42 to define an annular combustion chamber 44 radially therebetween. An annular dome wall 46 which may be connected to respective upstream ends 48, 50 of the annular outer and inner walls 40, 42, may extend to radially close the annular combustion chamber 44 at the upstream ends 48, 50 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42. A plurality of openings 52 may be provided in the annular dome wall 46 for receiving a number of fuel/air mixers (not shown) installed therein to inject a fuel and air mixture into the annular combustion chamber 44 to be burned therein, resulting in a combustion reaction to produce hot combustion gases. Downstream ends 54, 56 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 may be connected to a vane structure 58 which directs the hot combustion gases produced within the annular combustion chamber 44, into the high pressure turbine assembly 24.

    [0013] Referring to FIGS. 1-7, according to one embodiment, the annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 may each be formed by a circumferential array of swept-back combustor panels 60 which may be prepared in an investment casting method, extending in a spiral pattern with respect to a combustor central axis, from the upstream ends 48, 50 to the downstream ends 54, 56 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42, and inclining toward one or two circumferential directions. The panels 60 may overlap one with another to define a plurality of radial gaps 62 (see FIGS. 3, 6 and 7) between respective adjacent two of the swept-back combustor panels 60. Therefore, the radial gaps 62 are configured in a spiral pattern corresponding to the spiral pattern of the swept-back combustor panels 60. In the embodiment in which the combustor assembly 26 is of an annular type, the combustor central axis is the main engine axis 28. Therefore, the spiral pattern of the radial gaps is with respect to the main engine axis 28. The radial gaps 62 may be in fluid communication with the annular combustor chamber 44 and a space outside the annular combustor assembly 26 to allow the compressor air 36 in the annulus 34 which surrounds the annular combustor 26, to enter the annular combustion chamber 44 via the radial gaps 62 in the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42, for film cooling a hot side 64 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 which is heated by exposure to the hot gases generated in the annular combustion chamber 44.

    [0014] The radial gaps 62 defined in the annular outer wall 40 may be configured in a first spiral pattern in which the gaps 62 extend from the upstream end 48 to the downstream end 54 of the annular outer wall 40 and incline toward a first circumferential direction, and the radial gaps 62 defined in the annular inner wall 42 may be configured in a second spiral pattern in which the radial gaps 62 extend from the upstream end 50 to the downstream end 56 of the annular inner wall 42 and incline toward a second circumferential direction different from the first circumferential direction. The gaps 62 in spiral patterns having different circumferential directions can improve combustion recirculation within the combustion chamber 44. Alternatively, the first and second spiral patterns of the radial gaps 62 in the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 may be similar: that is, the radial gaps 62 defined in the respective outer and inner walls 40, 42 may all incline toward the same circumferential direction.

    [0015] According to one embodiment, the swept-back combustor panels 60 may each include a first panel side edge 68 extending between a panel forward end edge 70 and a panel aft end edge 72, and a second panel side edge 74 extending between the panel forward end edge 70 and the panel aft end edge 72. The first and second panel side edges 68, 74 may be oriented at a respective oblique angle with respect to the panel forward end edge 70. For example, the first panel side edge 68 may be oriented at an obtuse angle A (see FIG. 5) with respect to the panel forward end edge 70 and the second panel side edge 74 may be oriented at an acute angle B with respect to the panel forward end edge 70. Therefore, each of the combustor panels 60 are presented as swept-back profile.

    [0016] The panel forward end edges 70 of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 which form the annular outer wall 40, may in combination form the upstream end 48 of the annular outer wall 40 while the panel aft end edges 72 of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 which form the annular outer wall 40, may in combination form the downstream end 54 of the annular outer wall 40. Similarly, the panel forward end edges 70 of the swept-back combustor panels 60 which form the annular inner wall 42, may in combination form the upstream end 50 of the annular inner wall 42 and the panel aft end edges 72 of the swept-back combustor panels 60 which form the annular inner wall 42, may in combination form the downstream end 56 of the annular inner wall 42.

    [0017] According to one embodiment the swept-back combustor panels 60 forming the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 may be connected together by respective front and aft connectors and may be supported by a structure of the gas generator section 25 at only the respective upstream ends 48, 50 and downstream ends 54, 56 such that the swept-back combustor panels 60 may be self-supporting without external support except for their panel forward and aft end edges 70, 72. Therefore, the circumferential array of the swept-back combustor panels 60 forming the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 is configured in a load-bearing configuration which bears substantial loads generated by the combustion reaction taking place in the combustion chamber 44.

    [0018] The swept-back combustor panels 60 according to one embodiment may each have opposite first and second surfaces. A portion of the first surface which is free of overlapping, is exposed to the air 36 surrounding the annular combustor assembly 26 and forms a part of a cold side 66 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42. A portion of the second surface which is free of overlapping, is exposed to the combustion gases in the annular combustion chamber 44 and forms a part of the hot side 64 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42.

    [0019] Referring to FIGS. 3, and 5-7), the swept-back combustor panels 60 may overlap such that the first panel side edge 68 (oriented at an obtuse angle A with respect to the panel forward end edge 70) of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 is located on the cold side 66 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42, and the second panel side edge 74 (positioned at an acute angle B with respect to the panel forward end edge 70) of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 is located on the hot side 64 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42. In such an overlapping configuration, the radial gaps 62 in the spiral patterns, may define an air entry opening 76 (see FIG. 7) on the cold side 66 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 which is open toward the upstream end 48 or 50 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 for air entry into the gap 62, and may define an air exit opening 78 (see FIG. 7) on the hot side 64 of the respective outer and inner annular walls 40, 42 which is open toward the downstream end 54 or 56 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 for air exit from the gap 62.

    [0020] Optionally, the swept-back combustor panels 60 may be configured such that the radial gaps between respective adjacent two panels 60 may have a convergent or divergent shape which allows increase or decrease of the air flow speed at the air exit openings 78.

    [0021] The swept-back combustor panels 60 according to one embodiment may each include a plurality of rails 80 on the cold side 66 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42, projecting radially from the respective swept-back combustor panels 60. The rails 80 may be arranged for example in a parallel relationship and may or may not be perpendicular to the first panel side edge 68 to form air passages 82 between respective adjacent two of the rails 80 on the cold side 66 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42 to guide compressor air 36 surrounding the annular combustor 26 to enter the respective radial gaps 62 for film cooling the hot side 64 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42.

    [0022] The rails 80 generally extend from the first panel side edge 68 toward the second panel side edge 74 or toward the panel aft end edge 72 (see FIG. 5) and at least a number of the rails 80 terminate at the second panel side edge 74, optionally extending into the respective radial gaps 62 (see FIG. 7) to act as spacers in an overlapping area of respective adjacent two of the swept-back combustor panels 60. Alternatively, spacers of any type may be used. It should also be noted that the rails 80 also act as reinforcing elements to stiffen the swept-back combustor panels 60, allowing the swept-back combustor panels 60 to be very thin for reducing overall engine weight.

    [0023] Optionally, the rails 80 may not be straight and end sections thereof which approach and enter the respective gaps 62 may change their orientation to adjust the air flow direction of the film cooling according to the type of combustor assembly 26.

    [0024] Optionally, the swept-back combustor panels 60 according to another embodiment may each be provided with a ridge 84 on the cold side 66 of the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42, projecting radially from the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42, and extending for example, parallel with the first panel side edge 68, for further stiffening the combustor panels 60. The stiffening ridges 84 may have a height less than a height of the rails 80. The stiffening ridges 84 may be positioned in the proximity of the first panel side edge 68 and therefore do not affect the passages 82 defined between respective adjacent two of the rails 80. It should also be noted that in addition to stiffening the combustor panels 60, the rails 80 and ridges 84 also act as heat transfer augmentation elements to allow removal of more heat from the combustor panels 60.

    [0025] Referring to FIGS. 3-4, the swept-back combustor panels 60 according to one embodiment may be divided into first and second groups. The swept-back combustor panels 60 of the first group may each have a first curved configuration matching the circumferential profile of the annular outer wall 40, thereby forming the annular outer wall 40. The swept-back combustor panels 60 of the second group may each have a second curved configuration matching the circumferential profile of the annular inner wall 42, thereby forming the annular inner wall 42.

    [0026] The swept-back combustor panels 60 of the first group according to one embodiment may each include a first forward engaging member 86 integrated with and extending along the panel forward end edge 70 of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 of the first group. The first forward engaging member 86 may have a U-shaped cross-section (see FIG. 4) to define a circumferentially extending groove which is open radially outwardly. The swept-back combustor panels 60 of the first group according to one embodiment may each include a first aft engaging member such as a circumferential section of a flange 88 projecting radially outwardly from the panel aft end edge 72 of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 of the first group.

    [0027] Similarly, the swept-back combustor panels 60 of the second group may each include a second forward engaging member 90 (see FIG. 4) integrated with and extending along the panel forward end edge 70 of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 of the second group. The second forward engaging member 90 may have a U-shaped cross-section to define a circumferentially extending groove which is open radially inwardly. The swept-back combustor panels 60 of the second group may each include a second aft engaging member such as a circumferential section of a flange 92 (see FIG. 3) projecting radially inwardly from the panel aft end edge 72 of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 of the second group.

    [0028] A first connection ring 94 may be provided for releasably connecting the panels 60 of the first group with an outer peripheral edge 96 of the annular dome wall 46. The first connection ring 94 may define an annular groove which is open radially inwardly for engagement with the first forward engaging member 86 of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 of the first group and the outer peripheral edge 96 of the annular dome wall 46. The first connection ring 94 may be divided into two or more circumferential sections which can be releasably joined together by respective joints 98 (see FIG. 4) such that the first connection ring 94 can be easily assembled and disassembled for removable connection of the swept-back combustor panels 60 of the first group with dome wall 46.

    [0029] Similarly, a second connection ring 100 which may have two or more circumferential sections releasably joined together by respective joints, may define an annular groove which is open radially outwardly for releasable engagement with the second forward engaging members 90 of the respective swept-back combustor panels 60 and an inner peripheral edge 102 of the annular dome wall 46, thereby removably connecting the swept-back combustor panels 60 of the second group with the annular dome wall 46. Optionally, additional outer and inner securing rings 104, 106 which have respective L-shaped and reversed L-shaped cross-sections may be provided for connection of the annular dome wall 46 and the respective annular outer and inner walls 40, 42, particularly when the annular dome wall 46 is formed by a plurality of dome wall panels in a circumferential array, as shown in FIG. 4.

    [0030] As shown in FIG. 2, the first and second aft engaging members (the circumferential sections of the radial flanges 88, 92) of the swept-back combustor panels 60 of the respective first and second groups may be joined by any known or unknown mechanism with respective radial flanges of the vane structure 58 positioned downstream of the combustor assembly 26.

    [0031] Some of the embodiments advantageously provide but are not limited to a combustor cooling system incorporated into the combustion configuration, having air passages without steps for guiding film cooling air into the combustor, replacing convention effusion holes drilled through the combustor walls. Some of the embodiments also provide but are not limited to a combustor configuration which is easy to manufacture and has low weight.


    Claims

    1. A gas turbine engine having a gas generator section (25) including a combustor, the combustor comprising at least one annular wall (40, 42) defining a combustion chamber (44) therein, the at least one annular wall (40, 42) formed by a circumferential array of panels (60) in a loadbearing configuration for bearing substantial loads generated by a combustion reaction taking place in the combustion chamber (44), the panels (60) extending from an upstream end (48, 50) to a downstream end (54, 56) of the at least one annular wall (40, 42) and inclining toward a circumferential direction,
    characterised in that:
    the panels (60) overlap one with another to define a plurality of radial gaps (62) between respective adjacent two of the panels (60), the radial gaps (62) being in fluid communication with the combustion chamber (44) and a space outside the combustor to allow air surrounding the at least one annular wall (40, 42) to enter the combustion chamber (44) via the radial gaps (62) for film cooling a hot side (64) of the at least one annular wall (40, 42).
     
    2. The gas turbine engine as defined in claim 1, wherein the panels (60) each comprise opposite first and second surfaces, a portion of the first surface which is free of said overlapping being exposed to the air surrounding the at least one annular wall (40, 42) and forming a part of a cold side (66) of the at least one annular wall (40, 42), and a portion of the second surface which is free of said overlapping being exposed to combustion gases in the combustion chamber (44) and forming a part of said hot side (64) of the at least one annular wall (40, 42).
     
    3. The gas turbine engine as defined in claim 1 or 2, wherein the combustor is an annular combustor disposed in an annulus defined radially between annular outer and inner cases of the gas generator section (25), the at least one annular wall (40, 42) comprising an annular outer wall (40) and an annular inner wall (42) to define the annular combustion chamber (44) radially therebetween, the panels (60) extending from the upstream end (48, 50) to the downstream end (54, 56) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42), the radial gaps (62) in the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42) being configured in spiral patterns with respect to a combustor central axis (28) to allow air (36) in the annulus and surrounding the annular combustor to enter the combustion chamber (44) via the radial gaps (62) for film cooling the hot side (64) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42).
     
    4. The gas turbine engine as defined in claim 3, wherein the radial gaps (62) in the annular outer wall (40) are configured in a first spiral pattern in which the gaps extend from the upstream end (48) to the downstream end (54) of the annular outer wall (40) and incline toward a first circumferential direction, and wherein the radial gaps (62) in the annular inner wall (42) are configured in a second spiral pattern in which the gaps (62) extend from the upstream end (50) to the downstream end (56) of the annular inner wall (42) and incline toward a second circumferential direction different from the first circumferential direction.
     
    5. The gas turbine engine as defined in claim 3 or 4, wherein each of the radial gaps (62) in the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42) defines an air entry opening (76) on a cold side (66) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42) and being open toward the upstream end (48, 50) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42), and an air exit opening (78) on said hot side (64) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42) and being open toward the downstream end (54, 56) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42).
     
    6. The gas turbine engine as defined in claim 3, 4 or 5, wherein the panels (60) each comprise a plurality of rails (80) radially projecting from the respective panels (60), the rails (80) being arranged to form air passages on a cold side (66) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42) to guide the air surrounding the annular combustor to enter the respective radial gaps (62) for film cooling said hot side (64) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42).
     
    7. The gas turbine engine as defined in claim 6 wherein at least a number of the rails (80) on the respective panels (60) extend into the respective radial gaps (62) to act as spacers in an overlapping area of respective adjacent two of the panels (60).
     
    8. The gas turbine engine as defined in any of claims 3 to 7, wherein the annular combustor comprises an annular dome wall (46) having an outer peripheral edge (96) and an inner peripheral edge (102), a first front connector connecting the outer peripheral edge (96) of the annular dome wall (46) to the upstream end of the annular outer wall (40) and a second front connector connecting the inner peripheral edge (102) of the annular dome wall (46) to the upstream end (50) of the annular inner wall (42).
     
    9. The gas turbine engine as defined in any of claims 3 to 8, wherein each of the panels comprises a first panel side edge (68) extending between a panel forward end edge (70) and a panel aft end edge (72), and a second panel side edge (74) extending between the panel forward end edge (70) and the panel aft end edge (72), the first and second panel side edges (68, 74) being oriented at a respective oblique angle with respect to the panel forward end edge (70).
     
    10. The gas turbine engine as defined in any of claims 3 to 9, wherein the panels (60) comprise a first group of the panels (60), the panels of the first group having a first curved configuration matching a circumferential profile of the annular outer wall (40) and a second group of the panels (60), the panels (60) of the second group having a second curved configuration matching a circumferential profile of the annular inner wall (42).
     
    11. The gas turbine engine as defined in claim 10 wherein the panels (60) of the first group each comprise a first forward engaging member (86) integrated with and extending along a panel forward end edge (70) of the respective panels (60) of the first group, the first forward engaging member (86) having a U-shaped cross section to define a circumferentially extending groove being open radially and outwardly for engagement with a first connection ring (94) which removably connects the panels (60) of the first group with an outer peripheral edge of an annular dome wall (46).
     
    12. The gas turbine engine as defined in claim 10 or 11, wherein the panels (60) of the second group each comprise a second forward engaging member (90) integrated with and extending along a panel forward end edge (70) of the respective panels (60) of the second group, the second forward engaging member (90) having a U-shaped cross section to define a circumferentially extending groove being open radially and inwardly for engagement with a second connection ring (100) which removably connects the panels (60) of the second group with an inner peripheral edge of an annular dome wall (46).
     
    13. The gas turbine engine as defined in any of claims 10 to 12 wherein the panels (60) of the first group each comprise a first aft engaging member projecting radially outwardly from a panel aft end edge (72) of the respective panels (60) of the first group, and wherein the panels (60) of the second group each comprise a second aft engaging member (90) projecting radially inwardly from a panel aft end edge (72) of the respective panels (60) of the second group.
     
    14. The gas turbine engine as defined in any of claims 9 to 13 wherein the panels (60) overlap with the first panel side edge (68) of the respective panels (60) being positioned on a cold side (66) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42) and being exposed to the air surrounding the annular combustor, and the second panel side edge (74) of the respective panels (60) being positioned on said hot side (64) of the respective annular outer and inner walls (40, 42) and being exposed to combustion gases in the combustion chamber (44), the first panel side edge (68) being oriented at an obtuse angle (A) with respect to the panel forward end edge (70) of the respective panels and the second panel side edge (74) being oriented at an acute angle (B) with respect to the panel forward end edge (70).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Gasturbinentriebwerk, das einen Gasgeneratorabschnitt (25) aufweist, der eine Brennkammer beinhaltet, wobei die Brennkammer mindestens eine ringförmige Wand (40, 42) umfasst, die einen Brennraum (44) darin definiert, wobei die mindestens eine ringförmige Wand (40, 42) durch eine Anordnung von Platten (60) in Umfangsrichtung in einer lasttragenden Konfiguration zum Tragen wesentlicher Lasten, die durch eine Verbrennungsreaktion, die in dem Brennraum (44) stattfindet, erzeugt werden, gebildet wird, wobei sich die Platten (60) von einem stromaufwärtigen Ende (48, 50) zu einem stromabwärtigen Ende (54, 56) der mindestens einen ringförmigen Wand (40, 42) erstrecken und sich in eine Umfangsrichtung neigen,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass:
    die Platten (60) einander überlappen, um eine Vielzahl von radialen Spalten (62) zwischen zwei angrenzenden Platten (60) zu definieren, wobei die radialen Spalten (62) in Fluidkommunikation mit dem Brennraum (44) und einem Raum außerhalb der Brennkammer stehen, um es Luft, die die mindestens ein ringförmige Wand (40, 42) umgibt, zu ermöglichen, in den Brennraum (44) über die radialen Spalte (62) zum Filmkühlen einer warmen Seite (64) der mindestens einen ringförmigen Wand (40, 42) einzutreten.
     
    2. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Platten (60) jeweils eine erste und eine zweite Oberfläche, die sich gegenüberstehen, umfassen, wobei ein Abschnitt der ersten Oberfläche, der frei von diesen Überlappungen ist, der Luft, die die mindestens eine ringförmige Wand (40, 42) umgibt, ausgesetzt ist und einen Teil der kalten Seite (66) der mindestens einen ringförmigen Wand (40, 42) bildet und ein Abschnitt der zweiten Oberfläche, der frei von diesen Überlappungen ist, den Verbrennungsgasen in dem Brennraum (44) ausgesetzt ist und einen Teil der warmen Seite (64) der mindestens einen ringförmigen Wand (40, 42) bildet.
     
    3. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Brennkammer eine ringförmige Brennkammer ist, die in einem Ringraum angeordnet ist, der radial zwischen einem äußeren und einem inneren Gehäuse des Gasgeneratorabschnitts (25), die ringförmig sind, definiert ist, wobei die mindestens eine ringförmige Wand (40, 42) eine ringförmige äußere Wand (40) und eine ringförmige innere Wand (42) umfasst, um den ringförmigen Brennraum (44) radial dazwischen zu definieren, wobei sich die Platten (60) von dem stromaufwärtigen Ende (48, 50) zu dem stromabwärtigen Ende (54, 56) der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) erstrecken, wobei die radialen Spalte (62) in der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) in spiraligen Mustern in Bezug auf eine Brennkammermittelachse (28) konfiguriert sind, um es zu ermöglichen, dass Luft (36), die in dem Ringraum vorliegt und die die ringförmige Brennkammer umgibt, in den Brennraum (44) über die radialen Spalte (62) zum Filmkühlen der warmen Seite (64) der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) eintritt.
     
    4. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach Anspruch 3, wobei die radialen Spalte (62) in der ringförmigen äußeren Wand (40) in einem ersten spiraligen Muster konfiguriert sind, in dem sich die Spalte von dem stromaufwärtigen Ende (48) zu dem stromabwärtigen Ende (54) der ringförmigen äußeren Wand (40) erstrecken und sich zu einer ersten Umfangsrichtung neigen, und wobei die radialen Spalte (62) in der ringförmigen inneren Wand (42) in einem zweiten spiraligen Muster konfiguriert sind, in dem sich die Spalte (62) von dem stromaufwärtigen Ende (50) zu dem stromabwärtigen Ende (56) der ringförmigen inneren Wand (42) erstrecken und sich zu einer zweiten Umfangsrichtung neigen, die sich von der ersten Umfangsrichtung unterscheidet.
     
    5. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach Anspruch 3 oder 4, wobei jeder der radialen Spalte (62) in der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) eine Lufteinlassöffnung (76), die sich an einer kalten Seite (66) der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) befindet und zum stromaufwärtigen Ende (48, 50) der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) offen ist, und eine Luftauslassöffnung (78) definiert, die sich an einer warmen Seite (64) der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) befindet und zum stromabwärtigen Ende (54, 56) der jeweiligen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) offen ist.
     
    6. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach Anspruch 3, 4 oder 5, wobei die Platten (60) jeweils eine Vielzahl von Schienen (80) umfassen, die radial von den jeweiligen Platten (60) vorragen, wobei die Schienen (80) so angeordnet sind, dass sie Luftkanäle an einer kalten Seite (66) der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) bilden, um die Luft, die die ringförmige Brennkammer umgibt, so zu leiten, dass sie in die jeweiligen radialen Spalte (62) zum Filmkühlen der warmen Seite (64) der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40,42) eintritt.
     
    7. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach Anspruch 6, wobei sich mindestens eine Anzahl der Schienen (80) an den jeweiligen Platten (60) in die jeweiligen radialen Spalte (62) erstrecken, um als Abstandshalter in einem überlappenden Bereich von jeweils zwei angrenzenden Platten (60) zu fungieren.
     
    8. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach einem der Ansprüche 3 bis 7, wobei die ringförmige Brennkammer eine ringförmige Kuppelwand (46) umfasst, die eine äußere Umfangskante (96) und eine innere Umfangskante (102) aufweist, wobei ein erster vorderer Verbinder die äußere Umfangskante (96) der ringförmigen Kuppelwand (46) mit dem stromaufwärtigen Ende der ringförmigen Außenwand (40) verbindet und ein zweiter vorderer Verbinder die innere Umfangskante (102) der ringförmigen Kuppelwand (46) mit dem stromaufwärtigen Ende (50) der ringförmigen Innenwand (42) verbindet.
     
    9. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach einem der Ansprüche 3 bis 8, wobei jede der Platten eine erste Plattenseitenkante (68), die sich zwischen einer Plattenvorderendkante (70) und einer Plattenhinterendkante (72) erstreckt, und eine zweite Plattenseitenkante (74), die sich zwischen der Plattenvorderendkante (70) und der Plattenhinterendkante (72) erstreckt, umfasst, wobei die erste und die zweite Plattenseitenkante (68, 74) in einem jeweiligen schrägen Winkel im Verhältnis zu der Plattenvorderendkante (70) ausgerichtet ist.
     
    10. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach einem der Ansprüche 3 bis 9, wobei die Platten (60) eine erste Gruppe von Platten (60) umfassen, wobei die Platten der ersten Gruppe eine erste gekrümmte Konfiguration aufweisen, die zu einem Umfangsprofil der ringförmigen Außenwand (40) passt, und eine zweite Gruppe von Platten (60) umfassen, wobei die Platten (60) der zweiten Gruppe eine zweite gekrümmte Konfiguration aufweisen, die zu einem Umfangsprofil der ringförmigen Innenwand (42) passt.
     
    11. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach Anspruch 10, wobei die Platten (60) der ersten Gruppe jeweils ein erstes vorderes Eingriffselement (86) umfassen, das in eine Plattenvorderendkante (70) der jeweiligen Platten (60) der ersten Gruppe integriert ist und entlang derer verläuft, wobei das erste vordere Eingriffselement (86) einen U-förmigen Querschnitt aufweist, um eine in Umfangsrichtung verlaufende Nut zu definieren, die radial und nach außen zum Eingriff mit einem ersten Verbindungsring (94) offen ist, der die Platten (60) der ersten Gruppe lösbar mit einer äußeren Umfangskante einer ringförmigen Kuppelwand (46) verbindet.
     
    12. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach Anspruch 10 oder 11, wobei die Platten (60) der zweiten Gruppe jeweils ein zweites vorderes Eingriffselement (90) umfassen, das in eine Plattenvorderendkante (70) der jeweiligen Platten (60) der zweiten Gruppe integriert ist und entlang derer verläuft, wobei das zweite vordere Eingriffselement (90) einen U-förmigen Querschnitt aufweist, um eine in Umfangsrichtung verlaufende Nut zu definieren, die radial und nach innen zum Eingriff mit einem zweiten Verbindungsring (100) offen ist, der die Platten (60) der zweiten Gruppe lösbar mit einer inneren Umfangskante einer ringförmigen Kuppelwand (46) verbindet.
     
    13. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach einem der Ansprüche 10 bis 12, wobei die Platten (60) der ersten Gruppe jeweils ein erstes hinteres Eingriffselement umfassen, das radial nach außen von einer Plattenhinterendkante (72) der jeweiligen Platten (60) der ersten Gruppe vorragt, und wobei die Platten (60) der zweiten Gruppe jeweils ein zweites hinteres Eingriffselement (90) umfassen, das radial nach innen von einer Plattenhinterendkante (72) der jeweiligen Platten (60) der zweiten Gruppe vorragt.
     
    14. Gasturbinentriebwerk nach einem der Ansprüche 9 bis 13, wobei sich die Platten (60) mit der ersten Plattenseitenkante (68) der jeweiligen Platten (60), die auf einer kalten Seite (66) der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) angeordnet sind und der Luft ausgesetzt sind, die die ringförmige Brennkammer umgibt, und der zweiten Plattenseitenkante (74) der jeweiligen Platten (60) überlappen, die auf der warmen Seite (64) der jeweiligen ringförmigen äußeren und inneren Wand (40, 42) angeordnet sind und den Verbrennungsgasen in dem Brennraum (44) ausgesetzt sind, wobei die erste Plattenseitenkante (68) in einem stumpfen Winkel (A) im Verhältnis zur Plattenvorderendkante (70) der jeweiligen Platten ausgerichtet ist und die zweite Plattenseitenkante (74) in einem spitzen Winkel (B) im Verhältnis zu der Plattenvorderendkante (70) ausgerichtet ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Moteur à turbine à gaz ayant une section de générateur de gaz (25) comprenant un dispositif de combustion, le dispositif de combustion comprenant au moins une paroi annulaire (40, 42) définissant une chambre de combustion (44) dans celui-ci, l'au moins une paroi annulaire (40, 42) étant formée par un ensemble circonférentiel de panneaux (60) dans une configuration de support de charge pour supporter des charges substantielles générées par une réaction de combustion qui se produit dans la chambre de combustion (44), les panneaux (60) s'étendant d'une extrémité amont (48, 50) à une extrémité aval (54, 56) de l'au moins une paroi annulaire (40, 42) et s'inclinant dans une direction circonférentielle,
    caractérisé en ce que :
    les panneaux (60) se chevauchent pour définir une pluralité d'espaces radiaux (62) entre deux panneaux respectifs adjacents parmi les panneaux (60), les espaces radiaux (62) étant en communication fluidique avec la chambre de combustion (44) et un espace à l'extérieur du dispositif de combustion pour permettre à l'air entourant l'au moins une paroi annulaire (40, 42) de pénétrer dans la chambre de combustion (44) par l'intermédiaire des espaces radiaux (62) pour refroidir par film un côté chaud (64) de l'au moins une paroi annulaire (40, 42).
     
    2. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les panneaux (60) comprennent chacun des première et seconde surfaces opposées, une partie de la première surface qui est exempte dudit chevauchement étant exposée à l'air entourant l'au moins une paroi annulaire (40, 42) et faisant partie d'un côté froid (66) de l'au moins une paroi annulaire (40, 42), et une partie de la seconde surface qui est exempte dudit chevauchement étant exposée aux gaz de combustion dans la chambre de combustion (44) et faisant partie dudit côté chaud (64) de l'au moins une paroi annulaire (40, 42).
     
    3. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel le dispositif de combustion est un dispositif de combustion annulaire disposé dans un espace annulaire défini radialement entre des boîtiers annulaires externe et interne de la section de générateur de gaz (25), l'au moins une paroi annulaire (40, 42) comprenant une paroi annulaire externe (40) et une paroi annulaire interne (42) pour définir la chambre de combustion annulaire (44) radialement entre elles, les panneaux (60) s'étendant de l'extrémité amont (48, 50) à l'extrémité aval (54, 56) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42), les espaces radiaux (62) dans les parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42) étant configurés selon des motifs en spirale par rapport à un axe central du dispositif de combustion (28) pour permettre à l'air (36) à l'intérieur de l'espace annulaire et entourant le dispositif de combustion annulaire de pénétrer dans la chambre de combustion (44) par l'intermédiaire des espaces radiaux (62) pour refroidir par film le côté chaud (64) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42) .
     
    4. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon la revendication 3, dans lequel les espaces radiaux (62) dans la paroi annulaire externe (40) sont configurés selon un premier motif en spirale dans lequel les espaces s'étendent de l'extrémité amont (48) à l'extrémité aval (54) de la paroi annulaire externe (40) et s'inclinent dans une première direction circonférentielle, et dans lequel les espaces radiaux (62) dans la paroi annulaire interne (42) sont configurés selon un second motif en spirale dans lequel les espaces (62) s'étendent de l'extrémité amont (50) à l'extrémité aval (56) de la paroi annulaire interne (42) et s'inclinent dans une seconde direction circonférentielle différente de la première direction circonférentielle.
     
    5. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon la revendication 3 ou 4, dans lequel chacun des espaces radiaux (62) dans les parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42) définit une ouverture d'entrée d'air (76) sur un côté froid (66) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42) et ouverte en direction de l'extrémité amont (48, 50) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42), et une ouverture de sortie d'air (78) sur ledit côté chaud (64) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42) et ouverte en direction de l'extrémité aval (54, 56) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42).
     
    6. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon la revendication 3, 4 ou 5, dans lequel les panneaux (60) comprennent chacun une pluralité de rails (80) faisant saillie radialement à partir des panneaux respectifs (60), les rails (80) étant conçus pour former des passages d'air sur un côté froid (66) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42) pour guider l'air entourant le dispositif de combustion annulaire pour qu'il pénètre dans les espaces radiaux respectifs (62) afin de refroidir par film ledit côté chaud (64) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42).
     
    7. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon la revendication 6, dans lequel au moins un certain nombre des rails (80) sur les panneaux respectifs (60) s'étendent dans les espaces radiaux respectifs (62) pour agir en tant qu'entretoises dans une zone de chevauchement de deux panneaux adjacents respectifs parmi les panneaux (60).
     
    8. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon l'une quelconque des revendications 3 à 7, dans lequel le dispositif de combustion annulaire comprend une paroi de dôme annulaire (46) ayant un bord périphérique externe (96) et un bord périphérique interne (102), un premier raccord avant reliant le bord périphérique externe (96) de la paroi de dôme annulaire (46) à l'extrémité amont de la paroi annulaire externe (40) et un second raccord avant reliant le bord périphérique interne (102) de la paroi de dôme annulaire (46) à l'extrémité amont (50) de la paroi annulaire interne (42).
     
    9. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon l'une quelconque des revendications 3 à 8, dans lequel chacun des panneaux comprend un premier bord latéral de panneau (68) s'étendant entre un bord d'extrémité avant de panneau (70) et un bord d'extrémité arrière de panneau (72), et un second bord latéral de panneau (74) s'étendant entre le bord d'extrémité avant de panneau (70) et le bord d'extrémité arrière de panneau (72), les premier et second bords latéraux de panneau (68, 74) étant orientés selon un angle oblique respectif par rapport au bord d'extrémité avant de panneau (70) .
     
    10. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon l'une quelconque des revendications 3 à 9, dans lequel les panneaux (60) comprennent un premier groupe des panneaux (60), les panneaux du premier groupe ayant une première configuration incurvée correspondant à un profil circonférentiel de la paroi annulaire externe (40), et un second groupe des panneaux (60), les panneaux (60) du second groupe ayant une seconde configuration incurvée correspondant à un profil circonférentiel de la paroi annulaire interne (42).
     
    11. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon la revendication 10, dans lequel les panneaux (60) du premier groupe comprennent chacun un premier élément de mise en prise avant (86) intégré à et s'étendant le long d'un bord d'extrémité avant de panneau (70) des panneaux respectifs (60) du premier groupe, le premier élément de mise en prise avant (86) ayant une section transversale en forme de U pour définir une rainure s'étendant circonférentiellement ouverte radialement et vers l'extérieur pour venir en prise avec un premier anneau de raccordement (94) qui relie de manière amovible les panneaux (60) du premier groupe à un bord périphérique externe d'une paroi de dôme annulaire (46).
     
    12. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon la revendication 10 ou 11, dans lequel les panneaux (60) du second groupe comprennent chacun un second élément de mise en prise avant (90) intégré à et s'étendant le long d'un bord d'extrémité avant de panneau (70) des panneaux respectifs (60) du second groupe, le second élément de mise en prise avant (90) ayant une section transversale en forme de U pour définir une rainure s'étendant circonférentiellement ouverte radialement et vers l'intérieur pour venir en prise avec un second anneau de raccordement (100) qui relie de manière amovible les panneaux (60) du second groupe à un bord périphérique interne d'une paroi de dôme annulaire (46).
     
    13. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon l'une quelconque des revendications 10 à 12, dans lequel les panneaux (60) du premier groupe comprennent chacun un premier élément de mise en prise arrière faisant saillie radialement vers l'extérieur à partir d'un bord d'extrémité arrière de panneau (72) des panneaux respectifs (60) du premier groupe, et dans lequel les panneaux (60) du second groupe comprennent chacun un second élément de mise en prise arrière (90) faisant saillie radialement vers l'intérieur à partir d'un bord d'extrémité arrière de panneau (72) des panneaux respectifs (60) du second groupe.
     
    14. Moteur à turbine à gaz selon l'une quelconque des revendications 9 à 13, dans lequel les panneaux (60) chevauchent le premier bord latéral de panneau (68) des panneaux respectifs (60) positionné sur un côté froid (66) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42) et exposé à l'air entourant le dispositif de combustion annulaire, et le second bord latéral de panneau (74) des panneaux respectifs (60) positionné sur ledit côté chaud (64) des parois annulaires externe et interne respectives (40, 42) et exposé aux gaz de combustion dans la chambre de combustion (44), le premier bord latéral de panneau (68) étant orienté selon un angle obtus (A) par rapport au bord d'extrémité avant de panneau (70) des panneaux respectifs et le second bord latéral de panneau (74) étant orienté selon un angle aigu (B) par rapport au bord d'extrémité avant de panneau (70).
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description