(19)
(11)EP 3 131 886 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/37

(21)Application number: 15718262.7

(22)Date of filing:  17.04.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C07D 309/04(2006.01)
C07D 269/02(2006.01)
C07D 307/52(2006.01)
A61K 31/496(2006.01)
A61K 31/506(2006.01)
A61P 25/00(2006.01)
C07D 241/04(2006.01)
C07D 271/10(2006.01)
A61P 27/02(2006.01)
A61K 31/497(2006.01)
A61P 35/00(2006.01)
A61P 15/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/GB2015/051172
(87)International publication number:
WO 2015/159103 (22.10.2015 Gazette  2015/42)

(54)

PIPERAZINE DERIVATIVES FOR TREATING DISORDERS

PIPERAZINDERIVATE ZUR BEHANDLUNG VON ERKRANKUNGEN

DÉRIVÉS DE PIPÉRAZINE POUR LE TRAITEMENT DE TROUBLES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 17.04.2014 GB 201406956

(43)Date of publication of application:
22.02.2017 Bulletin 2017/08

(73)Proprietor: Exonate Limited
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB22 4PS (GB)

(72)Inventors:
  • BATES, David
    Nottingham Nottinghamshire NG7 2UH (GB)
  • MORRIS, Jonathan
    Sydney, NSW 2052 (AU)

(74)Representative: Haseltine Lake Kempner LLP 
Redcliff Quay 120 Redcliff Street
Bristol BS1 6HU
Bristol BS1 6HU (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 712 242
WO-A1-2014/060763
  
  • DATABASE REGISTRY [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 12 May 2003 (2003-05-12), XP002740603, Database accession no. 514199-68-9
  • DATABASE REGISTRY [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 1 March 2007 (2007-03-01), XP002740604, Database accession no. 923911-83-5
  • DATABASE REGISTRY [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 29 June 2007 (2007-06-29), XP002740605, Database accession no. 940243-32-3
  • DATABASE REGISTRY [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 22 May 2011 (2011-05-22), XP002740606, Database accession no. 1298551-87-7
  • DATABASE REGISTRY [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 26 May 2011 (2011-05-26), XP002740607, Database accession no. 1301006-48-3
  • DATABASE REGISTRY [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; 29 May 2011 (2011-05-29), XP002740608, Database accession no. 1302431-25-9
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Field of the Invention



[0001] The present invention relates to anti-angiogenic treatments and compounds for use in anti-angiogenic treatments, particularly of conditions characterised by neovascularisation such as, for example, age-related macular degeneration.

[0002] The present invention also relates to treatments of hyperpermeability disorders and compounds for use in treating hyperpermeability disorders.

[0003] The present invention also relates to treatments of neuropathic and neurodegenerative disorders and compounds for use in treating neuropathic and neurodegenerative disorders, such as, for example, Alzheimer's disease.

[0004] The present invention also relates to pain treatments, and compounds for use in treating pain. The present invention also relates to methods of reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia, and compounds for use in such methods. The scope of the invention is defined by the claims. Any references in the description to methods of treatment refer to the compounds, pharmaceutical compositions and medicaments of the present invention for use in a method for treatment of the human (or animal) body by therapy (or for diagnosis).

Background to the Invention



[0005] Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease causing vision loss that affects the central area of the macula, is the leading cause of blindness in people over 50 years of age (Bressler, 2004). Exudative AMD is the most severe form of AMD (Ferris et al., 1984) primarily arising from the choroidal circulation beneath the macula and characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CNV, the abnormal growth of new vessels from the choroid into the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) (Patz et al., 1977), is thought to lead to visual loss due to the leakage of blood and serous fluid beneath the RPE that eventually leads to loss of photoreceptors, retinal detachment and dense macular scarring (Fine et al., 2000; Campochiaro et al., 2006). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key factor in angiogenesis and vascular leakage (Dvorak et al., 1995) is up-regulated during the progression of CNV (D'Amore, 1994; Spilsbury et al., 2000; Anderson et al., 2002; Das et al., 2003) and has become the lead therapeutic target for the treatment of exudative-AMD.

[0006] VEGF is a complex gene that is alternatively spliced to form a family of multiple isoforms (Leung et al., 1989; Jingjing et al., 1999), each isoform differing in biological property, activity and function (Houck et al., 1991). Most cells commonly express isoforms VEGF121, VEGF165, and VEGF189, whereas VEGF145 and VEGF206 are comparatively rare. The majority of VEGF isoforms contain exons 1-5 (the exception being VEGF111 (Mineur et al., 2007)) but differing portions of exons 6 and 7 that encode heparin sulphate (HS) binding domains. Alterations in the usage of these exons changes the biological properties of alternatively spliced isoforms such as their ability to bind to cell-surface heparan-sulfate proteoglycans and release angiogenic factors (Tischer et al., 1991; Neufeld et al., 1999).

[0007] In 2002 differential splicing of the eighth exon was demonstrated from a proximal splice site (PSS) to a distal splice site (DSS) 66 bases downstream (Bates et al., 2002; Woolard et al., 2004). Alternative splicing in this region generated a second family of isoforms (VEGFxxxb), noted for their anti-angiogenic properties (Perrin et al., 2005). WO 03/102105 describes the alternatively spliced isoforms, and their therapeutic significance.

[0008] During pathological angiogenesis pro-angiogenic isoforms are selectively upregulated (Bates et al., 2002; Varey et al., 2008; Pritchard-Jones et al., 2007), suggesting VEGFxxx and VEGFxxxb may have separate regulatory pathways. These anti-angiogenic isoforms, such as VEGF165b and VEGF121b have been shown to be potently anti-angiogenic in animal models of retinal and choroidal neovascularisation, following intra-ocular injection (Hua et al 2008), and result in both endothelial and retinal epithelial cell cytoprotection (Magnussen et al 2010).

[0009] The first therapy to be FDA approved for the treatment of neovascular AMD in December 2004 was a VEGF165, VEGF189 and VEGF206 specific aptamer, Pegaptanib Sodium (Macugen). During clinical trials pegaptinib dose-dependently reduced the risk of severe visual acuity loss and slowed the progression of neovascular AMD (Gragoudas et al., 2004), but did not result in significant improvement in vision. In 2006 Ranibizumab (Lucentis), a novel humanized anti-VEGF antibody fragment, was FDA approved for the treatment of neovascular AMD. Its approval was based on the results of three clinical trials where, approximately 95% of patients treated monthly with Lucentis (0.5 mg) maintained visual acuity (defined as the loss of <15 letters) and ≤40% improved vision (defined as the gain of ≥ 15 letters) at one year compared with 11% in the sham control treated group (Rosenfeld et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2009). Current treatment regimes require Lucentis administration by intra-ocular injection as often as monthly (Brown et al., 2009; Schmidt-Erfuth et al., 2011). Such intraocular injections result in increased intraocular pressure (Good et al., 2010) and a risk, albeit minor, of endopthalmitis and other severe adverse effects (Jager et al., 2004). Furthermore, bevicizumab (Avastin), an anti-VEGF antibody from which Lucentis was derived, was shown to bind VEGF165b with equal potency to VEGF165, thus targeting both pro and anti-angiogenic VEGF isoforms (Varey et al 2008).

[0010] As both the anti-angiogenic and angiogenic isoforms of VEGF are derived from the same gene, the control of isoform family is a result of the control of alternative splicing. We have recently identified some of the pathways that control the splicing of VEGF at the proximal splice site, implicating the RNA binding protein SRSF1 (Nowak et al., 2008; Amin et al., 2011) and its kinase SRPK1 (Sanford et al., 2005) as key requirements for the decision by cells to use the proximal splice site, and hence generate pro-angiogenic isoforms of VEGF (Nowak et al., 2008; Nowak et al., 2010). Knockdown of SRPK1 potently reduced VEGF mediated angiogenesis in vivo in tumours and inhibition of SRPK1 and 2 reduced angiogenesis in vivo (Amin et al., 2011).

[0011] WO 2008/11077, WO 2009/106855, WO 2010/058227, WO 2011/036429 and WO 2011/148200all describe therapeutic and other physiological uses of agents which direct expression in favour of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. SRPK inhibitors can in principle constitute such agents.

[0012] WO 2005/063293 (also published as EP 1712242 A1) describes a class of SRPK inhibitors including SRPIN340 and derivatives and analogues thereof.

[0013] WO 2014/060763 (PCT/GB2013/052716) describes SRPK inhibitors targeting SRPK1 specifically for use as anti-angiogenic agents, neuroprotective agents, agents for use in treating or preventing hyperpermeability disorders, as agents for treating pain, and as agents for reducing the risk of, or treatment of, pre-eclampsia.

[0014] Chemical Abstract Registry Nos. 514199-68-9, 923911-83-5, 940243-32-3, 1298551-87-7, 11301006-48-3 and 1302431-25-9 disclose piperazine compounds having methyl substituents on one of the nitrogen atoms.

[0015] The development of agents for directing expression of VEGFxxxb isoforms represents a new era not only in the treatment of, for example, neovascular AMD, but all other diseases in which VEGFxxxb is implicated.

[0016] The present invention is based in part on new small molecule inhibitors targeting SRPK1 specifically for use as anti-angiogenic agents, neuroprotective agents, agents for use in treating or preventing hyperpermeability disorders, as agents for treating pain, and as agents for reducing the risk of, or treatment of, pre-eclampsia.

[0017] The present invention is also based at least in part on the surprising finding that these low molecular weight compounds known to inhibit SRPK1 (e.g. SRPIN340 and derivatives and analogues thereof) could be used topically or in dose-dependent manner to inhibit CNV progression.

Summary of the Invention



[0018] In a first aspect the invention provides a compound of Formula (I)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or hydrate thereof;
wherein:

n = 1, 2, 3 or 0;

R1 = a 4- to 8-membered carbocyclic group, which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one oxygen atom, which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one nitrogen atom, which may have one or more substituent, a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising two nitrogen atoms which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising three nitrogen atoms which may have one or more substituent, or a condensed aromatic heterocyclic group, which may have one or more substituent;

X = CH, NH or N;

Y = CH, NH or N;

Z = O, S or NH; and

R2 = H; a C1-6 alkyl group; a phenyl group; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group or a condensed aromatic heterocyclic group, each of which may have one or more substituent;

for use in dose-dependent treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation.



[0019] The dose dependency is preferably a sigmoidal efficacy/dose relationship, e.g. of the type illustrated in Figure 4C of the accompanying drawings. The expression "ocular neovascularisation" includes within its scope diseases and disorders characterised by ocular neovascularisation, including for example choroidal neovascularisation such as age-related macular degeneration. The term "ocular neovascularisation" also includes within its scope diseases and disorders characterized by retinal neovascularisation.

[0020] In a second aspect the invention provides a compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or hydrate thereof for use in the topical treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation.

[0021] The first and second aspects of the invention also enable respective methods of treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation by administration of the compound of formula (I) to a subject in need of such treatment, and respective uses of a compound of formula (I) in the preparation of a medicament for treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation, as a dose-dependent treatment and/or as a topical treatment.

[0022] It is surprising and not expected from the prior art that the compounds used in the present invention enable dose-dependent treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation or topical treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation. Dose-dependent treatment is not inherently predictable, yet is highly desirable and beneficial for effective treatment.

[0023] The specific compounds of formula (I), and preferred or exemplified sub-classes of compounds of formula (I) may be particularly mentioned for use in the present invention.

[0024] Further examples of the compounds of formula (I) of the present invention are those in which R1 is a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one nitrogen atom which may have one or more substituent. Examples of such compounds include those in which R1 is a 6-membered heterocyclic aromatic group comprising one nitrogen atom, for example a 2- or 3-or 4-pyridyl group. Further examples of such compounds include those in which R1 is a 6-membered heterocyclic aromatic ring comprising two or three nitrogen atoms, for example a pyrimidine ring, a pyridazine ring, a pyrazine ring, or a triazine ring, each of which may have one or more substituent. Further examples of such compounds include those in which R1 is a 6-membered heterocyclic non-aromatic group comprising one nitrogen atom, for example a piperidine group or a piperazine group, each of which may have one or more substituent.

[0025] In one example, the compounds of Formula (I) include those in which R1 is a nitrogen-containing 6- membered heteroaryl ring as described herein or a phenyl group, with any combination of n, X, Y, Z and R2 as herein described. For example, there are mentioned compounds in which R1 is a nitrogen-containing 6- membered heteroaryl ring as described herein or a phenyl group; R2 is H; a C1-6 alkyl group; a phenyl group; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group or a condensed aromatic heterocyclic group, each of which may have one or more substituent; X = Y = CH; Z = O and n = 1.

[0026] For the avoidance of doubt,

refers to an alkyl bridging unit between the piperazine ring and R1. Thus, the above mentioned moiety is a methylene (CH2) bridge where n = 1; an ethylene bridge (CH2CH2) where n = 2; and a propylene bridge (CH2CH2CH2) where n = 3.

[0027] These compounds of formula (I) and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates or hydrates are new and as compounds per se (as well as their use in dose-dependent treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation and/or in the topical treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation) they constitute a further aspect of the present invention.

[0028] Pharmaceutical compositions comprising the novel compounds and the use of the novel compounds and pharmaceutical compositions comprising them in anti-angiogenic treatments (including the treatment and prevention of disorders and diseases characterised by abnormal or excessive angiogenesis), treatments of hyperpermeability disorders, treatments of neuropathic and neurodegenerative disorders, treatment of non-inflammatory pain and methods of reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia constitute further aspects of the present invention.

[0029] Thus, the present invention also enables (i) methods of treating or preventing disorders and diseases characterised by abnormal or excessive angiogenesis as defined herein; (ii) methods of treating or preventing hyperpermeability disorders as defined herein; (iii) methods of treating or preventing neuropathic and neurodegenerative disorders as defined herein; (iv) methods of treating or preventing non-inflammatory pain; and (v) methods of reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia, comprising administering a compound of Formula (I) to a patient in need thereof.

[0030] Particularly mentioned compounds of formula (I) include those in which n = 1 or 2.

[0031] Particularly mentioned compounds of formula (I) include those in which X = Y = CH and Z = O; those in which one of X and Y = CH and the other of X and Y = N and Z = O; or those in which X = Y = N and Z = O.

[0032] Particularly mentioned compounds of formula (I) include those in which X = Y = CH and Z = S; those in which one of X and Y = CH and the other of X and Y = N and Z = S; or those in which X = Y = N and Z = S.

[0033] Particularly mentioned compounds of formula (I) include those in which X = Y = CH and Z = NH; those in which one of X and Y = CH and the other of X and Y = N and Z = NH; or those in which X = Y = N and Z = NH.

[0034] As preferred examples of the compounds of formula (I) there may be mentioned those in which R1 is a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl group which may have one or more substituent, for example an unsubstituted 3-pyridyl group (namely, where the nitrogen heteroatom of the pyridyl group is meta to the 5-membered ring).

[0035] As preferred examples of the compounds of formula (I) there may be mentioned those in which R1 is a phenyl group which may have one or more substituent, for example a methoxy substituent.

[0036] As preferred examples of the compounds of formula (I) there may be mentioned those in which R1 is a condensed aromatic heterocyclic group which may have one or more substituent. For example, there may be mentioned those compounds in which R1 is an indolyl group, an isoindolyl group, a benzimidazolyl group, a quinolyl group or an isoquinolyl group.

[0037] As preferred examples of the compounds of formula (I) there may be mentioned those in which R2 is a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl group which may have one or more substituent, or a pyrimidinyl group. In the compounds of formula (I) in which R2 is a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl group which may have one or more substituent, the 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl group which may have one or more substituent may, for example, be an unsubstituted 3-pyridyl group (namely, where the nitrogen heteroatom of the pyridyl group is meta to the 5-membered ring).

[0038] As preferred examples of the compounds of formula (I) there may be mentioned those in which R2 is a phenyl group which may have one or more substituent, or a condensed aromatic heterocyclic group, wherein the condensed aromatic heterocyclic group may comprise an indolyl group, an isoindolyl group, a benzimidazolyl group, a quinolyl group or an isoquinolyl group.

[0039] As preferred examples of the compounds of formula (I) there may be mentioned those in which R2 is hydrogen or a C1-6 alkyl group, for example a methyl group or an ethyl group.

[0040] For use in the first and second aspects of the present invention there may be mentioned as particularly preferred (a) the above compounds of formula (I) in which n = 1; X = Y = CH and Z = O; R1 is a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl substituent; R2 is a phenyl substituent or a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl substituent, or a phenyl substituent or a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl group which may have one or more substituent; and (b) their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates or hydrates. Examples of the compounds of formula (I) include compounds, the formulae of which are shown in Table 1 or Table 2.

[0041] The compounds of Formula (I) and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates and hydrates may be further characterized by one or more of the following features, which are, whether individually or in any combination, combinable with any of the examples and preferences stated herein, or in WO 2005/063293, for the compounds:
  1. 1. n = 1;
  2. 2. R1 may represent a phenyl group, a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl group, or a pyrimidinyl group;
  3. 3. Z = O;
  4. 4. X = Y = CH;
  5. 5. R2 may represent a tetrahydropyranyl group, a phenyl group or a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl group.


[0042] The compounds represented by formula (I) include, for example:
  1. (1) such compounds in which the above n = 1 or 2;
  2. (2) such compounds in which the above n = 1;
  3. (3) such compounds in which the above R1 is a 4- to 8-membered carbocyclic group, which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one oxygen atom which may have one or more substituent or a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one or two nitrogen atoms which may have one or more substituent;
  4. (4) such compounds in which the above R1 is a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl group;
  5. (5) such compounds in which the above X and Y are independently selected from CH or N;
  6. (6) such compounds in which the above X and Y are both = CH
  7. (7) such compounds in which the above Z = O or S or NH;
  8. (8) such compounds in which the above Z = O;
  9. (9) such compounds in which the above R2 is hydrogen; a C1-6 alkyl group; a 4- to 8-membered carbocycle which may have one or more substituent; a nitrogen-containing 4-to 8-membered heteroaryl ring which may have one or more substituent; or an oxygen-containing 4- to 8-membered heteroaryl ring which may have one or more substituent or a condensed aromatic heterocyclic group;
  10. (10) such compounds in which the above R2 is hydrogen, methyl or a nitrogen-containing 6-membered heteroaryl ring having one or more substituents;
  11. (11) such compounds in which the above R2 is a pyridyl ring or a pyrimidinyl ring which may have one or more substituent;
  12. (12) such compounds in which the above R2 is a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl ring.


[0043] In the compounds described above, n is preferred in the order of (1) to (2) with (2) preferred; R1 is preferred in the order of (3) to (4), with (4) more preferred; X and Y are preferred in the order of (5) to (6), with (6) more preferred; Z is preferred in the order of (7) to (8), with (8) more preferred; R2 is preferred in the order of (9) to (12), with (12) more preferred.

Detailed Description of the Invention



[0044] The compounds of the present invention are SRPK1-specific inhibitors and may therefore be used in methods of treating or preventing any disease or condition in which SRPK1 is implicated. Such conditions and treatments will now be described.

Anti-angiogenic treatment



[0045] The compounds of the present invention may be used in anti-angiogenic treatments. The anti-angiogenic treatment preferably includes the treatment or prevention of any disease or disorder associated with abnormal angiogenesis or abnormal over-production of pro-angiogenic VEGF isoforms (VEGFxxx). Such diseases and disorders include, for example, vascular disease (e.g. vasoconstriction and disorders characterised by vasoconstriction, and cardiovascular disease), malignant and benign neoplasia (e.g. angiogenesis-dependent cancers, for example tumorous cancers), tumor metastasis, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy and other complications of diabetes (e.g. diabetic neovascularisation), trachoma, retrolental hyperplasia, neovascular glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, haemangioma, immune rejection of implanted corneal tissue, corneal angiogenesis associated with ocular injury or infection, Osler-Webber Syndrome, myocardial angiogenesis, wound granulation, telangiectasia, hemophiliac joints, angiofibroma, telangiectasia psoriasis scleroderma, pyogenic granuloma, rubeosis, obesity, arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), hematopoieses, vasculogenesis, gingivitis, atherosclerosis, endometriosis, neointimal hyperplasia, psoriasis, hirsutism and proliferative retinopathy. The anti-angiogenic treatment according to the present invention may also include non-therapeutic treatments performed on healthy subjects, for example to inhibit vascular development for cosmetic purposes. For further details on diseases and disorders associated with abnormal angiogenesis, and on anti-angiogenic treatments, see WO 2008/110777.

[0046] In particular, the compounds of the present invention may be used in the treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation, which may include retinal neovascularisation or choroidal neovascularisation or age-related macular degeneration. In addition, the compounds of the present invention may be used in the treatment or prevention of malignant neoplasias or cancers, for example prostate cancer and breast cancer.

Microvascular hyperpermeability disorders, disorders of epithelial cell survival and disorders of fenestrations of epithelial filtration membranes



[0047] The compounds of the present invention, as SRPK1 inhibitors, may also be used as therapeutic agents in treating other disorders in which the alternatively spliced VEGFxxxb isoform has been implicated. For example, it has been shown in WO 2010/058227 that VEGFxxxb is active against a range of microvascular hyperpermeability disorders, disorders of epithelial cell survival and disorders of fenestrations of epithelial filtration membranes.

[0048] Microvascular hyperpermeability, disorders of regulation of the pro-angiogenic pro-permeability properties of VEGFxxx isoforms, disorders of epithelial cell survival and permeability, and/or disorders in the nature (for example the number density and/or size) of fenestrations of epithelial filtration membranes underlie a number of serious medical conditions.

[0049] Examples of such conditions include, for example, proteinuria, uraemia, microalbuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, renal hyperfiltration, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, pulmonary hypertension, capillary hyperpermeability, microaneurysms, oedema and vascular complications of diabetes.

[0050] Examples of such vascular complications of diabetes include, for example, diabetic retinopathy, both proliferative and non-proliferative, and diabetic nephropathy. Vascular complications of diabetes can be associated with either Type I or Type II diabetes.

[0051] The loss of proteins from the blood can lead to further complications, for example thromboses, especially thromboses in the brain, and susceptibility to infections. Loss of natural proteins from the blood can seriously impair the efficacy of cancer therapies.

[0052] The microvascular hyperpermeability disorder may particularly be a renal disorder, for example a permeability disorder of the GFB, for example a permeability disorder of the podocytes.

[0053] Examples of disorders where treatment to support epithelial cell survival would be effective are as follows:
acute pulmonary fibrotic disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, advanced cancer, allergic respiratory disease, alveolar injury, angiogenesis, arthritis, ascites, asthma, asthma or edema following burns, atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, bone resorption, bullous disorder associated with subepidermal blister formation including bullous pemphigoid, cardiovascular condition, certain kidney diseases associated with proliferation of glomerular or mesangial cells, chronic and allergic inflammation, chronic lung disease, chronic occlusive pulmonary disease, cirrhosis, corneal angiogenisis, corneal disease, coronary and cerebral collateral vascularization, coronary restenosis, damage following heart disease, dermatitis herpetiformis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, endotoxic shock, erythema multiforme, fibrosis, glomerular nephritis, glomerulonophritis, graft rejection, gram negative sepsis, hemangioma, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic failure, Herpes Zoster, host-versus-graft reaction (ischemia reperfusion injury and allograft rejections of kidney, liver, heart, and skin), impaired wound healing in infection, infection by Herpes simplex, infection from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inflammation, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), inflammatory conditions, in-stent restenosis, in-stent stenosis, ischemia, ischemic retinal-vein occlusion, ischemic retinopathy, Kaposi's sarcoma, keloid, liver disease during acute inflammation, lung allograft rejection (obliterative bronchitis), lymphoid malignancy, macular degeneration retinopathy of prematurity, myelodysplastic syndromes, myocardial angiogenesis, neovascular glaucoma, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), obliterative bronchiolitis, ocular conditions or diseases, ocular diseases associated with retinal vessel proliferation, Osier-Weber-Rendu disease, osteoarthritis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, Paget's disease, pancreatitis, pemphigoid, polycystic kidney disease, polyps, postmenopausal osteoperosis, preeclampsia, psoriasis, pulmonary edema, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary sarcoidosis, restenosis, restenosis, retinopathy including diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age related macular degeneration; rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, rubeosis, sarcoidosis, sepsis, stroke, synovitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, throiditis, thrombic micoangiopathy syndromes, transplant rejection, trauma, tumor-associated angiogenesis, vascular graft restenosis, vascular graft restenosis, von Hippel Lindau disease, wound healing.

[0054] The present invention may be used in the treatment of macular dystrophy. This includes: Stargardt disease/fundus flavimaculatus; Stargardt-like macular dystrophy; Stargardt-like macular dystrophy; Autosomal dominant "bull'seye" macular dystrophy Best macular dystrophy; Adult vitelliform dystrophy; Pattern dystrophy; Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy; North Carolina macular dystrophy; Autosomal dominant macular dystrophy resembling MCDR1; North Carolina-like macular dystrophy associated with deafness; Progressive bifocal chorioretinal atrophy; Sorsby's fundus dystrophy; Central areolar choroidal dystrophy; Dominant cystoid macular dystrophy; Juvenile retinoschisis; Occult Macular Dystrophy; Non-familial Occult Macular Dystrophy.

[0055] The disorder may particularly be a disorder of the retinal epithelium, such as geographic atrophy, or age related macular degeneration.

[0056] For further details on of microvascular hyperpermeability disorders, disorders of epithelial cell survival and disorders of fenestrations of epithelial filtration membranes, and the treatment thereof, see WO 2010/058227.

Neuropathic and neurodegenerative disorders



[0057] The compounds of the present invention, as SRPK1 inhibitors, may also be used as therapeutic agents in treating other disorders in which the alternatively spliced VEGFxxxb isoform has been implicated. For example, it has been shown in WO 2009/106855 that VEGFxxxb has neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects.

[0058] Neuropathic disorders to be treated or prevented according to the present invention include neuropathic pain and diabetic and other neuropathies.

[0059] Neurodegenerative disorders to be treated or prevented according to the present invention include neurodegeneration of the cognitive and non-cognitive types, neuromuscular degeneration, motor-sensory neurodegeneration, ocular neurodegeneration.

[0060] The activities of the proteins of the VEGFxxxb family are predicted to both actively prevent and actively reverse the conditions and disorders.

[0061] Furthermore, since mild cognitive dysfunction is often associated with the normal state in certain classes of healthy people, for example the aged, persons under stress, tired or exhausted persons, the present invention is also applicable to non-therapeutic treatments of healthy people to adjust or normalise their cognitive function and behaviour, including thinking, memory, learning, concentration and reasoning.

[0062] Still further, since neuroregeneration can assist in normalising brain neural networks in subjects having psychiatric or behavioural abnormalities, whether or not these are diagnosable as one or more recognised psychiatric condition, the present invention is also applicable to therapeutic treatment of persons having psychiatric disorders and to non-therapeutic treatment of physically healthy people to adjust their cognition and behaviour towards the normal state.

[0063] For example, the present invention enables the treatment or prevention of: pain (for example, neuropathic pain), dementia, age-related cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, postencephalitic Parkinsonism, depression, schizophrenia, muscular dystrophy including facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH), Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy and Bruce's muscular dystrophy, Fuchs' dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, corneal dystrophy, reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDSA), neurovascular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, Lambert Eaton disease, Huntington's disease, motor neurone diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis, postural hypotension, traumatic neuropathy or neurodegeneration e.g. following stroke or following an accident (for example, traumatic head injury or spinal cord injury), Batten's disease, Cockayne syndrome, Down syndrome, corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, multiple system atrophy, cerebral atrophy, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, dentatorubral atrophy, pallidoluysian atrophy, spinobulbar atrophy, optic neuritis, sclerosing pan-encephalitis (SSPE), attention deficit disorder, post-viral encephalitis, post-poliomyelitis syndrome, Fahr's syndrome, Joubert syndrome, Guillain-Barre syndrome, lissencephaly, Moyamoya disease, neuronal migration disorders, autistic syndrome, polyglutamine disease, Niemann-Pick disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, pseudotumor cerebri, Refsum disease, Zellweger syndrome, supranuclear palsy, Friedreich's ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, Rhett syndrome, Shy-Drager syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Pick's disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, neuropathies including hereditary neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy and mitotic neuropathy, prion-based neurodegeneration, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), variant CJD, new variant CJD, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), GSS, FFI, kuru and Alper's syndrome, Joseph's disease, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, arachnoiditis, vascular lesions of the central nervous system, loss of extremity neuronal function, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Krabbe's disease, leukodystrophies, susceptibility to heart failure, asthma, epilepsy, auditory neurodegeneration, macular degeneration, pigmentary retinitis and glaucoma-induced optic nerve degeneration.

[0064] Generally speaking, mental disorders are not diagnosed as "psychiatric disorders" unless the associated behaviours or thoughts cause significant distress to the individual or are disruptive of his or her everyday functioning. There is therefore a borderline between diagnosable disorders and similar, but less severe or disruptive, psychological functions the treatment of which should be considered as non-therapeutic (see below).

[0065] Examples of psychiatric disorders with which the present invention is concerned include, without limitation: anxiety disorders (for example, acute stress disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, sexual anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, body dysmorphic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder), childhood disorders (for example, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, separation anxiety disorder and Tourette's disorder), eating disorders (for example, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa), mood disorders (for example, depression, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (manic depression), seasonal affective disorder (SAD), cyclothymic disorder and dysthymic disorder), sleeping disorders, cognitive psychiatric disorders (for example, delirium, amnestic disorders), personality disorders (for example, paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder), psychotic disorders (for example, schizophrenia, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder and shared psychotic disorder), and substance-related disorders (for example, alcohol dependence, amphetamine dependence, cannabis dependence, cocaine dependence, hallucinogen dependence, inhalant dependence, nicotine dependence, opioid dependence, phencyclidine dependence and sedative dependence).

[0066] For further details on neuropathic and neurodegenerative disorders, and the treatment thereof, see WO 2009/106855.

Treatment of pain



[0067] The compounds of the present invention, as SRPK1 inhibitors, may also be used as therapeutic agents in treating other disorders in which the alternatively spliced VEGFxxxb isoform has been implicated. For example, it has been shown in WO 2011/148200 that VEGFxxxb has an analgesic effect on VEGFR2-mediated non-inflammatory pain in mammals.

[0068] VEGFR2-mediated non-inflammatory pain to be treated or prevented according to the present invention includes non-inflammatory neuropathic and nociceptive pain where the VEGFR2 receptor is involved in the cause or transmission of the pain. For example, the compounds according to the present invention are predicted to have activity against non-inflammatory allodynia and pain (antiallodynic and analgesic activity). Pain states of this type include chronic pain, whether of the intermittent or constant form. Such pain states may include, for example, low back pain, neuralgia, atypical pains such as atypical facial pain, pain exhibited post-surgery, post-injury (for example, after surgery or injury causing nerve damage) or in association with cancer or with cancer therapy such as cytotoxic or radiation therapy, or neuropathy associated with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy, insulin neuritis) or other systemic or autoimmune disease or pathology, or the treatment thereof, alcoholism or HIV infection, ageing associated neuropathy, or neuropathy of unknown origin.

[0069] The activities of the proteins of the VEGFR2 agonists, for example the VEGFxxxb family, are predicted to both actively prevent and actively reverse VEGFR2-mediated non-inflammatory pain.

[0070] However, in view of the anti-angiogenic activity of the proteins of the VEGFxxxb family, use of the compounds of the present invention will be restricted to pain in contexts where possible inhibition of angiogenesis would not be detrimental to the patient.

[0071] The compounds used in the present invention may be employed in association with one or more different pain treatment agent for the purpose of normalising the sensitivity towards pain of the subject treated (or being co-treated) with the said one or more different pain treatment agent. The term "normalising" means moving the subject's pain sensitivity towards normal levels, and may include enhancement of the sensitivity if the one or more different pain treatment agent causes an excessive reduction in feeling or in sensitivity towards pain. The one or more different pain treatment agent may be selected from pain treatment agents currently known or yet to be devised. Such selection will be well within the skill of the person of ordinary skill in this art. Such combination treatments can enable fine control of pain sensitivity in subjects and minimisation of overall side effects according to the particular condition and needs of the subject.

[0072] For further details on pain, and the treatment thereof, see WO 2011/148200.

Reduction of Risk of Pre-Eclampsia



[0073] The compounds of the present invention, as SRPK1 inhibitors, may also be used as therapeutic agents in treating other disorders in which the alternatively spliced VEGFxxxb isoform has been implicated. For example, it has been shown in WO 2011/036429 that reduced VEGFxxxb levels in pregnant female mammals increase the risk of the female mammal developing pre-eclampsia. Thus, compounds of the present invention may be used to increase VEGFxxxb levels in a pregnant female mammal so as to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia the female mammal developing pre-eclampsia or a complication linked thereto, or of a fetus of the female mammal developing a fetal or neonatal deficiency linked to maternal pre-eclampsia.

[0074] Pre-eclampsia in humans can develop as early as 20 weeks of gestation. Pre-eclampsia that develops before about 34 weeks of gestation is normally referred to as "early pre-eclampsia" or "early-onset pre-eclampsia". Pre-eclampsia that develops after about 34 weeks of gestation is normally referred to as "late pre-eclampsia" or "late-onset pre-eclampsia".

[0075] In addition, pre-eclampsia can be categorised as "severe pre-eclampsia" according to criteria established by the United Kingdom Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Under these criteria, a patient with "severe pre-eclampsia" will have systolic blood pressure (BP) greater than 169 mmHg or diastolic BP greater than 109 mmHg with proteinuria greater than 1 g/24h; or will show occurrence of HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count).

[0076] For further details on pre-eclampsia, and methods to reduce the risk of a pregnant female mammal developing developing pre-eclampsia or a complication linked thereto, or of a fetus of the female mammal developing a fetal or neonatal deficiency linked to maternal pre-eclampsia, see WO 2011/036429.

Active compounds



[0077] Compounds of the present invention are as defined by Formula (I) and have been shown to be inhibitors of one or both of the kinases SRPK1, and SRPK2, and thus useful in treatments as described herein.

[0078] The compounds of the present invention may be synthesised by any known method. Suitable methods as disclosed in WO 2005/063293 may be adapted as required. An exemplary synthesis for compound 12 is described below in the Examples.

Co-administration



[0079] The compounds of the present invention may, if desired, be co-administered with one or more additional active agent, for example one or more agent selected from, but not limited to, cholinesterase inhibitors, dopamine agonists (e.g. L-dopa), COMT inhibitors, MAO-B inhibitors, anti-cholinergics, acetylcholine agonists, serotonin agonists, AMPA receptor agonists, GABA receptor agonists, NMDA receptor agonists, β-adrenoceptor agonists, digoxin, dobutamine, anti-inflammatories, neurotrophic factors, statins, adenosine A2a receptor antagonists, aldose reductase inhibitors, immunomodulators, cannabinoid agonists, interferon or tricyclic anti-depressants.

Definitions



[0080] In the definition of formula (I) herein:

"C1-6 alkyl group" refers to a linear or branched alkyl group comprising one to six carbon atoms, which is a monovalent group derived by removing an arbitrary hydrogen atom from an aliphatic hydrocarbon consisting of one to six carbons. Specifically, the C1-6 alkyl group includes, for example, a methyl group, an ethyl group, a 1-propyl group, a 2-propyl group, a 2-methyl-1-propyl group, a 2-methyl-2-propyl group, a 1-butyl group, a 2-butyl group, a 1-pentyl group, a 2-pentyl group, a 3-pentyl group, a 2-methyl-1-butyl group, a 3-methyl-1-butyl group, a 2-methyl-2-butyl group, a 3-methyl-2-butyl group, a 2,2-dimethyl-1-propyl group, a 1-hexyl group, a 2-hexyl group, a 3-hexyl group, a 2-methyl-1-pentyl group, a 3-methyl-1-pentyl group, a 4-methyl-1-pentyl group, a 2-methyl-2-pentyl group, a 3-methyl-2-pentyl group, a 4-methyl-2-pentyl group, a 2-methyl-3-pentyl group, a 3-methyl-3-pentyl group, a 2,3-dimethyl-1-butyl group, a 3,3-dimethyl-1-butyl group, a 2,2-dimethyl-1-butyl group, a 2-ethyl-1-butyl group, a 3,3-dimethyl-2-butyl group, and a 2,3-dimethyl-2-butyl group;

"heterocycle" or "heterocyclic group" refers to an aromatic or non-aromatic ring that may comprise double bonds within the ring, wherein at least one, for example one or two, of the atoms constituting the ring are heteroatoms;

"nitrogen-containing heterocycle" or "heterocyclic group comprising one or more nitrogen atoms" refers to an aromatic or non-aromatic ring that may comprise double bonds within the ring, wherein at least one, for example one or two, of the atoms constituting the ring are nitrogen atoms;

"oxygen-containing heterocycle" or "heterocyclic group comprising one or more oxygen atoms" refers to an aromatic or non-aromatic ring that may comprise double bonds within the ring, wherein at least one, for example one or two, of the atoms constituting the ring are oxygen atoms;

"heteroatom" refers to a sulfur atom, an oxygen atom, or a nitrogen atom;

"nitrogen-containing 5- to 10-membered heteroaryl ring" or "nitrogen-containing 5- to 10-membered heteroaromatic group" refers to an aromatic ring in which five to ten atoms constitute the ring, wherein at least one of the atoms constituting the ring is a nitrogen atom, and one or more heteroatoms other than nitrogen atoms may further be comprised. Specifically, the nitrogen-containing 5- to 10-membered heteroaryl ring includes, for example, a pyridine ring, an indole ring, an isoindole ring, a pyridazine ring, a pyrimidine ring, a pyrazine ring, a quinoline ring, an isoquinoline ring, and a benzimidazole ring;

"nitrogen-containing 5- to 10-membered heteroaryl group" refers to a mono-or divalent group derived by removing one or two arbitrary hydrogen atoms from the above-defined "5- to 10-membered heteroaryl ring". Specifically, the nitrogen-containing 5-to 10-membered heteroaryl group includes, for example, a pyridyl group, an indolyl group, an isoindolyl group, a pyridazinyl group, a pyrimidinyl group, a pyrazinyl group, a quinolyl group, an isoquinolyl group, and a benzimidazolyl group;

"nitrogen-containing 4- to 8-membered heteroaryl ring" or "nitrogen-containing 4- to 8-membered heteroaromatic group" refers to an aromatic ring in which four to eight atoms constitute the ring, wherein at least one of the atoms constituting the ring is a nitrogen atom, and one or more heteroatoms other than nitrogen atoms may further be comprised. Specifically, the nitrogen-containing 4- to 8-membered heteroaryl ring includes, for example, a pyridine ring, a pyridazine ring, a pyrimidine ring, and a pyrazine ring;

"nitrogen-containing 4- to 8-membered heteroaryl group" refers to a mono-or divalent group derived by removing one or two arbitrary hydrogen atoms from the above-defined "4- to 8-membered heteroaryl ring". Specifically, the nitrogen-containing 4- to 8-membered heteroaryl group includes, for example, a pyridyl group, a pyridazinyl group, a pyrimidinyl group, and a pyrazinyl group;

"oxygen-containing 5- to 10-membered heteroaryl ring" refers to an aromatic ring in which five to ten atoms constitute the ring, wherein at least one of the atoms constituting the ring is an oxygen atom, and one or more heteroatoms other than oxygen atoms may further be comprised. Specifically, the oxygen-containing 5- to 10-membered heteroaryl ring includes, for example, a pyran ring;

"oxygen-containing 4- to 8-membered heteroaryl group" refers to an aromatic ring in which four to eight atoms constitute the ring, wherein at least one of the atoms constituting the ring is an oxygen atom, and one or more heteroatoms other than oxygen atoms may further be comprised, for example a pyranyl group;

"4- to 8-membered non-aromatic heterocyclic ring" refers to a non-aromatic ring that meets the following definition:

  1. 1. four to eight atoms constitute the ring;
  2. 2. one or two of the atoms constituting the ring are heteroatoms;
  3. 3. one or two double bonds may be comprised in the ring;
  4. 4. one to three carbonyl groups may be comprised in the ring; and
  5. 5. the group is monocyclic.

The 4- to 8-membered non-aromatic heterocyclic ring is preferably a nitrogen-containing 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring that comprises nitrogen atoms as heteroatoms.

Specifically, the 4- to 8-membered non-aromatic heterocyclic ring includes, for example, an azetidine ring, a pyrrolidine ring, a piperidine ring, an azepane ring, an azocine ring, a tetrahydrofuran ring, a tetrahydropyran ring, a morpholine ring, a thiomorpholine ring, a piperazine ring, a thiazolidine ring, a dioxane ring, an imidazoline ring, and a thiazoline ring. The "4- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring" preferably includes a pyrrolidine ring, a piperidine ring, a morpholine ring, and a piperazine ring;

"4- to 8-membered non-aromatic heterocyclic group" refers to a mono- or divalent group derived by removing one or two arbitrary hydrogen atoms from the above-defined "4- to 8-membered non-aromatic heterocyclic ring". Specifically, the 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group includes, for example, an azetidinyl group, a pyrrolidinyl group, a piperidinyl group, an azepanyl group, an azocanyl group, a tetrahydrofuryl group, a tetrahydropyranyl group, a morpholinyl group, a thoimorpholinyl group, a piperazinyl group, a thiazolidinyl group, a dioxanyl group, an imidazolyl group, and a thiazolyl group;

"Condensed aromatic heterocycle" refers to a ring structure in which the heterocyclic moiety is fused, for example ortho-condensed, with an aromatic ring, such as a benzene ring. The heterocyclic moiety is an above-defined heterocycle.

"Condensed aromatic heterocyclic group" refers to a ring structure in which the heterocyclic moiety is fused, for example ortho-condensed, with a ring, for example an aromatic ring, such as benzene ring. The heterocyclic moiety is an above-defined heterocyclic group.
The condensed aromatic heterocyclic group includes, for example, an indolyl group, an indolinyl group, an isoindolyl group, an isoindolinyl group, and a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline.

"4- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring" refers to a saturated or unsaturated carbon ring, for example a furan ring, a tetrahydrofuran ring, a pyran ring or a tetrahydropyran ring;

"4- to 8-membered carbocyclic group" refers to a saturated refers to a mono- or divalent group derived by removing one or two arbitrary hydrogen atoms from the above-defined 4- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring. Specifically, "4- to 8-membered carbocyclic group" may refer to a furanyl group, a tetrahydrofuranyl group, a pyranyl group or a tetrahydropyranyl group;

Herein, "halogenated C1-6 alkyl group" refers to a group in which at least one arbitrary hydrogen atom in the above-defined "C1-6 alkyl group" is replaced with an above-defined "halogen atom". The halogenated C1-6 alkyl group includes, for example, a trifluoromethyl group, a difluoromethyl group, and a monofluoromethyl group.

Herein, the phrase "may have one or more substituent" means that a certain group or compound may optionally have an arbitrary selection or combination of one or more substituent at substitutable positions. Specifically, the substituents can include, for example, atoms or groups selected from one or more of: halogen, hydroxyl, hydroxymethyl, hydroxyethyl, mercapto, nitro, cyano, formyl, carboxyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, amino, oxo, imino, C1-6 alkyl (for example methyl), C1-6 alkoxy (for example, methoxy), C1-6 thioalkyl (for example thiomethyl), C2-6 alkenyl, C2-6 alkynyl; C1-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C1-6 alkylsulfonyl, C6-10 aryl, benzyl, heteroaryl, phenyl, or C6-10 aryl or benzyl or phenyl or heteroaryl substituted by one or more of halogen, hydroxyl, hydroxymethyl, hydroxyethyl, mercapto, nitro, cyano, formyl, carboxyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, amino, oxo, imino, C1-6 alkyl (for example methyl), C1-6 thioalkyl (for example thiomethyl), C2-6 alkenyl, C2-6 alkynyl; C1-6 alkoxycarbonyl, C1-6 alkylsulfonyl, or C1-6 alkoxy (for example, methoxy).

"C2-6 alkenyl group" refers to a linear or branched alkenyl group comprising two to six carbons. Specifically, the C2-6 alkenyl group includes, for example, a vinyl group, an allyl group, a 1-propenyl group, a 2-propenyl group, a 1-butenyl group, a 2-butenyl group, a 3-butenyl group, a pentenyl group, and a hexenyl group;

"C2-6 alkynyl group" refers to a linear or branched alkynyl group comprising two to six carbons. Specifically, the C2-6 alkynyl group includes, for example, an ethynyl group, a 1-propynyl group, a 2-propynyl group, a butynyl group, a pentynyl group, and a hexynyl group.

"C1-6 alkoxy group" refers to an oxy group to which the above-defined "C1-6 alkyl group" is linked. Specifically, the C1-6 alkoxy group includes, for example, a methoxy group, an ethoxy group, a 1-propyloxy group, a 2-propyloxy group, a 2-methyl-1-propyloxy group, a 2-methyl-2-propyloxy group, a 1 -butyloxy group, a 2-butyloxy group, a 1-pentyloxy group, a 2-pentyloxy group, a 3-pentyloxy group, a 2-methyl-1-butyloxy group, a 3-methyl-1-butyloxy group, a 2-methyl-2-butyloxy group, a 3-methyl-2-butyloxy group, a 2,2-dimethyl-1-propyloxy group, a 1-hexyloxy group, a 2-hexyloxy group, a 3-hexyloxy group, a 2-methyl-1-pentyloxy group, a 3-methyl-1-pentyloxy group, a 4-methyl-1-pentyloxy group, a 2-methyl-2-pentyloxy group, a 3-methyl-2-pentyloxy group, a 4-methyl-2-pentyloxy group, a 2-methyl-3-pentyloxy group, a 3-methyl-3-pentyloxy group, a 2,3-dimethyl-1-butyloxy group, a 3,3-dimethyl-1-butyloxy group, a 2,2-dimethyl-1-butyloxy group, a 2-ethyl-1-butyloxy group, a 3,3-dimethyl-2-butyloxy group, and a 2,3-dimethyl-2-butyloxy group;

"C1-6 alkylthio group" refers to a thio group to which the above-defined "C1-6 alkyl group" is linked. Specifically, the "C1-6 alkylthio group" includes, for example, a methylthio group, an ethylthio group, a 1-propylthio group, a 2-propylthio group, a butylthio group, and a pentylthio group;

"C1-6 alkoxycarbonyl group" refers to a carbonyl group to which the above-defined "C1-6 alkoxy group" is linked. Specifically, the C1-6 alkoxycarbonyl group includes, for example, a methoxy carbonyl group, an ethoxy carbonyl group, a 1-propyloxycarbonyl group, and a 2-propyloxycarbonyl group;

"C1-6 alkylsulfonyl group" refers to a sulfonyl group to which the above-defined "C1-6 alkyl group" is linked. Specifically, the C1-6 alkylsulfonyl group includes, for example, a methylsulfonyl group, an ethylsulfonyl group, a 1-propylsulfonyl group, and a 2-propylsulfonyl group.

"halogen atom" refers to a fluorine atom, a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom;

"C6-10 aryl group" refers to an aromatic cyclic hydrocarbon group comprising six to ten carbon atoms. Specifically, the C6-10 aryl group includes, for example, a phenyl group, a 1-naphthyl group, and a 2-naphthyl group;

"Salt" is not particularly limited, so long as it is a pharmaceutical acceptable salt which is formed with a compound according to the present invention. Such salts include, for example, inorganic acid salts, organic salts, inorganic base salts, organic base salts, and acidic or basic amino acid salts. Examples of preferable inorganic acid salts include: hydrochloride, hydrobromate, sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate. Examples of preferable organic salts include: acetate, succinate, fumarate, maleate, tartrate, citrate, lactate, stearate, benzoate, methanesulfonate, and p-toluene sulfonate.



[0081] Examples of preferable inorganic base salts include: alkali metal salts, such as sodium salts and potassium salts; alkali earth metal salts, such as calcium salts and magnesium salts; aluminium salts; and ammonium salts. Examples of preferable organic base salts include: diethylamine salts, diethanol amine salts, meglumine salts, and N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine salts.

[0082] Examples of preferable acidic amino acid salts include: aspartate and glutamate. Examples of preferable basic amino acid salts include: arginine salts, lysine salts, and ornithine salts.

[0083] When left in air, the compounds of the present invention sometimes absorb moisture, and are sometimes attached to absorbed water or converted to hydrates. Such hydrates are also included in the present invention.

[0084] Furthermore, compounds of the present invention are sometimes converted into solvates, absorbing some other solvents. Such solvates are also included in the present invention.

[0085] Any organic solvent may in principle be used to prepare a solvate of the compounds of the present invention.

[0086] A solvate can include also water together with the one or more organic solvent.

[0087] Thus, for example, the solvent may be selected from ketones, alcohols, ethers, esters, aromatic solvents, and, where possible, mixtures thereof with each other, with other organic solvents and/or with water.

[0088] Pharmaceutically acceptable prodrug forms of the compounds of formula (I) may be used. "Pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs" means those prodrugs of the compounds which are, within the scope of sound medical and vetinary judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of humans and lower animals without undue toxicity, irritation, allergic response, and the like, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio, and effective for their intended use, as well as the zwitterionic forms, where possible, of the compounds. The term "prodrug" means compounds that are rapidly transformed in vivo to yield the parent compound of the above formula, for example by hydrolysis in blood. Functional groups which may be rapidly transformed, by metabolic cleavage, in vivo form a class of groups reactive with the carboxyl group. Because of the ease with which the metabolically cleavable groups of the compounds are cleaved in vivo, the compounds bearing such groups act as pro-drugs. A thorough discussion of prodrugs is provided in the following: Design of Prodrugs, H. Bundgaard, ed. , Elsevier, 1985; Methods in Enzymology, K. Widder et al, Ed., Academic Press, 42, p. 309-396,1985; A Textbook of Drug Design and Development, Krogsgaard-Larsen and H. Bundgaard, ed., Chapter 5; Design and Applications of Prodrugs p. 113-191, 1991 ; Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, H. Bundgard, 8, p. 1-38, 1992; Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 77, p. 285,1988 ; Chem. Pharm. Bull. , N. Nakeya et al, 32, p. 692,1984 ; Pro-drugs as Novel Delivery Systems, T. Higuchi and V. Stella, Vol. 14 of the A. C. S. Symposium Series, and Bioreversible Carriers in Drug Design, Edward B. Roche, ed., American Pharmaceutical Association and Pergamon Press, 1987.

Compositions and Administration



[0089] The compound according to the present invention may be administered in the form of a composition comprising the active agent and any suitable additional component. The composition may, for example, be a pharmaceutical composition (medicament), suitably for topical administration (e.g. as eyedrops or cream or lotion), or parenteral administration (e.g. injection, implantation or infusion). The composition may alternatively, for example, be a foodstuff, food supplement, beverage or beverage supplement.

[0090] The term "pharmaceutical composition" or "medicament" in the context of this invention means a composition comprising an active agent and comprising additionally one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. The composition may further contain ingredients selected from, for example, diluents, adjuvants, excipients, vehicles, preserving agents, fillers, disintegrating agents, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, sweetening agents, flavouring agents, perfuming agents, antibacterial agents, antifungal agents, lubricating agents and dispersing agents, depending on the nature of the mode of administration and dosage forms. The compositions may take the form, for example, of tablets, dragees, powders, elixirs, syrups, liquid preparations including suspensions, sprays, inhalants, tablets, lozenges, emulsions, solutions, cachets, granules, capsules and suppositories, as well as liquid preparations for injections, including liposome preparations. Techniques and formulations generally may be found in Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, PA, latest edition.

[0091] Liquid form preparations include solutions, suspensions, and emulsions. As an example may be mentioned water or water-propylene glycol solutions for parenteral injection or topical administration. Liquid preparations can also be formulated in solution in aqueous polyethylene glycol solution.

[0092] Also included are solid form preparations which are intended to be converted, shortly before use, to liquid form preparations for either topical, oral or parenteral administration. Such liquid forms include solutions, suspensions, and emulsions. These particular solid form preparations are most conveniently provided in unit dose form and as such are used to provide a single liquid dosage unit. Alternately, sufficient solid may be provided so that after conversion to liquid form, multiple individual liquid doses may be obtained by measuring predetermined volumes of the liquid form preparation as with a syringe, teaspoon, or other volumetric container or apparatus. The solid form preparations intended to be converted to liquid form may contain, in addition to the active material, flavourings, colourants, stabilizers, buffers, artificial and natural sweeteners, dispersants, thickeners, solubilising agents, and the like. The liquid utilized for preparing the liquid form preparation may be water, isotonic water, ethanol, glycerine, propylene glycol, and the like as well as mixtures thereof. Naturally, the liquid utilized will be chosen with regard to the route of administration, for example, liquid preparations containing large amounts of ethanol are not suitable for topical or parenteral use.

[0093] The composition may be in a formulation intended for topical application. The formulation may be a gelling formulation to control release and therefore availability of the active agent following topical application. The formulation may contain one or more gelling agents, for example hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. The formulation may contain one or more surfactants, for example a non-ionic liquid polymer, examples of which include Tyloxapol, and the Pluronics® poloxamers from BASF. The formulation may contain one or more solubilizers, for example dextrose or sorbitol. The formulation may contain one or more anti-microbial or antiseptic agents, for example benzalkonium chloride. The aforementioned named gelling agents, surfactants, solubilizers and antimicrobial agents are listed purely by way of example and it will be appreciated that other agents to perform these functions are known.

[0094] The dosages may be varied depending upon the requirements of the patient, the severity of the condition being treated, and the compound being employed. Determination of the proper dosage for a particular situation is within the skill of the art. Generally, treatment is initiated with the smaller dosages which are less than the optimum dose of the compound. Thereafter the dosage is increased by small increments until the optimum effect under the circumstances is reached. For convenience, the total daily dosage may be divided and administered in portions during the day if desired.

[0095] The dosage regime for administration of the active agent may, for example, comprise a total dose of up to 1 µg, for example up to 500 ng, for example up to 50ng, for example less than 20ng of active agent in a dosing period ranging, for example, between 1 and 14 days. For example, a total dose of less than 18 ng, 17 ng, 16 ng, 15, ng, 14 ng, 13 ng, 12 ng, 11 ng or 10 ng may be administered.

[0096] The compound of Formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or hydrate thereof may be administered in a therapeutically effective amount. A therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) for topical administration for treatment of CNV may be at least about 5 µg/10 µl of delivery vehicle. Alternatively, a therapeutically effective amount may be at least about 100 µg/mL, for example at least about 200 µg/mL, at least about 300 µg/mL, at least about 400 µg/mL, at least about 500 µg/mL, at least about 600 µg/mL, at least about 700 µg/mL, at least about 800 µg/mL, at least about 900 µg/mL, or at least about 1000 µg/mL, Alternatively, a therapeutically effective amount may be at least about 1 mg/mL, for example at least about 2 mg/mL, at least about 3 mg/mL, at least about 4 mg/mL, at least about 5 mg/mL. Alternatively, a therapeutically effective amount may be less than about 5 mg/mL, for example less than about 4 mg/mL, less than about 3 mg/mL, less than about 2 mg/mL, less than about 1 mg/mL. The therapeutically effective amount may be administered daily, for a dosing period ranging, for example, between 1 and 14 days. The therapeutically effective amount may be a total daily dosage which may be divided and administered in portions during the day, for example twice daily.

[0097] A therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) for anti-angiogenic treatment of a mammalian subject, or for use in treating or preventing microvascular hyperpermeability disorders, or in regulating the pro-angiogenic pro-permeability properties of VEGFxxx isoforms, or in supporting epithelial cell survival without increased permeability, or in reducing the nature (for example the number density and/or size) of fenestrations of epithelial filtration membranes, or for use in treating or preventing neuropathic and neurodegenerative disorders, or for use as a neuroprotective or neuroregenerative agent in vivo or in vitro, or for use in treating or preventing VEGFR2-mediated non-inflammatory pain, or for use in reducing the risk of a female mammal developing pre-eclampsia or a complication linked thereto, or of a fetus of the female mammal developing a fetal or neonatal deficiency linked to maternal pre-eclampsia may be calculated according to body mass of the subject to be treated, and may be at least about 20 mg/kg, for example at least about 30 mg/kg, at least about 40 mg/kg, at least about 50 mg/kg, at least about 60 mg/kg, at least about 70 mg/kg, at least about 80 mg/kg, at least about 90 mg/kg, at least about 100 mg/kg. Alternatively, the therapeutically effective amount may be less than about 100 mg/kg, for example less than about 90 mg/kg, less than about 80 mg/kg, less than about 70 mg/kg, less than about 60 mg/kg, less than about 50 mg/kg, less than about 40 mg/kg, less than about 30 mg/kg, or less than about 20 mg/kg, for example less than about 10 mg/kg, less than about 5 mg/kg.

"Treating or preventing"



[0098] The expression "treating or preventing" and analogous terms used herein refers to all forms of healthcare intended to remove or avoid the disorder or to relieve its symptoms, including preventive, curative and palliative care, as judged according to any of the tests available according to the prevailing medical and psychiatric practice. An intervention that aims with reasonable expectation to achieve a particular result but does not always do so is included within the expression "treating or preventing". An intervention that succeeds in slowing or halting progression of a disorder is included within the expression "treating or preventing".

[0099] Certain neurological and psychiatric disorders are considered as "spectrum" conditions, in which individuals may exhibit some or all of a range of possible symptoms, or may exhibit only a mild form of the disorder. Furthermore, many neurological and psychiatric conditions are progressive, starting with relatively mildly abnormal symptoms and progressing to more severely abnormal symptoms. The present invention includes the treatment and prevention of all neurological and psychiatric conditions of whatever type and stage.

"Susceptible to"



[0100] The expression "susceptible to" and analogous terms used herein refers particularly to individuals at a higher than normal risk of developing a medical or psychiatric disorder, or a personality change, as assessed using the known risk factors for the individual or disorder. Such individuals may, for example, be categorised as having a substantial risk of developing one or more particular disorders or personality changes, to the extent that medication would be prescribed and/or special dietary, lifestyle or similar recommendations would be made to that individual.

"Non-therapeutic method"



[0101] The expression "non-therapeutic method" used herein refers particularly to an intervention performed on an individual who is neurologically or psychologically within the normal range, to normalise or enhance or improve a function of the neurological or psychological kind. A neurological function that may suitably be treated non-therapeutically may include, for example, cognition (including thinking, reasoning, memory, recall, imagining and learning), concentration and attention, particularly towards the milder end of the scale of conditions, and mild abnormal behavioural or personality traits. A psychological function that may suitably be treated non-therapeutically may include, for example, human behaviour, mood, personality and social function, for example grief, anxiety, depression, moodiness, moroseness, teenage moods, disrupted sleep patterns, vivid dreaming, nightmares, and sleepwalking.

[0102] There is a borderline between diagnosable neurological and psychiatric disorders and (non-diagnosable) neurological and psychological functions within the normal range. Therefore, in addition to the examples of neurological and psychological functions give above that are treatable according to the non-therapeutic methods of the present invention, mild forms of neurological and psychiatric disorders, that are non-diagnosable because the associated behaviours or thoughts do not cause significant distress to the individual or are not disruptive of his or her everyday functioning, are also to be considered as conditions treatable non-therapeutically according to the present invention.

"Normalise"



[0103] The expression "normalise" and analogous terms used herein refers particularly to a physiological adjustment towards a condition characteristic of general normal neurological or psychiatric health, whether or not a condition is actually reached that would be characterised as normal.

Mammals



[0104] Besides being useful for human treatment, the present invention is also useful in a range of mammals. Such mammals include non-human primates (e.g. apes, monkeys and lemurs), for example in zoos, companion animals such as cats or dogs, working and sporting animals such as dogs, horses and ponies, farm animals, for example pigs, sheep, goats, deer, oxen and cattle, and laboratory animals such as rodents (e.g. rabbits, rats, mice, hamsters, gerbils or guinea pigs).

[0105] Where the disorder or function to be treated is exclusive to humans, then it will be understood that the mammal to be treated is a human. The same applies respectively to any other mammalian species if the disorder or function to be treated is exclusive to that species.

Brief Description of the Drawings



[0106] Embodiments of the present invention will now be described, purely by way of example, and with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 shows the activity of compounds 12 to 14 (termed SPHINX31, SPHINX32 and SPHINX33 respectively) of Formula (I) against SRPK1;

Figure 2 shows the effects of SPHINX31 relative to reference compounds SPHINX and SPHINX7 on SRSF1 phosphorylation in SRPK1 de-repressed (DDS) cells;

Figure 3 shows the dose response curve for SPHINX31 relative to reference compounds SPHINX and SPHINX7 in DDS cells;

Figures 4A and 4B show the effects of SPHINX31 in a laser-induced mouse CNV model relative to reference compounds SRPIN340 and SPHINX7;

Figure 4C shows the dose response curve for SPHINX31 in the laser-induced mouse CNV model;

Figure 4D shows images of fluorescein angiography showing representative lesion sizes in the laser-induced mouse CNV model after treatment with SPHINX31 or reference compound SPHINX7 ;

Figure 5 shows the hERG inhibition profile of SPHINX31;

Figure 6 shows the TREEspot™ results of a kinome screen of SPHINX31 against all known kinases using the DiscoverX KINOMEscan® binding affinity assay;

Figure 7 shows the equivalent binding affinity calculated using differential scanning fluorimetry;

Figure 8 shows that HCl salts of compounds of the invention salts dose-dependently inhibit SRPK1 activity in vitro and as efficiently as unconjugated SPHINX compounds;

Figure 9 shows that SPHINX31 also inhibits SRSF1 phosphorylation in PC-3 cells (at 1µM SPHINX31);

Figures 10A and 10B show that SPHINX31 blocks nuclear localisation of SRSF1 in PC-3 cancer cells (Figure 10a) and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells (Figure 10b)

Figure 11 shows that SPHINX compounds dose dependently increase expression of anti-angiogenic VEGF165b in Denys Drash (DDS) podocytes and normal podocytes;

Figure 12 shows that SPHINX compounds increase expression of anti-angiogenic VEGF165b in MCF7 breast cancer cells (left hand chart) and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (right hand chart);

Figure 13 shows that SPHINX compounds dose dependently increase expression of anti-angiogenic VEGF165b in RPE cells;

Figure 14A shows a permeability chamber used to test whether compounds of the invention can penetrate through the sclera. Pazaponib was used as a control; Figure 14B shows the concentration of compounds in the lower chamber ("vitreous") after 0, 4 or 24 hours in rabbit eye tissue; Figure 14C shows retinal concentration after 4 hrs as a percentage of applied concentration in rabbit eye tissue; Figure 14D shows concentration of compounds in sclera tissue after 24 hrs as a percentage of applied concentration in porcine eye tissue; Figure 14E shows concentration of compounds in RPE/choroid tissue after 24 hrs as a percentage of applied concentration in porcine eye tissue; Figure 14F shows concentration of compounds in retinal tissue after 24 hrs as a percentage of applied concentration in porcine eye tissue; Figure 14G shows concentration of compounds in the lower chamber ("vitreous") after 24 hrs as a percentage of applied concentration in porcine eye tissue;

Figure 15 shows substantial accumulation of compound in the retina of a mouse 24 hours after addition of SPHINX31;

Figure 16 shows greater retinal penetration for SPHINX31 relative to pazopanib in in vivo rabbit studies;

Figure 17 shows that SPHINX31 binds to melanin substantially less than pazopanib does;

Figure 18 shows the stability of compounds in human plasma relative to propantheline bromide;

Figure 19 shows that neither SPHINX31 nor its metabolite SPHINX46 induce genotoxicity in an Ames test;

Figure 20 shows Ganzfeld ERG recordings in mice taken 24 h after treatment with control or SPHINX31 at 2 µg/ml by topical eye drop administration;

Figure 21 shows Ganzfeld ERG recordings in mice taken 24 h after treatment with control or SPHINX31 at 2 µg/ml by topical eye drop administration;

Figure 22a shows the effects of SPHINX compounds on RPE cells expressing genes with alternative splicing, which are not linked to SRPK1; and Figure 22b shows the effects of SPHINX compounds on RPE expressing genes with alternative splicing, which are linked to SRPK1; and

Figure 23 shows the effect of SPHINX compounds on MKNK2, an RPE expressed gene with SRPK1 dependent alternative splicing. Figure 23A shows the alternative splicing of the MKNK2 gene; and Figures 23B and 23C show the effect of SPHINX compounds on this alternative splicing.


Methods


Synthetic protocol



[0107] The general synthetic protocol for compounds is shown in Scheme 1 below, with an exemplary synthesis for compound 12, also referred to herein as SPHINX31, shown in Scheme 2 below. These compounds can be synthesized in a variety of ways, but this is the shortest and most efficient. Variations of this protocol to synthesize other compounds described herein are within the wherewithal of the skilled person.




SPHINX31 Experimental


t-Butyl 4-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperazine-1-carboxylate (3)



[0108] 



[0109] 2-(Chloromethyl)pyridine hydrochloride (2) (1.97 g, 10.58 mmol) was added as a solid in one portion to a suspension of 1-Bocpiperazine (1) (2.24 g, 13.67 mmol) and potassium carbonate (4.98 g, 36.02 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (12 mL) at room temperature. The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours then poured onto saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (× 3). The organic extracts were combined and washed with water and brine, then dried (Na2SO4). The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the crude product purified by flash chromatography on deactivated silica gel, eluting with 60 % ethyl acetate/n-hexane, to afford the product (3) as a colourless gum (2.98 g, 98 %), with all analytical material matching that reported in the literature (E. Carceller , M. Merlos , M. Giral , C. Almansa , J. Bartroli , J. Garcia-Rafanell, J. Forn; J. Med. Chem., 1993, 36, 2984-2997). 1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 1.44 (s, 9H), 2.42 - 2.45 (m, 4H), 3.43 - 3.46 (m, 4H), 3.65 (s, 2H), 7.14 - 7.18 (m, 1H), 7.38 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.61 - 7.67 (m, 1H), 8.55 - 8.57 (m, 1H).

1-(Pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperazine (4)



[0110] 



[0111] Trifluoroacetic acid (21.5 mL, 280.96 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of Bocpiperazine (3) (2.98 g, 10.76 mmol) in dichloromethane (21.5 mL) at 0°C (ice). The solution was stirred at 0°C for 10 min then the cold bath was removed and the solution was stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. The solution was neutralised to pH 9 using saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The dichloromethane layer was removed and the remaining aqueous solution was extracted with dichloromethane (× 2). The organic extracts were combined and washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, water and brine, then dried (Na2SO4). The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to afford the product (4) as a light yellow oil (1.91 g, 99 %), which was of sufficient purity to use in the next step, with all analytical data matching that reported in the literature (E. Carceller, M. Merlos , M. Giral , C. Almansa, J. Bartroli , J. Garcia-Rafanell , J. Forn J. Med. Chem., 1993, 36, 2984-2997). 1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 1.95 (s, 1H), 2.44 - 2.47 (m, 4H), 2.88 - 2.91 (m, 4H), 3.62 (s, 2H), 7.13 (dd, J = 7.6 and 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.59 - 7.65 (m, 1H), 8.52 - 8.55 (m, 1H).

1-(2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperazine (5)



[0112] 



[0113] A solution of piperazine (4) (7.01 g, 39.56 mmol), 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzotrifluoride (6) (6.1 mL, 41.51 mmol) and solid sodium bicarbonate (8.31 g, 98.91 mmo) in anhydrous THF (39.5 mL) was heated reflux for 16 hours. The solution was allowed to cool to room temperature and the reaction solution was filtered through a short pad of Celite, eluting with ethyl acetate. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to afford the product (5) as an orange gum (10.72 g, 74 %), which was of sufficient purity to use in the next step. On occasion when the crude product was impure it could be purified by flash chromatography on deactivated silica gel, eluting with 2 % methanol/ethyl acetate to afford the product. 1H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.67 - 2.69 (m, 4H), 3.20 - 3.22 (m, 4H), 3.73 (s, 2H), 7.15 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.17 - 7.20 (m, 1H), 7.39 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.63 - 7.68 (m, 2H), 8.03 (br s, 1H), 8.59 (d, J= 4.8 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz; CDCl3) δ 50.9, 52.9, 64.5, 120.6, 122.1 (q, JC-F = 34.7 Hz), 122.4, 123.4 (q, JC- F = 270.8 Hz), 123.5, 124.3 (q, JC-F = 3.9 Hz), 130.2 (q, JC-F = 3.5 Hz), 136.6, 140.6, 148.1, 149.6, 158.0; IR (NaCl, neat) 1625 cm-1; HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C17H17F3N4O2Na [M+Na]+ 389.1201, found 389.1185.

2-(4-(Pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperazin-1-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)aniline (7)



[0114] 



[0115] Hydrazine hydrate (35.5 mL, 731.84 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of piperazine (5) (10.72 g, 29.25 mmol), iron(III) chloride hexahydrate (1.59 g, 5.87 mmol) and charcoal (1.17 g) in methanol (290 mL) at room temperature. The solution was heated at reflux for 2 hours. The solution was allowed to cool to room temperature then filtered through a short pad of Celite, eluting with ethyl acetate. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was diluted with water and extracted with ethyl acetate (× 3). The organic extracts were combined and dried (Na2SO4). The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to afford the product 7 as a white solid (9.35 g, 95 %), which was of sufficient purity to use in the next step. Mp 126 - 127°C; 1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.67 - 2.69 (m, 4H), 2.97 - 3.00 (m, 4H), 3.74 (s, 2H), 4.07 (br s, 2H), 6.92 - 7.04 (m, 3H), 7.16 - 7.20 (m, 1H), 7.44 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.64 - 7.70 (m, 1H), 8.57 - 8.60 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz; CDCl3) δ 50.7, 54.0, 64.8, 111.6 (q, J = 3.9 Hz), 115.5 (q, J = 4.1 Hz), 119.7, 122.3, 123.4, 124.6 (q, JC-F = 271.2 Hz), 126.5 (q, JC-F = 32.2 Hz), 136.6, 141.7, 142.2, 149.5, 158.5; IR (NaCl, neat) 3187, 3283 cm-1; HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C17H20F3N4 [M+Na]+ 337.1640, found 337.1594.

Methyl 5-bromofuran-2-carboxylate (8)



[0116] 



[0117] Concentrated sulfuric acid (0.56 mL, 10.51 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of carboxylic acid (9) (20.0 g, 0.105 mol) in methanol (1050 mL) at room temperature. The solution was heated at reflux for 17 hours. The solution was allowed to cool to room temperature and the methanol was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was diluted with water and the pH of the solution was adjusted to pH 9 using solid sodium bicarbonate. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (× 3). The organic extracts were combined and washed with water and brine, then dried (Na2SO4). The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to afford the product 8 as a white solid (19.47 g, 91 %), which was of sufficient purity to use in the next step, with all analytical data matching that reported in the literature (Y. Zhu , H. Yan , L. Lu , D. Liu , G. Rong , J. Mao J. Org. Chem., 2013, 78, 9898-9905). Mp 67 - 68 °C; 1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 3.90 (s, 3H), 6.46 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H), 7.13 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H).

Methyl 5-(pyridin-4-yl)furan-2-carboxylate (10)



[0118] 



[0119] A flask was charged with ester 8 (2.17 g, 10.58 mmol), 4-pyridinylboronic acid (11) (1.00 g, 8.14 mmol), PdCl2(PPh3)2 (0.29 g, 0.41 mmol), 2 M aqueous sodium carbonate solution (10.2 mL, 22.4 mmol) and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (81 mL). The flask was freeze-pump-thawed (× 3), backfilled with argon and heated at reflux for 17 hours. The solution was cooled to room temperature and the DME was removed under reduced pressure. The pH of the residue was adjusted to pH 1 using 2 M aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. The solution was extracted with dichloromethane (× 3). The dichloromethane extracts were discarded. The remaining aqueous solution was neutralised to pH 9 using solid sodium bicarbonate and extracted with ethyl acetate (× 3). The respective organic extracts were combined and washed with water and brine, then dried (Na2SO4). The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to afford the product 10 as a white solid (1.41 g, 85 %), which was of sufficient purity to use in the next step, with all analytical data matching that reported in the literature (H. Y. Fu, H. Doucet, Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2011, 7163-7173). Mp 95 - 97°C; 1H NMR (400 MHz; CDCl3) δ 3.94 (s, 3H), 6.95 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (d, J= 3.5 Hz, 1H), 7.62 - 7.64 (m, 2H), 8.66 - 8.68 (m, 2H).

N-(2-(4-(Pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperazin-1-yl)-5-trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-5-(pyridin-4-yl)furan-2-carboxamide (SPHINX31) (12)



[0120] 



[0121] A 2M solution of trimethylaluminium in toluene (0.84 mL, 1.68 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of aniline 7 (0.189 g, 0.56 mmol) in dichloromethane (1.1 mL) at room temperature. The solution was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour after which, a solution of ester 10 (0.114 g, 0.56 mmol) in dichloromethane (0.6 mL) was added dropwise at room temperature. The reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for an additional 16 hours. To quench the reaction saturated aqueous Rochelle's salt solution was added dropwise at room temperature and the solution allowed to stir at room temperature for a further 15 minutes. The mixture was diluted with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with dichloromethane (× 3). The organic extracts were combined and washed with water and brine, then dried (Na2SO4). The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to afford the product as a white solid (0.19 g, 67 %), which was of sufficient purity to use in the next step. On occasion when the crude product was impure it could be purified by flash chromatography on deactivated silica gel, eluting with 5 % methanol/ethyl acetate to afford the product. Mp 157 - 159 °C; 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.85 (br s, 4H), 3.04 (br s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 2H), 7.06 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 1H), 7.20 (m, 1H), 7.31-7.41 (m, 4H), 7.65-7.72 (m, 3H), 8.60 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 8.80-8.87 (m, 3H), 9.65 (br s, 1H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 52.2, 54.5, 65.0, 111.3, 116.7 (q, JC-F = 4.5 Hz), 117.7, 118.5, 121.1, 121.3 (q, JC-F = 4.5 Hz), 122.5, 123.5, 124.1 (q, JC-F = 272 Hz), 128.0 (q, JC-F = 34 Hz), 133.5, 136.7, 148.6, 149.7, 150.8, 153.2, 155.7, 157.9; HRMS (ESI): Calcd for C27H24F3N5O2 (MH+) 508.19603, found 508.19315; IR: (neat) 1669, 3332 cm-1

[0122] Analytical data for all compounds is presented in Table 4.

In vitro Kinase Assay



[0123] Candidate compounds were screened by the Kinase-Glo assay (Promega; Koresawa and Okabe, 2004), the results of which are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. A reaction buffer containing 9.6mM MOPS pH7 and 0.2nM EDTA pH8 was added to 10µM SRSF1 RS peptide (NH2-RSPSYGRSRSRSRSRSRSRSRSNSRSRSY-OH (SEQ ID NO: 1)) and 0.1µg of purified SRPK1 kinase. Candidate compounds were serially diluted from 10µM-0.5nM and added to the reaction mixture, wells with omitted SRPK1 kinase and omitted compounds were also added as controls. All wells contained one percent DMSO. One micromolar ATP was added, wells minus ATP were used as background controls. The plate was then incubated at 30°C for 10 minutes. An equal volume of Kinase-Glo (Promega, 25µl) was added to each well and the plate read for luminescence using an Fluostar Optima (BMG Labtech).

[0124] Inhibition of SRSF1 phosphorylation.

[0125] Denys Drash podocytes, also referred to as DDS cells (DDS = Denys Drash Syndrome), with a WT1 mutant that fails to repress SRPK1 expression, were treated with increasing concentrations of SPHINX31, or reference compounds SPHINX7 or SPHINX.

[0126] Both whole cell lysate (nuclear and cytoplasmic) protein extraction and nuclear protein extracts were used. The extracts were then immunoblotted using either mouse anti-SRPKl (anti-SRPK1; BD 611072; 1:1000), rabbit anti-panVEGF (Santa Cruz A20 sc-152; 1:500), mouse anti-VEGFXxxxb (MAB3045; R&D; 1:500), goat anti-SRSFl (SC10255; 1:500), mouse anti-SRSF1 (AK96) (Santa Cruz SC-33562) or rabbit anti-GAPDH (Sigma G9545, 1:2000). For immunoprecipitation phospho-SRSFl studies, cell lysates were incubated with mouse anti-SRSF1 (Santa Cruz SC-33562) or anti-Pan-phospho-SR antibody (Santa Cruz, SC-13509) and Protein G Dynabeads (Invitrogen). To detect phosphorylated SRSF1, the eluent was immunoblotted with either anti-SRSF 1 or the anti-Pan-phospho-SR antibody (1:500).

[0127] PC3 prostate cancer cells were treated with 10nM EGF in the presence of either DMSO (Vehicle), compound 12 (SPHINX31) or reference compounds at 10µM for 1 hr. Cells were lysed, and subjected to immunoblotting as described above.

Laser lesion induction protocol



[0128] Six to eight week-old C57/B6 mice (B&K Laboratories) and adult Norway-Brown rats (Harlan Laboratories) were anaesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of 50mg/kg ketamine and 0.5mg/kg medetomidine. The pupils were dilated with 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride and 1% tropicamide. Four photocoagulation lesions were delivered with a krypton red laser (Mice: 250mW, 0.01s, 75µm, Rats: 200mW, 0.01s, 75µm, IRIS Medical 810nm Oculight Six laser) between the retinal vessels in a peripapillary distribution at a distance of 1-2 disc-diameters in each eye. Only laser lesions with a subretinal bubble at the time of treatment were included in the study. Immediately following laser photocoagulation the animals either received intravitreal injections in both eyes (day 0 and day 7), or given topical eye drops twice daily of reference compounds SRPIN340, SPHINX7 or SPHINX31 in one eye and control vehicle in the other eye. Animals were culled on either day 4 or day 14 and eyes were either unfixed for retinal dissection and protein extraction, or fixed and enucleated and choroids stained for isolectin-B4 and examined, or imaged by fluorescein angiography.

[0129] During topical administration tests compounds were made up into a gel based drug delivery vehicle to aid duration of drug exposure to the eye (Doukas et al., 2008), 0.05% DMSO was used to dissolve the compound before it was added to control vehicle.

hERG inhibition



[0130] Compounds were tested for inhibition of the human ether a go-go related gene (hERG) K+ channel using IonWorks patch clamp electrophysiology. 8-Point concentration-response curves were generated using 3-fold serial dilutions (Essen Biosciences).

[0131] Differential Scanning fluorimetry was performed as described in Federov et al (2011).

[0132] Isoform specific ELISA was performed as described in Varey et al (2008) and Carter et al (2014).

[0133] Scleral permeability was measured using a modified Ussing chamber assembly in isotonic assay buffer (pH 7.4). Rabbit or porcine excised eye tissues were mounted in the chambers such that the episcleral side faced the donor chamber and the retinal side faced the receiver chamber. The chambers were filled with equal volumes of assay buffer, with (donor side) or without (receiver side) 1µg/ml compound. After 4 or 24 hours tissue was removed from the chamber and the receiver side ("vitreous") sampled. Tissue was dissected into sclera, choroid/RPE, and retina and homogenised. A tracer (SPHINX7) was added, and tissue extracted by acetonitrile extraction as described in Gammons et al (2013). Compounds were then analysed by mass spectrometry as described in Gammons et al (2013).

Rabbit pharmacokinetic study



[0134] Rabbits were treated thrice daily for six days, with 50 µg SPHINX31 in one eye and 50µg pazopanib as 200µl eye drops. Rabbits were killed 12 hours after the last eye drop, blood and liver taken, and the retina dissected from the choroid/sclera, incisions made, and laid out flat, and photographs taken. Both eye compartments were dissected into 17 different areas. All samples were weighted. Compound was extracted by reverse phase extraction from the retina and choroid/sclera samples and the liver and plasma as above, and amount determined by mass spectrometry in different areas of the eye, in the blood and in the liver. Amounts per gram of tissue were calculated for SPHINX31 and pazopanib for each sample, and averaged.

[0135] Mouse electroretinography toxicity test.

[0136] Mice were treated for six days with 2µg per eye SPHINX31 as eye drops, and ERG carried out using a Micron IV Ganzfield ERG system as recommended by the manufacturers instructions.

Melanin binding assay



[0137] 10µg/ml SPHINX31 or pazopanib were incubated in 10µg/ml melanin for 1hr at 37°C. Solutions were then spun at 15kg for 15 mins and supernatant collected and compounds extracted in acetonitrile. They were then subjected to mass spectometry for quantitation.

Results


Identification of novel SRPK1 inhibitors



[0138] To identify novel SRPK1 inhibitors, a range of inhibitors were screened in an in vitro kinase assay (Promega; Koresawa and Okabe, 2004). The previously identified SRPK inhibitors SPHINX and SPHINX7 were used as positive controls for the identification of novel candidates. Kinase assays showed that compounds 12 to 14 in Table 1 (termed SPHINX31-33 respectively) had a 10-20 fold increase in potency compared with the previously reported compounds, resulting in IC50 values of 3.2-17nM (Figure 1).

[0139] A structure activity relationship study to identify the mechanism and potential for new compounds was undertaken, with new compounds generated with structures shown in Table 2. Additional activity was reached with these compounds down to sub nM potencies for compound 61. A kinome screen of SPHINX31 against all known kinases using substrate DiscoverX binding affinity assay demonstrated that the only other kinases that showed binding were the closely related Clk1 and Clk4, which showed 27% and 14% binding at 1µM (Figure 6). Using differential scanning fluorimetry, we determined that SPHINX31 had a binding affinity 44x greater for SRPK1 (ΔTm 12.8°C) than SRPK2 ((ΔTm 6.7°C) or Clk1 (ΔTm 6.7°C) and 88 fold greater than Clk4 (ΔTm 5.7°C). Binding activity to Clk2, Clk3, PIM1, PIM2, DYRK1, DYRK2, PRPF4B and SRPK3 was negligible (ΔTm <3°C) (Figure 7). The salt forms of the compounds (SPHINX31, 32 and 33) were also potent inhibitors, and were more freely soluble in water (Figure 8).

[0140] To determine whether these compounds could inhibit SRPK1 activity in cells, Denys Drash podocytes with constitutively active SRPK1 (caused by a mutation in the SRPK1 repressor, WT1) were treated with increasing concentration of compound 12, termed SPHINX31. Figure 2 shows that increasing amounts of SPHINX31 increase inhibition of SRSF1 phosphorylation, and Figure 3 shows that SRSF1 phosphorylation was dose dependently inhibited by treatment with SPHINX31.

[0141] This was repeated in prostate cancer cells (PC3), previously shown to be sensitive to SRPK1 inhibition and again SRSF1 phosphorylation was inhibited (Figure 9). The effect on SRSF1 localisation (known to be a result of SRPK1 phosphorylation) was also measured by immunofluorescence in PC3 prostate cancer cells and MDA-MB231 (Figures 10a (PC3 cells) and 10b MDA-MB231)). SPHINX31 treatment inhibited cellular localisation in both cell types.

[0142] The effect on downstream splicing activity was also investigated, with the data showing that the compounds dose dependently switched splicing from VEGF-A165a to VEGF-A165b in Denys Drash podocytes and normal podocytes (Figure 11). Using isoform specific ELISA, this was also shown to be the case in breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB231) cells (Figure 12). In RPE cells (Figure 13a) which have been shown to be the primary source of VEGF in angiogenic eye disease), SPHINX31 showed a dose dependent increase in VEGF165b with an EC50 of 20nM (Figure 13).

[0143] To determine whether SPHTNX31 could get across the sclera of a larger animal, rabbit sclera was clamped between two chambers and SPHINX31 or pazopanib (a VEGFR2 TKI) were added to the sclera with saline added to the bottom chamber and compounds added to the top chamber. After 0, 4 or 24 hours, the fluid from the bottom chamber (vitreous) and the retinal tissue was isolated and compounds purified by acetonitrile extraction and HPLC. Figure 14 shows that SPHINX31 could be detected at significant concentrations in both retina and vitreous at 4 hrs, whereas pazopanib could not. At 24 hours both were detected in the vitreous, but more SPHINX31 than pazopanib. We also determined whether SPHINX31 could cross porcine eyes. While pazopanib accumulated in the sclera and in the RPE/Choroid layer, it did not penetrate the retina. In contrast, SPHINX31 crossed into the retina and vitreous.

[0144] We also investigated accumulation of compounds of Formula (I) in various tissues in mice following treatment with 10µl eye drop of 5µg/ml SPHINX31. Mice were killed after 30min, 1hr, 4hrs, 8 hrs or 24 hrs. Eyes were removed, and eye tissues dissected. Samples were subjected to extraction with control tracer chemical added to correct for extraction efficiency and subjected to mass spectroscopy for determination of quantity of compound per mg of tissue. Figure 15A shows accumulation of SPHINX31 in different tissues of the eye. Figure 15B shows accumulation of SPHINX31 in other tissues. These results show substantial accumulation of compound in the retina 24 hours after addition of SPHINX31.

[0145] To determine if SPHINX31 could access the retina of an animal with a large eye a rabbit was exposed to 150µg per day SPHINX31 or pazopanib (Figure 16). After 6 days the animal was killed and the eyes harvested. Individual sections of sclera and retina from the rear half of the eye were then assayed for pazopanib or SPHINX31. Retinal penetration was seen for both pazopanib and SPHINX31, but the concentrations for SPHINX31 were 10x the IC50 for the compound whereas for pazopanib the concentration was similar to the IC50.

[0146] We have previously shown that SRPK1 inhibition by SRPIN340 (IC50 1µM), or SPHINX (IC50 0.44µM) was anti-angiogenic in mouse models of choroidal neovascularisation, as eye drops with a maximum effect at 10µg/ml, as these compounds are relatively lipophilic and have high penetrance into the eye. We therefore tested the effect of SPHINX31 as an eyedrop in this same model. SPHINX31 exerted a dose dependent inhibition of choroidal neovascularisation, with greater efficacy at 2µg/ml, and an IC50 of 024µg/ml (Figure 4).

[0147] Concerns have been raised that compounds in the eye may be sequestered by melanin. We therefore measured the melanin binding of the compounds, and determined that SPHINX31 was substantially less bound than pazopanib to melanin. (Figure 17). We also tested the half life of these compounds when exposed to human liver microsomes. This showed that the half lives of the compounds were as shown in Table 3 below.
Table 3
Compound NumberHalf life (min)
12 61.50
20 17.00
21 62.50
Verapamil 11.75


[0148] However, the compounds were stable in plasma (Figure 18) indicating that they would most likely be taken to the liver and broken down there.

[0149] To test whether compounds of Formula (I) are safe to administer to patients we began a basic safety test of these compounds in vitro. A dose dependence of cytotoxicity to SPHINX7, SPHINX and SPHINX31 revealed that SPHINX31 had no effect, whereas reference compound SPHINX7 was toxic at doses greater than 10µM.

[0150] We also tested whether these compounds could inhibit the human ether a go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channel using patch clamp electrophysiology. Novel drug candidates are typically screened for an ability to inhibit the 'hERG' potassium channel, due to the established association between pharmacological blockade of hERG channels and drug-induced long QT syndrome and torsades de pointes arrhythmia (Hancox et al., 2008; Gintant, 2008). SPHINX did not inhibit hERG, as has previously been described (Gammons et al., 2013).

[0151] Plasma level of all compounds of Formula (I) tested during topical local application to the eye were extremely low (below detection level of 1pM) and consequently substantial hERG channel block in the heart is unlikely to occur during in vivo use of these compounds as eye drops. The finding that known compounds SRPIN340 and SPHINX do not inhibit hERG suggests that it is possible to have significant pharmacological actions against SRPK1 without substantial hERG activity, (Gammons et al, 2013). We therefore tested SPHINX31, which inhibited hERG with an IC50 of 0.3 µM, 100-fold higher than its IC50 value against SRPK1 (3.2 nM) (Figure 5).

[0152] We also tested SPHINX31 and its metabolite (termed SPHINX46, in Figure 19) in an Ames test of genotoxicity, and both compounds induced no genotoxicity (Figure 19).

[0153] To determine whether there was any indication of a toxic effect on nerve function normal mice were dosed with 2µg/ml SPHINX31 and electroretinography determined on a Phoenix Ganzfeld ERG system. Scotopic ERG recordings were taken in dark adapted animals following stimulation with increasing intensities of green (Figs 20A, 20C, 20E, 20G) light (to activate M-cones and rods) or UV (Figs 20B, 20D, 20F, 20H) light (to activate S-cones and rods). The average ERG amplitude over time following stimulation with green light (Fig 20A) and UV light (Fig 20B) at 3.756 cd.s.m2. ERG amplitude at different intensities of green (Figs 20C, 20E) or UV (Figs 20D, 20F) are shown for the A wave (Figs 20C, 20D) and B wave (Figs 20E, 20F). The ratio of A-wave: B-wave was unaffected by SPHINX31 treatment (Fig 20G, Fig 20H). After ERG recordings, eyes were enucleated, dissected, homogenised and spiked with SPHINX7 to measure extraction efficiency, then analysed by mass spectrometry (Fig 20I, Fig 20J). SPHINX31 was detected in the retina (0.165 % of applied eye drop dose when normalised to extraction efficiency) and choroid (0.0175% of applied dose). SPHINX31 levels in control eyes are shown for comparison as background levels. Photopic ERG recordings were taken to isolate cone responses from rod responses following 10 minutes light adaptation and with continuous background stimulation with white light at an intensity of 30 cd.m.s2. ERG amplitude for A-wave (A) and B-wave (B) at 120 and 1920 cd.s.m2 green light (to activate M-cones and rods), UV light (to activate S-cones and rods) or white light. No effect was seen on scotopic or photopic activity, indicating that no visual functional toxicity effects were seen (Figure 20,21).

[0154] Off target splicing effects were also screened by examining alternative splicing of a number of genes expressed in RPE cells and no changes in generic splicing were seen (Figure 22), although VEGFR splicing was altered slightly. The known SRPK1 target MKNK2 was altered in these cell lines (Figure 23).

[0155] The data presented in this study shows novel small molecular weight compound inhibitors for reducing pro-angiogenic VEGF mediated CNV associated with AMD. Furthermore we have shown that the compounds of the present invention penetrate into the back of the eye in large animal models, are effective at reducing CNV following topical administration in mice, for reducing tumour cell growth and are safe on tests undertaken so far.
Table 1 IC50 data for compounds of Formula (I) tested in the SRPK1 inhibition assay
CompoundNameStructureIC50 (nM)
Reference Compound SPHINX

440
Reference Compound SPHINX7

54.7
12 SPHINX31

3.18
13 SPHINX32

17.19
14 SPHINX33

7.18


[0156] Additional compounds tested are presented in Table 2 below:
Table 2 IC50 data for compounds of Formula (I) tested in the SRPK1 inhibition assay
CompoundnR1R2XYZIC50 (nM)
15 1



CH CH O 16.6
16 1



CH CH O 38.2
17 1



CH CH O 110.7
18 1



CH CH O 13.9
19 1



CH CH O 14.1
20 1



CH CH O 4.4
21 1



CH CH O 4.6
22 1



CH CH O 14.8
23 1



CH CH O 4008.7
24 1



CH CH O 3507.5
25 1



CH CH O 13.5
26 1



N N O 10000
27 1



N CH O 10000
28 1



N N O 10000
29 1



N N O 10000
30 1



CH CH O 335.7
31 1



CH CH O 1.9
32 1



CH CH O 1547.0
33 1



CH N O 4027.2
Ref. Ex. 34 1



O N N 5308.8
Ref. Ex. 35 1



N O N 10000
36 1



CH CH O 170.0
37 1



CH CH O 323.0
38 1



CH CH O 5.0
39 1



CH CH O 2.6
Ref. Ex. 40 1 H H CH CH S 4688
Ref. Ex. 41 1 H

NH CH N 493
42 1



CH CH O 164
43 1



CH CH O 183
Ref. Ex. 44 1



NH N N 8413
45 1



CH CH O 119
Table 4: Analytical data for synthesized compounds


Compound 12
Mp: 157-159°C
1HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.85 (br s, 4H), 3.04 (br s, 4H), 3.78 (s, 2H), 7.06 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 1H), 7.20 (m, 1H), 7.31-7.41 (m, 4H), 7.65-7.72 (m, 3H), 8.60 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 8.80-8.87 (m, 3H), 9.65 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C27H24F3N5O2 (M+ + H) 508.19603, found 508.19315


Compound 13
Mp: 166-168°C
1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.79 (br s, 4H), 3.04 (br s, 4H), 3.73 (s, 2H), 7.06 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (m, 1H), 7.31-7.41 (m, 4H), 7.62-7.69 (m, 3H), 8.54 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 8.67-8.76 (m, 3H), 9.65 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C27H24F3N5O2 (M+ + H) 508.19603, found 508.19315


Compound 14
Mp: 188-190°C
1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.77 (br s, 4H), 3.04 (m, 4H), 3.61 (s, 2H), 7.07 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (m, 2H), 7.32-7.42 (m, 3H), 7.72 (m, 2H), 8.56 (m, 2H), 8.78 (m, 2H), 8.86 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.63 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C27H24F3N5O2 (M+ + H) 508.19603, found 508.19423


Compound 15
1HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.75 (br s, 4H), 2.97 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 4H), 3.77 (s, 2H), 6.56 (dd, J = 3.5, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.15-7.23 (m, 3H), 7.28-7.32 (m, 1H), 7.44 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (dd, J = 1.8, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 7.63-7.69 (m, 1H), 8.55-8.57 (m, 1H), 8.78 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.39 (br s, 1H).
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C22H21F3N4O2 (M+ + H) 431.1695, found 431.1644


Compound 16
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.78 (br s, 4H), 3.00 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 4H), 3.77 (s, 2H), 6.18 (d, J = 3.4 Hz, 1H), 7.13 (d, J = 3.4 Hz, 1H), 7.19 (dd, J = 7.2, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 8.3, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.46 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.66-7.70 (m, 1H), 8.57-8.58 (m, 1H), 8.79 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 9.42 (s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C23H23F3N4O2 (M+ + Na) 467.1671, found 467.1616


Compound 17
1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.84 (br s, 4H), 3.04 (t, J = 4.5 Hz, 4H), 3.77 (s, 2H), 6.83 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (ddd, J = 7.6, 4.9, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.34-7.46 (m, 4H), 7.53-7.57 (m 2H), 7.64-7.68 (m, 1H), 7.86-7.88 (m, 2H), 8.58-8.60 (m, 1H), 8.89 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.63 (s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C28H25F3N4O2 (M+ + H) 507.2008, found 507.1943


Compound 18
1HNMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) δ 2.78 (br s, 4H), 2.98 (br s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 2H), 6.63 (br s, 1H), 7.08 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (dd, J = 6.9, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.42-7.51 (m, 5H), 7.59 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.72-7.76 (m, 2H), 8.20 (s, 1H), 8.48 (br d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 8.70 (s, 1H), 9.61 (s, 1H), 11.42 (s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C30H27F3N5O2 (M+ + H) 546.2117, found 546.2073


Compound 19
Mp: 96-99°C
1HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.72 (br s, 4H), 2.98 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 4H), 3.66 (s, 2H), 6.60 (dd, J = 3.5, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.22-7.40 (m, 8H), 7.54 (dd, J = 1.9, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 8.81 (d, J = 1.8 Hz), 9.43 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C23H22F3N3O2 (M+ + H) 430.17369, found 430.16879


Compound 20
Mp: 124-128°C
1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.44 (s, 3H), 2.72 (br s, 4H), 2.98 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 4H), 3.63 (s, 2H), 6.20 (dd, J = 0.8, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 7.14 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 7.21-7.26 (m, 1H), 7.28-7.38 (m, 7H), 8.81 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.42 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C24H24F3N3O2 (M+ + H) 444.18934, found 444.18488


Compound 21
Mp: 62-64°C
1HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.76 (br s, 4H), 3.01 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 4H), 3.63 (s, 2H), 6.94 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.27-7.40 (m, 8H), 7.47 (ddd, J = 8.2, 4.9, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 8.13 (dt, J = 8.0, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 8.70 (dd, J = 4.9, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.86 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 9.20 (dd, J = 2.3, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 9.67 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C28H25F3N4O2 (M+ + H) 507.20024, found 507.2031


Compound 22
Mp: 178-180°C
1HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.77 (br s, 4H), 3.02 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 4H), 3.62 (s, 2H), 7.07 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.31-7.42 (m, 8H), 7.74 (dd, J = 4.4, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 8.79 (dd, J = 4.4, 1.8 Hz, 2H), 8.87 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 9.67 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C28H25F3N4O2 (M+ + H) 507.20024, found 507.19342


Compound 23
Mp: 150-154°C
1HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.78 (br s, 4H), 3.01 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 4H), 3.60 (s, 2H), 6.85 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 1H), 7.27-7.39 (m, 8H), 7.43-7.49 (m, 1H), 7.51-7.58 (m, 2H), 7.90 (dd, J = 8.6, 1.6 Hz), 8.89 (d, J = 1.6 Hz), 9.65 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C29H26F3N3O2 (M+ + H) 506.20499, found 506.19922


Compound 24
Mp: 228-230°C
1HNMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.80 (br s, 4H), 3.02 (t, J = 4.5 Hz, 4H), 3.60 (s, 2H), 6.71 (t, J = 2.1 Hz), 6.78 (d, J = 3.6 Hz), 7.19-7.40 (m, 9H), 7.54 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (dd, J = 8.6, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 8.21 (s, 1H), 8.38 (br s, 1H), 8.89 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 9.62 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C31H27F3N4O2 (M+ + H) 545.21589, found 545.21100


Compound 25
1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.81 (br s, 4H), 3.02 (t, J = 4.5 Hz, 4H), 3.77 (s, 2H), 6.91 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 1H), 7.16 (ddd, J = 7.6, 4.8, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.34-7.36 (m, 2H), 7.41 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (dd, J = 8.1, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 7.62-7.67 (m, 1H), 8.10-8.13 (m, 1H), 8.56-8.58 (m, 1H), 8.66 (dd, J = 4.9, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.84 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 9.14 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 9.64 (s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C27H24F3N4O2 (M+ + H) 508.1960, found 508.1902


Compound 26
1HNMR (400 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.84 (br s, 4H), 3.03 (m, 4H), 3.80 (s, 2H), 7.18 (ddd, J = 7.4, 4.9, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.41-7.44 (m, 2H), 7.54-7.64 (m, 3H), 7.67 (m, 1H), 8.18-8.21 (m, 2H), 8.60-8.61 (m, 1H), 8.75 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 10.2 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C26H24F3N4O2 (M+ + H) 509.1913, found 509.1875


Compound 27
1HNMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.44 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, 3H), 2.79 (br s, 4H), 2.99 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 4H), 3.79 (s, 2H), 6.93 (q, J = 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (ddd, J = 7.6, 5.0, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (dd, J = 8.3, 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (td, J = 7.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.56-8.59 (m, 1H), 8.73 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.94 (br s, 1H) HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C22H22F3N5O2Na (M+ + Na) 468.1623, found 468.1610


Compound 28
1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.67 (s, 3H), 2.79 (br s, 4H), 2.99 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 4H), 3.76 (s, 2H), 7.16 (dd, J = 7.1, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.38-7.41 (m, 2H), 7.54-7.64 (m, 3H), 7.65 (td, J = 7.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.18-8.21 (m, 2H), 8.57-8.59 (m, 1H), 8.68 (br s, 1H), 10.04 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C21H21F3N6O2Na (M+ + Na) 469.1576, found 469.1527


Compound 29
1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.83 (br s, 4H), 3.03 (t, J = 4.5 Hz, 4H), 3.79 (s, 2H), 7.18 (dd, J = 6.9, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.31 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.41-7.45 (m, 2H), 7.67 (td, J = 7.6, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 8.02-8.04 (m, 2H), 8.59-8.60 (m, 1H), 8.73 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 8.87-8.89 (m, 2H), 10.21 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C25H23F3N7O2 (M+ + H) 510.1865, found 510.1860


Compound 30
Mp: 165-167°C
1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.74 (br s, 4H), 3.00 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 4H), 3.54 (s, 2H), 3.78 (s, 3H), 6.85 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.05 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.30 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.34-7.40 (m, 2H), 7.73 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H), 8.78 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H), 8.85 (s, 1H), 9.66 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C29H27F3N4O3 (M+ + H) 537.21080, found 537.21030


Compound 31
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.56 (s, 3H), 2.79 (br s, 4H), 3.00 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 4H), 3.68 (s, 2H), 6.19 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1H), 7.13 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 7.21 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 8.50 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 8.80 (s, 1H), 9.37 (s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C23H24F3N5O2S (M+ + Na) 514.1501, found 514.1456


Compound 32
Mp: 188-190°C
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 2.76 (br s, 4H), 3.01 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 4H), 3.59 (s, 2H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 6.81 (ddd, J = 8.3, 2.8, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 6.89-6.92 (m, 2H), 7.06 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.37-7.40 (m, 2H), 7.73 (dd, J = 4.4, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 8.78 (dd, J = 4.4, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 8.86 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.66 (br s, 1H))
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C29H27F3N4O3 (M+ + H) 537.21080, found 537.20560


Compound 33
1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.84 (br s, 4H), 3.04 (t, J = 4.3, 4H), 3.79 (s, 2H), 7.19 (dd, J = 6.7, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.31 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (dd, J = 8.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.60-7.63 (m, 3H), 7.67 (td, J = 7.6, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.92 (s, 1H), 8.20-8.24 (m, 2H), 8.58-8.60 (m, 1H), 8.83 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 9.57 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C27H24F3N5O2Na (M+ + Na) 530.1780, found 530.1705


Ref. Ex. Compound 34
1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.87 (br s, 4H), 3.06 (t, J = 4.7, 4H), 3.82 (s, 2H), 7.19 (ddd, J = 7.5, 5.0, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.42-7.46 (m, 2H), 7.57-7.62 (m, 3H), 7.68 (td, J = 7.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.18-8.21 (m, 2H), 8.58-8.60 (m, 1H), 8.75 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 10.34 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C26H23F3N6O2Na (M+ + Na) 531.1732, found 531.1677


Ref. Ex. Compound 35
1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.85 (br s, 4H), 3.03 (t, J = 4.7, 4H), 3.80 (s, 2H), 7.18 (ddd, J = 7.6, 4.9, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (d, J = 8.4, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.59-7.71 (m, 4H), 8.23-8.27 (m, 2H), 8.56-8.59 (m, 1H), 8.82 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 10.17 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C26H23F3N6O2Na (M+ + Na) 531.1732, found 531.1652


Compound 36
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 2.73 (br s, 4H) 2.99 (br s, 4H), 3.74 (s, 2H),. 3.96 (s, 3H), 7.27 (m, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H), 7.46-7.52 (m, 6H), 7.78 (m, 1H), 8.34 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H),8.51 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 8.60 (s, 1H), 9.74 (s, 1H). MS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C28H26F3N5O3 [M+]+ 538.20, found 538.32.


Compound 37
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 2.74 (br s, 4H), 2.99 (br s, 4H), 3.75 (s, 2H), 3.98 (s, 3H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.21 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (m , 1H), 7.43 -7.54 (m, 4H), 7.78 (m, 1H), 8.26 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.49 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 8.61 (s, 1H), 8.87 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 9.72 (s, 1H), MS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C28H26F3N5O3 [MH]+ 538.20, found 538.30.


Compound 38
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 9.62 (s, 1H), 8.61 (s, 1H), 8.50 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.78 (m, 1H), 7.44-7.58 (m, 6H), 7.25-7.30 (m, 2H), 5.42 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H), 3.70 (s, 2H), 3.01 (br s, 4H), 2.75 (br s, 4H). MS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C29H27F3N4O3 [MH]+ 537.20, found 537.42.


Compound 39
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 9.50 (s, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.52 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 7.80 (m, 1H), 7.49 (m, 3H), 7.29 (m, 1H), 7.25 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 6.47 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.00 (d, J = 9.6 Hz, 2H), 3.69 (s, 2H), 3.53 (t, J = 10.8 Hz, 2H), 3.10 (m, 1H), 2.96 (br s, 4H), 2.71 (br s, 4H), 2.00 (d, J = 11.2 Hz, 2H), 1.67 - 1.83 (m, 2H). MS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C27H29F3N4O3 [MH]+ 515.22, found 515.42


Ref. Ex. Compound 40
1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.41 (s, 3H), 2.66 (br s, 4H), 2.97 (t, J = 4.7 Hz, 4H), 7.17 (dd, J = 5.0, 3.8 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (dd, J = 8.3, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (dd, J = 5.0, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (dd, J = 3.8, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 8.81 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.18 (s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C17H19F3N3OS (M+ + H) 370.1201, found 370.1192


Ref. Ex. Compound 41
1H NMR (300 MHz; d6-DMSO) δ 2.34 (s, 3H), 2.69 (br s, 4H), 2.95 (m, 4H), 7.26-7.31 (m, 1H), 7.38-7.44 (m, 4H), 7.96-8.00 (m, 3H), 8.72 (br s, 1H), 10.33 (br s, 1H)
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C22H23F3N5O (M+ + H) 430.1855, found 430.1832


Compound 42
1H NMR (300 MHz; CDCl3) δ 2.82 (br s, 4H), 2.97 (m, 4H), 3.82 (s, 2H), 7.06 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 1H), 7.08-7.13 (m, 2H), 7.17-7.23 (m, 1H), 7.30 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.35-7.40 (m, 3H), 7.72 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.75-7.77 (m, 2H), 8.30 (s, 1H), 8.78-8.80 (m, 2H), 8.86 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.68 (s, 1H).
HRMS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C30H27F3N5O2 (M+ + H) 546.2117, found 546.2101


Compound 43
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 2.71 (br s, 4H), 2.97 (br s, 4H), 3.81 (s, 2H), 6.78-6.77 (dd, J = 3.6, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 7.50-7.45 (m, 2H), 8.01 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 8.51 (s, 1H), 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.75 (s, 1H), 9.44 (s, 1H),. MS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C21H20F3N5O2 [MH]+ 431.16, found 432.37.


Ref. Ex. Compound 44
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 2.68 (br s, 4H). 2.97 (br s, 4H), 3.71 (s, 2H), 7.30 - 7.27 (m, 1H), 7.49-7.51 (m, 3H), 7.80 (td, J = 7.6, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.52 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 8.70 (s, 1H), 8.74 (s, 1H), 10.07 (s, 1H), 14.90 (s, 1H), MS (ESI-MS): m/z calcd for C20H20F3N5O [MH]+ 432.17, found 432.37.


Compound 45
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 2.69 (br s, 4H), 2.93 (br s, 4H), 3.17 (m, 1H), 4.54 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 5.62-5.70 (m, 1H), 6.57 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 7.24-7.31 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.50 (m, 3H), 7.78-7.79 (m, 1H), 8.50 (s, 2H), 9.47 (s, 1H). MS (ESI-MS): Calcd for C23H23F3N4O3 (MH+) 461.17, found 461.36.

References



[0157] 

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SEQUENCE LISTING



[0158] 

<110> The University of Nottingham
NewSouth Innovations PTY Limited

<120> COMPOUNDS

<130> P123830PC00

<150> GB1406956.1
<151> 2014-04-17

<160> 1

<170> PatentIn version 3.5

<210> 1
<211> 29
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> SRSF1 RS PEPTIDE

<400> 1




Claims

1. A compound of Formula (I)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or hydrate thereof;
wherein:

n = 1, 2, 3 or 0

R1 = a 4- to 8-membered carbocyclic group, which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one oxygen atom, which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one nitrogen atom, which may have one or more substituent, a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising two nitrogen atoms which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising three nitrogen atoms which may have one or more substituent, or a condensed aromatic heterocyclic group, which may have one or more substituent;

X = CH, NH or N;

Y = CH, NH orN;

Z = O, S or NH; and

R2 = H, a C1-6 alkyl group; a phenyl group; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group or a condensed aromatic heterocyclic group, each of which may have one or more substituent.


 
2. The compound according to claim 1, wherein:

n = 1, 2, 3 or 0;

R1 = a 4- to 8-membered carbocyclic group, which may have one or more substituent; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group having one nitrogen atom, which may have one or more substituent, a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom which may have one or more substituent, or a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising two nitrogen atoms which may have one or more substituent;

X=CH or N;

Y = CH orN;

Z = O, S or NH; and

R2 = a phenyl group; a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group or a condensed aromatic heterocyclic group.


 
3. The compound according to claim 1 or claim 2, wherein R1 represents a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic group comprising one nitrogen atom, which may have one or more substituent, for example wherein R1 represents a 6-membered heteroaromatic group comprising one nitrogen atom, which may have one or more substituent.
 
4. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein R1 represents a 2-, 3- or-4-pyridyl group, or a pyrimidinyl group, each of which may have one or more substituent.
 
5. The compound according to claim 1, wherein R1 represents a 4- to 8-membered carbocyclic group, which may have one or more substituent, for example wherein R1 represents a phenyl group, which may have one or more substituent.
 
6. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein R2 represents a nitrogen- or oxygen-containing 4- to 8-membered heteroaromatic ring, which may have one or more substituent.
 
7. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein R2 represents a 2- or 3- or 4-pyridyl group, each of which may have one or more substituent, or wherein R2 represents an oxygen-containing 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring, which may have one or more substituent.
 
8. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein R2 represents a 4- to 8-membered carbocyclic group, which may have one or more substituent, for example wherein R2 represents a phenyl group, which may have one or more substituent.
 
9. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein R2 represents H, or C1-6 alkyl which may have one or more substituent, for example wherein R2 represents a methyl group, which may have one or more substituent.
 
10. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein R2 represents a tetrahydropyranyl group, which may have one or more substituent.
 
11. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein:

X = Y = CH and Z = O;

X = Y = CH and Z = S;

X = Y = N and Z =O; or

X = N, Y = CH and Z = O.


 
12. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein n = 1 or 2.
 
13. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (I) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 12, optionally one or more other active ingredients and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
 
14. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (I) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 12, optionally one or more other active ingredients and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, in a form suitable for intraocular injection or in a form suitable for topical administration to the eye.
 
15. A compound of Formula (I) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 12, for use in dose-dependent treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation.
 
16. A compound of Formula (I) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 12, for use in the topical treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation.
 
17. A compound for use according to claim 16, wherein the topical treatment or prevention of ocular neovascularisation is dose-dependent treatment or prevention.
 
18. A compound for use according to any one of claims 15 to 17, wherein the ocular neovascularisation is choroidal neovascularisation, for example age-related macular degeneration.
 
19. A compound for use according to any one of claims 15 to 17, wherein the ocular neovascularisation is retinal neovascularisation.
 
20. A compound of Formula (I) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 12, for use in anti-angiogenic treatment of a mammalian subject, for example wherein the anti-angiogenic treatment comprises treatment of cancer.
 
21. A compound for use according to claim 20, wherein the anti-angiogenic treatment is dose-dependent treatment.
 
22. A compound of Formula (I) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 12, for use in treating or preventing microvascular hyperpermeability disorders, or in regulating the pro-angiogenic pro-permeability properties of VEGFxxx isoforms, or in supporting epithelial cell survival without increased permeability, or in reducing the nature (for example the number density and/or size) of fenestrations of epithelial filtration membranes.
 
23. A compound of Formula (I) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 12, for use in treating or preventing neuropathic and neurodegenerative disorders, or for use as a neuroprotective or neuroregenerative agent in vivo or in vitro.
 
24. A compound of Formula (I) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 12, for use in treating or preventing VEGFR2-mediated non-inflammatory pain.
 
25. A compound of Formula (I) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 12, for use in reducing the risk of a female mammal developing pre-eclampsia or a complication linked thereto, or of a fetus of the female mammal developing a fetal or neonatal deficiency linked to maternal pre-eclampsia.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verbindung der Formel (I):

oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz, Solvat oder Hydrat davon; wobei:

n = 1, 2, 3 oder 0

R1 = eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige carbocyclische Gruppe, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann; eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe umfassend ein Sauerstoffatom, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann; eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe umfassend ein Stickstoffatom, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe umfassend ein Stickstoffatom und ein Sauerstoffatom, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann; eine 4-bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe umfassend zwei Stickstoffatome, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann; eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe umfassend drei Stickstoffatome, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, oder eine kondensierte aromatische heterocyclische Gruppe, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann;

X = CH, NH oder N;

Y = CH, NH oder N;

Z = O, S oder NH; und

R2 = H, eine C1-6-Alkylgruppe; eine Phenylgruppe; eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe oder eine kondensierte aromatische heterocyclische Gruppe, wovon jede einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann.


 
2. Verbindung gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei:

n = 1, 2, 3 oder 0;

R1 = eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige carbocyclische Gruppe, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann; eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe mit einem Stickstoffatom, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe umfassend ein Stickstoffatom und ein Sauerstoffatom, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, oder eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe umfassend zwei Stickstoffatome, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann;

X = CH oder N;

Y = CH oder N;

Z = O, S oder NH; und

R2 = eine Phenylgruppe; eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe oder eine kondensierte aromatische heterocyclische Gruppe.


 
3. Verbindung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder Anspruch 2, wobei R1 eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige heterocyclische Gruppe umfassend ein Stickstoffatom, darstellt, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, zum Beispiel wobei R1 eine 6-gliedrige heteroaromatische Gruppe, umfassend ein Stickstoffatom, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, darstellt.
 
4. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei R1 eine 2-, 3- oder 4-Pyridylgruppe oder eine Pyrimidinylgruppe darstellt, wovon jede einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann.
 
5. Verbindung gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei R1 eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige carbocyclische Gruppe darstellt, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, zum Beispiel, wobei R1 eine Phenylgruppe darstellt, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann.
 
6. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei R2 einen stickstoff- oder sauerstoffhaltigen 4- bis 8-gliedrigen heteroaromatischen Ring darstellt, der einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann.
 
7. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei R2 eine 2- oder 3- oder 4-Pyridylgruppe darstellt, wovon jede einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, oder wobei R2 einen sauerstoffhaltigen 4- bis 8-gliedrigen heterocyclischen Ring darstellt, der einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann.
 
8. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei R2 eine 4- bis 8-gliedrige carbocyclische Gruppe darstellt, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, zum Beispiel wobei R2 eine Phenylgruppe darstellt, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann.
 
9. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei R2 H oder C1-6-Alkyl, das einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann, darstellt, beispielsweise wobei R2 eine Methylgruppe darstellt, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann.
 
10. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei R2 eine Tetrahydropyranylgruppe darstellt, die einen oder mehrere Substituenten aufweisen kann.
 
11. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, wobei:

X = Y = CH und Z = O;

X = Y = CH und Z = S;

X = Y = N und Z = O; oder

X = N, Y = CH und Z = O.


 
12. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11, wobei n = 1 oder 2.
 
13. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend eine Verbindung der Formel (I) wie definiert in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, optional einen oder mehrere andere Wirkstoffe und einen pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Träger.
 
14. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend eine Verbindung der Formel (I) wie definiert in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, optional einen oder mehrere andere Wirkstoffe und einen pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Träger, in einer geeigneten Form für eine intraokulare Injektion oder in einer geeigneten Form für eine topische Verabreichung an das Auge.
 
15. Verbindung der Formel (I) wie definiert in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, zur Verwendung bei einer dosisabhängigen Behandlung oder Prävention von okulärer Neovaskularisation.
 
16. Verbindung der Formel (I) wie definiert in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, zur Verwendung bei der topischen Behandlung oder Prävention von okulärer Neovaskularisation.
 
17. Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 16, wobei die topische Behandlung oder Prävention von okulärer Neovaskularisation eine dosisabhängige Behandlung oder Prävention ist.
 
18. Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 15 bis 17, wobei die okuläre Neovaskularisation eine choroidale Neovaskularisation ist, beispielsweise altersbedingte Makuladegeneration.
 
19. Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 15 bis 17, wobei die okuläre Neovaskularisation eine retinale Neovaskularisation ist.
 
20. Verbindung der Formel (I), wie definiert in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, zur Verwendung bei einer anti-angiogenen Behandlung eines Säugetiers, wobei die anti-angiogene Behandlung beispielsweise eine Behandlung von Krebs umfasst.
 
21. Verbindung zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 20, wobei die anti-angiogene Behandlung eine dosisabhängige Behandlung ist.
 
22. Verbindung der Formel (I), wie definiert in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, zur Verwendung bei Behandlung oder Prävention von mikrovaskulären Hyperpermeabilitätsstörungen, oder Regulierung der pro-angiogenen Propermeabilitätseigenschaften von VEGFxxx-Isoformen, oder Unterstützung von Epithelzellüberleben ohne erhöhte Permeabilität, oder Reduzierung der Art (beispielsweise der Anzahldichte und/oder Größe) von Fenestrationen von Epithelfiltrationsmembranen.
 
23. Verbindung der Formel (I), wie definiert in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, zur Verwendung bei Behandlung oder Prävention von neuropathischen und neurodegenerativen Störungen oder zur Verwendung als neuroprotektives oder neuroregeneratives Mittel in vivo oder in vitro.
 
24. Verbindung der Formel (I) wie definiert in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, zur Verwendung bei Behandlung oder Prävention von VEGFR2-vermittelten nichtentzündlichen Schmerzen.
 
25. Verbindung der Formel (I) wie definiert in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, zur Verwendung bei Verringerung des Risikos, dass ein weibliches Säugetier eine Präeklampsie oder eine damit verbundene Komplikation entwickelt oder dass ein Fötus des weiblichen Säugetiers einen fötalen oder neonatalen Mangel in Verbindung mit einer mütterlichen Präeklampsie entwickelt.
 


Revendications

1. Un composé de la Formule (I)

ou un sel, solvate ou hydrate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci ;
dans lequel :

n = 1, 2, 3 ou 0

R1 = un groupe carbocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants ; un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons comprenant un atome d'oxygène, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants ; un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons comprenant un atome d'azote, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants, un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons comprenant un atome d'azote et un atome d'oxygène qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants ; un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons comprenant deux atomes d'azote qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants ; un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons comprenant trois atomes d'azote qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants, ou un groupe hétérocyclique aromatique condensé, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants ;

X = CH, NH ou N ;

Y= CH, NH ou N ;

Z = O, S ou NH ; et

R2 = H, un groupe alkyle en C1-6 ; un groupe phényle ; un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons ou un groupe hétérocyclique aromatique condensé, dont chacun peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants.


 
2. Le composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel :

n = 1, 2, 3 ou 0 ;

R1 = un groupe carbocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants ; un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons ayant un atome d'azote, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants, un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons comprenant un atome d'azote et un atome d'oxygène qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants, ou un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons comprenant deux atomes d'azote qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants ;

X = CH ou N ;

Y= CH ou N ;

Z = O, S ou NH ; et

R2 = un groupe phényle ; un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons ou un groupe hétérocyclique aromatique condensé.


 
3. Le composé selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, dans lequel R1 représente un groupe hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons comprenant un atome d'azote, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants, par exemple dans lequel R1 représente un groupe hétéroaromatique de 6 chaînons comprenant un atome d'azote, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants.
 
4. Le composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel R1 représente un groupe pyridyle de 2, 3 ou 4 chaînons, ou un groupe pyrimidinyle, dont chacun peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants.
 
5. Le composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel R1 représente un groupe carbocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants, par exemple dans lequel R1 représente un groupe phényle, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants.
 
6. Le composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel R2 représente un noyau hétéroaromatique de 4 à 8 chaînons contenant de l'azote ou de l'oxygène, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants.
 
7. Le composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel R2 représente un groupe pyridyle de 2 ou 3 ou 4 chaînons, dont chacun peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants, ou dans lequel R2 représente un noyau hétérocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons contenant de l'oxygène, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants.
 
8. Le composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel R2 représente un groupe carbocyclique de 4 à 8 chaînons, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants, par exemple dans lequel R2 représente un groupe phényle, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants.
 
9. Le composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel R2 représente H, ou un alkyle en C1-6 qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants, par exemple dans lequel R2 représente un groupe méthyle, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants.
 
10. Le composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel R2 représente un groupe tétrahydropyranyle, qui peut avoir un ou plusieurs substituants.
 
11. Le composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, dans lequel :

X = Y= CH etZ = O ;

X = Y= CH etZ = S ;

X = Y = N etZ = O ; ou

X = N, Y = CH et Z = O.


 
12. Le composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, dans lequel n = 1 ou 2.
 
13. Une composition pharmaceutique comprenant un composé de la Formule (I) tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, éventuellement un ou plusieurs autres principes actifs et un support pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
14. Une composition pharmaceutique comprenant un composé de la Formule (I) tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, éventuellement un ou plusieurs autres principes actifs et un support pharmaceutiquement acceptable, sous une forme appropriée pour une injection intraoculaire ou sous une forme appropriée pour une administration topique à l'œil.
 
15. Un composé de la Formule (I) tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, pour utilisation dans le traitement dose-dépendant ou la prévention de la néovascularisation oculaire.
 
16. Un composé de la Formule (I) tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, pour utilisation dans le traitement topique ou la prévention de la néovascularisation oculaire.
 
17. Un composé pour utilisation selon la revendication 16, dans lequel le traitement topique ou la prévention de la néovascularisation oculaire est un traitement dose-dépendant ou une prévention.
 
18. Un composé pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 15 à 17, dans lequel la néovascularisation oculaire est une néovascularisation choroïdienne, par exemple une dégénérescence maculaire liée à l'âge.
 
19. Un composé pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 15 à 17, dans lequel la néovascularisation oculaire est une néovascularisation rétinienne.
 
20. Un composé de la Formule (I) tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, pour utilisation dans le traitement anti-angiogénique d'un sujet mammifère, par exemple dans lequel le traitement anti-angiogénique comprend le traitement du cancer.
 
21. Un composé pour utilisation selon la revendication 20, dans lequel le traitement anti-angiogénique est un traitement dose-dépendant.
 
22. Un composé de la Formule (I) tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, pour utilisation dans le traitement ou la prévention des troubles d'hyperperméabilité microvasculaire, ou dans la régulation des propriétés de pro-perméabilité pro-angiogénique des isoformes VEGFxxx, ou dans le soutien de la survie des cellules épithéliales sans perméabilité accrue, ou dans la réduction de la nature (par exemple la densité en nombre et / ou la taille) des fenestrations des membranes de filtration épithéliale.
 
23. Un composé de la Formule (I) tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, pour utilisation dans le traitement ou la prévention de troubles neuropathiques et neurodégénératifs, ou pour utilisation comme un agent neuroprotecteur ou neurorégénérateur in vivo ou in vitro.
 
24. Un composé de la Formule (I) tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, pour utilisation dans le traitement ou la prévention de la douleur non inflammatoire à médiation par VEGFR2.
 
25. Un composé de la Formule (I) tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, pour utilisation dans la réduction du risque qu'un mammifère femelle développe une prééclampsie ou une complication liée à celle-ci, ou qu'un fœtus du mammifère femelle développe une déficience fœtale ou néo-natale liée à la prééclampsie maternelle.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description