(19)
(11)EP 3 174 634 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.10.2021 Bulletin 2021/41

(21)Application number: 15738955.2

(22)Date of filing:  24.07.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
B01J 23/18(2006.01)
B01J 37/03(2006.01)
B01J 37/10(2006.01)
B01J 35/00(2006.01)
B01J 37/08(2006.01)
B01J 23/843(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
B01D 2255/206; B01D 2255/2061; B01J 23/8435; B01D 2255/20738; B01D 2255/20715; B01J 23/18; B01J 2523/00; B01D 2255/2045; B01D 2255/2092; B01J 35/002; B01D 53/944; B01D 2255/2047; B01D 2255/2042; B01J 37/036; B01J 37/10; B01D 2255/2065; B01D 2255/2096; B01J 37/08; B01J 23/8437; B01D 2255/2068; B01D 2255/2063; B01D 2255/40; B01D 53/8687; B01D 2258/0283; B01D 2255/2066
 
C-Sets:
  1. B01J 2523/00, B01J 2523/13, B01J 2523/24, B01J 2523/3712, B01J 2523/54;
  2. B01J 2523/00, B01J 2523/13, B01J 2523/3712, B01J 2523/3718, B01J 2523/54;
  3. B01J 2523/00, B01J 2523/13, B01J 2523/3712, B01J 2523/54, B01J 2523/842;
  4. B01J 2523/00, B01J 2523/3712, B01J 2523/54, B01J 2523/842;
  5. B01J 2523/00, B01J 2523/13, B01J 2523/3712, B01J 2523/54;
  6. B01J 2523/00, B01J 2523/12, B01J 2523/3712, B01J 2523/54;
  7. B01J 2523/00, B01J 2523/24, B01J 2523/3712, B01J 2523/54;
  8. B01J 2523/00, B01J 2523/3712, B01J 2523/3718, B01J 2523/54;

(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2015/067010
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/016127 (04.02.2016 Gazette  2016/05)

(54)

NOBLE METAL-FREE CATALYST COMPOSITIONS

EDELMETALLFREIE KATALYSATORZUSAMMENSETZUNGEN

COMPOSITIONS DE CATALYSEUR EXEMPTES DE MÉTAL NOBLE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 29.07.2014 EP 14178892

(43)Date of publication of application:
07.06.2017 Bulletin 2017/23

(73)Proprietor: Treibacher Industrie AG
9330 Treibach-Althofen (AT)

(72)Inventors:
  • HENSGEN, Lars
    A-9020 Klagenfurt (AT)
  • SCHERMANZ, Karl
    A-9314 Launsdorf (AT)
  • STÖWE, Klaus
    09113 Chemnitz (DE)
  • WOLF, Viktor
    66123 Saarbrücken (DE)

(74)Representative: Schwarz & Partner Patentanwälte OG 
Patentanwälte Wipplingerstraße 30
1010 Wien
1010 Wien (AT)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A- 4 460 706
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to a noble metal-free catalyst composition, which is e.g. useful for the oxidation of particulate matters (PM).

    Background of the invention



    [0002] Exhaust gases of Diesel engines contain PM, which may cause environmental problems. To trap the PM, a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) was designed, in which the PM is filtered from the exhaust gas. The most common type of DPF is a ceramic wall flow filter made of SiC or cordierite. Because the collected PM is accumulated in this filter, the backpressure is increasing and the power of the engine is decreasing. Therefore the wall flow filter is to be regenerated continuously (passive) and/or discontinuously (active) to burn off the soot (see e.g. A.P. Walker et al, Controlling particulate emissions from Diesel vehicles, Topics in Catalysis Vol. 28, 2004, 165-170).

    [0003] For example, in US 8,114,354 it is described that for the passive regeneration the filter has to be washcoated with a catalytic composition. This catalytic composition, comprising elements of the group of Al, Ce, Zr, Si, zeolites, base metals and noble metals, oxidizes the NO to NO2, which is a better oxidant for soot than oxygen. The active uncatalyzed regeneration operates around 650°C. Postinjection of fuel directly in front of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) is the most common method to reach this temperature. The postinjection method has the disadvantages of an increased consumption of fuel and of the dilution of the motor oil.

    [0004] According to the presentation given by S. Spiess (Umicore AG) at the CAPoC9 (August 2012) gasoline direct injection vehicles are gaining market share to reach new CO2 emission limits. Through this new technique the fuel consumption and CO2 emission can be reduced, but the vehicles release about significantly more particles than traditional gasoline engines and 10 times more than new Diesel engines. This pollution can be prevented with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) which can significantly reduce the emissions of particles.

    [0005] Efforts have already been made to provide a catalyst for the catalytic oxidation of PM with oxygen at lower temperatures to decrease the amount of active regeneration cycles and regeneration time. Thus, the fuel consumption could be decreased and the operation performance of the motor oil can be increased.

    [0006] In DE 102 00 900 2182 various noble metal free mixed oxides are disclosed for soot oxidation. Oxides on base of iron, chromium and cobalt are disclosed.

    [0007] EP 2 210 861 relates to a Diesel particulate filter comprising a cerium-containing composite oxide with Bi and Pr, wherein the molar ratio of Ce, Bi, Pr is expressed by Ce:Bi:Pr = (1-x-y):x:y. wherein 0 < x ≤ 0.3 and 0 < y ≤ 0.5.

    [0008] In US 8,071,501 an exhaust gas purification catalyst comprising a composite oxide and a Platinum Group Metal (PGM, wherein PGM includes Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) is described, wherein the composite oxide consists of Ce, Bi and a lanthanide except La and Ce. In EP 2 269 730 these kind of composite oxides were extended by a further element selected from the group 3, 4 and 13 of the periodic table of elements.

    [0009] In US 2009/0288401 there is disclosed a composite oxide for exhaust gas purifying catalyst containing Ce, Bi and one or more elements selected from the earth alkaline metals except beryllium. Additionally one or more further elements can be selected from Zr, Pr and Tb.

    [0010] Perovskite type composite oxides for soot oxidation are claimed in EP 1 829 609. These perovskite compositions may be represented by the structural formula RTO3, where R comprises one or more elements selected from a group made up La, Sr, Ba, Ca and Li; and T comprises one or more elements selected from a group made up of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr, Mo, Mg, Al and Si.

    [0011] In WO 2006/044822 (EP 1 817 096) there is described a catalyst for the oxidation of soot consisting of an alkaline metal, cerium, oxygen and optionally a platinum group metal and/or zirconium. The most active materials are described to be combinations of cerium and potassium or cerium and caesium.

    [0012] In Kripasindhu Sardar et al, "Nanocrystalline Cerium-Bismuth Oxides: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Redox Properties", Chemistry of Materials, vol. 22, no. 22, 23 November 2010 (2010-11-23), pages 6191-6201, ISSN: 0897-4756, doi: 10.1021/cm1025848 there is described a Cerium-Bismuth mixed oxide with a background level of sodium. of sodium.

    [0013] In EP 2 098289 a composite oxide for use in an exhaust gas purifying catalyst, containing Ce, Bi and one or more elements selected from Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba is disclosed. That catalyst is disclosed to be suitable to burn off PM of diesel exhaust gas at low temperatures and to be hardly poisoned due to sulfur oxide action.

    Objective and summary of the present invention



    [0014] The compositions for the catalytic oxidation of PM disclosed in the state of the art do not fulfill all the requirements of catalytic performance, resistance against sulfur compounds and/or stability against hydrothermal treatment. Therefore the aim of the present invention is to provide a novel composition for the catalytic oxidation of PM, which has higher catalytic activity compared to the state of the art materials, showing higher hydrothermal stability and which is environmentally friendly.

    [0015] In one aspect the present invention provides a composition of formula

            Ce1-a-b-cNaMbDcOx     I

    wherein

    M stands for one or more elements from the group of alkaline metals, except sodium, preferably potassium,

    N is Bi and/or Sb, preferably Bi,

    D is present, or is not present, and if present is selected from one or more of

    • Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba; preferably Ca, Sr, Ba; more preferably Sr,
    • Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Er; preferably Y, Pr, La, Nd; more preferably Pr,
    • Fe, Zr, Nb, Al; in one aspect preferably Fe, in another aspect preferably Al,

    a is a number within the range of 0<a≤0.9, such as 0.01≤a≤0.9,

    b is a number within the range of 0<b≤0.3, such as 0.01≤b≤0.3, e.g. 0.1≤b≤0.2,

    c is a number within the range of 0≤c≤0.2; preferably 0≤c≤0.1,

    a plus b plus c is <1,

    and

    x is a number within the range of 1.2≤x≤2.



    [0016] In a further aspect in a composition of formula I D is present.

    [0017] In another aspect in a composition of formula I D is not present and in that aspect the present invention provides a composition which is of formula

            Ce1-a-bNaMbOx     II

    wherein

    M stands for one or more elements from the group of alkaline metals, except sodium

    N is Bi and/or Sb,

    a is a number within the range of 0<a≤0.9,

    b is a number within the range of 0<b≤0.3,

    a plus b is <1, and

    x is a number within the range of 1.2≤x≤2.



    [0018] In a further aspect the present invention provides a composition which is selected from the group consisting of

            Bi0.45Ce0.45K0.10O1.65-1.4,

            Bi0.40Ce0.40K0.20O1.4-1.2,

            Bi0.30Ce0.60K0.10O1.7-1.4,

            Bi0.80Ce0.10K0.10O1.5-1.4,

            Bi0.10Ce0.80K0.10O1.8-1.4,

            Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Sr0.1O1.55-1.35,

            Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Pr0.1O1.6-1.4,

    and

            Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Fe0.1O1.6-1.4.



    [0019] A composition, provided by the present invention, e.g. of formula I, is also designated herein as "composition of (according to) the present invention".

    [0020] For the purpose of the present specification and claims the term "alkaline metal" means an alkaline metal, or a mixture of alkaline metals, e. g. more than one alkaline metal elements, except sodium. According to IUPAC an alkaline metal is an element from the group 1 of the periodic table of elements.

    [0021] In a further aspect, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of a composition according to the present invention which is characterized in that a polymeric complex method is used, wherein complexed metal ions are linked via polymerization, preferably via polyesterification.

    [0022] A process provided by the present invention is also designated herein as "process of (according to) the present invention".

    [0023] The polymeric complex method used for the preparation of the compounds of the present invention is a method in analogy to the Pechini method, e.g. an analogous method as described in A. L. Quinelato et al, "Synthesis and sintering of ZrO2-CeO2 powder by use of polymeric precursor based on Pechini process", Journal of Material Science Vol. 36, 2001, 3825-3830.

    [0024] More particularly a process of the present invention comprises the steps
    1. a) preparing a solution of a bismuth salt in a mixture of water, an inorganic acid, one or more polymer precursors and optionally one or more complexing agents, in particular by dissolving bismuth oxide in nitric acid and diluting the solution with a mixture of water, one or more polymer precursors and optionally one or more complexing agent,
    2. b) preparing a solution of cerium salt, alkaline salts and optionally one or more salts of D as defined in a compound of formula I, in water, one or more polymer precursors and optionally one or more complexing agents,
      in particular by dissolving a cerium salt, alkaline salt(s) and optionally one or more salts of D as defined in a compound of formula I in a mixture of water, one or more polymer precursors and optionally one or more complexing agents,
    3. c) optionally adding an inorganic acid to the solution obtained in step b),
    4. d) mixing metal solutions obtained under a) and b), or under a) and c) under stirring or vortexing, and
    5. e) heat treating the solution obtained in d) under air in a temperature range of 300 to 1000°C, for 1 to 120 hours,

    preferably 350°C to 600°C, most preferably 375-500°C, such as 400°C,

    preferably 1 to 50 hours, more preferably 4 to 10 hours, such as 5 hours,

    with preferably one holding temperature

    in a temperature range of 70-120°C, and more preferably a second holding temperature in a temperature range of 120-250°C.



    [0025] In a process of the present invention the complexing agent may also serve as an organic solvent.

    [0026] In a process of the present invention the polymer precursor may also serve as an organic solvent.

    [0027] In a process of the present invention an appropriate polymer precursor may be used in steps a) and b), preferably the same polymer precursor may be used in steps a) and b). Appropriate polymer precursors comprise polycarboxylic acids, hydroxyl-carboxylic acids, polyhydric alcohols and mixtures thereof, preferably polyhydric alcohols and polycarboxylic acids and mixtures thereof, more preferably polyhydric alcohols. Most preferably ethylene glycol is used as a polymer precursor.

    [0028] In a process of the present invention an appropriate complexing agent may be used in step a) and b), preferably the same complexing agent may be used in steps a) and b). Appropriate complexing agents include organic compounds, e.g. organic acids, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, amines and mixtures thereof, preferably polycarboxylic acids, more preferably citric acid and oxalic acid and most preferably citric acid. The complexing agent may increase the solubility of the metal salts, also the cross links in the polymeric structure and further the homogeneity of the metal distribution in the polymeric gel.

    [0029] In a process of the present invention an appropriate alkaline salt includes salts of alkali metals, except sodium, e.g. nitrates, oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, sulfates, acetates, halogenides, preferably nitrates and carbonates, most preferably nitrates.

    [0030] In a process of the present invention an inorganic acid in step a) and c) includes appropriate inorganic acids, e.g. nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and mixtures thereof, more preferably nitric acid, sulfuric acid and mixtures thereof, most preferably nitric acid.

    [0031] In the case of using just polyhydric alcohols as polymer precursor without complexing agent or another polymer precursor an oxidizing inorganic acid, such as nitric acid, is preferably used as inorganic acid to oxidize a part of the polyhydric alcohols to polycarboxylic acids, which are suitable for the polyesterification with the non-oxidized polyhydric acids. By using a mixture of polyhydric alcohols and polycarboxylic acids the inorganic acid does not need to be an oxidizing acid to start the polymerization.

    [0032] It was surprisingly found that the compositions of the present invention show a higher catalytic activity for the oxidation of PM compared to prior art materials.

    [0033] Compositions of the present invention in the fresh status (calcined at 400°C) exhibit an excellent catalytic activity (shown as lower T50-values), which exceeds by far the activity of materials of prior art (which is evident from Table 2). By the introduction of an alkaline metal, except sodium, preferably potassium, to the system CeBiOx the catalytic activity for the oxidation of PM can be increased compared with cerium bismuth containing materials disclosed in prior art. The T50-values (the temperatures, where 50% mass loss was observed between 200°C and the end temperature) of the cerium bismuth alkaline mixed oxides of the present invention are up to 110°C lower in contrast to the cerium bismuth containing compounds of the comparative examples which is evident from example 4, comparative example 2 in Table 2.

    [0034] Furthermore it was surprisingly found that the compositions according to the present invention show a high thermal stability up to 800°C. The thermally aged compositions of the present invention show a higher catalytic activity for soot oxidation in comparison with the prio art materials which again is evident from Table 2. The T50-values of the compositions (cerium bismuth alkaline mixed oxides) of the present invention are up to 115°C lower compared to the cerium bismuth containing comparative compositions of the comparative examples which is e.g. evident from example 2 and comparative example 3 in Table 2.

    [0035] Surprisingly potassium based materials show higher activity in the fresh status as well as in the aged status than sodium based cerium bismuth alkaline mixed oxides. The T50-values of the compositions (cerium bismuth alkaline mixed oxides) of the present invention are in the fresh status up to 71°C lower compared to the cerium bismuth sodium comparative example which is e.g. evident from example 4 and comparative example 1 in Table 2. Also after ageing the T50-values of the compositions (cerium bismuth alkaline mixed oxides) of the present invention are up to 65°C lower compared to the cerium bismuth sodium comparative example which is e.g. evident from example 2 and comparative example 1 in Table 2. If D is present in a composition of the present invention, its activity in the fresh status may further be enhanced.

    [0036] Because of that higher catalytic activity of compositions of the present invention, the temperature can be decreased to a range, which already can be reached in a normal driving cycle. Therefore the amount of postinjection of fuel for an active regeneration can be reduced.

    [0037] Because exhaust gases of combustion engines contain a certain amount of water, a further important aspect of the present invention is the hydrothermal stability. Alkaline based materials disclosed in the prior art, e.g. in EP 1 817 096, are unstable against water. It was surprisingly found according to the present invention that by introduction of bismuth to the system of cerium alkaline mixed oxides, the system shows enhanced stability against hydrothermal treatment.

    [0038] It was moreover surprisingly found that compositions of the present invention need lower temperatures for soot oxidation after hydrothermal ageing compared with prior art materials. The T50-values of a composition of the present invention (cerium bismuth alkaline mixed oxides) after hydrothermal treatment are up to 96°C lower compared to the cerium potassium system (see example 1, comparative example 5 in Table 3). This aspect is believed to be attributed to free potassium species in prior art material (see Fig. 1). In contrast, no free potassium species were observed in the compositions of the present invention (see Fig. 2).

    [0039] The compositions of the present invention are the first alkaline based catalysts for the oxidation of PM, which show a hydrothermal stability.

    [0040] The compositions of the present invention are the first catalytic compositions, which combine the high catalytic activity for soot oxidation of an alkaline based material and the hydrothermal stability of an alkaline free material.

    [0041] The compositons of the present invention are useful alone or in combination with a support material in coated or extruded form for DPF systems. In such embodiment, the compositions of the present invention are also useful alone or with a support for particulate filters for gasoline engines.

    [0042] Compositions according to the present invention may be useful for exhaust gas aftertreatment of Diesel and lean burn engines, conveniently in combination with an SCR-catalyst in the application SCR on DPF.

    [0043] A composition of the present invention may be used in application for the removal of soot, particularly in exhaust gas aftertreatment systems of Diesel and gasoline combustion engines and in addition the compositions of the present invention may also be used in other applications, e.g. removal of PM in power plants, e.g. in fossil fuel power plants or biomass power plants.

    [0044] In a further aspect the present invention provides the use of a composition of the present invention for exhaust gas aftertreatment systems e.g. Diesel engines, gasoline combustion engines, lean burn engines and power plants.

    Characterization



    [0045] The compositions of the present invention were characterized partly in terms of XRD.

    [0046] Powder XRD (X-ray diffraction) patterns were obtained using a PANalytical X' Pert PRO system with Ni-filtered Cu radiation (Cu-Kα1 and Cu-Kα2 dublett with wavelength of 1.5406 and 1.5444 Å). The instrument was operated in Bragg-Brentano-geometry with a PIXcel.

    [0047] For catalytic testing on PM removal efficiency the compositions were subjected to the catalytic powder testing conditions as described below.

    Conditions for catalytic powder testing


    Sample preparation



    [0048] The synthesized solid samples of the present invention were pestled manually in an agate mortar. Powdered samples and carbon black (CB, Printex 90, Evonik Degussa GmbH (Method A), or CB, Printex U, Evonik Carbon Black GmbH (Method B)) were carefully mixed with a spatula in a mass ratio of 4:1 until the mixture was homogeneous to result in a loose contact mode.

    Measurement of the catalytic activity



    [0049] The determination of characteristic soot combustion temperatures (T50-values, i.e. temperatures, where 50% mass loss was observed between 200°C and the end temperature) was performed by thermogravimetrical data recording through two different methods.

    Method A



    [0050] was made with a TGA/DSC 1 simultaneous thermal analyzer (Mettler Toledo Corp.). A mixture of 8% O2, 350 ppm CO, 250 ppm NO, 50 ppm propane, 50 ppm SO2 and N2 as a balance was used as model feed gas. The total gas flow was 50 ml/min. The soot combustion activities of the catalysts were measured under dynamic conditions with a heating ramp of 10°C/min in a temperature range of 25°C to 700°C.

    Method B



    [0051] was made with a NETSCH STA 409 C/CD. A mixture of 20% O2 in N2 was used as model feed gas. The total gas flow was 50 ml/min. The soot combustion activities of the catalysts were measured under dynamic conditions with a heating ramp of 5°C/min in a temperature range of 25°C to 700°C

    [0052] For testing on thermal stability the compositions were subjected to the following conditions for thermal ageing:

    Conditions for thermal ageing



    [0053] The thermal pretreatment was performed by calcination of powdered samples at 800°C for 2 hours in a conventional muffle oven.

    [0054] For testing on hydrothermal stability the catalytic compositions were subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment as described below.

    Conditions for hydrothermal pretreatment



    [0055] The hydrothermal pretreatment was performed in a custom-made 7-fold multiclave with Teflon inlets. The samples (100 - 120 mg) were suspended as prepared in 10 ml deionized water (filling level: 33%). The autoclave was heated up to 150°C. The multiclave was rotated along its cylindrical axis for 60 minutes in an oven at 150°C and allowed to cool down again to room temperature. The hydrothermally aged samples were separated from liquid via filtration, washed with deionized water and dried in a vacuum drying oven at 60°C and reduced pressure (<10 mbar).

    More detailed description of the invention



    [0056] The present invention will now be explained in more detail with reference to examples and comparative examples without being limited to these. Temperatures indicated are in degree Celsius (°C).

    Synthesis


    Example 1


    Bi0.45Ce0.45K0.10O1.65-1.4



    [0057] Was synthesized via a polymer complex sol-gel method.

    [0058] A mixture of 50 deionized water, 33.46 ml of ethylene glycol (EG) and 47.285 g citric acid monohydrate (CA) was used as solvent.

    [0059] The stoichiometric amount of bismuth-(III)-oxide (0.1048 g of Bi2O3) was dissolved in 0.1477 ml concentrated nitric acid (69%) and 0.704 ml of the H2O/EG/CA mixture were added (after the dissolution of Bi2O3 a white precipitate may form, which dissolves after adding the H2O/EG/CA mixture). Cerium-(III)-nitrate hexahydrate (0.1954 g Ce(NO3)3 *6H2O) was dissolved in 0.842 ml of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 9 µl concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. Potassium nitrate (0.0101 g KNO3) was dissolved in 0.187 ml of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 2 µl of concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. The three solutions obtained were mixed and vortexed for 60 minutes via an orbital shaker. Subsequently solvent of the solutions was evaporated and the evaporation residue obtained was calcined in air. To evaporate the solvent the solutions were heated from room temperature up to 90°C with a heating rate of 10°C/hour. After a dwell time of 5 hours at 90°C the mixture was heated up to 200°C with a heating rate of 5°C/hours. After holding this temperature for 5 hours the sample was heated up to 400°C with a heating rate of 10°C/hour. The samples were calcined at 400°C for 5 hours. The calcined oxide powders were cooled to room temperature with a rate of 20°C/hour (fresh samples).

    Example 2 to 5



    [0060] The compositions referred to examples 2 to 5 are as disclosed in Tables 1A and 1B below and were prepared analogously to the procedure as disclosed in example 1 but using appropriate starting material and amounts. The quantities of the starting materials used for the preparation according to Examples 2 to 5 are listed in Tables 1A and 1B. A mixture of 50 ml deionized water, 33.46 ml ethylene glycol (EG) and 47.285 g citric acid monohydrate (CA) was used as a solvent
    Table 1A
    Ex.CompositionBi2O3 [g]HNO3* [ml]H2O/EG/CA [ml]*Ce(NO3)3*6 H2O [g]
    2 Bi0.40Ce0.40K0.20O1.4-1.2 0,0923 0.1313 0,625 0.1737
    3 Bi0.30Ce0.60K0.10O1.7-1.4 0,0699 0,0985 0,469 0,2605
    4 Bi0.80Ce0.10K0.10O1.5-1.4 0,1864 0,2626 1,251 0,0434
    5 Bi0.10Ce0.80K0.10O1.8-1.4 0,0233 0,0328 0,156 0,3474
    Table 1B
    Ex.CompositionKNO3 [mg]HNO3** [µl]H2O/EG/CA** [ml]
    2 Bi0.40Ce0.40K0.20O1.4-1.2 20,2 12 1,123
    3 Bi0.30Ce0.60K0.10O1.7-1.4 10,1 14 1,310
    4 Bi0.80Ce0.10K0.10O1.5-1.4 10,1 4 0,374
    5 Bi0.10Ce0.80K0.10O1.8-1.4 10,1 18 1,684
    *) for dissolving Bi2O3
    **) for dissolving other metal salts

    Example 6


    Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Sr0.1O1.55-1.35



    [0061] Was synthesized via a polymer complex sol-gel method.

    [0062] A mixture of 200 ml deionized water, 133.84 ml of ethylene glycol (EG) and 189.14 g citric acid monohydrate (CA) was used as solvent.

    [0063] The stoichiometric amount of bismuth-(III)-oxide (5.26 g of Bi2O3) was dissolved in 11.81 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) and 40.77 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture were added (after the dissolution of Bi2O3 a white precipitate may form, which dissolves after adding the H2O/EG/CA mixture). Cerium-(III)-nitrate hexahydrate (9.81 g Ce(NO3)3*6H2O), potassium nitrate (0.57 g KNO3) and strontium carbonate (0.83 g SrCO3) were dissolved in 59.52 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 0.85 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. The two solutions obtained were mixed for 60 minutes via a magnetic stirrer. Subsequently solvent of the solutions was evaporated and the evaporation residue obtained was calcined in air. To evaporate the solvent the solutions were heated from room temperature up to 70°C with a heating rate of 7.5°C/hour. After a dwell time of 24 hours at 70°C the mixture was heated up to 200°C with a heating rate of 26°C/hours. After holding this temperature for 24 hours the sample was heated up to 400°C with a heating rate of 200°C/hour. The samples were calcined at 400°C for 5 hours. The calcined oxide powders were cooled to room temperature with a rate of 20°C/hour (fresh samples).

    Example 7


    Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Pr0.1O1.6-1.4



    [0064] Was synthesized via a polymer complex sol-gel method.

    [0065] A mixture of 200 ml deionized water, 133.84 ml of ethylene glycol (EG) and 189.14 g citric acid monohydrate (CA) was used as solvent.

    [0066] The stoichiometric amount of bismuth-(III)-oxide (5.09 g of Bi2O3) was dissolved in 11.81 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) and 39,12 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture were added (after the dissolution of Bi2O3 a white precipitate may form, which dissolves after adding the H2O/EG/CA mixture). Cerium-(III)-nitrate hexahydrate (9.48 g Ce(NO3)3*6H2O), potassium nitrate (0.55 g KNO3) and praseodymium nitrate hexahydrate (2.37 g Pr(NO3)3*6H2O) were dissolved in 59.52 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 0.85 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. The two solutions obtained were mixed for 60 minutes via an magnetic stirrer. Subsequently solvent of the solutions was evaporated and the evaporation residue obtained was calcined in air. To evaporate the solvent the solutions were heated from room temperature up to 70°C with a heating rate of 7.5°C/hour. After a dwell time of 24 hours at 70°C the mixture was heated up to 200°C with a heating rate of 26°C/hours. After holding this temperature for 24 hours the sample was heated up to 400°C with a heating rate of 200°C/hour. The samples were calcined at 400°C for 5 hours. The calcined oxide powders were cooled to room temperature with a rate of 20°C/hour (fresh samples).

    Example 8


    Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Fe0.1O1.6-1.4



    [0067] Was synthesized via a polymer complex sol-gel method.

    [0068] A mixture of 200 ml deionized water, 133.84 ml of ethylene glycol (EG) and 189.14 g citric acid monohydrate (CA) was used as solvent.

    [0069] The stoichiometric amount of bismuth-(III)-oxide (5.33 g of Bi2O3) was dissolved in 11.81 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) and 41.03 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture were added (after the dissolution of Bi2O3 a white precipitate may form, which dissolves after adding the H2O/EG/CA mixture). Cerium-(III)-nitrate hexahydrate (9.94 g Ce(NO3)3*6H2O), potassium nitrate (0.58 g KNO3) and iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate (2.31 g Fe(NO3)3*9H2O) were dissolved in 59.52 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 0.85 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. The two solutions obtained were mixed for 60 minutes via an magnetic stirrer. Subsequently solvent of the solutions was evaporated and the evaporation residue obtained was calcined in air. To evaporate the solvent the solutions were heated from room temperature up to 70°C with a heating rate of 7.5°C/hour. After a dwell time of 24 hours at 70°C the mixture was heated up to 200°C with a heating rate of 26°C/hours. After holding this temperature for 24 hours the sample was heated up to 400°C with a heating rate of 200°C/hour. The samples were calcined at 400°C for 5 hours. The calcined oxide powders were cooled to room temperature with a rate of 20°C/hour (fresh samples).

    Comparative example 1


    Bi0.45Ce0.45Na0.10O1.65-1.4



    [0070] Was synthesized via a polymer complex sol-gel method.

    [0071] A mixture of 50 ml deionized water, 33.46 ml of ethylene glycol (EG) and 47.285 g citric acid monohydrate (CA) was used as solvent.

    [0072] The stoichiometric amount of bismuth-(III)-oxide (0.1048 g of Bi2O3) was dissolved in 0.1477 ml concentrated nitric acid (69%) and 0.704 ml of the H2O/EG/CA mixture were added (after the dissolution of Bi2O3 a white precipitate may form, which dissolves after adding the H2O/EG/CA mixture). Cerium-(III)-nitrate hexahydrate (0.1954 g Ce(NO3)3*6H2O) was dissolved in 0.842 ml of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 9 µl concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. Sodium nitrate (0.0085 g NaNO3) was dissolved in 0.187 ml of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 2 µl of concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. The three solutions obtained were mixed and vortexed for 60 minutes via an orbital shaker. Subsequently solvent of the solutions was evaporated and the evaporation residue obtained was calcined in air. To evaporate the solvent the solutions were heated from room temperature up to 70°C with a heating rate of 7.5°C/hour. After a dwell time of 24 hours at 70°C the mixture was heated up to 200°C with a heating rate of 26°C/hours. After holding this temperature for 24 hours the sample was heated up to 400°C with a heating rate of 200°C/hour. The samples were calcined at 400°C for 5 hours. The calcined oxide powders were cooled to room temperature with a rate of 20°C/hour (fresh samples).

    Comparative example 2


    Bi10Ce80Sr10Ox (EP 2 438 984 A1, Example 2)



    [0073] The metal nitrate salts (0.5988 g of Ce(NO3)3*6H2O, 0.0836 g of Bi(NO3)3*5H2O and 0.0365 g of Sr(NO3)2) were mixed resulting in a molar ratio of Ce / Bi / Sr = 0.8 / 0.1 / 0.1 and 5ml deionized water were added. After the dissolution of the nitrate salts, a white precipitate had formed and 3 ml of concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. The mixture obtained was stirred until a clear solution was obtained. To the solution obtained again water was added so that the total volume of the final solution was 50 ml. To the solution obtained 40 ml of the precipitating agent (1 molar ammonium carbonate aqueous solution) were added slowly while stirring. The suspension obtained was further stirred for 30 minutes. A precipitate was obtained, filtered, washed with deionized water and dried at 125°C for 15 hours in air atmosphere. The dried solid was calcined at 400°C for 5 hours.

    Comparative example 3


    Bi10Ce50Pr40Ox (EP 2 210 861 B1, Example 1)



    [0074] First, 0.6809 g of praseodymium oxide (Pr6O11, 99.9%, ABCR) were dissolved in 4.5 ml concentrated nitric acid (69%). Then, 2.1711 g of cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3*6H2O, 99.9%, ChemPur) and 0.485 bismuth nitrate pentahydrate (Bi(NO3)3*5H2O, ≥99.99%, Sigma-Aldrich) were added to the nitric acid solution of Pr resulting in a molar ratio of Ce / Bi / Pr = 0.5 / 0.1 / 0.4. To the solution obtained 45 ml of the precipitating agent (1 molar ammonium carbonate aqueous solution) were added slowly, while stirring for 30 minutes. The precipitate obtained was filtered and washed with deionized water, dried at 125°C for 15 hours in air. The dried solid obtained was calcined at 400°C for 5 hours.

    Comparative example 4


    Ce50K50Ox (WO 2006/04482)



    [0075] The comparative example 3 was prepared by melting the corresponding nitrate salts. For this comparative example 1.0856 g of Ce(NO3)3*6H2O and 0.2528 g of KNO3 were manually mixed. The mixture obtained was heated from room temperature up to 350°C with a heating rate of 50°C/hour. The temperature of 350°C was kept constant for 12 hours and subsequently decreased again to room temperature with a rate of 120°C/hours. The solid obtained was calcined at 400°C for 5 hours.

    Comparative example 5


    Ce50K50Ox (WO 2006/044822 A1)



    [0076] Was synthesized by dissolving 4.3422 g Ce(NO3)3*6H2O in 10 ml of deionized water and adding 0.6910 g of K2CO3 to the aqueous Ce solution. The solution obtained was reduced in volume by evaporation at 120°C for 24 hours in air. The dried solid obtained was calcined at 400°C for 5 hours.

    Comparative example 6


    Ce66.7K33.3Ox (WO 2006/044822 A1)



    [0077] Was prepared by melting the corresponding nitrate salts. For this comparative example 1.7369 g of Ce(NO3)3*6H2O and 0.2022 g of KNO3 were manually mixed. The mixture obtained was heated from room temperature up to 350°C with a heating rate of 50°C/hour. The temperature of 350°C was kept constant for 12 hours and subsequently decreased again to room temperature with a rate of 120°C/hour. The solid obtained was calcined at 400°C for 5 hours.

    Comparative example 7


    Ce66.7K33.3Ox (WO 2006/044822 A1)



    [0078] Was synthesized by dissolving 4.3422 g of Ce(NO3)3*6H2O in 10 ml of deionized water and adding 0.3455 g of K2CO3 to the aqueous Ce solution. The solution obtained was reduced in volume by evaporation at 120°C for 24 hours in air. The dried solid obtained was calcined at 400°C for 5 hours.

    Comparative example 8


    Bi0.45Ce0.45Sr0.1Ox



    [0079] Was synthesized via a polymer complex sol-gel method.

    [0080] A mixture of 200 ml deionized water, 133.84 ml of ethylene glycol (EG) and 189.14 g citric acid monohydrate (CA) was used as solvent.

    [0081] The stoichiometric amount of bismuth-(III)-oxide (5.17 g of Bi2O3) was dissolved in 11.81 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) and 39.77 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture were added (after the dissolution of Bi2O3 a white precipitate may form, which dissolves after adding the H2O/EG/CA mixture). Cerium-(III)-nitrate hexahydrate (9.64 g Ce(NO3)3*6H2O) and strontium carbonate (0.71 g SrCO3) were dissolved in 59.52 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 0.85 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. The two solutions obtained were mixed for 60 minutes via an magnetic stirrer. Subsequently solvent of the solutions was evaporated and the evaporation residue obtained was calcined in air. To evaporate the solvent the solutions were heated from room temperature up to 70°C with a heating rate of 7.5°C/hour. After a dwell time of 24 hours at 70°C the mixture was heated up to 200°C with a heating rate of 26°C/hours. After holding this temperature for 24 hours the sample was heated up to 400°C with a heating rate of 200°C/hour. The samples were calcined at 400°C for 5 hours. The calcined oxide powders were cooled to room temperature with a rate of 20°C/hour (fresh samples).

    Comparative example 9


    Bi0.45Ce0.45Pr0.1Ox



    [0082] Was synthesized via a polymer complex sol-gel method.

    [0083] A mixture of 200 ml deionized water, 133.84 ml of ethylene glycol (EG) and 189.14 g citric acid monohydrate (CA) was used as solvent.

    [0084] The stoichiometric amount of bismuth-(III)-oxide (5.23 g of Bi2O3) was dissolved in 11.81 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) and 40.26 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture were added (after the dissolution of Bi2O3 a white precipitate may form, which dissolves after adding the H2O/EG/CA mixture). Cerium-(III)-nitrate hexahydrate (9.38 g Ce(NO3)3*6H2O) and praseodymium nitrate hexahydrate (2.09 g Pr(NO3)3*6H2O) were dissolved in 59.52 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 0.85 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. The two solutions obtained were mixed for 60 minutes via an magnetic stirrer. Subsequently solvent of the solutions was evaporated and the evaporation residue obtained was calcined in air. To evaporate the solvent the solutions were heated from room temperature up to 70°C with a heating rate of 7.5°C/hour. After a dwell time of 24 hours at 70°C the mixture was heated up to 200°C with a heating rate of 26°C/hours. After holding this temperature for 24 hours the sample was heated up to 400°C with a heating rate of 200°C/hour. The samples were calcined at 400°C for 5 hours. The calcined oxide powders were cooled to room temperature with a rate of 20°C/hour (fresh samples).

    Comparative example 10


    Bi0.45Ce0.45Fe0.1Ox



    [0085] Was synthesized via a polymer complex sol-gel method.

    [0086] A mixture of 200 ml deionized water, 133.84 ml of ethylene glycol (EG) and 189.14 g citric acid monohydrate (CA) was used as solvent.

    [0087] The stoichiometric amount of bismuth-(III)-oxide (5.03 g of Bi2O3) was dissolved in 11.81 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) and 38.7 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture were added (after the dissolution of Bi2O3 a white precipitate may form, which dissolves after adding the H2O/EG/CA mixture). Cerium-(III)-nitrate hexahydrate (9.38 g Ce(NO3)3*6H2O) and iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate (1.94 g Fe(NO3)3*9H2O) were dissolved in 59.52 g of the H2O/EG/CA mixture and 0.85 g concentrated nitric acid (69%) were added. The two solutions obtained were mixed for 60 minutes via an magnetic stirrer. Subsequently solvent of the solutions was evaporated and the evaporation residue obtained was calcined in air. To evaporate the solvent the solutions were heated from room temperature up to 70°C with a heating rate of 7.5°C/hour. After a dwell time of 24 hours at 70°C the mixture was heated up to 200°C with a heating rate of 26°C/hours. After holding this temperature for 24 hours the sample was heated up to 400°C with a heating rate of 200°C/hour. The samples were calcined at 400°C for 5 hours. The calcined oxide powders were cooled to room temperature with a rate of 20°C/hour (fresh samples).

    Results of catalytic testing



    [0088] Table 2 shows the PM removal efficiency, measured with method A, of the Cerium-Bismuth-Alkaline compositions of the present invention prepared according to examples 1 to 6, as well as for the comparative examples 1 and 2 in the fresh status (calcined at 400°C/2 hours) and after thermal ageing of the powders at 800°C/ 2 hours.
    Table 2
    SampleCompositionT50 fresh [°C]T50 aged [°C]
    Example 1 Bi0.45Ce0.45K0.10O1.65-1.4 515 535
    Example 2 Bi0.40Ce0.40K0.20O1.4-1.2 510 519
    Example 3 Bi0.30Ce0.60K0.10O1.7-1.4 520 536
    Example 4 Bi0.80Ce0.10K0.10O1.5-1.4 498 563
    Example 5 Bi0.10Ce0.80K0.10O1.8-1.4 535 547
    Comparative Example 1 Bi0.45Ce0.45Na0.10O1.65-1.4 569 584
    Comparative Example 2 Bi10Ce80Sr10Ox 608 627
    Comparative Example 3 Bi10Ce50Pr40Ox 606 634


    [0089] The catalytic test results showed that all the materials of the examples 1 to 5 have a lower T50-value after thermal ageing and in the fresh status than the materials of comparative examples 1, 2 and 3.

    Results of catalytic testing after hydrothermal treatment:



    [0090] Table 3 below shows the PM removal efficiency, measured with method A, of three compositions of the present invention and those of compositions of the comparative examples 3, 4, 5 and 6, both in the fresh status as well as after hydrothermal treatment. The compositions of comparative examples 3 to 6 show an excellent catalytic activity in the fresh status. In contrast to that, however, the compositions of the comparative examples lose their catalytic activity after hydrothermal ageing in contrast to the examples of the present invention, which still show catalytic activity.
    Table 3
    SampleCompositionT50 fresh [°C]T50 hydrothermally aged [°C]
    Example 1 Bi0.45Ce0.45K0.10O1.65-1.4 515 582
    Example 2 Bi0.40Ce0.40K0.20O1.4-1.2 510 595
    Example 3 Bi0.30Ce0.60K0.10O1.7-1.4 520 584
    Comparative Example 4 Ce50K50Ox 468 655
    Comparative Example 5 Ce50K50Ox 470 655
    Comparative Example 6 Ce70K30Ox 464 672
    Comparative Example 7 Ce70K30Ox 524 678

    Effect of potassium doping of different Ce-Bi-M-mixed metal oxides:



    [0091] Table 4 below shows the effect of potassium doping of three different Ce-Bi-M-mixed metal oxides for PM removal efficiency, measured with method B. All compositions doped with potassium are more catalytic active for the soot oxidation than the undoped compositions both in the fresh status as well as after thermal treatment.
    Table 4
    SampleCompositionT50 fresh [°C]T50 aged [°C]
    Example 1 Bi0.45Ce0.45K0.10O1.65-1.4 426 479
    Example 6 Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Sr0.1O1.55-1.35 414 490
    Example 7 Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Pr0.1O1.6-1.4 437 498
    Example 8 Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Fe0.1O1.6-1.4 414 507
    Comparative Example 8 Bi45Ce45Sr10Ox 518 525
    Comparative Example 9 Bi45Ce45Pr10Ox 458 508
    Comparative Example 10 Bi45Ce45Fe10Ox 490 515

    Brief description of the drawings (Figures 1 to 2)



    [0092] 

    Fig. 1 shows powder x-ray diffraction patter of comparative example 4, reflexs refer to CeO2 and KNO3.

    Fig. 2 shows powder x-ray diffraction patter of example 1, reflexs refer to Ce1-xBixO2-x/2, α-Bi2O3 and Bi2(CO3)O2, no crystalline potassium species is detected




    Claims

    1. A composition of formula÷

            Ce1-a-b-cNaMbDcOx     I

    wherein

    M stands for one or more elements from the group of alkaline metals, except sodium,

    N is Bi and/or Sb,

    D is present, or is not present, and if present is selected from one or more of

    - Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba;

    - Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Er;

    - Fe, Zr, Nb, Al;

    a is a number within the range of 0<a≤0.9,

    b is a number within the range of 0<b≤0.3,

    c is a number within the range of 0≤c≤0.2;

    a plus b plus c is <1, and

    x is a number within the range of 1.2≤x≤2.


     
    2. A composition of claim 1 wherein D is present.
     
    3. A composition of any one of claims 1 or 2, wherein D is Ca, Sr, Ba; in particular Sr.
     
    4. A composition of any one of claims 1 or 2, wherein D is Y, Pr, La, Nd; in particular Pr.
     
    5. A composition of any one of claims 1 or 2, wherein D is Fe, Zr, Nb, Al; in particular Fe, Al.
     
    6. A composition of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein c is a number within the range of 0≤c≤0.1.
     
    7. A composition of claim 1 which is of formula

            Ce1-a-bNaMbOx     II

    wherein

    M stands for one or more elements from the group of alkaline metals, except sodium

    N is Bi and/or Sb,

    a is a number within the range of 0<a≤0.9,

    b is a number within the range of 0<b≤0.3,

    a plus b is <1, and

    x is a number within the range of 1.2≤x≤2.


     
    8. A composition of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein N is Bi.
     
    9. A composition of of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein M is potassium.
     
    10. A composition of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein a is a number within the range of 0.01≤a≤0.9.
     
    11. A composition of any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein b is a number within the range of 0.01≤b≤0.3.
     
    12. A composition of claim 11, wherein b is a number within the range of 0.1≤b≤0.2.
     
    13. A composition of any one of claims 1 and 7to 12, which is selected from the group consisting of

            Bi0.45Ce0.45K0.10O1.65-1.4,

            Bi0.40Ce0.40K0.20O1.4-1.2,

            Bi0.30Ce0.60K0.10O1.7-1.4,

            Bi0.80Ce0.10K0.10O1.5-1.4,

            Bi0.10Ce0.80K0.10O1.8-1.4,

            Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Sr0.1O1.55-1.35,

            Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.1Pr0.1O1.6-1.4,

    and

            Bi0.4Ce0.4K0.Fe0.1O1.6-1.4.


     
    14. Use of a composition of any one of claims 1 to 13 for exhaust gas aftertreatment systems of Diesel engines, gasoline combustion engines, lean burn engines and power plants.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Zusammensetzung der Formel:

            Ce1-a-b-cNaMbDcOx     I

    wobei

    M für ein oder mehrere Elemente aus der Gruppe der Alkalimetalle, mit Ausnahme von Natrium, steht,

    N Bi und/oder Sb ist,

    D vorhanden oder nicht vorhanden ist, und, falls vorhanden, aus einem oder mehreren von Folgendem ausgewählt ist:

    - Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba;

    - Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Er;

    - Fe, Zr, Nb, Al;

    a eine Zahl im Bereich von 0<a≤0,9 ist,

    b eine Zahl im Bereich von 0<b≤0,3 ist,

    c eine Zahl im Bereich von 0≤c≤0,2 ist;

    a plus b plus c < 1 ist und

    x eine Zahl im Bereich von 1,2≤x≤2 ist.


     
    2. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei D vorhanden ist.
     
    3. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 oder 2, wobei D Ca, Sr, Ba ist; insbesondere Sr.
     
    4. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 oder 2, wobei D Y, Pr, La, Nd ist; insbesondere Pr.
     
    5. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 oder 2, wobei D Fe, Zr, Nb, Al ist; insbesondere Fe, Al.
     
    6. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei c eine Zahl im Bereich von 0≤c≤0,1 ist.
     
    7. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, welche die Formel

            Ce1-a-bNaMbOx     II

    aufweist, wobei

    M für ein oder mehrere Elemente aus der Gruppe der Alkalimetalle, mit Ausnahme von Natrium, steht,

    N Bi und/oder Sb ist,

    a eine Zahl im Bereich von 0<a≤0,9 ist,

    b eine Zahl im Bereich von 0<b≤0,3 ist,

    a plus b < 1 ist und

    x eine Zahl im Bereich von 1,2≤x≤2 ist.


     
    8. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, wobei N Bi ist.
     
    9. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, wobei M Kalium ist.
     
    10. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, wobei a eine Zahl im Bereich von 0,01≤a≤0,9 ist.
     
    11. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, wobei b eine Zahl im Bereich von 0,01≤b≤0,3 ist.
     
    12. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 11, wobei b eine Zahl im Bereich von 0,1≤b≤0,2 ist.
     
    13. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 und 7 bis 12, die ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus

            Bi0,45Ce0,45K0,10O1,65-1,4,

            Bi0,40Ce0,40K0,20O1,4-1,2,

            Bi0,30Ce0,60K0,10O1,7-1,4,

            Bi0,80Ce0,10K0,10O1,5-1,4,

            Bi0,10Ce0,80K0,10O1,8-1,4,

            Bi0,4Ce0,4K0,1Sr0,1O1,55-1,35,

            Bi0,4Ce0,4K0,1Pr0,1O1,6-1,4

    und

            Bi0,4Ce0,4K0,1Fe0,1O1,6-1,4.


     
    14. Verwendung einer Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13 für Abgasnachbehandlungssysteme von Dieselmotoren, Benzin-Verbrennungsmotoren, Magermotoren und Kraftwerken.
     


    Revendications

    1. Composition de formule

            Ce1-a-b-cNaMbDcOx     I

    dans laquelle

    M représente un ou plusieurs éléments du groupe de métaux alcalins, à l'exception du sodium,

    N est Bi et/ou Sb,

    D est présent, ou n'est pas présent, et s'il est présent est choisi parmi un ou plusieurs parmi

    - Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba ;

    - Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Er ;

    - Fe, Zr, Nb, Al;

    a est un nombre dans la plage de 0<a≤0,9,

    b est un nombre dans la plage de 0<b≤0,3,

    c est un nombre dans la plage de 0≤c≤0,2 ;

    a plus b plus c est <1, et

    x est un nombre dans la plage de 1,2≤x≤2.


     
    2. Composition selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle D est présent.
     
    3. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 ou 2, dans laquelle D est Ca, Sr, Ba ; en particulier Sr.
     
    4. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 ou 2, dans laquelle D est Y, Pr, La, Nd ; en particulier Pr.
     
    5. Composition selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans laquelle D est Fe, Zr, Nb, Al; en particulier Fe, Al.
     
    6. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans laquelle c est un nombre dans la plage de 0≤c≤0,1.
     
    7. Composition selon la revendication 1, qui est de formule

            Ce1-a-bNaMbOx     II

    dans laquelle

    M représente un ou plusieurs éléments du groupe de métaux alcalins, à l'exception du sodium

    N est Bi et/ou Sb,

    a est un nombre dans la plage de 0<a≤0,9,

    b est un nombre dans la plage de 0<b≤0,3,

    a plus b est <1, et

    x est un nombre dans la plage de 1,2≤x≤2.


     
    8. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, dans laquelle N est Bi.
     
    9. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, dans laquelle M est le potassium.
     
    10. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans laquelle a est un nombre dans la plage de 0,01≤a≤0,9.
     
    11. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, dans laquelle b est un nombre dans la plage de 0,01≤b≤0,3.
     
    12. Composition selon la revendication 11, dans laquelle b est un nombre dans la plage de 0,1≤b≤0,2.
     
    13. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 et 7 à 12, qui est choisie dans le groupe constitué de

            Bi0,45Ce0,45K0,10O1,65-1,4,

            Bi0,40Ce0,40K0,20O1,4-1,2,

            Bi0,30Ce0,60K0,10O1,7-1,4,

            Bi0,80Ce0,10K0,10O1,5-1,4,

            Bi0,10Ce0,80K0,10O1,8-1,4,

            Bi0,4Ce0,4K0,1Sr0,1O1,55-1,35,

            Bi0,4Ce0,4K0,1Pr0,1O1,6-1,4

    et

            Bi0,4Ce0,4K0,1Fe0,1O1,6-1,4.


     
    14. Utilisation d'une composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13 pour des systèmes de post-traitement de gaz d'échappement de moteurs Diesel, de moteurs à combustion interne à essence, de moteurs à mélange pauvre et de centrales électriques.
     




    Drawing








    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description