(19)
(11)EP 3 183 006 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
18.12.2019 Bulletin 2019/51

(21)Application number: 15756214.1

(22)Date of filing:  19.08.2015
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61K 47/54  (2017.01)
A61P 25/28  (2006.01)
C07K 7/64  (2006.01)
A61P 9/10  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/GB2015/052412
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/027089 (25.02.2016 Gazette  2016/08)

(54)

QUINOLINIUM CONJUGATES OF CYCLOSPORIN

CHINOLINIUMKONJUGATE VON CYCLOSPORIN

CONJUGUÉS DE QUINOLINIUM ET CYCLOSPORINE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 20.08.2014 GB 201414806

(43)Date of publication of application:
28.06.2017 Bulletin 2017/26

(73)Proprietor: UCL BUSINESS LTD
London W1T 4TP (GB)

(72)Inventors:
  • SELWOOD, David
    Welwyn Garden City Hertfordshire AL8 6EY (GB)
  • BAKER, David
    London N22 6JG (GB)
  • SZABADKAI, Gyorgy
    London SW15 5HR (GB)
  • DUCHEN, Michael Roland
    London NW6 1HT (GB)
  • HILL, Julia Marie
    Plymouth Devon PL9 0DA (GB)
  • WARNE, Justin Neil Darrel
    Wallington Surrey SM6 7JS (GB)

(74)Representative: J A Kemp LLP 
14 South Square Gray's Inn
London WC1R 5JJ
London WC1R 5JJ (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-2011/010084
  
  • MALOUITRE S ET AL: "Mitochondrial targeting of cyclosporin A enables selective inhibition of cyclophilin-D and enhanced cytoprotection after glucose and oxygen deprivation", BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, PORTLAND PRESS LTD, GB, vol. 425, no. 1, 1 January 2010 (2010-01-01), pages 137-148, XP002637741, ISSN: 0264-6021, DOI: 10.1042/BJ20090332 [retrieved on 2009-10-15]
  • SHANMUGANATHAN S ET AL: "MITOCHONDRIAL PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE AS A TARGET FOR CARDIOPROTECTION IN THE HUMAN HEART", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY: HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY, AMERICAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, US, vol. 289, no. 1, 1 July 2005 (2005-07-01), pages H237-242, XP009066629, ISSN: 0363-6135, DOI: 10.1152/AJPHEART.01192.2004
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to conjugates of cyclosporin with quinolinium mitochondrial targeting groups, and their therapeutic uses.

BACKGROUND



[0002] Ischaemic diseases, notably myocardial infarction and stroke, are the leading cause of death and disability throughout the world. Following an ischaemic episode, early restoration of blood flow is essential to restrict tissue damage. However, when blood supply is restored to ischaemic cells, the newly returning blood can adversely affect the damaged tissue. This is known as reperfusion injury, and often causes further damage and cell death following an ischaemic episode. It is therefore a therapeutic goal to mitigate and avoid ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. There are currently no effective therapeutic treatments for ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

[0003] Cyclosporin A (CsA) is well known as an immunosuppressive drug. It has been proposed for use in treating ischaemia/reperfusion injury. However, experimental models and pilot trials to investigate the efficacy of cyclosporin in treating ischaemia/reperfusion yielded highly variable and only marginal effects. Further, administration of cyclosporin to patients can lead to adverse side effects, due to the toxicity of the compound. Subsequently, WO 2011/010084 described treatment of ischaemia/reperfusion injury by selective inhibition of mitochondrial cyclophilin D (CyP-D) using cyclosporin conjugated to mitochondrial targeting groups.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0004] The present invention arises from the surprising finding that conjugates of cyclosporin to quinolinium mitochondrial targeting groups are associated with reduced toxicity as compared to unconjugated cyclosporin or cyclosporin conjugated to other mitochondrial targeting groups. Conjugates of cyclosporin to quinolinium are also potent inhibitors of cyclophilin D and demonstrate neuroprotective properties in an animal model of ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Conjugates of cyclosporin to quinolinium have also been found to demonstrate neuroprotective properties in animal models of neurodegenerative conditions. Conjugates of cyclosporin to quinolinium therefore represent promising candidates for a therapeutic approach to the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions and ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

[0005] Accordingly, the present invention provides a cyclosporin conjugate which is a compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

in which:
  • A represents

  • B represents methyl or ethyl,
  • R2 represents ethyl or isopropyl,
  • R4 represents -CH2CH(CH3)CH3, -CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH3, -CH(CH3)CH3 or - CH(CH3)CH2CH3,
  • either (a) one of R1 and R1* represents -L1Z1 and the other represents hydrogen, and R3 represents hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl or C2-C4 alkenyl, or (b) one of R1 and R1* represents methyl and the other represents hydrogen, and R3 represents -L3Z3, or (c) one of R1 and R1* represents -L1Z1 and the other represents hydrogen, and R3 represents -L3Z3,
  • L1 and L3 independently represent a C1-C6 alkylene moiety, a C2-C6 alkenylene moiety or a -(CH2CH2O)m(CH2)m- moiety in which n represents 1 to 3 and m represents 0 to 2, and
  • Z1 and Z3 independently represent a moiety of formula (II*):

    in which Q1* to Q7* independently represent a hydrogen atom, a C1-C6 haloalkyl group, a -OR' group, or a -NR'R" group, wherein R' and R" are the same or different and represent hydrogen or a C1-C6 alkyl group, and wherein four to seven of Q1* to Q7* represent hydrogen.


[0006] The present invention further provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a conjugate of the invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent or carrier.

[0007] The present invention further provides a conjugate of the invention for use in the treatment of the human or animal body.

[0008] The present invention further provides a conjugate of the invention for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease or disorder susceptible to amelioration by inhibition of cyclophilin D.

[0009] The present invention further provides a non-therapeutic use of a conjugate of the invention as a reagent for an experimental assay.

DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0010] 

Figure 1 shows the results from Example 2 in which experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in mice. The mice were injected daily intraperitoneally with either vehicle [ethanol cremophor:phosphate buffered saline (1:1:18)] or 1 mg/ kg Compound 1 from day 33 shortly before the anticipated onset of signs of relapse. Figure 1 depicts the mean daily clinical score after induction of relapse and shows that Compound 1 has neuroprotective properties.

Figure 2 shows the results from Example 3, in which a series of experiments were conducted to assess the toxicity of (a) unmodified cyclosporin A (CsA), (b) cyclosporin conjugated to a quinolinium moiety [Compound 1], and (c) cyclosporin conjugated to a flupirtine moiety [Reference Compound 1]. 100% in Figure 2 represents no effect in the assay. These results show that conjugation of a quinolinium moiety to cyclosporin significantly reduced the toxicity of cyclosporin. A similar reduction in toxicity was not observed when cyclosporin in conjugated to other mitochondrial targeting groups, such as flupirtine.

Figure 3 shows quantification of the dose dependent effects of CsA and Compound 1 on CRC (PT) in liver mitochondria isolated from WT and CypD KO animals, as described in Example 4. Percentage inhibition denotes increase in CRC compared to DMSO treatment, normalised to WT. * p < 0.05 (t-test)

Figures 4A to 4F relate to the assessment of mitochondrial toxicity in Example 5. Mitochondrial parameters were measured in DIV 8-9 rat cortical neurons (A, E) and isolated rat liver mitochondria (B-D, F). A, B: Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured in tetramethyl-rhodamine methylesther (TMRM) loaded neurons using ImageXpress MicroXL in (A) and rhodamine-123 loaded isolated mitochondria using a fluorescent plate reader in (B). Values in are normalised to DMSO (100%) and FCCP (2 µM, 0%) treated samples. * p < 0.05 (one way ANOVA) C, D: O2 consumption was measured in mitochondria isolated from rat liver in the presence of glutamate and malate using Oroboros high resolution oxygraph. The effect of compounds on basal, leak (oligomycin, 2.5 µM) and maximal uncoupled respiration (FCCP, titrated to give maximum effect) is shown, as compared to basal, DMSO controls. * p < 0.05 (paired t-tests). E, F: ATP levels in cortical neurons (E) and ATP production of isolated mitochondria in the presence of substrates and ADP (F) was measured using a luciferase assay. Iodoacetic acid (IAA, 1 mM) and oligomycin (oligo, 2.5 µM) was used to show the contribution of glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis, respectively. * p < 0.05 (t-test).

Figure 5A and 5B shows the assessment of in cell CypA binding as described in Example 6. CRFK cells transduced with either empty vector (filled squares) or TRIM-CypA (open circles) were infected with VSV-pseudotyped GFP-expressing HIV-1 vector, in the presence of DMSO or increasing concentration of drug. A CsA, B. Compound 1. Viral infection was measured by flow cytometry at 48 hr post infection. Data are the average of three independent experiments.

Figures 6A to 6D show the results from Example 8, and that Compound 1 exhibits less immunosuppressive activity than CsA. Mitogenesis in vitro, 4 x 10-5 cells normal mouse splenocytes were incubated with A 5µg/ml concanavalin A B Mitogenic CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies or C splenocytes from MOG residues 35-55 peptide immunized mice in the presence of 5µg/ml MOG peptide with vehicle or compounds for A, B 2 or 4 C days prior to the addition of 1 µCi3H-thymidine and were harvested 16-20h later and tritiated thymidine incorporation was assessed by beta scintillation counting. The results represent the mean ± SEM of triplicate samples. D Low doses of Compound 1 in vivo exhibited no immunosuppressive activity. 25 µl of 2.5% Oxazolone (OX) or acetone: olive oil (4:1) vehicle (AOO) was applied to the ear skin of ABH mice on day 0. On day 3 the draining auricular lymph nodes of 3-4 mice/group were removed and 5 x 105 cells were cultured overnight in the presence of 1µ Ci 3H-thymidine. Animals were treated with 0.1 ml vehicle or 0.1-10 mg/kg Compound 1 or 50 mg/kg CsA. The results represent the mean ± SEM of at least quadruplicate samples.

Figure 7 shows the results from Example 9. Figure 7A shows the mean rotarod activity representing the mean ± SEM time before falling/failing to stay on an accelerating rotarod before (on day 27) or after (on day 45) treatment with either vehicle (white bar) or Compound 1 (grey bar). *** P<0.001 compared to vehicle treatment. Figure 7 B shows axonal content in the spinal cord following treatment of relapsing EAE with Compound 1 mg/kg measured as neurofilament level adjusted for total protein content. EAE was induced with spinal cord homogenate in complete Freund's adjuvant on days 0 and 7 and a relapse was induced by re-immunisation with spinal cord homogenate in complete Freund's adjuvant at day 28. Animals were randomized according to RotaRod performance score at day 27 to receive either vehicle (Cremophor (Sigma, UK), alcohol, phosphate buffered saline 1:1;18) or 1mg/kg i.p Compound 1 from day 33 p.i. just prior to the development of relapse at day 35 until day 47. Animals were killed and the spinal cords removed using hydrostatic pressure and axonal content measured using a quantitative neurofilament-specific ELISA. n=11 untreated, n=13 Compound 1 treated. Ratio of dephosphorylated (SMI-32 reactive) neurofilament to hyperphosphorylated (SMI-35 reactive) neurofilament as measured by ELISA in spinal cord homogenates from untreated post-relapse untreated animals; n=11 or Compound 1 1 mg/kg treated animals n=13 *** P<0.001 adjusted for total protein level.

Figure 8 shows the results from Example 10, in which the inhibition of Ca2+ mediated PT pore formation was measure for Compounds 1, 3 and 4 and Reference Compound 1. Figure 8A shows when a concentration of 40nM was used. Figure 8B shows the results when a concentration of 8nM was used.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0011] Typically, one of R1 and R1* represents -L1Z1 and the other represents hydrogen, and R3 represents hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl or C2-C4 alkenyl. Alternatively, one of R1 and R1* represents methyl and the other represents hydrogen, and R3 represents -L3Z3. Alternatively, one of R1 and R1* represents -L1Z1 and the other represents hydrogen, and R3 represents -L3Z3.

[0012] Typically, R1 represents methyl or -L1-Z1 and R1* represents hydrogen. Accordingly, is preferred that (i) R1 represents -L1Z1, R1* represents hydrogen and R3 represents hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl or C2-C4 alkenyl, or (ii) R1 represents methyl, R1* represents hydrogen and R3 represents -L3Z3, or (iii) R1 represents -L1Z1, and R1* represents hydrogen and R3 represents -L3Z3.

[0013] Conjugates comprising one quinolinium moiety are preferred. Accordingly, it is particularly preferred that R1 represents -L1Z1, R1* represents hydrogen and R3 represents hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl or C2-C4 alkenyl. It is also particularly preferred that R1 represents methyl, R1* represents hydrogen and R3 represents -L3Z3.

[0014] Typically, when R3 does not represents -L3Z3, it represents hydrogen, methyl or -CH2CH=CH2, preferably hydrogen or -CH2CH=CH2. When R3 does not represent hydrogen, there is a stereochemical centre at the 3' position. Conjugates of the invention are typically racemic at this position, but under some circumstances (R) stereochemistry or (S) at the 3' position, that is the position where the R3 moiety is attached, is preferred.

[0015] Typically, A represents

Typically, B represents methyl. Typically, R2 represents ethyl. Typically, R4 represents -CH2CH(CH3)CH3.

[0016] Preferably, A represents

B represents methyl, R2 represents ethyl and R4 represents -CH2CH(CH3)CH3.

[0017] Typically, the C1-C6 alkylene moiety which L1 and L3 independently represent is a C1-C3 alkylene moiety.

[0018] Typically, the C2-C6 alkenylene moiety which may L1 and L3 independently represent is a C3-C5 alkenylene moiety.

[0019] For the avoidance of doubt, the -(CH2CH2O)n(CH2)m- moiety which L1 and L3 may represent can be attached to Z1 or Z3 at either end of the -(CH2CH2O)n(CH2)m-moiety, ie. Z-(CH2CH2O)n(CH2)m- or -(CH2CH2O)n(CH2)m-Z. Typically, n represents 1 or 2. Typically, m represents 0 or 2.

[0020] Preferably, L1 represents a C1-C6 alkylene moiety, preferably a C1-C3 alkylene moiety, for example a -CH2CH2- or -CH2CH2CH2- moiety.

[0021] Preferably, L3 represents a C2-C6 alkenylene moiety, preferably a C3-C5 alkenylene moiety, for example a -CH=CHCH2-, -CH=CHCH2CH2-, or - CH=CHCH2CH2CH2- moiety.

[0022] Quinolinium rings Z1 and Z3 independently represent a moiety of formula (II*):

in which Q1* to Q7* independently represent a hydrogen atom, a C1-C6 haloalkyl group (such as -CF3), a -OR' group (such as -OH), or a -NR'R" group (such as -NMe2), wherein R' and R" are the same or different and represent hydrogen or a C1-C6 alkyl group, and wherein four to seven of Q1* to Q7* represent hydrogen.

[0023] Typically, R' and R" are the same or different and represent hydrogen or methyl.

[0024] As discussed above, four to seven of Q1* to Q7* represent hydrogen, for example five of Q1* to Q7* represent hydrogen (in which case the quinolinium carries two substituents), or six of Q1* to Q7* represent hydrogen (in which case the quinolinium carries one substituent), or all seven of Q1* to Q7* represent hydrogen (in which case the quinolinium is unsubstituted).

[0025] Preferred examples of quinolinium rings Z1 and Z3 are moieties of formula (II*a), (II*b) and (II*c):







[0026] In a preferred embodiment:
  • R1 represents -L1Z1, R1* represents hydrogen and R3 represents hydrogen or -CH2CH=CH2, preferably hydrogen;
  • A represents

    B represents methyl, R2 represents ethyl and R4 represents -CH2CH(CH3)CH3;
  • L1 represents a C1-C6 alkylene moiety, preferably a C1-C3 alkylene moiety; and
  • Z1 represents a moiety of formula (II*), (II*a), (II*b) or (II*c) as defined above. In a further preferred embodiment:
  • R1 represents methyl, R1* represents hydrogen and R3 represents -L3Z3;
  • A represents

    B represents methyl, R2 represents ethyl and R4 represents -CH2CH(CH3)CH3;
  • L3 represents a C2-C6 alkenylene moiety, preferably a C3-C5 alkenylene moiety; and
  • Z3 represents a moiety of formula (II*), (II*a), (II*b) or (II*c) as defined above.


[0027] Particularly preferred conjugates of the invention are Compounds 1 to 6 depicted below and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:















[0028] As used herein, a C1-C6 alkyl group is straight or branched and is typically a C1-C3 alkyl group. Preferred C1-C6 alkyl groups include, for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, pentyl and hexyl.

[0029] As used herein, a C1-C6 alkylene group is a said C1-C6 alkyl group which is divalent.

[0030] As used herein, a C2-C4 alkenyl group is straight or branched and is typically a C2-C3 alkenyl group. A C2-C4 alkenyl group typically contains one carbon-carbon double bond. The carbon-carbon double bond can have cis or trans configuration, with trans preferred. Preferred C2-C4 alkenyl group include -CH=CH2, -CH2CH=CH2 and -CH2CH2CH=CH2

[0031] As used herein, a C2-C6 alkenylene group is a divalent moiety which may be straight or branched and is typically a C3-C5 alkenylene group. A C2-C6 alkenylene group typically contains one carbon-carbon double bond. The carbon-carbon double bond can have cis or trans configuration, with trans preferred.

[0032] As used herein, a halogen is typically chlorine, fluorine, bromine or iodine and is preferably chlorine, bromine or fluorine.

[0033] As used herein, a C1-C6 haloalkyl group is a said C1-C6 alkyl substituted by one or more said halogen atoms. Typically, it is substituted by 1, 2 or 3 said halogen atoms. Particularly preferred haloalkyl groups are -CF3 and -CCl3.

[0034] As used herein, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt is a salt with a pharmaceutically acceptable acid or base. Pharmaceutically acceptable acids include both inorganic acids such as hydrochloric, sulphuric, phosphoric, diphosphoric, hydrobromic or nitric acid and organic acids such as citric, fumaric, maleic, malic, ascorbic, succinic, tartaric, benzoic, acetic, methanesulphonic, ethanesulphonic, benzenesulphonic or p-toluenesulphonic acid. Pharmaceutically acceptable bases include alkali metal (e.g. sodium or potassium) and alkali earth metal (e.g. calcium or magnesium) hydroxides and organic bases such as alkyl amines, aralkyl amines or heterocyclic amines.

[0035] The conjugates of the invention may be prepared by standard methods known in the art. Cyclosporin is a known compound which is commercially available, and can then be linked to mitochondrial targeting groups using standard techniques known in the art, such as those described in the Examples that follow.

[0036] The conjugates of the invention are useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases or disorders susceptible to amelioration by inhibition of cyclophilin D, particularly in humans. Thus, the conjugates of the invention may preferably be used to improve the condition of a patient who has suffered from, is suffering from or is at risk of suffering from ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In particular, the compounds of the invention may be used in the treatment of cerebral or myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis may also be treated by inhibition of cyclophilin D.

[0037] Preferably said disease or disorder susceptible to amelioration by inhibition of cyclophilin D is ischaemia/reperfusion injury or a neurodegenerative disease. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Most preferably however said disease or disorder susceptible to amelioration by inhibition of cyclophilin D is ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Multiple sclerosis is also particularly preferred.

[0038] The conjugates of the invention may be administered to humans in various manners such as oral, rectal, vaginal, parenteral, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intraarterial, intrathecal, intrabronchial, subcutaneous, intradermal, intravenous, nasal, buccal or sublingual routes of administration. The particular mode of administration and dosage regimen will be selected by the attending physician, taking into account a number of factors including the age, weight and condition of the patient.

[0039] The pharmaceutical compositions that contain the conjugates of the invention as an active principal will normally be formulated with an appropriate pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, carrier or diluent depending upon the particular mode of administration being used. For instance, parenteral formulations are usually injectable fluids that use pharmaceutically and physiologically acceptable fluids such as physiological saline, balanced salt solutions, or the like as a vehicle. Oral formulations, on the other hand, may be solids, e.g. tablets or capsules, or liquid solutions or suspensions.

[0040] Compositions may be formulated in unit dosage form, i.e., in the form of discrete portions containing a unit dose, or a multiple or sub-unit of a unit dose.

[0041] The amount of the conjugate of the invention that is given to a patient will depend upon on the activity of the particular conjugate in question. Further factors include the condition being treated, the nature of the patient under treatment and the severity of the condition under treatment. The timing of administration of the conjugate should be determined by medical personnel, depending on whether the use is prophylactic or to treat ischemia/reperfusion injury. As a skilled physician will appreciate, and as with any drug, the conjugate may be toxic at very high doses. For example, the agent may be administered at a dose of from 0.01 to 30 mg/kg body weight, such as from 0.1 to 10 mg/kg, more preferably from 0.1 to 5 mg/kg body weight. A preferred dosage is about 1 mg/kg.

[0042] The conjugates of the invention may be given alone or in combination with one or more additional active agents useful for treating a disease or disorder susceptible to amelioration by inhibition of cyclophilin D, such as ischaemia/reperfusion injury or a neurodegenerative disease. Two or more active agents are typically administered simultaneously, separately or sequentially. The active ingredients are typically administered as a combined preparation.

[0043] The conjugates of the invention can also be used as reagents. For example, they are useful in non-therapeutic experimental procedures in which selective inhibition of cyclophilin D is required. The conjugates of the invention are therefore useful as laboratory reagents for assessing the involvement of cyclophilin D in cellular processes, such as cell death. No such reagents are currently available. Typically, said non-therapeutic experimental procedure is an assay.

[0044] The following Examples illustrate the invention.

EXAMPLES


Materials and Methods



[0045] All commercially available solvents and reagents were used without further treatment as received unless otherwise noted. NMR spectra were measured with a Bruker DRX 500 or 600 MHz spectrometer; chemical shifts are expressed in ppm relative to TMS as an internal standard and coupling constants (J) in Hz. LC-MS spectra were obtained using a Waters ZQ2000 single quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionisation (ESI), using an analytical C4 column (Phenomenex Gemini, 50 x 3.6 mm, 5 µm) and an AB gradient of 50-95 % for B at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute, where eluent A was 0.1:5:95 formic acid/methanol/water and eluent B was 0.1:5:95 formic acid/water/methanol. High resolution mass spectra were acquired on a Waters LCT time of flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionisation (ESI) or chemical ionization (CI).

Synthesis of Intermediate 1: 1-(pent-4-enyl)quinolinium



[0046] 



[0047] To a solution of quinoline (1 g, 7.74 mmol) in EtOAc was added 5-bromo-pent-1-ene (1.27 g, 8.51 mmol) and this mixture was heated to reflux overnight. The mixture was allowed to cool before concentration under reduced pressure. Intermediate 1 was isolated as a light brown oil (1.54 g, 99%).
LCMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C14H16N+, 198.29; found 198.10.

Synthesis of Compound 1: [Gly-(1S,2R,E)-8-quinolinium-1-hydroxy-2-methyloct-4-ene]1 CsA



[0048] 



[0049] To a solution of Cyclosporin A (75 mg, 0.06 mmol) in DCM (2 mL) was added Intermediate 1, 1-(pent-4-en-1-yl)quinolinium (23 mg, 0.072 mmol) and Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst (7 mg, 0.01 mmol, 17mol%). The reaction was stirred in the microwave at 90 °C for 30 minutes and then allowed to cool. Triethylamine was added to the mixture and then stirred overnight with excess P(CH2OH)3 to coordinate the ruthenium catalyst. This was then washed away with brine and water before the mixture was passed through a Stratospheres PL Thiol MP SPE cartridge (polymer Lab, Varian Inc) to remove any remaining catalyst. The crude product was purified by flash reverse-phase chromatography (MeOH:H2O:formic acid) to give Compound 1 as a brown solid (15 mg, 17%).
HRMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C65H115N11O12, 1358.84; found 1357.95.

Synthesis of Intermediate 2: [Sar-Allyl]3 CsA



[0050] 



[0051] To a stirred solution of 1.8M lithium diisopropylamide (39 mL, 70 mmol) in anhydrous THF at -10 °C was added dropwise a cooled solution of Cyclosporin A (6 g, 5 mmol) and lithium chloride (3.81 g, 89 mmol) in THF. The mixture was stirred at this temperature for an hour before the dropwise addition of a solution of allyl bromide (0.755 ml, 8.7 mmol) in THF. After a further 3 hours stirring at -5 °C the reaction was quenched by the addition of 5% acetic acid in methanol solution.

[0052] The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure before dissolution in DCM and water. The DCM layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted twice with DCM. The organic fractions were combined, dried over magnesium sulphate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The product was purified by flash silica chromatography (0-20% acetone:DCM gradient) to give Intermediate 2 as an off-white solid (1.144g, 18%).
HRMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C65H115N11O12, 1242.88; found 1242.89.

Synthesis of Compound 2: [Sar-(E)-Hexen-2-yl 6-quinolinium]3 CsA



[0053] 



[0054] Compound 2 was prepared from Intermediate 1 and Intermediate 2 using the method described above for the synthesis of Compound 1.

[0055] The crude product was purified by flash reverse-phase chromatography (MeOH:H2O:formic acid) to give Compound 2 as a dark brown solid (1.144g, 18%).
HRMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C65H115N11O12, 1412.93; found 1411.82.

Synthesis of Intermediate 3: 4-(dimethylamino)-1-(pent-4-en-1-yl)-7-(trifluoromethyl)quinolinium



[0056] 



[0057] To a solution of 4-dimethylamino-7-(trifluoromethyl) quinoline (1.98 g, 6.4 mmol) in EtOAc was added 5-bromo-pent-1-ene (1.6 g, 10.7 mmol) and this mixture was heated to reflux overnight. The mixture was allowed to cool before concentration under reduced pressure. Intermediate 3 was isolated as a brown oil (2.41 g, 94 %).
LCMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C17H20F3N2+, 309.36; found 309.10.
1H NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3) δ 9.52 - 9.44 (m, 1H), 8.50 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (s, 1H), 7.84 (dd, J = 8.9, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (dd, J = 11.8, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 5.83 (ddt, J = 17.0, 10.2, 6.7 Hz, 1H), 5.20 - 5.03 (m, 2H), 4.86 - 4.63 (m, 2H), 3.60 (s, 6H), 2.33 - 2.19 (m, 2H), 2.15 - 2.00 (m, 2H).

Synthesis of Compound 3: [Gly(1S,2R,E)-10-(4-dimethylamino-7-trifluoromethylquinolinium)1-hydroxy-2-methyldec-4-enoic acid]1 CsA



[0058] 



[0059] Compound 3 was prepared from Cyclosporin A and Intermediate 3 using the method described above for the synthesis of Compound 1. The crude product was purified by flash reverse-phase chromatography (MeOH:H2O:formic acid) to give Compound 3 as a brown solid (32 mg, 26%).
HRMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C76H125F3N13O12 +, 1469.91; found 1468.89.

Synthesis of Compound 4



[0060] 



[0061] Compound 4 was prepared using analogous methods tot those described above. The crude product was purified by flash reverse-phase chromatography (MeOH:H2O:formic acid) to give Compound 4 as a brown solid (15 mg, 17%).
HRMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C79H129F3N13O12 +, 1509.94; found 1510.04

Synthesis of Intermediate 4: 4-hydroxy-1-(pent-4-enyl)quinolinium



[0062] 



[0063] To a solution of 4-methoxyquinoline (550mg, 3.45 mmol) in EtOAc was added 5-bromo-pent-1-ene (1.55 g, 10.35 mmol) and this mixture was heated to reflux overnight. The mixture was allowed to cool before concentration under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography (100:8:1 DCM: MeOH: NH3). Intermediate 4 was isolated as a pale yellow oil (420mg, 53%).
1H NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.48 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (dd, J = 8.4, 7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.52 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.47 - 7.35 (m, 2H), 6.27 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 5.99 - 5.72 (m, 2H), 5.10 (dd, J = 14.4, 5.4 Hz, 2H), 4.12 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 2.16 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.02 - 1.92 (m, 2H).

Synthesis of Compound 5: [Gly-(1S,2R,E)-8-(4-hydroxyquinolinium)-1-hydroxy-2-methyloct-4-ene]1 CsA



[0064] 



[0065] Compound 5 was prepared from Cyclosporin A and Intermediate 4 using the method described above for the synthesis of Compound 1.

[0066] The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography (200:8:1 DCM: MeOH: NH3) to give Compound 5 as a brown solid (23 mg, 20%).
HRMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C73H121N12O13 +, 1374.84; found 1373.83.

Synthesis of Compound 6: [Sar-(E)-Hexen-2-yl-6-(4-hydroxy)quinolinium]3 CsA



[0067] 



[0068] Compound 6 was prepared from Intermediate 2 and Intermediate 4 using the method described above for the synthesis of Compound 1. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography (200:8:1 DCM: MeOH: NH3)) to give Compound 6 as a dark brown solid (11 mg, 13%).
HRMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C77H127N12O13 +, 1428.93; found 1428.01.

Synthesis of Intermediate 5: 6-Chloro-3-nitro-2-aminopyridine



[0069] 



[0070] To a flask charged with 2,6-dichloro-3-nitropyridine (3 g, 15.5 mmol) was added 2M ammonia in isopropanol solution (18 ml, 36 mmol) and this mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction was driven to completion by the addition of ammonia solution (aq). The resulting precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and then dried over vacuum for an hour. Intermediate 5 was isolated as a fluffy yellow powder (1.38 g, 51%).
LCMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C5H4ClN3O2, 173.56; found 174.00.

Synthesis of Intermediate 6: N2-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5-nitropyridine-2,6-diamine



[0071] 



[0072] To a solution of Intermediate 5 (500 mg, 2.9 mmol) in isopropanol was added 4-fluorobenzylamine (463 µl, 4.06 mmol) and triethylamine (805 µl, 5.8 mmol). This mixture was stirred at 90°C for 40 minutes in the microwave. Water was added to the mixture and the resulting precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and then dried over vacuum for an hour. Intermediate 6 was isolated as a bright yellow solid (661 mg, 88%).
LCMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C12H11FN4O2, 262.24; found 263.00.

Synthesis of Intermediate 7: N6-(4-fluorobenzyl)pyridine-2,3,6-triamine



[0073] 



[0074] To a solution of Intermediate 6 (300 mg, 1.15 mmol) in ethanol was added tin (II) chloride dihydrate (1.29 g, 5.72 mmol). This mixture was heated to reflux before the dropwise addition of a solution of sodium borohydride (216 mg, 5.72 mmol) in ethanol. The resulting mixture was refluxed for 90 minutes and allowed to cool before filtration through celite and concentration under reduced pressure. Intermediate 7 was isolated as an orange residue (230 mg, 86%).
LCMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C12H13FN4, 232.26; found 233.10.

Synthesis of Intermediate 8: N-(2-amino-6-((4-fluorobenzyl)amino)pyridin-3-yl)pent-4-enamide



[0075] 



[0076] To a solution of Intermediate 7 (300 mg, 1.14 mmol) in DCM stirring at 0°C was added triethylamine (240 µl, 1.71 mmol) followed by the dropwise addition of 4-pentenoyl chloride (140 µl, 1.25 mmol). This mixture was stirred at 0°C for 2 hours after which the solution was washed with 2M HCl solution and brine before drying over MgSO4 and concentrating under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography (5% MeOH in DCM) to give Intermediate 8 as a pale yellow solid (195 mg, 54%).
LCMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C17H19FN4O, 314.36; found 315.10.

Synthesis of Reference Compound 1: [Gly-(1S,2R,E)-7-(flupirtine)-1-hydroxy-2-methyloct-4-enamide]1 CsA



[0077] 



[0078] Reference Compound 1 was prepared from Cyclosporin A and Intermediate 7 using the method described above for the synthesis of Compound 1. The crude product was purified by flash reverse-phase chromatography (MeOH:H2O:formic acid) to give Reference Compound 1 as a dark blue solid (26 mg, 21%).
HRMS (m/z): [MH]+ calcd. for C76H124FN15O13, 1474.92; found 1474.95.

Example 1 - Cyclophilin D enzyme assay



[0079] A competitive fluorescence polarization assay (FP-assay) was used. The assay uses a fluorescein-labeled CsA, the synthesis of which is described below, which competes for binding to Cylophilin D (CypD) with an unlabeled inhibitor.

[0080] Polarization was determined by measuring the ratios between parallel and perpendicular polarized light and calculated as described by Roehrl et al 2004.

[0081] Titration of a single probe concentration against different enzyme concentrations was used to determine the dissociation constant (Kd) (Nikolovska et al 2004). The inhibitor constant (Ki) was calculated with the equation shown below in Equation A. (Nikolovska et al 2004).



[0082] Equation A: Ki is the inhibitor constant, L50 is IC50, L*50 is the concentration of free labeled ligand at 50% inhibition, R0 is concentration of protein at 0% inhibition, Kd dissociation constant.

Measurement of Ki for Compounds 1 to 6



[0083] Assays were conducted in 384-black low flange non-binding microtiter plates (Corning Inc., Tewksbury, Maryland, USA). A total solution of 80 µL was used consisting of 3 components, fluorescent cyclosporine probe (FP-CsA) 45 nM, enzyme 40 nM, test compound (10-10000 nM). Three replicates were used for this experiment. Controls that were used in this experiment were, a blank with Hepes buffer, control with just probe, positive control with probe and enzyme and a reference control of FP-CsA to CsA and enzyme. DMSO% in total solution should remain lower than 1%.

[0084] The Ki values measured for Compounds 1 to 6 are set out below in Table 1.
Table 1
Test compoundKi for cylophilin D binding (nM)
Compound 1 28
Compound 2 125
Compound 3 24
Compound 4 73
Compound 5 64
Compound 6 46

Preparation of the fluorescein labelled cyclosporine (FP-CsA)



[0085] The fluorescein labelled cyclosporine (FP-CsA) was prepared according to the scheme set out below.


Formation of the vinyl methyl ester derivative (2) from cyclosporine A (1).



[0086] A solution of cyclosporine A (1.00 g, 0.832 mmol), methyl-4-vinylbenzoate (270 mg, 1.665 mmol) and Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst (20 mg, 0.032, 4%) in dichloromethane (4 ml) was stirred at reflux (60°C) under nitrogen for 48 hours. T.l.c. analysis (acetone : cyclohexane, 1 : 1) of the reaction mixture showed the presence of the product (Rf 0.63) and complete consumption of the cyclosporine A starting material (Rf 0.65). LCMS analysis also confirmed the presence of the product. The reaction mixture was pre-absorbed on silica gel and purified by flash column chromatography (ethyl acetate : cyclohexane, 1 : 1 to ethyl acetate to ethyl acetate : methanol, 10%) and the solvent removed in vacuo to give a grey solid. The grey solid was then further purified by removing the Grubbs-Hoveida catalyst by letting it through an SPE-thiol column (eluant: methanol). The solvent was removed in vacuo to give the corresponding methyl ester as a white crystalline solid (950 mg, 86.4%).
HRMS (TOF MS ES+): found 1344.8726 [M+Na]+ C69H115N11O14Na requires 1344.8523.

Formation of the vinyl acid derivative (3)



[0087] The methyl ester 2 (260 mg, 0.196 mMol) was stirred in acetone (4 mL) and an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (2M, 2 mL). After 19 hours a white precipitate had formed and T.l.c. analysis (acetone : cyclohexane, 1: 1) showed the presence of one product (Rf 0.17) and some residual starting material/impurity (Rf 0.31). The acetone was removed from the reaction mixture and the aqueous layer left behind was washed with ethyl acetate. The aqueous layer was acidified with an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid (1M) and washed again with ethyl acetate. The collected ethyl acetate layers were dried (magnesium sulfate), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a white/pale brown hygroscopic solid which was then diluted in acetonitrile and filtered again (eluant acetonitrile). The filtrate was finally concentrated in vacuo to give the acid derivative 3 (220 mg, 86%) as a white/pale brown hygroscopic solid.
HRMS (TOF MS ES+): found 1330.8366 [M+Na]+ C68H113N11O14Na requires 1330.8173.

Synthesis of Fmoc protected intermediate (4)



[0088] HATU coupling reagent (230 mg, 0.6037 mMol) was added to a solution of the CsA acid 3 derivative (395 mg, 0.3018 mMol), chloroform (10 mL) and triethylamine (168 µL) which had been stirring for 5 minutes under an atmosphere of nitrogen at room temperature. After a further 5 minutes 2-[2-(Fmoc-amino)ethoxy ethylamine hydrochloride (257 mg, 0.7083 mMol) was added to the stirring reaction mixture and left to react for 22.5 hours. LCMS analysis revealed the presence of the product in the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and successively diluted in ethyl acetate and washed with an aq hydrochloric acid solution (1M). The collected organic layers were dried over magnesium sulphate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give a residue which was purified by flash column chromatography (chloroform to chloroform : methanol, 3%) to give the Fmoc derivative 4 (406 mg, 83%) as a white hygroscopic solid.
HRMS (TOF MS ES+): found 1638.9775 [M+Na]+ C87H133N13O16Na requires 1638.9891.

Synthesis of the cyclosporin - PEG-amine derivative (5)



[0089] To the FmoC protected CsA analogue 4 (97 mg, 0.06 mMol) was added piperidine (0.5 mL), and the reaction was stirred overnight at rt. The piperidine was removed on a rotary evaporator and the residue purified by chromatography using 5-10% MeOH containing 2% 880 ammonia in CH2Cl2. This gave the intermediate amine 5 (26 mg, 0.019 mMol, 31%) as yellow gum. This was used directly in the next step.

Synthesis of the fluorescein - PEG-CsA derivative (6)



[0090] To the amine 5 (22 mg, 18.6 mMol), 5-carboxyfluorescein (7 mg, 0.0187 mMol) and PyBOP (10 mg, 19 mMol) in CH2Cl2 (1 mL) was added diisopropylethylamine (9 mg, 13 µL, 76 mMol) and the reaction stirred overnight. The volatiles were removed on the rotary evaporator and the residue purified using reverse phase chromatography, C18, 5% MeOH to 95% MeOH in water. This gave the product 6 (10 mg, 0.0057 mMol, 48%).
LCMS (ES+) 1775 (M+Na+), 1752 (M+H+).

Example 2 - neuroprotective properties of Compound 1



[0091] Induction of relapsing-progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was achieved as reported in Al-Izki et al. 2014, Brain, 137(Pt 1):92-108.

[0092] ABH mice were injected with 1 mg mouse spinal cord homogenate in Freund's adjuvant on days 0 and 7 post-induction to induce EAE and this was repeated on day 28 post-induction to induce a relapse. Animals were injected daily intraperitoneally with either vehicle [ethanol cremophor:phosphate buffered saline (1:1:18)] or 1 mg/ kg Compound 1 on day 33 shortly before the anticipated onset of signs of relapse.

[0093] Animals were monitored for the development of clinical disease and the results in Figure 1 represent the mean daily clinical score after induction of relapse. These results demonstrate that Compound 1 inhibits the accumulation of neurological deficit following onset of signs during EAE.

Example 3 - assessment of toxicity of cyclosporin conjugates



[0094] A series of experiments were conducted to assess the toxicity of (a) unmodified cyclosporin A (CsA), (b) cyclosporin conjugated to a quinolinium moiety [Compound 1], and (c) cyclosporin conjugated to a flupirtine moiety [Reference Compound 1].

[0095] HepG2 cells were plated on 96-well tissue culture treated black walled clear bottomed polystyrene plates, 100 µL, (3000 cells) per well. After 24 hours the cells were dosed with the test compounds at a range of concentrations. At the end of the incubation period, the cells were loaded with the relevant dye/antibody for each cell health markers set out below. The plates were then scanned using an automated fluorescent cellular imager [ArrayScan VTI (Thermo Scientific Cellomics)].

[0096] The following cell health markers were measured:
  1. a. Cell count - a decreasing number of cells per well indicates toxicity due to necrosis, apoptosis or a reduction in cellular proliferation.
  2. b. Nuclear area - an increase in nuclear size indicates necrosis or G2 cell cycle arrest and a decrease indicates apoptosis.
  3. c. DNA structure - an increase in DNA structure indicates chromosomal instability and DNA fragmentation.
  4. d. Cell membrane permeability - an increase in cell membrane permeability is a general indicator of cell death.
  5. e. Mitochondrial mass - a decrease in mitochondrial mass indicates loss of total mitochondria and an increase implies mitochondrial swelling or an adaptive response to cellular energy demands.
  6. f. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) - a decrease indicates a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial toxicity, as well as a potential role in apoptosis signalling; an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential indicates an adaptive response to cellular energy demands.
  7. g. Cytochrome c release - an increase in cytochrome c release is one of the hallmarks of the apoptosis signalling cascade.


[0097] The results are set out Figure 2, in which 100% represents no effect in the assay. These results show that conjugation of a quinolinium moiety to cyclosporin significantly reduces the toxicity of cyclosporin. A similar reduction in toxicity is not observed when cyclosporin in conjugated to other mitochondrial targeting groups, such as flupirtine.

Example 4 - inhibition of Ca2+ mediated PT pore formation



[0098] In order to assess the efficiency of compounds on Ca2+ mediated PT pore formation we measured calcium retention capacity (CRC) of isolated mouse liver mitochondria. The Ca2+ concentration in the extra-mitochondrial solution was measured using the membrane impermeable low affinity fluorescent Ca2+ sensitive dye Fluo-5N following repeated addition of Ca2+ boluses (10 µM). Energised mitochondria take up Ca2+, resulting in a declining fluorescent signal following the Ca2+ bolus induced peak. Mitochondria take up and buffer Ca2+ up to a threshold when intramitochondrial [Ca2+] reaches threshold to induce PT. This results in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential preventing further Ca2+ uptake, resulting in lack of Ca2+ buffering, represented by stepwise increase in extramitochondrial [Ca2+] at each Ca2+ addition. The amount of Ca2+ required to induce PT characterizes its Ca2+ sensitivity and defines mitochondrial CRC. Inhibition of CypD, the Ca2+ sensor of PT, thus leads to increased CRC.

[0099] Compound 1 inhibited Ca2+-induced PT (i.e. increased CRC) with significantly higher potency as compared to CsA and the non-immunosuppressive inhibitor SmBzCsA. Compound 1 showed half-maximal inhibition at ∼10 nM as compared to ∼40nM for CsA in the CRC assay. These results show that Compound 1 is approximately a four-fold more potent inhibitor of Ca2+ mediated PT pore opening than CsA. In order to confirm that Compound 1 selectively targets CypD to reduce Ca2+ sensitivity of PTP formation, the efficiency of the compound was tested on mitochondria isolated from CypD knockout mice. Neither CsA nor Compound 1 had any effect on CRC from CypD KO mice (see Fig. 3), whereas CRC in the mitochondria from WT mice was significantly increased by both compounds, proving that Compound 1 inhibits PT pore opening via binding to CypD.

Example 5 - effects on mitochondrial membrane potential or oxidative phosphorylation



[0100] To assess the potential adverse effects of compounds, we measured fundamental mitochondrial functional parameters both in DIV 8-9 rat cultured neurons and in isolated mitochondria, and compared the effects of CsA and Compound 1 above concentrations causing maximal inhibition of the PT pore (>200 and 40nM, respectively).

[0101] Neither mitochondrial membrane potential (Fig. 4A,B), oxygen consumption (Fig. 4C, D) and ATP production (Fig. 4E, F) were affected by supramaximal Compound 1 (up to 200 nM) or CsA (up to 1 µM) in either models. Compound 1 inhibited neuronal mitochondrial membrane potential only at ∼25 times higher concentrations (1 µM), as compared to that of its maximal inhibitory effect (40 nM) on the PT pore.

Example 6 - estimation of cellular CypA activity using an HIV based cellular assay



[0102] To test cellular cyclophilin selectivity of compounds of the invention we conducted a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) based cellular assay responsive to CypA inhibition. HIV-1 infection of cell lines can be inhibited by the expression of an artificial antiviral protein, comprising the RBCC domains of owl monkey tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5) fused to human CypA (TRIM-CypA). TRIM-CypA inhibited viral infection by 32 fold in the absence of drug (Fig. 5A). CsA rescued infectivity through CypA inhibition whereas Compound 1 rescued infectivity poorly and only at concentrations >10 µM (Fig. 5B). A drop to infectivity in non-restricting cells was due to drug toxicity at 5 µM CsA and above. Compound 1 showed no evidence for toxicity at any of the concentrations tested.

Example 7 - pharmacokinetics



[0103] The pharmacokinetics of Compound 1 were determined in normal ABH mice at 10 mg/kg i.p. at 2 and 4 h. The results are set out below in Table 2.
Table 2
Time (hours)PlasmaBrain
µg/mLµMµg/mLnM
2 13.74±3.84 10.1 0.018±0.0019 13.2
4 4.90±0.85 3.60 0.017±0.0016 12.5


[0104] Compound 1 showed high plasma levels of 10.1 µM at 2 h and appreciable brain levels (13.2 nM). This is broadly comparable with CsA in rodents (Schinkel et al, 1995.

Example 8 - immunosuppressive properties



[0105] The inhibitory effect of Compound 1 on T cell responses was examined in vitro. Concanavalin A and mitogenic CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies induce T cell proliferative responses that were inhibited by CsA typically in the 1-10 nM range (Fig. 6 panels A to C). Compound 1 only exhibited marked immunomodulation in the 1-10 µM range and was cytopathic at 100 µM. Similarly, Compound 1 exhibited markedly less immunosuppressive activity compared to CsA in myelin peptide (myelin oligoglycoprotein residues 35-55) antigen-induced T cell proliferation.

[0106] To identify non-immunosuppressive doses of potential neuroprotective compounds for use in models of MS (Al-Izki et al, 2014) we employed a model using epicutaneous application of the ear skin sensitizer, oxazolone, to induce a T cell proliferative response in the draining auricular lymph node peaking 3 days later (Baker et al, 2011). Dose-response of Compound 1 in this contact hypersensitivity model showed: daily injection of 1 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg i.p. had no effect while 10 mg/kg i.p. inhibited the T cell response. CsA was immunosuppressive (Fig. 6D) at doses known to inhibit T cell proliferation and EAE (O'Neill et al, 1992). Daily dosing of 1 mg/kg i.p. Compound 1 was therefore chosen as a non-immunosuppressive dose for in vivo studies.

Example 9 - further investigations into the neuroprotective properties of Compound 1



[0107] To support the results discussed above in Example 2, further studies were carried out which supported the conclusions from Example 2. Specifically, the outcome was supported by objective rotarod activity outcomes (Fig. 7A). Animals exhibited comparable rotorod activity on day 27 during the first remission (168.8 ± 21.8s Compound 1 vs. 161.1 ± 16.0 s vehicle) but there was significantly (P<0.001) less loss of motor co-ordination following treatment with Compound 1 (Fig. 7A). During the second remission after relapse Compound 1-treated animals maintained activity on an accelerating rotorod for 135.0 ± 42.9 s compared to only 46.3 ± 10.1 s in vehicle treated animals. This activity strongly correlates with spinal nerve content in this assay (Al-Izki et al, 2012b) and it was found that Compound 1 treated animals lost significantly (P<0.01) less nerves (Fig. 7B) and axons (Fig. 7C) within the spinal cord than vehicle treated animals. Thus Compound 1 exhibits neuroprotective potential and can inhibit loss of nerves due to the inflammatory penumbra during EAE.

Example 10 - further investigations into inhibition of Ca2+ mediated PT pore formation



[0108] Further experiments were carried out using the techniques discussed in Example 4. In particular, the inhibition of Ca2+ mediated PT pore formation was determined for Compounds 1, 3 and 4 and Reference Compound 1 at two different concentrations (40nM and 8 nM). The results at 40nM are depicted in Figure 8A. The results at 8nM are depicted in Figure 8B.

[0109] As is evident from Figure 8A, at the 40 nM concentration, Compounds 1, 3 and 4 show similar levels of inhibition of Ca2+ mediated PT pore formation. When the concentration of test compound is reduced to 8nM, Compounds 3 and 4 retain high levels inhibition of Ca2+ mediated PT pore formation, whilst Compound 1 shows negligible inhibition at this concentration.

Biological Methods


Mitochondrial isolation



[0110] Subcellular fractionation was performed as previously described (Astin et al, 2013). Briefly, C57BL/6J WT or cypD (Lim et al, 2011) -/- male mice of 3-6 months were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and their liver was removed and placed immediately into ice-cold isolation buffer (250mM mannitol, 5 mM HEPES, 0.5 mM EGTA, pH 7.4). At 4°C, the liver was rinsed in PBS to remove excess blood, and any fat and connective tissue was eliminated. PBS was then replaced with isolation buffer containing 1 mM PMSF, and the liver was chopped into pieces (approximately 2 mm in length). Tissue was then homogenized in this solution until no solid matter remained, and then centrifuged at 800G for 10 minutes at 4°C. The nuclear pellet was then discarded, and the post nuclear supernatant retained, and centrifuged at 10300G for another 10 minutes at 4°C. The postmitochondrial supernatant was discarded, and the mitochondrial pellet was resuspended in isolation buffer and PMSF, and kept on ice. Protein levels were quantified using a ThermoScientific BCA protein quantification assay, as per manufacturer's instructions.

Calcium retention capacity assay



[0111] Isolated mitochondria were resuspended (500 µg protein/ml) in MSK buffer (75 mM mannitol, 25 mM sucrose, 5 mM potassium phosphate monobasic, 20 mM Tris-HCl, 100 mM KCl, and 0.1% bovine serum albumin, pH 7.4) supplemented with 10 mM succinate, 1 µM rotenone and 1 µM Fluo5N. 200 µl mitochondrial suspension per well was used in 96 well microplates. Compounds were incubated for ten minutes before the plate was assayed in a Fluostar Optima plate reader, using Ex/Em filters at 480/520 nM; CaCl2 was injected approximately every 6.5 minutes for 80 minutes (12 total injections, final concentration of 75 µM). To calculate % inhibition of Ca2+ induced pore opening, first areas under each curve were calculated, and controls without CaCl2 addition were subtracted as background. The background corrected values were then expressed as the fraction of controls without mitochondria, representing the total amount of Ca2+ added, unbuffered by mitochondria. Percentage inhibition for each [compound] was then calculated as the % of the corresponding value for the untreated condition. Significance was assessed by one way ANOVA, in comparison to CsA control. For experiments with CypD -/- mice, 100ul mitochondrial suspension per well was used. CaCl2 was injected approximately every 6.5 minutes for 135 minutes (20 total injections, final concentration of 266 µM). Data were background corrected and expressed as the fraction of controls without mitochondria, and then normalised to the wild type no drug condition. Significance was assessed by one way ANOVA.

Respirometry



[0112] Oxygen consumption was measured using Oroboros Oxygraph-2K as previously described (Astin et al, 2013). Prior to the assay, the Oxygraph chambers were calibrated with Miro5 buffer (0.5 mM EGTA, 3 mM MgCl2.6H2O, 60 mM K-lactobionate, 20 mM taurine, 10 mM KH2PO4, 20 mM HEPES, 110 mM sucrose, 1 g/l BSA (essentially fatty acid free)). Isolated mitochondria were suspended in Miro5 (at 100-200 µg/ml), loaded into the chamber together with substrates (malate, 2 mM; glutamate, 10 mM), and the O2 flow signal was allowed to stabilise to the basal respiration rate (approx. 10 min). Compounds were added to the chambers at the following concentrations and order: DMSO/CsA/ Compound 1 (concentration as indicated) to produce basal rate after compound (basal AC), ADP (2.5 mM) to give state 3 respiration, oligomycin (2.5 µM) to give leak respiration, FCCP (titrated to produce maximal respiratory capacity), and antimycin A (2.5 µM) to give non-mitochondrial respiration.

Measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential



[0113] DIV 8-9 rat cortical neurons were incubated for 40 minutes at 37C with the cell permeant cationic dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM, 25 nM), and fluorescence was measured using the ImageXpress Micro XL system (Molecular Devices). Fluorescence was measured for 7 minutes prior to addition of DMSO, CsA or Compound 1 (both at 40 nM and 1 µM), and then for a further 50 minutes before the addition of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP, 5 µM) as a positive control. The minimum value after the addition of compound (prior to the addition of FCCP) was taken, and this was expressed as a % (using baseline as 100% and FCCP as 0%), and then normalized to DMSO (100%). Significance was assessed by one-way ANOVA, in comparison to DMSO control.

Measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ex vivo)



[0114] Freshly isolated mouse liver mitochondria were suspended in MSK buffer containing 10ug/ml rhodamine123 (dequench mode), at a concentration of 500ug/ml, and plated in an opaque black 96 well plate. Baseline fluorescence was then measured every 60 seconds for 5 minutes in a Fluostar Optima (Ex480/Em520) before manual addition of compounds (concentrations as specified). Fluorescence measurements were continued for 45 minutes until the addition of 2uM FCCP, followed by a further 10 minutes of fluorescence readings.

ATP production



[0115] Freshly isolated mitochondria were resuspended in MSK buffer (containing 10mM glutamate and 2mM malate) at 1mg/ml and plated in opaque white 96 well plates, or for neuronal assays, neurons were used 9 days after plating at 15000 cells/well. Drugs were added at the concentrations specified, and for mitochondrial assays were incubated for ten minutes before addition of ADP (5mM), followed by another 45minutes. For neuronal assays, drugs were added in neurobasal medium and incubated for 60 minutes. Cell Titer Glo reagent was then added, and the plate shaken for 2 minutes in the dark to lyse cells/mitochondria and release ATP. The plates were incubated a further ten minutes and then luminescence values read using an Optima FluoStar.

High Content Screening



[0116] HepG2 cells were seeded in black, clear-bottom 96-well tissue culture plates at a density of 3000 cells per well. The cells were incubated for 24 h in culture medium and then exposed (in three replicates) to increasing doses of test compound or to vehicle control (0.5% DMSO). The cells were exposed for 72h before running the high content screening (HCS) assays. The HCS assay was multiplexed to determine mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial mass using MitoTracker® (Life Technologies), cytochrome C release (antibody, Abcam), membrane permeability, YO-PRO™-1 (Life Technologies). Cell count, nuclear size and DNA structure were also measured Hoechst 33342 (Life Technologies). Following staining of the HepG2 cells fluorescence was analyzed by image acquisition with a Thermo Fisher Cellomics® ArrayScanVTI High Content Screening Reader (ThermoFisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA) and vHCS™view software (ThermoFisher Scientific Inc.). Twenty fields were imaged per well using a 10x wide field objective. The image acquisition data were normalized to vehicle control values. Dose-response curves were defined and evaluated with the following equations:
  1. (1)

  2. (2)

  3. (3)

In which C represents the test compound concentration and R0, R∞, c, and ω are fitting parameters. The final response at a given concentration C is expressed as R(t(ξ(C; c; ω));RO;R∞). It was restricted such that ω > 0, which implies R → R0 as C → 0 and R → R∞ as C → ∞. The coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated for each compound and dose-response curve. An R2 value of greater than 0.65 was used as QC criteria and was required in all response curves

Cell based assay for CypA activity



[0117] VSV-G pseudotyped GFP-encoding HIV-1 vector was prepared by triple plasmid transfection of 293T cells with Fugene 6 (Roche) as follows. Confluent 293T cells in a 10cm dish were transfected with a mixture of 10 µl Fugene-6 in 200µl OptiMEM (Gibco), with 1 µg of pMDG VSV-G expression vector (Naldini et al, 1996), 1 µg of p8.91 HIV-1 gag-pol expression vector (Zufferey et al, 1997), and 1.5 µg of lentiviral expression vector encoding enhanced GFP protein, CSGW (Bainbridge et al, 2001). Viral supernatant was collected 48h post transfection and stored at -80°C.

[0118] To generate CRFK cells stably expressing N-terminally HA-tagged TRIM-CypA from an EXN-based vector, MLV vector was prepared as above, using pMDG, CMVi MLV gag-pol expression vector, and gammaretroviral expression vector encoding a fusion protein comprising human CypA downstream of owl monkey TRIM5 RBCC (EXN-TRIM-CypA) (Ylinen et al, 2010). CRFK cells, which are null for TRIM5α activity (McEwan et al, 2009) were then transduced with vector, followed by selection of cells in 1 mg/ml G418 (Invitrogen).

[0119] To test for the ability of drug to rescue HIV-1 infectivity in the presence of TRIM-CypA, CRFK cells were infected with a single dose of virus that infected around 20% of the cells, in the presence of DMSO, CsA (0.3-10 µM) or Compound 1 (0.6-20 µM). Infectivity was measured by flow cytometry, 48 hrs post infection.

In vitro mitogenic T cell stimulation



[0120] Spleens were isolated from ABH mice and tissue was homogenized through a cell strainer (BD Biosciences, Oxford, UK) into Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM; Invitrogen, Paisley, UK) containing 10 % foetal calf serum (FCS, Gibco, Invitrogen), 2 mM L-glutamine (Invitrogen, UK), 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 µg/ml streptomycin (Invitrogen) and 50 µM 2-mercaptoethanol (Invitrogen). Cells were centrifuged at 500g for 5min and erythrocytes were lysed using 0.87 % ammonium chloride following incubation for 5 min at 37°C. Cells were washed and viable cells counted using trypan blue (Sigma Aldrich, Poole, UK) exclusion. 4 x 10-5 cells/well were incubated 96 well microtest U-bottom plates (Falcon BD, Oxford UK) in final volume of 200µl DMEM medium. Cells were incubated with either ten-fold dilutions (range 10nM-10µM) of CSA (Sandoz, Basel, CH) or Compound 1 diluted in DMEM medium from a 50mM stock in dimethyl sulphoxide. Cells were incubated with either: 5µg/ml concanavalin A (Con A. Sigma Aldrich) mitogen; 0.5µg/ml mitogenic mouse CD3 and mouse CD28-specific antibodies (Pharmingen, Oxford, UK). The cells were incubated in 37°C during 18-22 h, before addition of 1 µCi3H-thymidine (PerkinElmer, MA, USA) per well. After additional incubation in 16-20 h the 96-well plates (Microtest U-bottom, Falcon BD) were harvested (Harvester 96, Mach III M, TOMTEC) onto glass-fibre filters (PerkinElmer). After drying, a scintillation sheet (MeltiLexA; PerkinElmer) was melted onto the filter using a hot plate (RET Basic, IKA, Germany). Samples were analysed using scintillation counting (MicroBeta Plus, Liquid Scintillation Counter, PerkinElmer, WallacOy, Finland) and 3H-thymidine incorporation was assessed in at least triplicate samples.

Myelin antigen-induced T cell proliferation



[0121] ABH mice were injected subcutaneously in the flank with 100 µg myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide residues 35-55 (Cambridge Research Biochemicals Ltd, Billingham, UK) emulsified in Freunds adjuvant containing 200 µg Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 RA (DifcoBacto, MI, USA) on day 0 and 7 (Amor et al, 1994). Spleens were collected and prepared and analysed as above except that mitogens were replaced with 5µg/ml MOG 35-55 peptide and cells were incubated for 72h before addition of tritiated thymidine.

Pharmacokinetic analysis



[0122] ABH mice (n=4) were injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of either 10 mg/kg Compound 1. Animals were killed 2h and 4h later with C02 overdose and blood was immediately collected from the heart following death and added to Microtainer (BD, Oxford, UK) tubes, centrifuged using an Eppindorf microfuge and plasma collected. Following the remove of blood the brain was rapidly (<30s) dissected from the skull and stored at -80°C prior to analysis by a Contract research Organisation (CRO) using liquid crystal mass spectroscopy.

In vivo T cell proliferation



[0123] The contact sensitiser 4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one (oxazolone, OX, Sigma) was dissolved (25 mg/ml) in 4:1 acetone:olive oil (AOO). Mice (n=3 per group) received epicutaneous application of either 25 µl of 2.5% OX or AOO on the dorsum of the ear on day 0 (O'Neill et al, 1992). The draining auricular lymph nodes were removed three days later and the induced proliferative response was assessed as previously described. Briefly, 5 x 105 cells per well were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with glutamate (Gibco®, Invitrogen Ltd, Paisley UK), supplemented with 0.5mM sodium, in round-bottomed 96 well plates overnight at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2.In the presence of 1 µCi3H-thymidine (PerkinElmer, MA, USA) per well. DNA synthesis was estimated using beta scintillation counting as above Animals received daily i.p. injections of either vehicle or Compound 1 from day zero to three (O'Neill et al, 1992); (Al-Izki et al, 2012a).Results are expressed as mean± SEM thymidine incorporation counts per minute (CPM)

Induction of relapsing-progressive EAE



[0124] Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 1mg freeze-dried mouse spinal cord homogenate (SCH) in Freunds adjuvant on day zero and seven as described previously (Al-Izki et al, 2012a). After the initial paralytic disease and subsequent remission, a relapse was induced by a further injection of SCH in Freunds incomplete adjuvant on day 28 to induce a relapse 7 days later (Al-Izki et al, 2012a). Studies were randomised, blinded and powered as described previously (Al-Izki et al, 2012a). Neurological scores were graded as 0 = normal; 1 = limp tail, 2 = impaired righting reflex, 3 = hindlimb paresis, 4 = complete hindlimb paralysis, and 5 = moribund/death (Al-Izki et al, 2012a). Results are expressed as mean ± SEM maximum or minimum neurological score and mean day of onset± SD. Differences between groups were assessed using Mann Whitney U statistics(Al-Izki et al, 2012a).Motor control and co-ordination was assessed on an accelerating (4 - 40 rpm, accelerating at 6rpm/25s) RotaRod (ENV-575M, Med Associates Inc, St. Albans, VT, USA) as described previously (Al-Izki et al, 2012a). This was performed one day before induction of relapse and at the termination of the experiment on day 45. RotaRod assessment was performed blinded to treatment. Animals were randomised to vehicle or treatment based on their RotaRod scores. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM time that animals maintained rotarod activity. Differences between groups were assessed using Students t test, incorporating a test for equality of variance and normality (Al-Izki et al, 2012a).At the end of the experiment the spinal cord was removed and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for heavy chain neurofilament on spinal cord was performed and total nerve content of each spinal cord was estimated following calibration against neurofilament protein standards as described previously (Jackson et al, 2005); (Al-Izki et al, 2012a).

Neurofilament ELISA



[0125] Neurofilament level as a correlate of spinal cord axonal content was determined as followed. Spinal cords were collected from the spinal columns of untreated (n=11) and Compound 1 1 mg/kg treated (n=13) animals at the second remission phase of disease post relapse at day 45 post disease induction. Tissues snap frozen and stored at -80°C prior to homogenisation. Tissues were homogenised in a glass homogeniser in 1ml/100 mg of spinal cord tissue wet weight homogenisation buffer (0.2 mM PMSF, ImM EDTA, ImM EGTA, 4M Urea, 10 mM Tris-HCl Sigma UK, pH 7.2,) plus 1:100 HALT protease inhibitor cocktail (Thermo Fisher, UK) and further homogenised by sonication twice for 10 seconds (Cole-Parmer Instruments, USA). Samples were spun down at 13,000 rpm in a bench top centrifuge (Eppendorf, UK) and the supernatant was collected and stored at - 80°C prior to neurofilament determination. Samples were thawed on ice and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for heavy chain neurofilament was performed. Briefly, a 96 well plate was coated overnight at 4°C with capture antibody (1:5000 SMI-35 anti-neurofilament H. Covance Inc. Cambridge Bioscience, Cambridge, UK) in coating buffer (0.15M Na2CO3, 0.35M NaHCO3, Sigma, UK, pH 9.6. Following one wash in wash buffer (150mM NaCl, 10mM Tris-HCl, 0.1% Tween 20, Sigma, UK pH 7.5), nonspecific binding was blocked by incubation with 5% bovine serum albumin (Sigma, UK) in wash buffer for 1 hour at room temperature. Following a wash step, samples and standards (Porcine neurofilament heavy chain, Chemicon International, UK) were diluted in wash buffer with 1% bovine serum albumin and incubated on the plate for 1 hour at room temperature. Following 5 wash steps, the detector antibody was applied (1:1000 rabbit anti-NF200, Sigma, UK) and incubated for a further hour at room temperature. The plate was washed 5 times and the reporter antibody was applied (1:1000 swine anti-rabbit HRP conjugate, DAKO, UK).Following a final 5 washes, tetramethylbenzidine substrate (Sigma, UK) was applied and colour production measured on a BioTek Synergy HT (USA) plate reader at 450nm.

[0126] The protein content of the samples was determined by micro-BCA assay (Pierce, Thermo Fisher, UK and axonal neurofilament levels in each were calculated as µg neurofilament per mg of total protein in each sample.

SMI32/SMI35 Ratio



[0127] A 96 well plate was coated with either SMI35 anti-phosphorylated Nf-H or SMI32 anti-non-phosphorylated Nf-H which is a marker of axonal damage/dystrophy (Covance Inc. Cambridge Bioscience, Cambridge, UK) antibodies at 1;5000 dilution as above. Due to the nature of the epitope, an absolute standard for SMI32 reactive neurofilaments was unavailable. Nf-HSMI32 was therefore presented as a proportion of total neurofilament as measured by absorbance level and corrected for total protein levels in each sample.

Statistics



[0128] The clinical scores are presented as the mean daily neurological score ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Differences in clinical scores were assessed using non-parametric, Mann Whitney U statistics. Differences in rota activity; and quantitative neurofilament ELISA was assessed using a students t test incorporating tests for equality of variance using Sigmaplot (Systat Software, Inc., San Jose, USA) (Al-Izki et al, 2012a). Calcium retention assay: Data were background corrected and expressed as the fraction of controls without mitochondria, and then normalised to the wild type no drug condition. Significance was assessed by one way ANOVA.

[0129] Respirometry: Data were analysed by subtracting the antimycin A respiration rate to give mitochondrial specific O2 flow, and were then expressed as a percentage of the basal O2 flow. Significance was assessed by one way ANOVA, in comparison to DMSO control.

[0130] Mitochondrial membrane potential measurements: Data were normalized, using the baseline as 100% and the FCCP value as 0% and normalized to DMSO. Significance was assessed by one-way ANOVA, in comparison to DMSO control.

[0131] ATP production: Data were normalised to DMSO control, and significance assessed by one way ANOVA.

List of references



[0132] 

Al-Izki S, Pryce, O'Neill J. K, Butter C, Giovannoni G, Amor S, Baker D (2012a) Practical guide to the induction of relapsing progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Biozzi ABH mouse. Mult Scler Rel Dis 1: 29-38

Al-Izki S, Pryce G, Hankey DJ, Lidster K, von Kutzleben SM, Browne L, Clutterbuck L, Posada C, Edith Chan AW, Amor S et al (2014) Lesional-targeting of neuroprotection to the inflammatory penumbra in experimental multiple sclerosis. Brain : a journal of neurology 137: 92-108

Al-Izki S, Pryce G, O'Neill JK, Butter C, Giovannoni G, Amor S, Baker D (2012b) Practical guide to the induction of relapsing progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Biozzi ABH mouse. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders 1: 29-38

Amor S, Groome N, Linington C, Morris MM, Dornmair K, Gardinier MV, Matthieu JM, Baker D (1994) Identification of epitopes of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein for the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL and Biozzi AB/H mice. J Immunol 153: 4349-4356

Astin R, Bentham R, Djafarzadeh S, Horscroft JA, Kuc RE, Leung PS, Skipworth JR, Vicencio JM, Davenport AP, Murray AJ et al (2013) No evidence for a local renin-angiotensin system in liver mitochondria. Scientific reports 3: 2467

Bainbridge JW, Stephens C, Parsley K, Demaison C, Halfyard A, Thrasher AJ, Ali RR (2001) In vivo gene transfer to the mouse eye using an HIV-based lentiviral vector; efficient long-term transduction of corneal endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium. Gene therapy 8: 1665-1668.

Baker D, Gerritsen W, Rundle J, Amor S (2011) Critical appraisal of animal models of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 17: 647-657

Jackson SJ, Pryce G, Diemel LT, Cuzner ML, Baker D (2005) Cannabinoid-receptor 1 null mice are susceptible to neurofilament damage and caspase 3 activation. Neuroscience 134: 261-268

Lim SY, Hausenloy DJ, Arjun S, Price AN, Davidson SM, Lythgoe MF, Yellon DM (2011) Mitochondrial cyclophilin-D as a potential therapeutic target for post-myocardial infarction heart failure. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 15: 2443-2451

McEwan WA, Schaller T, Ylinen LM, Hosie MJ, Towers GJ, Willett BJ (2009) Truncation of TRIM5 in the Feliformia explains the absence of retroviral restriction in cells of the domestic cat. Journal of virology 83: 8270-827

Naldini L, Blömer U, Gallay P, Ory D, Mulligan R, Gage FH, Verma IM, Trono D (1996) In vivo gene delivery and stable transduction of non-dividing cells by a lentiviral vector. Science 272: 263-26

Nikolovska et al, 2004, Development and optimization of a binding assay for the XIAP BIR3 domain using fluorescence polarization. Anal Biochem. 332(2):261-73.

O'Neill JK, Baker D, Davison AN, Maggon KK, Jaffee BD, Turk JL (1992) Therapy of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and the role of the blood-brain barrier: elucidation by the action of Brequinar sodium. Journal of neuroimmunology 38: 53-62

Roehrl et al, 2004. A General Framework for Development and Data Analysis of Competitive High-Throughput Screens for Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions by Fluorescence Polarization., Biochemistry., 43(51):16056-66.

Schinkel AH, Wagenaar E, van Deemter L, Mol CA, Borst P (1995) Absence of the mdr1a P-Glycoprotein in mice affects tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone, digoxin, and cyclosporin A. The Journal of clinical investigation 96: 1698-1705

Ylinen LM, Price AJ, Rasaiyaah J, Hue S, Rose NJ, Marzetta F, James LC, Towers GJ (2010) Conformational Adaptation of Asian Macaque TRIMCyp Directs Lineage Specific Antiviral Activity. PLoS pathogens 6: e1001062

Zufferey R, Nagy D, Mandel RJ, Naldini L, Trono D (1997) Multiply attenuated lentiviral vector achieves efficient gene delivery in vivo. Nature Biotech 15: 871-875




Claims

1. A cyclosporin conjugate which is a compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

in which:

- A represents

- B represents methyl or ethyl,

- R2 represents ethyl or isopropyl,

- R4 represents -CH2CH(CH3)CH3, -CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH3, -CH(CH3)CH3 or - CH(CH3)CH2CH3,

- either (a) one of R1 and R1* represents -L1Z1 and the other represents hydrogen, and R3 represents hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl or C2-C4 alkenyl, or (b) one of R1 and R1* represents methyl and the other represents hydrogen, and R3 represents -L3Z3, or (c) one of R1 and R1* represents -L1Z1 and the other represents hydrogen, and R3 represents -L3Z3,

- L1 and L3 independently represent a C1-C6 alkylene moiety, a C2-C6 alkenylene moiety or a -(CH2CH2O)n(CH2)m- moiety in which n represents 1 to 3 and m represents 0 to 2, and

- Z1 and Z3 independently represent a moiety of formula (II*):

in which Q1* to Q7* independently represent a hydrogen atom, a C1-C6 haloalkyl group, a -OR' group, or a -NR'R" group, wherein R' and R" are the same or different and represent hydrogen or a C1-C6 alkyl group, and wherein four to seven of Q1* to Q7* represent hydrogen.


 
2. The conjugate according to claim 1, in which A represents

B represents methyl, R2 represents ethyl and R4 represents -CH2CH(CH3)CH3.
 
3. The conjugate according to claim 1 or 2, in which R1 represents -L1Z1, R1* represents hydrogen and R3 represents hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl or C2-C4 alkenyl.
 
4. The conjugate according to claim 3, in which L1 represents, a C1-C6 alkylene moiety.
 
5. The conjugate according to claim 1 or 2, in which R1 represents methyl, R1* represents hydrogen and R3 represents -L3Z3.
 
6. The conjugate according to claim 5, in which L3 represents a C2-C6 alkenylene moiety.
 
7. The conjugate according to any one of the preceding claims, in which Z1 and Z3 independently represent a moiety of formula (II*a), (II*b) or (II*c):






 
8. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a conjugate according to any one of claims 1 to 7 and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent or carrier.
 
9. A conjugate according to any one of claims 1 to 7 for use in the treatment of the human or animal body.
 
10. A conjugate according to any one of claims 1 to 7 for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease or disorder susceptible to amelioration by inhibition of cyclophilin D.
 
11. A conjugate for use according to claim 10 wherein, said disease or disorder is ischaemia/reperfusion injury or neurodegenerative disease.
 
12. Non-therapeutic use of a conjugate according to any one of claims 1 to 7 as a reagent for an experimental assay.
 


Ansprüche

1. Cyclosporinkonjugat, das eine Verbindung der Formel (I) ist, oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon:

in der

- A

darstellt

- B Methyl oder Ethyl darstellt,

- R2 Ethyl oder Isopropyl darstellt,

- R4-CH2CH(CH3)CH3, -CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH3, -CH(CH3)CH3 oder - CH(CH3)CH2CH3 darstellt,

- entweder (a) eines von R1 und R1* -L1Z1 darstellt und das andere Wasserstoff darstellt, und R3 Wasserstoff, C1-C3-Alkyl oder C2-C4-Alkenyl darstellt, oder (b) eines von R1 und R1* Methyl darstellt und das andere Wasserstoff darstellt, und R3 - L3Z3 darstellt, oder (c) eines von R1 und R1* -L1Z1 darstellt und das andere Wasserstoff darstellt und R3 -L3Z3 darstellt,

- L1 und L3 unabhängig voneinander einen C1-C6-Alkylenanteil, einen C2-C6-Alkenylenanteil oder einen -(CH2CH2O)n(CH2)m-Anteil darstellen, in dem n 1 bis 3 darstellt und m 0 bis 2 darstellt, und

- Z1 und Z3 unabhängig voneinander einen Anteil der Formel (II*) darstellen:

in der Q1* bis Q7* unabhängig voneinander ein Wassersatoffatom darstellen, eine C1-C6-Haloalkylgruppe, a -OR'-Gruppe, oder eine -NR'R"-Gruppe, wobei R' und R" gleich oder verschieden sind und Wasserstoff oder eine C1-C6-Alkylgruppe darstellen, und wobei vier bis sieben von Q1* bis Q7* Wasserstoff darstellen.


 
2. Konjugat nach Anspruch 1, in dem A

darstellt, B Methyl darstellt, R2 Ethyl darstellt und R4 -CH2CH(CH3)CH3 darstellt.
 
3. Konjugat nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, in dem R1 -L1Z1 darstellt, R1* Wasserstoff darstellt und R3 Wasserstoff, C1-C3-Alkyl oder C2-C4-Alkenyl darstellt.
 
4. Konjugat nach Anspruch 3, in dem L1 einen C1-C6-Alkylenanteil darstellt.
 
5. Konjugat nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, in dem R1 Methyl darstellt, R1* Wasserstoff darstellt und R3 -L3Z3 darstellt.
 
6. Konjugat nach Anspruch 5, in dem L3 einen C2-C6-Alkylenanteil darstellt.
 
7. Konjugat nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, in dem Z1 und Z3 unabhängig voneinander einen Anteil der Formel (II*a), (II*b) oder (II*c):





darstellen.
 
8. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung umfassend ein Konjugat nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7 und einen pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Hilfsstoff, Verdünner oder Träger.
 
9. Konjugat nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung des menschlichen oder tierischen Körpers.
 
10. Konjugat nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung oder Vorbeugung einer Krankheit oder Störung, die durch Hemmung von Cyclophilin D verbessert werden kann.
 
11. Konjugat zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 10, wobei die Krankheit oder Störung eine Ischämie/Reperfusionsverletzung oder eine neurodegenerative Krankheit ist.
 
12. Nichttherapeutische Verwendung eines Konjugats nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7 als Reagens für einen experimentellen Assay.
 


Revendications

1. Conjugué de cyclosporine qui est un composé de formule (I), ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :

- A représente

- B représente un méthyle ou éthyle,

- R2 représente un éthyle ou isopropyle,

- R4 représente -CH2CH(CH3)CH3, -CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH3, -CH(CH3)CH3 ou -CH(CH3 )CH2CH3,

- soit (a) un de R1 et R1* représente -L1Z1 et l'autre représente l'hydrogène, et R3 représente l'hydrogène, un alkyle en C1-C3 ou un alcényle en C2-C4, soit (b) un de R1 et R1 * représente un méthyle et l'autre représente l'hydrogène, et R3 représente -L3Z3, soit (c) un de R1 et R1* représente -L1Z1 et l'autre représente l'hydrogène, et R3 représente-L3Z3,

- L1 et L3 représentent indépendamment un fragment d'alkylène en C1-C6, un fragment d'alcénylène en C2-C6 ou un fragment de -(CH2CH2O)n(CH2)m- où n vaut de 1 à 3 et m vaut de 0 à 2, et

- Z1 et Z3 représentent indépendamment un fragment de formule (II*) :

où Q1* à Q7* représentent indépendamment un atome d'hydrogène, un groupe halogénoalkyle en C1-C6, un groupe -OR', ou un groupe -NR'R", où R' et R" sont identiques ou différents et représentent l'hydrogène ou un groupe alkyle en C1-C6, et où quatre à sept de Q1* à Q7* représentent l'hydrogène.


 
2. Conjugué selon la revendication 1, dans lequel A représente

B représente un méthyle, R2 représente un éthyle et R4 représente -CH2CH(CH3)CH3.
 
3. Conjugué selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel R1 représente -L1Z1, R1* représente l'hydrogène et R3 représente l'hydrogène, un alkyle en C1-C3 ou un alcényle en C2-C4.
 
4. Conjugué selon la revendication 3, dans lequel L1 représente un fragment d'alkylène en C1-C6.
 
5. Conjugué selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel R1 représente un méthyle, R1* représente l'hydrogène et R3 représente -L3Z3.
 
6. Conjugué selon la revendication 5, dans lequel L3 représente un fragment d'alcénylène en C2-C6.
 
7. Conjugué selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel Z1 et Z3 représentent indépendamment un fragment de formule (II*a), (II*b) ou (II*c):






 
8. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant un conjugué selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7 et un excipient, diluant ou support pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
9. Conjugué selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7 destiné à une utilisation dans le traitement du corps humain ou animal.
 
10. Conjugué selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7 destiné à une utilisation dans le traitement ou la prévention d'une maladie ou d'un trouble pouvant être atténué par inhibition de la cyclophiline D.
 
11. Conjugué destiné à une utilisation selon la revendication 10, ladite maladie ou ledit trouble étant une blessure par reperfusion / ischémie ou une maladie neurodégénérative.
 
12. Utilisation non thérapeutique d'un conjugué selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7 en tant que réactif pour une analyse expérimentale.
 




Drawing



























REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description