(19)
(11)EP 3 192 796 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
04.09.2019 Bulletin 2019/36

(21)Application number: 16187936.6

(22)Date of filing:  14.07.2011
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C07D 487/04  (2006.01)
A61K 31/5025  (2006.01)

(54)

ALDOSE REDUCTASE INHIBITORS AND USES THEREOF

ALDOSEREDUKTASEHEMMER UND DEREN VERWENDUNGEN

INHIBITEURS D'ALDOSE RÉDUCTASE ET LEURS UTILISATIONS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 16.07.2010 US 365098 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
19.07.2017 Bulletin 2017/29

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
11807523.3 / 2593456

(73)Proprietor: The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
New York, NY 10027 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • WASMUTH, Andrew
    Brooklyn, NY 11209 (US)
  • LANDRY, Donald, W
    New York, NY 10027 (US)
  • DENG, Shi, Xian
    White Plains, NY 10605 (US)
  • RAMASAMY, Ravichandran
    Ardsley, NY 10502 (US)
  • SCHMIDT, Ann Marie
    Franklin Lakes, NY 07417 (US)
  • MYLARI, Banavara, L.
    East Lyme CT, NY 06333 (US)

(74)Representative: Barker Brettell LLP 
100 Hagley Road Edgbaston
Birmingham B16 8QQ
Birmingham B16 8QQ (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 401 981
US-A- 4 954 629
  
  • MYLARI B L ET AL: "ORALLY ACTIVE ALDOSE REDUCTASE INHIBITORS: INDAZOLEACETIC, OXOPYRIDAZINEACETIC, AND OXOPYRIDOPYRIDAZINEACETIC ACID DERIVATIVES", JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 35, no. 12, 1 January 1992 (1992-01-01), pages 2155-2162, XP008062107, ISSN: 0022-2623, DOI: 10.1021/JM00090A002
  • MYLARI B L ET AL: "NOVEL, POTENT ALDOSE REDUCTASE INHIBITORS : 3,4-DIHYDRO-4-OXO-3- ÚÚ5-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-2-BENZOTHIAZOLYL 3/4 -1-PHTHALAZINE-ACETIC ACID (ZOPOLRESTAT) AND CONGENERS", JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 34, no. 1, 1 January 1991 (1991-01-01), pages 108-122, XP000651681, ISSN: 0022-2623, DOI: 10.1021/JM00105A018
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to the use of novel inhibitors of aldose reductase for the manufacture of a medicament for promoting healthy aging of skin, the treatment of skin disorders, the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, the treatment of renal disorders, the treatment of angiogenesis disorders, such as cancer, treatment of tissue damage, such as non-cardiac tissue damage, the treatment of evolving myocardial infarction, and the treatment of various other disorders, such as complications arising from diabetes with the compounds and compositions of the invention. Other disorders can include, but are not limited to, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, infections of the skin, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, and the like.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Diabetes is one of the most common chronic disorders, in which high blood glucose levels result from a lack of insulin production and/or insulin sensitivity. Individuals with high blood glucose metabolize more glucose via a glucose to sorbitol to fructose pathway in insulin insensitive cells such as lenses, peripheral nerves and glomerulus. This leads to an overabundance of sorbitol in the cells, which is not easily diffused through the cell membrane. The increased concentration of sorbitol triggers an influx of water into the cells, causing swelling and potential damage.

[0003] Aldose reductase, an enzyme present in many parts of the body, catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol, one of the steps in the sorbitol pathway that is responsible for fructose formation from glucose. Aldose reductase activity increases as the glucose concentration rises in diabetic conditions where tissues are no longer insulin sensitive. These tissues include, for example, lenses, peripheral nerves and glomerulus of the kidney. Sorbitol cannot easily diffuse through cell membranes and therefore accumulates, causing osmotic damage, which in turn leads to retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. Therefore, inhibition of aldose reductase could prevent the buildup of sorbitol in insulin insensitive cells in diabetics, and presents a novel method to prevent the macrovascular and microvascular complications in diabetic patients. In addition, aldose reductase inhibitors, such as zopolrestat, may aid in treating or ameliorating such effects and have shown efficacy in wound healing in the corneal epithelium of diabetic animal models.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0004] In one aspect, the present invention is directed to the use of an inhibitor of aldose reductase for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a skin disorder, non-cardiac tissue damage, a cardiovascular disorder, a renal disorder, evolving myocardial infarction, stroke or complications arising from diabetes, wherein the aldose reductase inhibitor is a compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof,

wherein,

R1 is H, (C1-C6)-alkyl, (C1-C6)-hydroxyalkyl, or (C1-C6)-aminoalkyl;

X1 is N or CR3;

X2 is N or CR4;

X3 is N or CR5;

X4 is N or CR6; with the proviso that two or three of X1, X2, X3, or X4 are N;

Y is a bond, C=O, C=S, C=NH, or C=N(C1-C4)-alkyl;

Z is

A1 is NR11, O, S or CH2;

A2 is N or CH;

A3 is NR11, O, or S;

R3 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, trifluoroacetyl, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; or two of R3 through R6 or two of R7 through R10 taken together are (C1-C4)-alkylenedioxy; and

R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl; or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof.



[0005] The compounds of formula (I) may be useful, for example, in promoting healthy aging of skin, the treatment of skin disorders, the treatment of angiogenesis disorders, such as cancer, the treatment of tissue damage, the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, the treatment of renal disorders, the treatment of evolving myocardial infarction, the treatment of various other disorders, such as complications arising from diabetes. Such disorders can include, but are not limited to, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, infections of the skin, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, and the like.

[0006] The present invention is based, in part, on certain discoveries which are described more fully in the Examples section of the present application. For example, the present invention is based, in part, on the discovery of compounds of formula (I) and the aldose reductase inhibition exhibited by such compounds.

[0007] These and other embodiments of the invention are further described in the following sections of the application, including the Detailed Description, Examples, and Claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0008] 

FIG. 1 is a solubility curve for Compound A and zopolrestat in aqueous solution.

FIG. 2 shows aldose reductase inhibitory activity for Compound A and zopolrestat.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0009] Aldose reductase inhibitors are described, for example, in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,677,342; 5,155,259; 4,939,140; U.S. Patent Application Number 11/210,283; and Roy et al., in Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 10, Issue 1, 91-97. Aldose reductase inhibitors include, for example, zopolrestat, epalrestat, ranirestat, berberine and sorbinil. A novel family of aldose reductase inhibitors has been discovered and is described herein. Surprisingly, this novel family comprises compounds that exhibit dramatically improved properties such as, for example, binding affinity, solubility and polarity relative to other aldose reductase inhibitors such as, for example, zopolrestat. Compounds such as zopolrestat are described, for example in U.S. Patent No. 4,939,140; 6,159,976; and 6,570,013. The inventors have also surprisingly discovered that changes in functionalities at positions that often reside in a hydrophobic binding pocket of the enzyme do not abolish binding of the compounds to the enzyme. For example, incorporation of a polar moiety such as, for example, a nitrogen atom in the phenyl ring of the phthalazine, results in improvement of binding affinity and solubility. This is unexpected, in part due to the propensity of the phenyl ring of the phthalazine to occupy a hydrophobic pocket in the enzyme.

[0010] The compounds of formula (I) may be effective in treating, reducing, and/or suppressing complications related to aldose reductase activity such as, for example, neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and multiple complications in diabetic patients. They may also be effective in treating, reducing, and/or reducing cardiovascular and renal disorders in non-diabetic patients, as well as promoting healthy aging of skin or wound healing.

Abbreviations and Definitions



[0011] The term "aldose reductase inhibitor" refers to compounds and salts or solvates thereof that function by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme aldose reductase, which is primarily responsible for regulating metabolic reduction of aldoses. Exemplary aldoses include, but are not limited to, glucose or galactose, and their corresponding polyols, such as sorbitols and galactitols. Exemplary aldose reductase inhibitors may be found in U.S. Patent No. 4,939,140; 4,954,629; and 5,304, 557.

[0012] The term "compound of the invention" as used herein means a compound of formula (I). The term is also intended to encompass salts, hydrates, and solvates thereof.

[0013] The term "composition(s) of the invention" as used herein means compositions comprising a compound of the invention, and salts, hydrates, or solvates thereof. The compositions of the invention may further comprise other agents such as, for example, excipients, stabilants, lubricants, solvents, and the like.

[0014] The term "alkyl", as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to a monovalent aliphatic hydrocarbon radical having a straight chain, branched chain, monocyclic moiety, or polycyclic moiety or combinations thereof, wherein the radical is optionally substituted at one or more carbons of the straight chain, branched chain, monocyclic moiety, or polycyclic moiety or combinations thereof with one or more substituents at each carbon, where the one or more substituents are independently C1-C10 alkyl. Examples of "alkyl" groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, norbornyl, and the like.

[0015] The term "halogen", as used herein, means chlorine (Cl), fluorine (F), iodine (1) or bromine (Br).

[0016] The term "solvate" as used herein means a compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein molecules of a suitable solvent are incorporated in the crystal lattice. A suitable solvent is physiologically tolerable at the dosage administered. Examples of suitable solvents are ethanol, water and the like. When water is the solvent, the molecule is referred to as a "hydrate."

[0017] A "pharmaceutical composition" refers to a mixture of one or more of the compounds described herein, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, or hydrates thereof, with other chemical components, such as physiologically acceptable carriers and excipients. The purpose of a pharmaceutical composition is to facilitate administration of a compound to an organism or subject.

[0018] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" is intended to include salts derived from inorganic or organic acids including, for example hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, nitric, perchloric, phosphoric, formic, acetic, lactic, maleic, fumaric, succinic, tartaric, glycolic, salicylic, citric, methanesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, benzoic, malonic, trifluroacetic, trichloroacetic, naphthalene-2 sulfonic and other acids; and salts derived from inorganic or organic bases including, for example sodium, potassium, calcium, ammonium or tetrafluoroborate. Exemplary pharmaceutically acceptable salts are found, for example, in Berge, et al. (J. Pharm. Sci. 1977, 66(1), 1; and U.S. Patent Nos. 6,570,013 and 4,939,1 40). Pharmaceutically acceptable salts are also intended to encompass hemi-salts, wherein the ratio of compound:acid is respectively 2:1. Exemplary hemi-salts are those salts derived from acids comprising two carboxylic acid groups, such as malic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, tartaric acid, glutaric acid, oxalic acid, adipic acid and citric acid. Other exemplary hemi-salts are those salts derived from diprotic mineral acids such as sulfuric acid. Exemplary preferred hemi-salts include, but are not limited to, hemimaleate, hemifumarate, and hemisuccinate.

[0019] The term "acid" contemplates all pharmaceutically acceptable inorganic or organic acids. Inorganic acids include mineral acids such as hydrohalic acids, such as hydrobromic and hydrochloric acids, sulfuric acids, phosphoric acids and nitric acids. Organic acids include all pharmaceutically acceptable aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic carboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, tricarboxylic acids, and fatty acids. Preferred acids are straight chain or branched, saturated or unsaturated C1-C20 aliphatic carboxylic acids, which are optionally substituted by halogen or by hydroxyl groups, or C6-C12 aromatic carboxylic acids. Examples of such acids are carbonic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, isopropionic acid, valeric acid, alpha-hydroxy acids, such as glycolic acid and lactic acid, chloroacetic acid, benzoic acid, methane sulfonic acid, and salicylic acid. Examples of dicarboxylic acids include oxalic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, tataric acid and maleic acid. An example of a tricarboxylic acid is citric acid. Fatty acids include all pharmaceutically acceptable saturated or unsaturated aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids having 4 to 24 carbon atoms. Examples include butyric acid, isobutyric acid, sec-butyric acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and phenylsteric acid. Other acids include gluconic acid, glycoheptonic acid and lactobionic acid.

[0020] As used herein the term "about" is used herein to mean approximately, roughly, around, or in the region of. When the term "about" is used in conjunction with a numerical range, it modifies that range by extending the boundaries above and below the numerical values set forth. In general, the term "about" is used herein to modify a numerical value above and below the stated value by a variance of 20 percent up or down (higher or lower).

[0021] An "effective amount", "sufficient amount" or "therapeutically effective amount" as used herein is an amount of a compound that is sufficient to effect beneficial or desired results, including clinical results. As such, the effective amount may be sufficient, for example, to reduce or ameliorate the severity and/or duration of afflictions related to aldose reductase, or one or more symptoms thereof, prevent the advancement of conditions or symptoms related to afflictions related to aldose reductase, or enhance or otherwise improve the prophylactic or therapeutic effect(s) of another therapy. An effective amount also includes the amount of the compound that avoids or substantially attenuates undesirable side effects.

[0022] As used herein and as well understood in the art, "treatment" is an approach for obtaining beneficial or desired results, including clinical results. Beneficial or desired clinical results may include, but are not limited to, alleviation or amelioration of one or more symptoms or conditions, diminution of extent of disease or affliction, a stabilized (i.e., not worsening) state of disease or affliction, preventing spread of disease or affliction, delay or slowing of disease or affliction progression, amelioration or palliation of the disease or affliction state and remission (whether partial or total), whether detectable or undetectable. "Treatment" can also mean prolonging survival as compared to expected survival if not receiving treatment.

[0023] The phrase "in need thereof" refers to the need for symptomatic or asymptomatic relief from conditions related to aldose reductase activity or that may otherwise be relieved by the compounds and/or compositions of the invention.

[0024] The term "carrier" refers to a diluent, adjuvant, excipient, or vehicle with which a compound is administered. Non-limiting examples of such pharmaceutical carriers include liquids, such as water and oils, including those of petroleum, animal, vegetable or synthetic origin, such as peanut oil, soybean oil, mineral oil, sesame oil and the like. The pharmaceutical carriers may also be saline, gum acacia, gelatin, starch paste, talc, keratin, colloidal silica, urea, and the like. In addition, auxiliary, stabilizing, thickening, lubricating and coloring agents may be used. Other examples of suitable pharmaceutical carriers are described in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (Alfonso Gennaro ed., Krieger Publishing Company (1997); Remington's: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21st Ed. (Lippincot, Williams & Wilkins (2005); Modern Pharmaceutics, vol. 121 (Gilbert Banker and Christopher Rhodes, CRC Press (2002)).

[0025] The terms "animal," "subject" and "patient" as used herein include all members of the animal kingdom including, but not limited to, mammals (e.g., mice, rats, cats, monkeys, dogs, horses, swine, etc.) and humans.

[0026] In one embodiment, it is described the use of an inhibitor of aldose reductase for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a skin disorder, non-cardiac tissue damage, a cardiovascular disorder, a renal disorder, evolving myocardial infarction, stroke or complications arising from diabetes, wherein the aldose reductase inhibitor is a compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof,

wherein,

R1 is H, (C1-C6)-alkyl, (C1-C6)-hydroxyalkyl, or (C1-C6)-aminoalkyl;

X1 is N or CR3;

X2 is N or CR4;

X3 is N or CR5;

X4 is N or CR6; with the proviso that two or three of X1, X2, X3, or X4 are N;

Y is a bond, C=O, C=S, C=NH, or C=N(C1-C4)-alkyl;

Z is

A1 is NR11, O, S or CH2;

A2 is N or CH;

A3 is NR11, O, or S;

R3 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, trifluoroacetyl, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; or two of R3 through R6 or two of R7 through R10 taken together are (C1-C4)-alkylenedioxy; and

R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl.



[0027] It will be recognized by those of skill in the art that the designation of
Z is

or Z is

indicates that when Z is

the compounds of formula (I) are understood to encompass

and when Z is

the compounds of formula (I) are understood to encompass



[0028] In certain embodiments, R1 is hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl. In certain embodiments, R1 is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R1 is (C1-C6)-alkyl. In certain embodiments, R1 is tert-butyl.

[0029] In certain embodiments, R3 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen or haloalkyl. In certain embodiments, R3 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen or trihaloalkyl.

[0030] In certain embodiments, R3 through R6 are hydrogen.

[0031] In certain embodiments, R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen or haloalkyl. In certain embodiments, R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen or trihaloalkyl.

[0032] In certain embodiments, R7 and R10 are hydrogen.

[0033] In certain embodiments, R8 is hydrogen, halogen or haloalkyl. In certain embodiments, R8 is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R8 is halogen. In certain embodiments, R8 is haloalkyl.

[0034] In certain embodiments, R9 is hydrogen, halogen or haloalkyl. In certain embodiments, R9 is hydrogen. In certain embodiments, R9 is halogen. In certain embodiments, R9 is haloalkyl.

[0035] In certain embodiments, Y is C=O, C=S, C=NH, or C=N(C1-C4)-alkyl. In certain embodiments, Y is C=O or C=S. In certain embodiments, Y is C=O. In certain embodiments, Y is C=S. In certain embodiments, Y is C=NH, or C=N(C1-C4)-alkyl.

[0036] In certain embodiments, A1 is NR11, S or CH2. In certain embodiments, A1 is NR11 or O. In certain embodiments, A1 is NR11 or S. In certain embodiments, A1 is NR11. In certain embodiments, A1 is O. In certain embodiments, A1 is S.

[0037] In certain embodiments, A2 is N or CH. In certain embodiments, A1 is N. In certain embodiments, A1 is CH.

[0038] In certain embodiments, A3 is O or S. In certain embodiments, A3 is O. In certain embodiments, A3 is S.

[0039] In certain embodiments, X1 and X4 are nitrogen.

[0040] In certain embodiments, X1 and X2 are nitrogen.

[0041] In certain embodiments, X1 and X3 are nitrogen.

[0042] In certain embodiments, X2 and X3 are nitrogen.

[0043] In certain embodiments, X2 and X4 are nitrogen.

[0044] In certain embodiments, X3 and X4 are nitrogen.

[0045] In certain embodiments, Z is



[0046] In certain embodiments, Z is



[0047] In certain embodiments, R1 is hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CR4;

X3 is CR5;

Y is C=O;

Z is

A1 is NR11, O, or S;

A2 is N;

A3 is O, or S;

R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; and

R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl.



[0048] In certain embodiments, R1 is hydrogen or tert-butyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CR4;

X3 is CR5;

Y is C=O;

Z is

A1 is NR11, O or S;

A2 is N;

A3 is O or S;

R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, or haloalkyl; and

R11 is hydrogen, (C1-C4)-alkyl, or C(O)O-tert-butyl.



[0049] In certain embodiments, R1 is hydrogen or tert-butyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CH;

X3 is CH;

Y is C=O;

Z is

A1 is NR11, O or S;

A2 is N;

A3 is O or S;

R7, R8 and R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, or haloalkyl;

R9 is halogen, or haloalkyl; and

R11 is hydrogen or methyl.



[0050] In certain embodiments, R1 is hydrogen or tert-butyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CH;

X3 is CH;

Y is C=O;

Z is

A1 is NR11, O or S;

A2 is N;

A3 is O or S;

R7, R8 and R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, or haloalkyl;

R9 is chlorine, or trifluromethyl; and

R11 is hydrogen or methyl.



[0051] In certain embodiments, the compounds of formula (I) encompass Compound A or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, such as mono-, di-, or tri-ethanolamine salts.



[0052] In certain embodiments, the compounds of formula (I) encompass Compound B or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, such as mono-, di-, or tri-ethanolamine salts.


Synthesis



[0053] The compounds of formula (I) can generally be prepared, for example, according to Scheme 1.

where X1, X2, X3, X4, R1, A1, A2, R3 through R11 are defined as above and Q is a halogen, such as Cl, Br, 1, and the like, or any other leaving group, such as OH, OSO2Me, OMs, OTs, OTf, and the like.

[0054] In certain embodiments, the reaction can be carried out in the presence of a base, such as potassium tert-butoxide, sodium hydride, sodium methoxide, sodium ethoxide, and the like.

[0055] In certain embodiments, the reaction can be carried out using aprotic solvents, such as DMF, THF, NMP, and the like. In certain embodiments, the reaction can be carried out using alcohol solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, and the like.

[0056] In certain embodiments, the reaction can be carried out at temperatures of between about 5 °C to about 80 °C, such as 20 °C to 30 °C.

[0057] In certain embodiments, the reaction can be subsequently followed by further separation and purification steps, such as chromatography (e.g., flash, HPLC, MPLC, etc.), crystallization, and the like.

[0058] Other suitable reactions are possible, such as hydrolysis of the compound of formula (I) in to obtain different forms of the compound of formula (I). For example, compounds having tert-butoxy, methoxy, ethoxy, and the like group as R1 can be hydrolyzed by reacting with a suitable reagent, such as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), HCl, KOH, or the like, to obtain a compound of formula (I) having hydrogen as R1.

[0059] The compounds of formula (I) can also generally be prepared according to Scheme 2.



[0060] For example, the following exemplary synthesis can be carried out according to Scheme 3.



[0061] In some other embodiments, where Y is C=O, subsequent reactions can be carried out to replace C=O with C=S or C=N, or the like.

Compound of Formula (IB)



[0062] To obtain compounds of Formula (IB), different possibilities exist. For example, commercial sources, such as Sigma-Aldrich may be available. Alternatively, compounds of Formula (IB) can be synthesized by a variety of different reactions, such as a condensation reaction as schematically illustrated below in Scheme 4. The reaction can be carried out using a variety of solvents, such as ethanol, methanol, DMF, AcOH, and the like. The reaction can be carried out at temperatures of between about 5 °C to about 80 °C, such as, for example, 55 °C to 65 °C.



[0063] Additional exemplary descriptions regarding synthesis of certain compounds of Formula (IB) are described in J. Med. Chem. (1991), Vol. 34, pp. 108-122 and J. Med. Chem. (1992), Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 457-465.

Compounds of Formula (IA)



[0064] To obtain compounds of Formula (IA), different possibilities exist. For example, compounds of Formula (IA) can be synthesized as shown in Scheme 5. For example, to obtain a compound of Formula (IA) when Y is C=O, reaction of a compound represented by Formula (IIA) with a reagent that cause addition-cyclization reaction, such reaction with hydrazine or the like, can be carried out as shown below. The reaction can be carried out using a variety of solvents, such as ethanol, methanol, THF, and the like. The reaction can be carried out at temperatures of between about 20 °C to about 100 °C, such as 60 °C to 80 °C.



[0065] The compounds of Formula (IIA) can be obtained, for example, by a reaction of an anhydride with a reagent that causes a Wittig reaction, such as (tert-butoxycarbonylmethylene)-triphenylphosphorane, and the like, as shown in Scheme 6. The reaction can be carried out using aprotic solvents, such as CH2Cl2, THF, 1,4-dioxane, toluene, and the like. The reaction can be carried out at temperatures of between about 20 °C to about 110 °C, such as 55 °C to 70 °C.



[0066] In certain embodiments, reaction of an anhydride with a reagent that causes a Wittig reaction can lead to a mixture of the particular compounds represented by Formula (IIA), as exemplified below (Scheme 7). In such instances, if necessary, the mixture can be separated and purified to obtain the particular compounds of Formula (IIA) of interest.



[0067] The compounds of Formula (IIIA) can generally be obtained through commercial sources, such as Sigma-Aldrich. Alternatively, compounds of Formula (IIIA) can be obtained reaction of dicarboxylic acid derivative represented by Formula (IVA) with a suitable anhydride forming reagent, such as dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) or acetic anhydride, to obtain the compounds of Formula (IIIA) as schematically illustrated below (Scheme 8). The reaction can be carried out using non-nucleophilic solvents, such as acetic anhydride, THF, and the like. The reaction can be carried out at temperatures of between about 20 °C to about 100 °C, such as 60 °C to 80 °C.



[0068] The compounds of Formula (IV A) can generally be obtained through commercial sources, such as Sigma-Aldrich. Alternatively, compounds of Formula (IVA) can be obtained reaction of suitable precursor represented by Formula (VA) with a suitable dicarboxylic acid derivative forming reagent, such as NaMnO4 and/or NaOH, to obtain the compounds of Formula (IVA) as schematically illustrated below (Scheme 9). The reaction can be carried out using aqueous solvents, such as water. The reaction can be carried out at temperatures of between about 50 °C to about 100 °C, such as 85 °C to 95 °C.


Additional Synthetic Schemes for Compound of Formula (I)



[0069] Additional reactions can be carried out for the synthesis of additional embodiments of compounds represented by formula (I).

[0070] To obtain compounds of formula (I) where Y is C=S, the following synthesis can be carried out (Scheme 10).



[0071] To obtain compounds of Formula (I) where Y is C=NR*, wherein R* represents hydrogen or an alkyl substituent for example, the following synthesis can be carried out (Scheme 11).



[0072] Alternative reaction schemes may be possible. For example, the following synthetic scheme may be carried out to obtain compounds of formula (I) where Y is a covalent bond (Scheme 12).



[0073] In certain other embodiments, other types of reactions, such as the Perkins reaction, can be carried out to obtain compounds of formula (1) (Scheme 13). The Perkins reaction is shown illustrated below employing KOAc/Ac2O. However, other temperatures and other bases, such as K2CO3 and the like can be utilized.

[0074] Other substitutions and modifications are further possible as would be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art. For example, in Scheme 13, KOH can be utilized in place of NaOH. In Scheme 14 below, KOtBu can be used in place of NaH. Additionally, instead of DMF, NMP or THF can be utilized. Additional details of the Perkins reaction can be found in WO 03/061660.





[0075] In certain embodiments, the following alternative synthesis can be carried out (Scheme 15).


Exemplary reaction schemes to produce embodiments of compounds of formula (I)



[0076] Particular, non-limiting, illustrative synthetic schemes for certain embodiments are shown as follows.

[0077] Compounds of formula (I) where three of X1, X2, X3, and X4 are nitrogen and Y is C=O may be synthesized, for example, according to general Scheme 16.



[0078] Compounds of formula (I) where X1 and X4 are nitrogen and Y is C=O may be synthesized, for example, according to general Scheme 17.



[0079] Compounds of formula (I) where X2 and X3 are nitrogen and Y is C=O may be synthesized, for example, according to general Scheme 18.



[0080] Compounds of formula (I) where X1 and X2 or X3 and X4 are nitrogen and Y is C=O may be synthesized, for example, according to general Scheme 19.



[0081] Compounds of formula (I) where X1 and X3 or X2 and X4 are nitrogen and Y is C=O may be synthesized, for example, according to general Scheme 20.



[0082] In these examples described above, Q is a halogen or a leaving group, and R1 and R2 are independently hydrogen, halogen (such as Cl or F) or haloalkyl (such as CF3).

[0083] Compounds of formula (I) where X1 and X4 are nitrogen and Y is a covalent bond may be synthesized, for example, according to general Scheme 21.



[0084] In the examples described above, the substituents are as described previously herein.

[0085] Compounds of formula (I) can be useful in applications that benefit from inhibition of aldose reductase enzymes. Exemplary utility of aldose reductase inhibition may be found, for example, in U.S. Patent No. 5,677,342; 5,155,259; 4,939,140; U.S. Patent Application Number 11/210,283; and Roy et al., in Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 10, Issue 1, 91-97. Inhibition of aldose reductase also has been found to prevent metastasis of colon cancer and mitosis in colon cancer cells (See, for example, Tammali, R. et al., Inhibition of Aldose Reductase Prevents Colon Cancer Metastasis, Carcinogenesis 2011, doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgr102; published online: June 3, 2011; Angiogenesis 2011 May;14(2):209-21; and Mol. Cancer Ther. 2010, Apr; 9(4): 813-824).

[0086] In certain embodiments, compounds of formula (I) can be useful in promoting healthy aging of skin, the treatment of skin disorders, the treatment of angiogenesis disorders such as cancers, including colon cancer, the treatment of non-cardiac tissue damage, the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, the treatment of renal disorders, the treatment of evolving myocardial infarction, and the treatment various other disorders, such as complications arising from diabetes. Such disorders can include, but are not limited to, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, infections of the skin, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, and the like.

[0087] In certain embodiments, compounds of formula (I) can be useful in cardiovascular applications. For example, compounds and/or compositions of the invention can be used to treat patients undergoing a heart bypass surgery to improve recovery after the surgery. In another example, compounds and/or compositions of the invention can be used to inhibit or reduce accumulation or rapid onset of atherosclerotic plaque.

[0088] In some other embodiments, compounds of formula (I) can be useful in topical applications. For example, compounds and/or compositions of the invention can be used to retard or reduce skin aging.

[0089] In certain embodiments, compounds of formula (I) can be administered to a subject in need of treatment at dosages ranging from about 0.5 to about 25 mg/kg body weight of the subject to be treated per day, such as from about 1.0 to 10 mg/kg. However, additional variations are within the scope of the invention.

[0090] The compound of formula (I) can be administered alone or in combination with pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, such as diluents, fillers, aqueous solution, and even organic solvents. The compound and/or compositions of the invention can be administered as a tablet, powder, lozenge, syrup, injectable solution, and the like. Additional ingredients, such as flavoring, binder, excipients, and the like are within the scope of the invention.

[0091] In certain embodiments, pharmaceutically acceptable compositions can contain a compound of formula (I) and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof at a concentration ranging from about 0.01 to about 2 wt%, such as 0.01 to about 1 wt% or about 0.05 to about 0.5 wt%. The composition can be formulated as a solution, suspension, ointment, or a capsule, and the like. The pharmaceutical composition can be prepared as an aqueous solution and can contain additional components, such as preservatives, buffers, tonicity agents, antioxidants, stabilizers, viscosity-modifying ingredients and the like.

[0092] Other equivalent modes of administration can be found in U.S. Patent No. 4,939,140.

[0093] In one embodiment, the compound is administered orally.

[0094] The pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are well-known to those skilled in the art, and include, for example, adjuvants, diluents, excipients, fillers, lubricants and vehicles. Often, the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is chemically inert toward the active compounds and is non-toxic under the conditions of use. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable carriers may include, for example, water or saline solution, polymers such as polyethylene glycol, carbohydrates and derivatives thereof, oils, fatty acids, or alcohols.

[0095] The method of treatment, prevention and/or suppression of a condition related to aldose reductase comprises the steps of: i) identifying a subject in need of such treatment; (ii) providing a compound of formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, or hydrate thereof; or a composition comprising a compound of formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, or hydrate thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier; and (iii) administering said compound or composition in a therapeutically effective amount to treat, prevent and/or suppress the disease state or condition related to aldose reductase in a subject in need of such treatment.

[0096] The compounds of formula (I) are formulated into pharmaceutical compositions for administration to subjects in a biologically compatible form suitable for administration in vivo. According to another aspect, there is provided a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula I in admixture with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent and/or carrier. The pharmaceutically-acceptable carrier is "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the composition and not deleterious to the recipient thereof. The pharmaceutically-acceptable carriers employed herein may be selected from various organic or inorganic materials that are used as materials for pharmaceutical formulations and which are incorporated as analgesic agents, buffers, binders, disintegrants, diluents, emulsifiers, excipients, extenders, glidants, solubilizers, stabilizers, suspending agents, tonicity agents, vehicles and viscosity-increasing agents. Pharmaceutical additives, such as antioxidants, aromatics, colorants, flavor-improving agents, preservatives, and sweeteners, may also be added. Examples of acceptable pharmaceutical carriers include carboxymethyl cellulose, crystalline cellulose, glycerin, gum arabic, lactose, magnesium stearate, methyl cellulose, powders, saline, sodium alginate, sucrose, starch, talc and water, among others. In one embodiment, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable" means approved by a regulatory agency of the Federal or a state government or listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia or other generally recognized pharmacopeia for use in animals, and more particularly in humans.

[0097] Surfactants such as, for example, detergents, are also suitable for use in the formulations. Specific examples of surfactants include polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohols, copolymers of vinyl acetate and of vinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycols, benzyl alcohol, mannitol, glycerol, sorbitol or polyoxyethylenated esters of sorbitan; lecithin or sodium carboxymethylcellulose; or acrylic derivatives, such as methacrylates and others, anionic surfactants, such as alkaline stearates, in particular sodium, potassium or ammonium stearate; calcium stearate or triethanolamine stearate; alkyl sulfates, in particular sodium lauryl sufate and sodium cetyl sulfate; sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate or sodium dioctyl sulphosuccinate; or fatty acids, in particular those derived from coconut oil, cationic surfactants, such as water-soluble quaternary ammonium salts of formula N+R'R"R'"R""Y-, in which the R radicals are identical or different optionally hydroxylated hydrocarbon radicals and Y- is an anion of a strong acid, such as halide, sulfate and sulfonate anions; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is one of the cationic surfactants which can be used, amine salts of formula N+R'R"R"', in which the R radicals are identical or different optionally hydroxylated hydrocarbon radicals; octadecylamine hydrochloride is one of the cationic surfactants which can be used, non-ionic surfactants, such as optionally polyoxyethylenated esters of sorbitan, in particular Polysorbate 80, or polyoxyethylenated alkyl ethers; polyethylene glycol stearate, polyoxyethylenated derivatives of castor oil, polyglycerol esters, polyoxyethylenated fatty alcohols, polyoxyethylenated fatty acids or copolymers of ethylene oxide and of propylene oxide, amphoteric surfactants, such as substituted lauryl compounds of betaine,

[0098] When administered to a subject, the compound of formula I and pharmaceutically acceptable carriers can be sterile. Suitable pharmaceutical carriers may also include excipients such as starch, glucose, lactose, sucrose, gelatin, malt, rice, flour, chalk, silica gel, sodium stearate, glycerol monostearate, talc, sodium chloride, dried skim milk, glycerol, propylene, glycol, polyethylene glycol 300, water, ethanol, polysorbate 20, and the like. The present compositions, if desired, may also contain minor amounts of wetting or emulsifying agents, or pH buffering agents.

[0099] The pharmaceutical formulations are prepared by methods well-known in the pharmaceutical arts. Optionally, one or more accessory ingredients (e.g., buffers, flavoring agents, surface active agents, and the like) also are added. The choice of carrier is determined by the solubility and chemical nature of the compounds, chosen route of administration and standard pharmaceutical practice.

[0100] Additionally, the compounds and/or compositions are administered to a human or animal subject by known procedures including oral administration, sublingual or buccal administration. In one embodiment, the compound and/or composition is administered orally.

[0101] For oral administration, a formulation of the compounds may be presented in dosage forms such as capsules, tablets, powders, granules, or as a suspension or solution. Capsule formulations may be gelatin, soft-gel or solid. Tablets and capsule formulations may further contain one or more adjuvants, binders, diluents, disintegrants, excipients, fillers, or lubricants, each of which are known in the art. Examples of such include carbohydrates such as lactose or sucrose, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous, corn starch, mannitol, xylitol, cellulose or derivatives thereof, microcrystalline cellulose, gelatin, stearates, silicon dioxide, talc, sodium starch glycolate, acacia, flavoring agents, preservatives, buffering agents, disintegrants, and colorants. Orally administered compositions may contain one or more optional agents such as, for example, sweetening agents such as fructose, aspartame or saccharin; flavoring agents such as peppermint, oil of wintergreen, or cherry; coloring agents; and preservative agents, to provide a pharmaceutically palatable preparation.

[0102] In some embodiments, the composition is in unit dose form such as a tablet, capsule or single-dose vial. Suitable unit doses, i.e., therapeutically effective amounts, may be determined during clinical trials designed appropriately for each of the conditions for which administration of a chosen compound is indicated and will, of course, vary depending on the desired clinical endpoint.

[0103] In accordance with the methods described above, the compounds of the invention are administered to the subject in a therapeutically effective amount, for example to reduce or ameliorate symptoms related to aldose reductase activity in the subject. This amount is readily determined by the skilled artisan, based upon known procedures, including analysis of titration curves established in vivo and methods and assays disclosed herein.

[0104] In one embodiment, the methods comprise administration of a therapeutically effective dosage of the compounds of the invention. In some embodiments, the therapeutically effective dosage is at least about 0.05 mg/kg body weight, at least about 0.1 mg/kg body weight, at least about 0.25 mg/kg body weight, at least about 0.3 mg/kg body weight, at least about 0.5 mg/kg body weight, at least about 0.75 mg/kg body weight, at least about 1 mg/kg body weight, at least about 2 mg/kg body weight, at least about 3 mg/kg body weight, at least about 4 mg/kg body weight, at least about 5 mg/kg body weight, at least about 6 mg/kg body weight, at least about 7 mg/kg body weight, at least about 8 mg/kg body weight, at least about 9 mg/kg body weight, at least about 10 mg/kg body weight, at least about 15 mg/kg body weight, at least about 20 mg/kg body weight, at least about 25 mg/kg body weight, at least about 30 mg/kg body weight, at least about 40 mg/kg body weight, at least about 50 mg/kg body weight, at least about 75 mg/kg body weight, at least about 100 mg/kg body weight, at least about 200 mg/kg body weight, at least about 250 mg/kg body weight, at least about 300 mg/kg body weight, at least about 350 mg/kg body weight, at least about 400 mg/kg body weight, at least about 450 mg/kg body weight, at least about 500 mg/kg body weight, at least about 550 mg/kg body weight, at least about 600 mg/kg body weight, at least about 650 mg/kg body weight, at least about 700 mg/kg body weight, at least about 750 mg/kg body weight, at least about 800 mg/kg body weight, at least about 900 mg/kg body weight, or at least about 1000 mg/kg body weight. It will be recognized that any of the dosages listed herein may constitute an upper or lower dosage range, and may be combined with any other dosage to constitute a dosage range comprising an upper and lower limit.

[0105] In some embodiments, the methods comprise a single dosage or administration (e.g., as a single injection or deposition). Alternatively, the methods comprise administration once daily, twice daily, three times daily or four times daily to a subject in need thereof for a period of from about 2 to about 28 days, or from about 7 to about 10 days, or from about 7 to about 15 days, or longer. In some embodiments, the methods comprise chronic administration. In yet other embodiments, the methods comprise administration over the course of several weeks, months, years or decades. In still other embodiments, the methods comprise administration over the course of several weeks. In still other embodiments, the methods comprise administration over the course of several months. In still other embodiments, the methods comprise administration over the course of several years. In still other embodiments, the methods comprise administration over the course of several decades.

[0106] The dosage administered can vary depending upon known factors such as the pharmacodynamic characteristics of the active ingredient and its mode and route of administration; time of administration of active ingredient; age, sex, health and weight of the recipient; nature and extent of symptoms; kind of concurrent treatment, frequency of treatment and the effect desired; and rate of excretion. These are all readily determined and may be used by the skilled artisan to adjust or titrate dosages and/or dosing regimens.

[0107] The precise dose to be employed in the compositions will also depend on the route of administration, and should be decided according to the judgment of the practitioner and each patient's circumstances. In specific embodiments of the invention, suitable dose ranges for oral administration of the compounds of the invention are generally about 1 mg/day to about 1000 mg/day. In one embodiment, the oral dose is about 1 mg/day to about 800 mg/day. In one embodiment, the oral dose is about 1 mg/day to about 500 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 1 mg/day to about 250 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 1 mg/day to about 100 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 5 mg/day to about 50 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 5 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 10 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 20 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 30 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 40 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 50 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 60 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 70 mg/day. In another embodiment, the oral dose is about 100 mg/day. It will be recognized that any of the dosages listed herein may constitute an upper or lower dosage range, and may be combined with any other dosage to constitute a dosage range comprising an upper and lower limit.

[0108] Any of the compounds and/or compositions of the invention may be provided in a kit comprising the compounds and/or compositions. Thus, in one embodiment, the compound and/or composition of the invention is provided in a kit.

[0109] Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be within the scope of the present invention.

[0110] The invention is further described by the following non-limiting Examples.

EXAMPLES



[0111] Examples are provided below to facilitate a more complete understanding of the invention. The following examples serve to illustrate the exemplary modes of making and practicing the invention. However, the scope of the invention is not to be construed as limited to specific embodiments disclosed in these Examples, which are illustrative only.

Example 1: Preparation of Compound A.



[0112] Compound A was prepared as schematically illustrated below.


Preparation of (E)/(Z)-tert-butyl 2-(7-oxofuro[3,4-b]pyrazin-5(7H)-ylidene)acetate (Compound 1)



[0113] To a stirred solution of 5.05 g (33.63 mmol) of commercially available 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic anhydride in 300 mL of CHCl3 was added 12.34 g (33.63 mmol) of (tert-butoxycarbonylmethylene)-triphenylphosphorane. The resulting solution was heated to 62 °C for 2 days. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue purified via flash column chromatography over silica gel (monitored by thin layer chromatography) and eluted with 1:1 (v/v) hexanes:ethyl acetate. Evaporation of the collected fractions yielded 2.99 g (36% yield) of (E)/(Z)-tert-butyl 2-(7-oxofuro[3,4-b]pyrazin-5(7H)-ylidene)acetate (Compound 1) as a mixture of geometrical isomers (∼1:1) that was not separated: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.03 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.96 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.92 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.90 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.32 (s, 2H), 1.58 (s, 18H).

Preparation of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 2)



[0114] To a stirred solution of 9.42 g (37.99 mmol) of (E)/(Z)-tert-butyl 2-(7-oxofuro[3,4-b]pyrazin-5(7H)-ylidene)acetate (Compound 1) in 600 mL of ethanol was added 1.25 mL (39.90 mmol) of hydrazine. The resulting solution was brought to 80 °C for 3 hours. Subsequently, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue purified via flash column chromatography over silica gel (monitored by thin layer chromatography) and eluted with 19:1 (v/v) methylene chloride:methanol. Evaporation of the collected fractions yielded 7.78 g (78% yield) of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 2): 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 10.67 (br s, 1H), 9.06 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.04 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.02 (s, 2H), 1.43 (s, 9H).

Preparation of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 4)



[0115] To a stirred solution of 7.78 g (29.58 mmol) of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 2) in 300 mL of DMF was added 3.49 g (31.06 mmol) of potassium tert-butoxide. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 0.5 hours. Subsequently, a solution of 7.80g (31.06 mmol) of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole (Compound 3) in 20 mL of DMF was added and the resulting reaction mixture stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was then partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, the layers separated, and the ethyl acetate layer washed with a copious amount of water (3x). The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified via flash column chromatography over silica gel (monitored by thin layer chromatography) and eluted with a gradient of 3:1 (v/v) hexanes:ethyl acetate to 1:1 (v/v) hexanes:ethyl acetate. The obtained residue was then rechromatographed over silica gel and eluted with 49:1 (v/v) methylene chloride:methanol. Evaporation of the collected fractions yielded 6.88g (48% yield) of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 4): 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.08 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.04 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.27 (s, 1H), 7.94 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.89 (s, 2H), 4.04 (s, 2H), 1.42 (s, 9H).

Preparation of 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound A)



[0116] To a stirred solution of 6.0 g (12.55 mmol) of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo-[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 4) in 41 mL of CH2Cl2 was added 82 mL of TFA. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour. Subsequently, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue partitioned between ethyl acetate and 1.0 M KOH in water. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with ethyl acetate (2x). The aqueous layer was acidified to a pH ∼2 with concentrated HCl and subsequently extracted with ethyl acetate (3x). The organics from the second extraction were dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified via flash column chromatography over silica gel (monitored by thin layer chromatography) and eluted with 19:1 (v/v) methylene chloride :methanol containing 1% (by volume) acetic acid. Evaporation of the collected fractions yielded 2.30g (44% yield) of 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound A) as a solid: 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δppm 9.26 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.22 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.37 (s, 1H), 8.35 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.88 (s, 2H), 4.03 (s, 2H); m.p. = 192 - 193 °C.

Example 2: Alternate Preparation of Compound A.



[0117] 


Preparation of 2-(iodomethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole (Compound 5)



[0118] To a stirred solution of 10.79 g (42.97 mmol) of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole (Compound 3) in 86 mL of acetone was added 7.40 g (49.42 mmol) of sodium iodide. The resulting reaction mixture was heated to 55 °C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between EtOAc and water, the layers separated, and the organic layer washed with water (1x). The recovered organic layer was then treated with 1.0 M Na2S2O3 and stirred vigorously for 15 minutes. The layers were then separated and the organic layer washed sequentially with water (1x) and brine (1x). The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to yield 14.28 g (97% crude yield) of 2-(iodomethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole (Compound 5) that was used without further purification: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 8.26 (s, 1H), 7.95 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 4.80 (s, 2H).

Preparation of 3-(methoxycarbonyl)pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (Compound 6)



[0119] A solution of 12.0 g (79.95 mmol) of 2,3-pyrazine dicarboxylic anhydride in 282 mL of MeOH was heated to 65 °C overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and concentrated in vacuo. To the obtained residue was added water followed by slow addition of solid NaHCO3. After gas evolution ceased, the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (1x). The aqueous layer was then acidified to pH 2 by addition of conc. HCl. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2x) and the combined organics from the second extraction washed with brine (1x). The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to yield 12.41 g (85% crude yield) of 3-(methoxycarbonyl)pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (Compound 6) as a white powder that was used without further purification: 1H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δppm 8.91 (d, J = 2.7 Hz, 1H), 8.89 (d, J= 2.7 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (s, 3H).

Preparation of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 2)



[0120] In flask #1, a solution of 12.23 g (67.22 mmol) of 3-(methoxycarbonyl)pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (Compound 6) in 88 mL of DMF was treated slowly with 12.53 g (77.28 mmol) of CDI. The reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours.

[0121] In a separate flask, flask #2, to 147 mL of DMF cooled to 0 °C was added portionwise 8.32 g (87.39 mmol) of MgCl2. After stirring at 0 °C for 5 minutes, 13.5 mL (87.39 mmol) of mono-tert-butyl malonate and 37.4 mL (269 mmol) of triethylamine was added and the resulting reaction mixture stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours. After 2 hours, the content of flask #1 was added to flask #2 and the combined reaction mixture stirred at ambient temperature overnight. Subsequently, the reaction mixture was poured into aqueous 1.0 M HCl cooled to 0 °C and stirred for 15 minutes. To the mixture was added Et2O, the layers separated, and the ethereal layer washed sequentially with water (1x), saturated aqueous NaHCO3 (1x), water (1x) and brine (1x). The organic organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to yield crude methyl 3-(3-(tert-butoxy)-3-oxopropanoyl)pyrazine-2-carboxylate (Compound 7) that was used without further purification.

[0122] The crude methyl 3-(3-(tert-butoxy)-3-oxopropanoyl)pyrazine-2-carboxylate (Compound 7) was taken up in 250 mL of MeOH and the resulting solution cooled to 0 °C. Subsequently, 2.2 mL (70.58 mmol) of hydrazine was added in a drop-wise fashion and the reaction mixture was warmed to ambient temperature for 1 hour. After 1 hour, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue purified via flash column chromatography over silica gel (monitored by thin layer chromatography) and eluted with 19:1 (v/v) methylene chloride:methanol. Evaporation of the collected fractions yielded a yellow solid that was further purified via recrystallization in EtOAc to yield 13.23 g (75% yield) of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 2): 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 10.3 (br s, 1H), 9.06 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.04 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.02 (s, 2H), 1.43 (s, 9H).

Preparation of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 4)



[0123] To a vigorously stirred solution of 2.5 g (9.54 mmol) of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 2) in 67 mL of NMP was added 3.12 g (9.09 mmol) of 2-(iodomethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole (Compound 5) and 1.51 g (10.9 mmol) of K2CO3. The resulting reaction mixture was covered from light and stirred for 5 hours at ambient temperature. Subsequently, to the reaction mixture was added Et2O and water, the layers separated, and the aqueous layer extracted with Et2O (1x). The combined ethereal layers were then washed sequentially with H2O (1x), 1.0 M KOH (1x), 1.0 M Na2S2O3 (1x), 1.0 M HCl (1x) and brine (1x). The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified via flash column chromatography over silica gel (monitored by thin layer chromatography) and eluted with 49:1 (v/v) methylene chloride:methanol. Evaporation of the collected fractions yielded 4.03 g (93% yield) of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 4).

Preparation of 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound A)



[0124] (The deprotection of Compound 4 occurred in two separate flasks, but before workup and purification took place the two reaction mixtures were combined together).

[0125] In one flask, 3.09 g (6.49 mmol) of tert-butyl 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 4) was dissolved in 30 mL of formic acid (88% in water) and 3.0 mL of water. In a separate flask, 4.95 g (10.37 mmol) of Compound 4 was dissolved in 48 mL of formic acid (88% in water) and 5.0 mL of water. The reaction mixtures were stirred separately for 22 hours at ambient temperature. The reaction mixtures were concentrated in vacuo and the residues combined. The combined residues were partitioned between Et2O and saturated aqueous NaHCO3, the layers separated, and the aqueous layer extracted with Et2O (1x). The aqueous layer was acidified to pH 2 by addition of conc. HCl and was extracted with EtOAc (3x). The organic layer from the second extraction was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified via flash column chromatography over silica gel (monitored by thin layer chromatography) and eluted with 97:3 (v/v) methylene chloride:methanol containing 1% AcOH. Evaporation of the collected fractions yielded 5.29 g (75% yield) of 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound A) as a solid. The solid can be further purified via recrystallization from MeOH to yield an off-white solid: m.p. = 210 - 211 °C.

Example 3: Preparation of Compound 8.



[0126] Compound 8, shown below, was prepared as follows:



[0127] The preparation described for Compound 4 was repeated except that 5-chloro-2-(chloromethyl)-benzo[d]thiazole was the reagent employed in place of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole, using the same molar proportions as before. In this case, the final product obtained was tert-butyl 2-(7-((5-chlorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 8) in 75% yield: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.08 (s, 1H), 9.05 (s, 1H), 8.00 (s, 1H), 7.74 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.87 (s, 2H), 4.04 (s, 2H), 1.41 (s, 9H).

Example 4: Preparation of Compound B.



[0128] Compound B, shown below, was prepared as follows:



[0129] The preparation described for Compound 8 was repeated. The schemes described in Example 1 to obtain Compound A from Compound 4 was carried out, where Compound 4 was replaced with Compound 8. In this case, the final product obtained was 2-(7-((5-chlorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound B) in 51% yield: : 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δppm 9.26 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.21 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.13 (d, J = 8.7Hz, 1H), 8.09 (d, J = 2.4Hz, 1H), 7.51 (dd, J = 8.7, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.83 (s, 2H), 4.02 (s, 2H); m.p. = 196 - 197 °C.

Example 5: Preparation of Compound 9.



[0130] 



[0131] The preparation described for Compound 4 was repeated except that 2-(bromomethyl)-5-fluorobenzo[d]thiazole was the reagent employed in place of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole, using the same molar proportions as before. In this case, the final product obtained was tert-butyl 2-(7-((5-fluorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 9) in 73% yield: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.09 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.05 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (dd, J = 8.7 Hz, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (dd, J = 9.3 Hz, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.16 (ddd, J = 8.7 Hz, 8.7Hz, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 5.88 (s, 2H), 4.05 (s, 2H), 1.42 (s, 9H).

Example 6: Preparation of Compound 10.



[0132] 



[0133] The scheme described in Example 1 to obtain Compound A from Compound 4 was carried out, where Compound 4 was replaced with Compound 9. In this case, the final product obtained was 2-(7-((5-fluorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound 10) in 63% yield: : 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δppm 9.25 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.21 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.12 (dd, J = 9.0 Hz, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 7.85 (dd, J = 9.9 Hz, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (ddd, J = 9.0 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.82 (s, 2H), 4.02 (s, 2H).

Example 7: Preparation of Compound 11.



[0134] 



[0135] The preparation described for Compound 4 was repeated except that 2-(bromomethyl)benzo[d]thiazole was the reagent employed in place of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole, using the same molar proportions as before. In this case, the final product obtained was tert-butyl 2-(7-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylmethyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 11) in 63% yield: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.07 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.03 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.02 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.83 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.46 (ddd, J = 7.5 Hz, 7.5 Hz, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.37 (ddd, J = 7.5 Hz, 7.5 Hz, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 5.89 (s, 2H), 4.04 (s, 2H), 1.41 (s, 9H).

Example 8: Preparation of Compound 12.



[0136] 



[0137] The scheme described in Example 1 to obtain Compound A from Compound 4 was carried out, where Compound 4 was replaced with Compound 11. In this case, the final product obtained was 2-(7-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylmethyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound 12) in 67% yield: : 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δppm 9.26 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.22 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (dd, J = 8.1 Hz, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.52 (ddd, J = 8.1 Hz, 8.1 Hz, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (ddd, J = 7.5 Hz, 7.5 Hz, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 5.83 (s, 2H), 4.03 (s, 2H).

Example 9: Preparation of Compound 13.



[0138] 



[0139] The preparation described for Compound 4 was repeated except that 2-(chloromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole was the reagent employed in place of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole, using the same molar proportions as before. In this case, the final product obtained was tert-butyl 2-(7-((1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 13) in 50% yield: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.04 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.02 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (dd, J = 7.2 Hz, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (ddd, J = 7.2 Hz, 7.2 Hz, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.29-7.22 (m, 2H), 5.77 (s, 2H), 4.05 (s, 2H), 3.97 (s, 3H), 1.40 (s, 9H).

Example 10: Preparation of Compound 14.



[0140] 



[0141] The scheme described in Example 1 to obtain Compound A from Compound 4 was carried out, where Compound 4 was replaced with Compound 13. In this case, the final product obtained was 2-(7-((1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound 14) in 88% yield: : 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δppm 9.26 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.21 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.37 (dd, J = 7.8 Hz, 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (dd, J = 7.8 Hz, 7.8 Hz, 1H), 5.81 (s, 2H), 4.00 (s, 2H), 3.97 (s, 3H).

Example 11: Preparation of Compound 15.



[0142] 



[0143] To a solution of 0.100g (0.427 mmol) of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole in 4.0 mL of CH2Cl2 was added sequentially 0.103 g (0.470 mmol) of (Boc)2O, 0.010g (0.854 µmol) of DMAP, and 71 µL (0.512 mmol) of TEA. The reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue partitioned between CH2Cl2 and saturated aqueous NaHCO3. The layers were separated and the organics dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentration in vacuo. The crude residue was used without further purification.

[0144] The preparation described for Compound 4 was repeated except that the crude residue from above was the reagent employed in place of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole, using the same molar proportions as before. In this case, the final product obtained was a mixture of isomers of tcrt-butyl 2-((8-(2-(tcrt-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-5-oxopyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-6(5H)-yl)methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-1-carboxylate (Compound 15) in 44% yield: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.09-9.06 (m, 4H), 8.26 (s, 1H), 8.03 (m, 1H), 7.83 (s, 1H), 7.64-7.50 (m, 3H), 5.96 (s, 4H), 4.04 (s, 4H), 1.76 (s, 18H), 1.42 (s, 18H).

Example 12: Preparation of Compound 16.



[0145] 



[0146] The scheme described in Example 1 to obtain Compound A from Compound 4 was carried out, where Compound 4 was replaced with Compound 15. In this case, the final product obtained was 2-(8-oxo-7-((5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound 16) in 68% yield: : 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δppm 9.26 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.21 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (s, 1H), 7.69 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.67 (s, 2H), 4.00 (s, 2H).

Example 13: Preparation of Compound 17.



[0147] 



[0148] The preparation described for Compound 4 was repeated except that tert-butyl 2-(chloromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-1-carboxylate was the reagent employed in place of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole, using the same molar proportions as before. In this case, the final product obtained was tert-butyl 2-((8-(2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-5-oxopyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-6(5H)-yl)methyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-1-carboxylate (Compound 17) in 81% yield: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.08 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.04 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.92 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.33-7.22 (m, 2H), 5.95 (s, 2H), 4.04 (s, 2H), 1.74 (s, 9H), 1.41 (s, 9H).

Example 14: Preparation of Compound 18.



[0149] 



[0150] The scheme described in Example 1 to obtain Compound A from Compound 4 was carried out, where Compound 4 was replaced with Compound 17. In this case, the final product obtained was 2-(7-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound 18) in 69% yield: : 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δppm 9.26 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.21 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.56-7.53 (m, 2H), 7.24-7.20 (m, 2H), 5.66 (s, 2H), 4.00 (s, 2H).

Example 15: Preparation of Compound 19.



[0151] 



[0152] The preparation described for Compound 4 was repeated except that 3-(bromomethyl)-5-chlorobenzo[b]thiophene was the reagent employed in place of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole, using the same molar proportions as before. In this case, the final product obtained was tert-butyl 2-(7-((5-chlorobenzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 19) in 69% yield: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.02 (s, 1H), 8.98 (s, 1H), 8.19 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.73-7.70 (m, 2H), 7.30-7.27 (m, 1H), 5.63 (s, 2H), 4.02 (s, 2H), 1.40 (s, 9H).

Example 16: Preparation of Compound 20.



[0153] 



[0154] The scheme described in Example 1 to obtain Compound A from Compound 4 was carried out, where Compound 4 was replaced with Compound 19. In this case, the final product obtained was 2-(7-((5-chlorobenzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound 20) in 80% yield: : 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δppm 9.19 (d, J =1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.16 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.18 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.41 (dd, J = 8.4 Hz, 1.8 Hz , 1H), 5.59 (s, 2H), 3.97 (s, 2H).

Example 17: Preparation of Compound 21.



[0155] 



[0156] The preparation described for Compound 4 was repeated except that 5-chloro-2-(chloromethyl)benzofuran was the reagent employed in place of 2-(chloromethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazole, using the same molar proportions as before. In this case, the final product obtained was tert-butyl 2-(7-((5-chlorobenzofuran-2-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetate (Compound 21) in 60% yield: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δppm 9.06 (s, 1H), 9.02 (s, 1H), 7.48 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.19 (dd, J = 8.7 Hz, 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.76 (s, 1H), 5.59 (s, 2H), 4.03 (s, 2H), 1.41 (s, 9H).

Example 18: Preparation of Compound 22.



[0157] 



[0158] The scheme described in Example 1 to obtain Compound A from Compound 4 was carried out, where Compound 4 was replaced with Compound 21. In this case, the final product obtained was 2-(7-((5-chlorobenzofuran-2-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrazino[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-yl)acetic acid (Compound 22) in 74% yield: : 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δppm 9.22 (d, J =2.1 Hz, 1H), 9.19 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (dd, J = 8.7 Hz, 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.91 (s, 1H), 5.56 (s, 2H), 3.98 (s, 2H).

Example 19: Solubility Study of Compound A versus zopolrestat in buffer.



[0159] Compound A exhibited superior solubility properties over that of zopolrestat (shown below) when dissolved in Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing (in mM) NaCl 118, KCl 4.7, CaCl2 2.5, MgCl2 1.2, NaHCO3 25, glucose 5, palmitate 0.4, bovine serum albumin 0.4, and 70 mU/L insulin.



[0160] Compound A, when added to the Krebs-Henseleit buffer, was soluble without ay precipitation or turbidity. In the case of zopolrestat, heat was applied to render zopolrestat soluble in the Krebs-Henseleit buffer. These results show improved solubility of Compound A over that of zopolrestat.

Example 20: Solubility Study of Compound A versus zopolrestat in water.



[0161] Each sample of Compound A & zopolrestat were placed, separately, in water (MQW ultra nanopure) at ambient temperature and vortexed for 3 minutes. The aliquots were then filtered through a tightly-packed cotton plug (placed in a pipette) to remove any residual solids. The attempted concentrations of the respective solutions of Compound A and zopolrestat made were 0.05 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.5 mg/mL, 1.0 mg/mL, 5.0 mg/mL, and 10.0 mg/mL. The pH of the water used was 7.1 (measured electronically by an Orion perpHect LogR Meter Model # 370).

[0162] The filtered samples were run through a binary gradient (program: 5%-100% MeCN over 30 mins) on a LC-MS (Shimadzu LCMS-2010A Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometer, reverse-phase column). A 5 µL volume of each sample solution was injected for each run. Each trace contained a peak (for Compound A, TR approx. 14.070 mins; for zopolrestat, TR approx. 16.666 mins) measured at a wavelength of 254 nm for which the respective parent ion masses were observed.

[0163] By comparing the absorbance areas under the peaks corresponding to Compound A & zopolrestat in each water solution made (Table 1), a solubility curve for each compound was generated (Fig. 1). The measured data, and generated solubility curves, show that Compound A possesses a significantly greater solubility in pH 7.1 water than Zopolrestat at ambient temperature at all concentration.
Table 1. Integration of Absorbance Peaks for Various Concentrations of Compounds.
Compound A (mg/mL)Area Zopolrestat (mg/mL)Area
0.05 1811131   0.05 1039247
0.1 3221003   0.1 1899466
0.5 5814304   0.5 4304556
1 10515430   1 6129559
5 17216187   5 13314544
10 20397336   10 13362465

Example 21: In vitro studies of Compound A versus zopolrestat.



[0164] The rcductasc activity of Compound A and zopolrestat were spectrophotometrically assayed by following the decrease of NADPH at 25°C for 4 min as described in Sato, S. (1992), "Rat kidney aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase and polyolproduction in rat kidney" Am. J. Physiol. 263, F799.F805, incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.



[0165] Briefly, the reaction mixture (total volume 1 ml) contained 0.1 mM NADPH, 100 mM substrate (DL-glyceraldehyde or L-xylose) and human recombinant aldose reductase (100 mU) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.2. The head to head experiment was carried out in a microplate assay for AR inhibition using D-Glyceraldehyde and NADPH and the absorbance changes were monitored at 340nm and % inhibition was calculated for ARIs at concentrations ranging from 0.1 nM to 100 µM (Table 2 and Figure 2). Data is presented as mean ± standard deviation and is an average of 5 separate runs. The reaction was started by adding the substrate (glyceraldehyde or xylose) as well as the same reaction mixture in which the substrate replaced by deionized water was used as a control. One enzyme unit (U) was defined as the activity consuming 1 µmole of NADPH per min at 25 °C.
Table 2. Aldose Reductase Activity for Zopolrestat and Compound A.
Concentration% Inhibition (zopolrestat)% Inhibition (Compound A)
0.1 nM 31.7 ± 5.1 69.0 ± 1.3
1 nM 39.3 ± 4.3 79.6 ± 2.4
10 nM 52.2 ± 1.9 80.0 ± 1.8
100 nM 76.7 ± 2.7 89.2 ± 0.7
1 µM 86.3 ± 3.6 93.6 ± 2.8
10 µM 90.1 ± 3.4 95.3 ± 1.1
100 µM 93.2 ± 3.8 96.2 ± 3.3


[0166] Results show a significant increase in inhibition potency of Compound A over that of zopolrestat. Compound A is approximately 100x more active than zopolrestat in vitro against aldose reductase.

Example 22: Ex vivo studies of Compound A.



[0167] All rat studies were performed with the approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Columbia University, New York. This investigation conforms to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH publication No. 85-23, 1996; hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0168] Experiments were performed using an isovolumic isolated rat heart preparation as as described by Hwang YC, Sato S, Tsai JY, Yan S, Bakr S, Zhang H, Oates PJ, Ramasamy R (2002), "Aldose reductase activation is a key component of myocardial response to ischemia," Faseb J. 16, 243-245 and Ramasamy R, Hwang YC, Whang J, Bergmann SR (2001), "Protection of ischemic hearts by high glucose is mediated, in part, by GLUT-4," American Journal of Physiology. 281, H290-297; each of which hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0169] Male Wistar rats (300.350 g, 3 to 4 months old) were anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg). After deep anesthesia was achieved, hearts were rapidly excised, placed into iced saline, and retrogradely perfused at 37 °C in a non-recirculating mode through the aorta at a rate of 12.5 ml/min. Hearts were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing (in mM) NaCl 118, KCl 4.7, CaCl2 2.5, MgCl2 1.2, NaHCO3 25, glucose 5, palmitate 0.4, bovine serum albumin 0.4, and 70 mU/L insulin. The perfusate was equilibrated with a mixture of 95% O2-5% CO2, which maintained perfusate Po2 > 600 mmHg. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were measured using a latex balloon in the left ventricle. LVDP, heart rate, and coronary perfusion pressure were monitored continuously on a ADI recorder. All rat hearts subjected to 20 min of zero-flow ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion (I/R).

[0170] In studies involving the use of aldose reductase inhibitor, hearts were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing Compound A (shown below), at a final concentration of 100 nM,10 min prior to ischemia and was continued throughout the perfusion protocol. Creatine kinase (CK) release, a marker of myocardial I/R injury, was measured as described by Hwang YC, Sato S, Tsai JY, Yan S, Bakr S, Zhang H, Oates PJ , Ramasamy R (2002), "Aldose reductase activation is a key component of myocardial response to ischemia," Faseb J. 16, 243-245 and Ramasamy R, Hwang YC, Whang J, Bergmann SR (2001), "Protection of ischemic hearts by high glucose is mediated, in part, by GLUT-4," American journal ofphysiology. 281, H290-297.


Compound A



[0171] Briefly, isolated perfused hearts were subjected to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury and the measures of cardiac injury and cardiac function monitored. Creatine kinase (CK) release during reperfusion, a marker of cardiac ischemic injury, was reduced in rat hearts treated with Compound A than in untreated hearts (Table 3A). Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) recovery was greater in rat hearts treated with Compound A compared to the untreated hearts after I/R (Table 3B), indicating improved functional recovery in Compound A treated hearts.
Table 3.
A) CK Release (expressed as IU/g wet weight)
Untreated Rat hearts = 939±146
Compound A treated Rat hearts = 425±63
B) LVDP Recovery (expressed as % of pre-ischemic values)
Untreated Rat hearts = 48±7
Compound A Treated Rat Hearts = 76±5


[0172] Aspects or embodiments of the present disclosure may also be provided in accordance with the following numbered paragraphs.
  1. 1. A compound of formula (I)

    wherein,

    R1 is H, (C1-C6)-alkyl, (C1-C6)-hydroxyalkyl, or (C1-C6)-aminoalkyl;

    X1 is N or CR3;

    X2 is N or CR4;

    X3 is N or CR5;

    X4 is N or CR6; with the proviso that two or three of X1, X2, X3, or X4 are N;

    Y is a bond, C=O, C=S, C=NH, or C=N(C1-C4)-alkyl;

    Z is

    A1 is NR11, O, S or CH2;

    A2 is N or CH;

    A3 is NR11, O, or S;

    R3 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, trifluoroacetyl, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; or two of R3 through R6 or two of R7 through R10 taken together are (C1-C4)-alkylenedioxy; and

    R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

  2. 2. The compound of paragraph 1, wherein R1 is hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl;

    X1 and X4 are N;

    X2 is CR4;

    X3 is CR5;

    Y is C=O;

    Z is

    A1 is NR11, O, or S;

    A2 is N;

    A3 is O, or S;

    R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

    R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; and

    R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl.

  3. 3. The compound of paragraph 2, wherein R1 is hydrogen or tert-butyl;

    X1 and X4 are N;

    X2 is CR4;

    X3 is CR5;

    Y is C=O;

    Z is

    A1 is NR11, O or S;

    A2 is N;

    A3 is O or S;

    R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

    R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, or haloalkyl; and

    R11 is hydrogen, (C1-C4)-alkyl, or C(O)O-tert-butyl.

  4. 4. The compound of paragraph 1, wherein Z is

  5. 5. The compound of paragraph 4, wherein R1 is hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl;

    X1 and X4 are N;

    X2 is CR4;

    X3 is CR5;

    Y is C=O;

    A1 is NR11, O, or S;

    A2 is N;

    R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

    R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; and

    R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl.

  6. 6. The compound of paragraph 5, wherein R1 is hydrogen or tert-butyl;

    X1 and X4 are N;

    X2 is CR4;

    X3 is CR5;

    Y is C=O;

    A1 is NR11, O or S;

    A2 is N;

    R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

    R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, or haloalkyl; and

    R11 is hydrogen, (C1-C4)-alkyl, or C(O)O-tert-butyl.

  7. 7. The compound of paragraph 1, wherein Z is

  8. 8. The compound of paragraph 7, wherein R1 is hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl;

    X1 and X4 are N;

    X2 is CR4;

    X3 is CR5;

    Y is C=O;

    A3 is NR11, O, or S;

    R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

    R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; and

    R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl.

  9. 9. The compound of paragraph 7 or 8, wherein R1 is hydrogen or tert-butyl;

    X1 and X4 are N;

    X2 is CR4;

    X3 is CR5;

    Y is C=O;

    A3 is NR11, O or S;

    R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

    R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, or haloalkyl; and

    R11 is hydrogen, (C1-C4)-alkyl, or C(O)O-tert-butyl.

  10. 10. The compound of paragraph 1, represented by the formula

    or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
  11. 11. The compound of paragraph 1, represented by the formula

    or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.
  12. 12. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any of paragraphs 1-11 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
  13. 13. A method of inhibiting aldose reductase activity in a subject comprising administration of a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of any of paragraphs 1-11, or the composition of paragraph 12, to a subject in need thereof.
  14. 14. The method of paragraph 13, wherein the subject is diabetic.
  15. 15. The method of paragraph 13 or 14, wherein the subject is a human.
  16. 16. A method of treating a disorder in a subject comprising administration of a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of any of paragraphs 1-11, or the composition of paragraph 12, to a subject in need thereof.
  17. 17. The method of paragraph 16, wherein the disorder is atherosclerosis.
  18. 18. The method of paragraph 16, wherein the disorder is diabetic nephropathy.
  19. 19. The method of paragraph 16, wherein the disorder is diabetic neuropathy.
  20. 20. The method of paragraph 16, wherein the disorder is diabetic retinopathy.
  21. 21. The method of paragraph 16, wherein the disorder is a cardiovascular disease.
  22. 22. The method of paragraph 16, wherein the disorder is peripheral vascular disease.
  23. 23. The method of paragraph 16, wherein the disorder is an angiogenesis disorder.
  24. 24. The method of paragraph 16, wherein the disorder is tissue damage.
  25. 25. A method to treat a skin disorder or promote healthy aging of skin, comprising applying to a dermal substrate a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of any of paragraphs 1-11, or the composition of paragraph 12, to a subject in need thereof.
  26. 26. The method of paragraph 25, wherein the dermal substrate is human skin.
  27. 27. A method of treating a subject with evolving myocardial infarction comprising: administering a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of any of paragraphs 1-11, or the composition of paragraph 12, to a subject in need thereof.



Claims

1. Use of an inhibitor of aldose reductase for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a skin disorder, non-cardiac tissue damage, a cardiovascular disorder, a renal disorder, evolving myocardial infarction, stroke or complications arising from diabetes, wherein the aldose reductase inhibitor is a compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof,

wherein, R1 is H, (C1-C6)-alkyl, (C1-C6)-hydroxyalkyl, or (C1-C6)-aminoalkyl;

X1 is N or CR3;

X2 is N or CR4;

X3 is N or CR5;

X4 is N or CR6; with the proviso that two or three of X1, X2, X3, or X4 are N;

Y is a bond, C=O, C=S, C=NH, or C=N(C1-C4)-alkyl;

Z is

A1 is NR11, O, S or CH2;

A2 is N or CH;

A3 is NR11, O, or S;

R3 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, trifluoroacetyl, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; or two of R3 through R6 or two of R7 through R10 taken together are (C1-C4)-alkylenedioxy; and

R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl.


 
2. The use of claim 1, wherein R1 is hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CR4;

X3 is CR5;

Y is C=O;

Z is

A1 is NR11, O, or S;

A2 is N;

A3 is O, or S;

R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; and

R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl.


 
3. The use of claim 2, wherein R1 is hydrogen or tert-butyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CR4;

X3 is CR5;

Y is C=O;

Z is

A1 is NR11, O or S;

A2 is N;

A3 is O or S;

R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, or haloalkyl; and

R11 is hydrogen, (C1-C4)-alkyl, or C(O)O-tert-butyl.


 
4. The use of claim 1, wherein Z is


 
5. The use of claim 4, wherein R1 is hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CR4;

X3 is CR5;

Y is C=O;

A1 is NR11, O, or S;

A2 is N;

R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; and

R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl.


 
6. The use of claim 5 wherein R1 is hydrogen or tert-butyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CR4;

X3 is CR5;

Y is C=O;

A1 is NR11, O or S;

A2 is N;

R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, or haloalkyl; and

R11 is hydrogen, (C1-C4)-alkyl, or C(O)O-tert-butyl.


 
7. The use of claim 1, wherein Z is


 
8. The use of claim 7, wherein R1 is hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CR4;

X3 is CR5;

Y is C=O;

A3 is NR11, O, or S;

R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, cyano, acyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkyl, (C1-C4)-alkoxy, (C1-C4)-alkylthio, (C1-C4)-alkylsulfinyl, or (C1-C4)-alkylsulfonyl; and

R11 is hydrogen, C1-C4 alkyl, or C(O)O-(C1-C4)-alkyl.


 
9. The use of claims 8, wherein R1 is hydrogen or tert-butyl;

X1 and X4 are N;

X2 is CR4;

X3 is CR5;

Y is C=O;

A3 is NR11, O or S;

R4 and R5 are hydrogen;

R7 through R10 are independently hydrogen, halogen, or haloalkyl; and

R11 is hydrogen, (C1-C4)-alkyl, or C(O)O-tert-butyl.


 
10. The use of claim 1, wherein the aldose reductase inhibitor is

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
 
11. The use of claim 1, wherein the aldose reductase inhibitor is

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
 
12. The use of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the medicament is for the treatment of a cardiovascular disorder; and optionally
wherein the cardiovascular disorder is atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease or peripheral vascular disease; or
wherein the medicament is for the treatment of complications arising from diabetes; and optionally
wherein the complication arising from diabetes is diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy or diabetic retinopathy.
 
13. The use of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the medicament is for the treatment of myocardial infarction.
 
14. The use of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the medicament is for the treatment of a renal disorder, a skin disorder, non-cardiac tissue damage or stroke
 
15. The use of any one of claims 1-14, wherein the medicament is for oral administration; or
wherein the medicament is an aqueous solution; or
wherein the medicament is an injectable solution.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verwendung eines Aldosereduktasehemmers zur Herstellung eines Arzneimittels zur Behandlung einer Hautkrankheit, einer Nicht-Herzgewebeschädigung, einer Herz-Kreislauf-Krankheit, einer Nierenkrankheit, eines ausgedehnten Myokardinfarkts, eines Schlaganfalls oder von Komplikationen aufgrund Diabetes, wobei der Aldosereduktasehemmer eine Verbindung der Formel (I) oder ein pharmazeutisch unbedenkliches Salz oder Solvat davon ist,

worin R1 H, (C1-C6) -Alkyl, (C1-C6) -Hydroxyalkyl oder (C1-C6)-Aminoalkyl bedeutet;

X1 N oder CR3 bedeutet;

X2 N oder CR4 bedeutet;

X3 N oder CR5 bedeutet;

X4 N oder CR6 bedeutet; mit der Maßgabe, dass zwei oder drei von X1, X2, X3 oder X4 N bedeuten;

Y eine Bindung, C=O, C=S, C=NH oder C=N(C1-C4)-Alkyl bedeutet;

Z

bedeutet;

A1 NR11, O, S oder CH2 bedeutet;

A2 N oder CH bedeutet;

A3 NR11, O oder S bedeutet;

R3 bis R10 unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff, Halogen, Cyano, Acyl, Halogenalkyl, Halogenalkoxy, Halogenalkylthio, Trifluoracetyl, (C1-C4)-Alkyl, (C1-C4)-Alkoxy, (C1-C4)-Alkylthio, (C1-C4)-Alkylsulfinyl oder (C1-C4)-Alkylsulfonyl bedeuten; oder zwei von R3 bis R6 oder zwei von R7 bis R10 gemeinsam (C1-C4)-Alkylendioxy bedeuten; und

R11 Wasserstoff, C1-C4-Alkyl oder C(O)O-(C1-C4)-Alkyl bedeutet.


 
2. Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, worin R1 Wasserstoff oder (C1-C6)-Alkyl bedeutet;
X1 und X4 N bedeuten;
X2 CR4 bedeutet;
X3 CR5 bedeutet;
Y C=O bedeutet;
Z

bedeutet;
A1 NR11, O oder S bedeutet;
A2 N bedeutet;
A3 O oder S bedeutet;
R4 und R5 Wasserstoff bedeuten;
R7 bis R10 unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff, Halogen, Cyano, Acyl, Halogenalkyl, Halogenalkoxy, Halogenalkylthio, (C1-C4)-Alkyl, (C1-C4)-Alkoxy, (C1-C4)-Alkythio, (C1-C4)-Alkylsulfinyl oder (C1-C4)-Alkylsulfonyl bedeuten; und
R11 Wasserstoff, C1-C4-Alkyl oder C(O)O-(C1-C4)-Alkyl bedeutet.
 
3. Verwendung nach Anspruch 2, worin R1 Wasserstoff oder tert.-Butyl bedeutet;
X1 und X4 N bedeuten;
X2 CR4 bedeutet;
X3 CR5 bedeutet;
Y C=O bedeutet;
Z

bedeutet;

A1 NR11, O oder S bedeutet;

A2 N bedeutet;

A3 O oder S bedeutet;

R4 und R5 Wasserstoff bedeuten;

R7 bis R10 unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff, Halogen oder Halogenalkyl bedeuten; und

R11 Wasserstoff, (C1-C4)-Alkyl oder C(O)O-tert.-Butyl bedeutet.


 
4. Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, worin Z

bedeutet.
 
5. Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, worin R1 Wasserstoff oder (C1-C6)-Alkyl bedeutet;
X1 und X4 N bedeuten;
X2 CR4 bedeutet;
X3 CR5 bedeutet;
Y C=O bedeutet;
A1 NR11, O oder S bedeutet;
A2 N bedeutet;
R4 und R5 Wasserstoff bedeuten;
R7 bis R10 unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff, Halogen, Cyano, Acyl, Halogenalkyl, Halogenalkoxy, Halogenalkylthio, (C1-C4)-Alkyl, (C1-C4)-Alkoxy, (C1-C4)-Alkylthio, (C1-C4)-Alkylsulfinyl oder (C1-C4)-Alkylsulfonyl bedeuten; und
R11 Wasserstoff, C1-C4-Alkyl oder C(O)O-(C1-C4)-Alkyl bedeutet.
 
6. Verwendung nach Anspruch 5, worin R1 Wasserstoff oder tert.-Butyl bedeutet;
X1 und X4 N bedeuten;
X2 CR4 bedeutet;
X3 CR5 bedeutet;
Y C=O bedeutet;
A1 NR11, O oder S bedeutet;
A2 N bedeutet;
R4 und R5 Wasserstoff bedeuten;
R7 bis R10 unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff, Halogen oder Halogenalkyl bedeuten; und
R11 Wasserstoff, (C1-C4) -Alkyl oder C(O)O-tert.-Butyl bedeutet.
 
7. Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, worin Z

bedeutet.
 
8. Verwendung nach Anspruch 7, worin R1 Wasserstoff oder (C1-C6)-Alkyl bedeutet;
X1 und X4 N bedeuten;
X2 CR4 bedeutet;
X3 CR5 bedeutet;
Y C=O bedeutet;
A3 NR11, O oder S bedeutet;
R4 und R5 Wasserstoff bedeuten;
R7 bis R10 unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff, Halogen, Cyano, Acyl, Halogenalkyl, Halogenalkoxy, Halogenalkylthio, (C1-C4)-Alkyl, (C1-C4)-Alkoxy, (C1-C4)-Alkylthio, (C1-C4)-Alkylsulfinyl oder (C1-C4)-Alkylsulfonyl bedeuten; und
R11 Wasserstoff, C1-C4-Alkyl oder C(O)O-(C1-C4)-Alkyl bedeutet.
 
9. Verwendung nach Anspruch 8, worin R1 Wasserstoff oder tert.-Butyl bedeutet;
X1 und X4 N bedeuten;
X2 CR4 bedeutet;
X3 CR5 bedeutet;
Y C=O bedeutet;
A3 NR11, O oder S bedeutet;
R4 und R5 Wasserstoff bedeuten;
R7 bis R10 unabhängig voneinander Wasserstoff, Halogen oder Halogenalkyl bedeuten; und
R11 Wasserstoff, (C1-C4)-Alkyl oder C(O)O-tert.-Butyl bedeutet.
 
10. Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Aldosereduktasehemmer

oder ein pharmazeutisch unbedenkliches Salz davon ist.
 
11. Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Aldosereduktasehemmer

oder ein pharmazeutisch unbedenkliches Salz davon ist.
 
12. Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-11, wobei das Arzneimittel zur Behandlung einer Herz-Kreislauf-Krankheit beabsichtigt ist; und gegebenenfalls wobei es sich bei der Herz-Kreislauf-Krankheit um Atherosklerose, koronare Herzkrankheit oder periphere Gefäßkrankheit handelt; oder
wobei das Arzneimittel zur Behandlung von Komplikationen aufgrund Diabetes beabsichtigt ist; und gegebenenfalls
wobei es sich bei der Komplikation aufgrund Diabetes um diabetische Nephropathie, diabetische Neuropathie oder diabetische Retinopathie handelt.
 
13. Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-11, wobei das Arzneimittel zur Behandlung Myokardinfarkts beabsichtigt ist.
 
14. Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-11, wobei das Arzneimittel zur Behandlung einer Nierenkrankheit, einer Hautkrankheit, einer Nicht-Herzgewebeschädigung oder eines Schlaganfalls beabsichtigt ist.
 
15. Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-14, wobei das Arzneimittel zur oralen Verabreichung beabsichtigt ist; oder
wobei das Arzneimittel eine wässrige Lösung ist; oder wobei das Arzneimittel eine Injektionslösung ist.
 


Revendications

1. Utilisation d'un inhibiteur de l'aldose réductase pour la production d'un médicament pour le traitement d'un trouble cutané, d'une lésion tissulaire non cardiaque, d'un trouble cardio-vasculaire, d'un trouble rénal, d'infarctus du myocarde évolutif, d'un accident vasculaire cérébral ou des complications résultant du diabète, où l'inhibiteur de l'aldose réductase est un composé de formule (I) ou sel ou solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci,

où, R1 représente H ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C6, hydroxyalkyle en C1-C6 ou aminoalkyle en C1-C6 ;

X1 représente N ou CR3 ;

X2 représente N ou CR4 ;

X3 représente N ou CR5 ;

X4 représente N ou CR6 ; à la condition que deux ou trois des chaînons X1, X2, X3 ou X4 représentent N ;

Y représente une liaison ou un groupement C=O, C=S, C=NH ou C=N- (alkyle en C1-C4) ;

Z représente

A1 représente NR11, O, S ou CH2 ;

A2 représente N ou CH ;

A3 représente NR11, O ou S ;

chacun des radicaux R3 à R10 représente indépendamment un atome d'hydrogène ou d'halogène ou un groupement cyano, acyle, halogénoalkyle, halogénoalkoxy, halogénoalkylthio, trifluoroacétyle, alkyle en C1-C4, alkoxy en C1-C4, (alkyle en C1-C4) -thio, (alkyle en C1-C4) -sulfinyle, ou (alkyle en C1-C4) -sulfonyle ; ou deux des radicaux R3 à R6 ou deux des radicaux R7 à R10 forment ensemble un groupement (alkylène en C1-C4)-dioxy ; et

R11 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C4 ou C (O)O-(alkyle en C1-C4)


 
2. Utilisation selon la revendication 1, où R1 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C6 ;
chacun des chaînons X1 et X4 représente N ;
X2 représente CR4 ;
X3 représente CR5 ;
Y représente un groupement C=O ;
Z représente

A1 représente NR11, O ou S ;

A2 représente N ;

A3 représente O ou S ;

chacun des radicaux R4 et R5 représente un atome d'hydrogène ;

chacun des radicaux R7 à R10 représente indépendamment un atome d'hydrogène ou d'halogène ou un groupement cyano, acyle, halogénoalkyle, halogénoalkoxy, halogénoalkylthio, alkyle en C1-C4, alkoxy en C1-C4, (alkyle en C1-C4) -thio, (alkyle en C1-C4) -sulfinyle ou (alkyle en C1-C4)-sulfonyle ; et

R11 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C4, ou C(O)O-(alkyle en C1-C4).


 
3. Utilisation selon la revendication 2, où R1 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement tert-butyle ;
chacun des chaînons X1 et X4 représente N ;
X2 représente CR4 ;
X3 représente CR5 ;
Y représente un groupement C=O ;
Z représente

A1 représente NR11, O ou S ;

A2 représente N ;

A3 représente O ou S ;

chacun des radicaux R4 et R5 représente un atome d'hydrogène ;

chacun des radicaux R7 à R10 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou d'halogène ou un groupement halogénoalkyle ; et

R11 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C4, ou C(O)O-tert-butyle.


 
4. Utilisation selon la revendication 1, où Z représente


 
5. Utilisation selon la revendication 4, où R1 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C6 ;
chacun des chaînons X1 et X4 représente N ;
X2 représente CR4 ;
X3 représente CR5 ;
Y représente un groupement C=O ;
A1 représente NR11, O ou S ;
A2 représente N ;
chacun des radicaux R4 et R5 représente un atome d'hydrogène ;
chacun des radicaux R7 à R10 représente indépendamment un atome d'hydrogène ou d'halogène ou un groupement cyano, acyle, halogénoalkyle, halogénoalkoxy, halogénoalkylthio, alkyle en C1-C4, alkoxy en C1-C4, (alkyle en C1-C4) -thio, (alkyle en C1-C4) -sulfinyle ou (alkyle en C1-C4)-sulfonyle ; et
R11 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C4, ou C(O)O-(alkyle en C1-C4).
 
6. Utilisation selon la revendication 5, où R1 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement tert-butyle ;
chacun des chaînons X1 et X4 représente N ;
X2 représente CR4 ;
X3 représente CR5 ;
Y représente un groupement C=O ;
A1 représente NR11, O ou S ;
A2 représente N ;
chacun des radicaux R4 et R5 représente un atome d'hydrogène ;
chacun des radicaux R7 à R10 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou d'halogène ou un groupement halogénoalkyle ; et
R11 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C4, ou C(O)O-tert-butyle.
 
7. Utilisation selon la revendication 1, où Z représente


 
8. Utilisation selon la revendication 7, où R1 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C6 ;
chacun des chaînons X1 et X4 représente N ;
X2 représente CR4 ;
X3 représente CR5 ;
Y représente un groupement C=O ;
A3 représente NR11, O ou S ;
chacun des radicaux R4 et R5 représente un atome d'hydrogène ;
chacun des radicaux R7 à R10 représente indépendamment un atome d'hydrogène ou d'halogène ou un groupement cyano, acyle, halogénoalkyle, halogénoalkoxy, halogénoalkylthio, alkyle en C1-C4, alkoxy en C1-C4, (alkyle en C1-C4) -thio, (alkyle en C1-C4) -sulfinyle ou (alkyle en C1-C4)-sulfonyle ; et
R11 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C4, ou C(O)O-(alkyle en C1-C4).
 
9. Utilisation selon la revendication 8, où R1 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement tert-butyle ;
chacun des chaînons X1 et X4 représente N ;
X2 représente CR4 ;
X3 représente CR5 ;
Y représente un groupement C=O ;
A3 représente NR11, O ou S ;
chacun des radicaux R4 et R5 représente un atome d'hydrogène ;
chacun des radicaux R7 à R10 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou d'halogène ou un groupement halogénoalkyle ; et
R11 représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupement alkyle en C1-C4, ou C(O)O-tert-butyle.
 
10. Utilisation selon la revendication 1, où l'inhibiteur de l'aldose réductase est

ou sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci.
 
11. Utilisation selon la revendication 1, où l'inhibiteur de l'aldose réductase est

ou sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci.
 
12. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, où le médicament est destiné au traitement d'un trouble cardio-vasculaire ; et éventuellement
où le trouble cardio-vasculaire est l'athérosclérose, une maladie coronarienne ou une maladie vasculaire périphérique ; ou
où le médicament est destiné au traitement des complications résultant du diabète ; et éventuellement où la complication résultant du diabète est la néphropathie diabétique, la neuropathie diabétique ou la rétinopathie diabétique.
 
13. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, où le médicament est destiné au traitement d'infarctus du myocarde.
 
14. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, où le médicament est destiné au traitement d'un trouble rénal, d'un trouble cutané, d'une lésion tissulaire non cardiaque ou d'un accident vasculaire cérébral.
 
15. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 14, où le médicament est destiné à l'administration orale ; ou
où le médicament est une solution aqueuse ; ou
où le médicament est une solution injectable.
 




Drawing









REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description