(19)
(11)EP 3 197 479 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 16752037.8

(22)Date of filing:  17.02.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 38/12(2006.01)
A61K 38/17(2006.01)
A61K 45/06(2006.01)
C07K 14/435(2006.01)
A61K 38/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/IL2016/050187
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/132359 (25.08.2016 Gazette  2016/34)

(54)

ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES

ANTIMIKROBIELLE PEPTIDE

PEPTIDES ANTIMICROBIENS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 22.02.2015 US 201562119186 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
02.08.2017 Bulletin 2017/31

(73)Proprietor: Omnix Medical Ltd.
9139101 Jerusalem (IL)

(72)Inventors:
  • BACHNOFF, Niv
    1214500 Sede Nehemia (IL)
  • COHEN-KUTNER, Moshe
    2012400 Lotem (IL)

(74)Representative: AWA Denmark A/S 
Strandgade 56
1401 Copenhagen K
1401 Copenhagen K (DK)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-2013/039861
US-A1- 2007 122 425
  
  • TAM ET AL.: 'Disulfide bond formation in peptides by dimethyl sulfoxide. Scope and applications' J. AM. CHEM. SOC. vol. 113, 1991, pages 6657 - 6662, XP000999677
  • BEDNAREK ET AL.: 'Structure-function studies on the cyclic peptide MT-II, lactam derivative of alpha-melanotropin.' PEPTIDES vol. 20., no. 3, 1999, pages 401 - 409, XP002302891
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF INVENTION



[0001] The invention encompasses antimicrobial peptides for therapeutic uses. These peptides are based on the Cecropin family which serves as potent antibacterial agents in insects.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Antibiotics are chemical substances having the capacity, in a dilute solution, to kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents to treat infectious diseases of humans, animals, and plants. The term was originally restricted to substances produced by microorganisms, but has been extended to include synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds of similar chemical activity.

[0003] Extensive and widespread use of antimicrobial drugs led to the emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms. These microorganisms are no longer susceptible to currently available antimicrobial drugs. In order to lower or prevent lethal infectious diseases and maintain public health, new antimicrobial agents are required. This forces researchers to pursue novel antibiotics, not yet resistant by bacteria. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the armament that insects have developed to fight off pathogens. Although usually cationic, the primary structures of insect AMPs vary markedly. Members of the most frequent AMP families adopt an α-helical conformation in membrane-mimetic environments (Bulet P. et al., Protein and Peptide Letters, 2005,12, 3-11).

[0004] Insects produce antibacterial peptides, which are secreted to their hemolymph, as an innate defense against pathogenic infections (Boman, H.G. et al., Annu. Rev. Microbial., 1987, 41, 103-126). Some insect species are capable of producing 10-15 different antibiotic peptides (Hoffman, J.A., et al., FEBS Let., 1993, 325, 663-664). Each peptide has a complete different range of antibacterial action (Bulet, P. Medicine Sciences 1999.15,23-29).

[0005] Cecropins were first isolated from the hemolymph of Hyalophora cecropia. Cecropins are small cationic peptides consisting 29-42 amino acid residues, found in the Diptera order (genus Drosophila, Sarcophaga) and Lepidoptera order (genus Hyalophora, Manduca, Bombyx, Antheraea). It should be mentioned that a Cecropin was isolated from porcine intestine (Boman, H.G., et al. Eur. J. Biochem. 1991. 201, 23-31; Morishima, I., et al. Biochem. Physiol. 1990. 95B, 551-554; Steiner, H., et al. Nature 1981. 292, 246-248; Sun, D., et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998. 249(2), 410-415; Bulet, P. et al Immunological Reviews. 2004. 198, 169-184). The known sequences for the major Cecropins show that the N-terminal parts are strongly basic while the C-terminal regions are neutral and contain long hydrophobic stretches. In all cases the Cecropins have an amidated C-terminal residue (Boman, H.G. et al., Annu. Rev. Microbial., 1987, 41, 103-126). Cecropins secondary structure forms two amphipathic α-helixes which are able to penetrate the bacterial membrane. This ability is followed by membrane loss of ionic gradient balance leading to bacterial death (Christensen, B.C., et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1988 83:1670-1674; Lockey, T.D., et al. Eur. J. Biochem. 1996. 236, 263-271; Marassi, F.M., et al. Biophys. J. 1999. 77, 3152-3155; Wang, W., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 1998. 273, (42) 27438-27448).

[0006] Cecropins are very similar molecules as half the amino acid substitutions are strictly conservative. Theoretical predictions and circular dichroism spectra indicate that these peptides can form nearly perfect amphipathic α-helices with charged groups on one longitudinal side and hydrophobic side residues on the opposite side. Proteins with amphipathic helices are often associated with membranes, and this secondary structure may be of importance for the membrane-disrupting activity of the Cecropins (Boman, H.G. et al., Annu. Rev. Microbial., 1987, 41, 103-126).

[0007] The structure of different sequences of peptides of the Cecropin family shows that they represent similar types of molecules. In addition to strongly basic N-terminal region and a long hydrophobic stretch in the C-terminal half, there are other typical conserved features such as: tryptophan at position 2, the single and double lysines at positions 5, 8 and 9 and arginine at position 12. It can be concluded that there must have been strong selection pressures that have conserved certain Cecropin sequences in different types of insects throughout evolution (Boman, H.G., et al. Eur. J. Biochem. 1991. 201, 23-31).

[0008] Membrane-active peptides exhibit channel-like conductivities across planar lipid bilayer systems as well as bilayer disruption. These bilayer openings deprive the affected organisms of their transmembrane electrochemical gradients, resulting in increased water flow concomitant with cell swelling, osmolysis and cell death. Antimicrobial peptides of particular interest for pharmacological applications are those which manifest antibacterial activity, but under the same conditions, do not show hemolytic or cytotoxic effect against healthy vertebrate cells (B. Bechinger. et al. J. Membrane Biol. 1997.156, 197-211). Most antibacterial peptides have to be positively charged in order to bind to bacterial surfaces, which normally are negatively charged. Cecropins show strong antibiotic activity against a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria without lysing mammalian cell lines or yeast (Agerberth, B. et al. Eus. J. Biochem. 1993. 216, 623-629).

[0009] The cell killing activity of Cecropins is not mediated through specific, chiral receptor interactions. The cell lytic activity of these peptides correlates with their ability to form α-helical secondary structures in membrane environments as well as with their binding affinity to liposomes (B. Bechinger. et al. J. Membrane Biol. 1997.156, 197-211). Toxicity studies on a variety of cell types have shown that, although plant protoplasts are more sensitive to Cecropins than are animal cells, plant cells are one to two orders of magnitude less sensitive to these peptides than their bacterial pathogens (Jaynes, J.M., et al. Peptide Res. 1989. 2, 157-160; Nordeen, R.D., et al. Plant Sci. 1992. 82, 101-107).

[0010] A strong example for Cecropin advantage as antimicrobial agents can be found in Cecropin A. Cecropin A, a 37-residue peptide, is composed entirely of ordinary

[0011] L-amino acids (Steiner H., et al. Nature. 1981, 292:246-248).. Cecropin A secondary structure is composed of two amphiphatic α-helixes with an identical length of bacterial plasma membrane. The primary target of this toxin is assumed to be the microbial membrane, and its antimicrobial effect is probably due to ionophore activity. When Escherichia coli bacteria were treated with Cecropin A, K+ ions inside of the cells leaked out rapidly and the ATP pool of the cells rapidly decreased. These results suggested that the bactericidal effect of Cecropin A was due to its ionophore activity, and that it blocked the generation of ATP by inhibiting formation of the proton gradient essential for oxidative phosphorylation (Natori, S. Nippon Rinsho. 1995. 53, 1297-1304; Okada, M., et al. Biochem. J. 1985.229, 453-458, Silvestro L. et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Mar; 44(3): 602-607).

[0012] It should be noted that Cecropins inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria in the human intestine without affecting the growth of beneficial bacteria which are abundant in the intestines of healthy people (Mitsuhara, I., et al. Biotechnology Letters. 2001. 23, 569-573).

[0013] The use of peptides as antibiotics is not obvious due to their sensitivity to protease activity (Andrew, D., et al. Biopolymers. 1998.47, 415-433). Most Cecropins are rich with Lysine and Arginine residues, which commonly comprise part of target sequences for abundant proteases such as trypsin, Inhibitor A and Proteinase K (Gunnel DALHAMMAR et al. Eur. J. Biochem. 139, 247-252 (1984, Bland JM et al. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 1998 v.46 no. 12 pp. 5324-5327). Previous research has shown that Cecropins are rapidly degraded in the intracellular fluid of plants (Owens, L.D., et al. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 1997. 10, 525-528). Several experiments trying to express Cecropins in plants have failed probably due to sensitivity to proteolytic activity (Allefs, S.J.H.M., et al. Am. Potato J. 1995. 72, 437-445; Florack, D., et al. Transgenic Res. 1995. 4, 132-141; Hightower, R., et al. Plant Cell Rep. 1994. 13, 295-299).

[0014] The engineering of stable proteins is of great technological and economic importance, since the limited stability of proteins often severely restricts their medical and industrial application. It is therefore an object of the invention to provide novel stable peptide-based antibiotics, such as AMCP's.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0015] The present invention provides a cyclic Cecropin peptide comprising a core amino sequence acid that is extended at the N-terminus by an N-terminal group and extended at the C-terminus by a C-terminal group, wherein the N-terminal group and the C-terminal group are identical or different and form a covalent bond so as to form a cyclic Cecropin peptide.

[0016] In an embodiment, the C-terminal group and/or the N terminal group comprises one or more of cysteine, a cysteine derivative, an amino acid sequence which contains cysteine or a group comprising a thiol moiety, or any combination thereof.

[0017] In an embodiment, the C-terminal group and/or the N terminal group are each cysteine, a cysteine derivative, or an amino acid sequence which contains cysteine or another group comprising a thiol moiety.

[0018] In an embodiment, the N-terminal group comprises the amino acid sequence methionine-cysteine, methionine-cysteine derivative, methionine derivative-cysteine or methionine derivative-cysteine derivative and the C-terminal group is cysteine or a cysteine derivative.

[0019] In an embodiment, the C-terminal group comprises the amino acid sequence methionine-cysteine, methionine-cysteine derivative, methionine derivative-cysteine or methionine derivative-cysteine derivative, and the N-terminal group is cysteine or a cysteine derivative

[0020] In an embodiment, the covalent bond is a disulfide bond or is an amide, lactam or peptide bond.

[0021] In an embodiment, the peptide has an amino acid sequence which is at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 99% or 100% identical to an amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID Nos. 1-11.

[0022] In an embodiment, the peptide is as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 6 or is at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% or 99% identical to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 6.

[0023] The present invention also provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising the cyclic peptides of the invention.

[0024] The present invention also provides the cyclic peptides of the invention for use in treating infection or disinfecting a wound. The wound may be a blister wound, a soft tissue wound, a cutaneous abscess, a surgical wound, a sutured laceration, a contaminated laceration, a burn wound, a decubitus ulcer, a stasis ulcer, a leg ulcer, a foot ulcer, a venous ulcer, a diabetic ulcer, an ischemic ulcer, a pressure ulcer, an oral infection, a periodontal disease, a partial thickness burn, or a full thickness burn. In an embodiment, the cyclic peptide may be administered by injection. In an embodiment, the cyclic peptide is administered with one or more additional anti-inflammatory active agents.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0025] 

Fig. 1A depicts a Coommassie Blue (Brilliant Blue R, Sigma Chemical Company, USA) stained gel detecting the following: Lanes 1-3: Native Cecropin-A (CecA) subjected to Proteinase-K (ProtK) proteolysis in increasing concentrations: 0/5/20 ng/30µl as mentioned. Lanes 4-6: OMN6 subjected to ProtK proteolysis in increasing concentrations: 0/5/20 ng/30µl as mentioned. Lanes 7-9: Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) subjected to ProtK proteolysis in increasing concentrations: 0/5/20 ng/30µl as mentioned. Proteolysis of CecA and BSA resulted in the disappearing of the band from the gel. Proteolytic activity of ProtK did not affect OMN6 and all the bands were present.

Fig. 1B depicts Coommassie blue stained gel detecting the stability of peptides OMN2, OMN7 and OMN11 against ProtK activity. The stability of each peptide with or without incubation with ProtK was presented (right lane and left lane, respectively). Clearly, peptides OMN2, OMN7 and OMN11 were not degraded by the depredating activity of ProtK. The bands are of the same intensity either for the ProtK treated peptide as for the non-treated peptide, namely, ProtK had no depredating effect on these peptides.

Fig. 2A: Right graph demonstrates E. coli bacteria growth monitored over 17.5 hours via absorbance at 600nm. Bacteria growth or inhibition of growth is presented as OD600nm values over time. As the bacteria grow, OD values increase. OMN6 antimicrobial effect is demonstrated by the decreased OD values that represent bacterial death in the presence of OMN6. Left graph same experiment as described above was conducted with E.coli bacteria and the native peptide Cecropin A (CecA). As is clearly seen after 10 hours CecA loses its antimicrobial activity and becomes ineffective. At that point, the bacteria overcome the growth inhibition and begin to grow and flourish. At the end of the experiment, bacteria treated with CecA reach the density and growth levels similar to that of the CTRL group (treated with DDW). These results strongly point to the fact that OMN6 is a stronger antimicrobial agent than CecA.

Fig. 2B depicts bacterial survival as percent survival of the control group (%/CTRL) in presence of CecA or one of the peptides of the invention, OMN6. Left Bars demonstrate bacterial survival in the presence of 12.5µM of CecA pre-treated with 20ng of ProtK. Right Bars demonstrate bacterial survival in the presence of 12.5µM of OMN6 pre-treated with 20ng of ProtK. CecA is degraded by ProtK therefore the bacteria survival is more than 70% of the CTRL group. OMN6 is stable and active, and accordingly the bacteria growth is inhibited to less than 10% of the CTRL group.

Fig.3: is a photograph showing Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) leaking from lysed bacteria cells. Fig. 3A shows bacteria treated with DDW as a control (CTRL). As can be seen the bacteria are alive, well defined, intact and GFP fluorescence is detected only inside the bacteria. Fig. 3B shows bacteria treated with OMN6. The bacteria are dead, and have undergone extensive lysis, which allowed the GFP fluorescence to be detected outside of bacteria cells, in the surrounding media.

Fig. 4A Left Panel is a photograph showing the leaking of GFP from lysed bacteria to the surrounding media, after centrifugation with or without a treatment with OMN6. Bacteria in the left tube, receiving DDW sham treatment are alive, intact and all GFP fluorescence is limited to bacteria cells in pellet. Bacteria in right tube, receiving treatment with OMN6, have undergone extensive lysis and GFP fluorescence is clearly visible outside of dead bacterial cells and in the surrounding media.

Fig. 4B demonstrates the graphical quantitation of the Fluorescence Units (FU) in each group.

Fig. 5: presents the survival of HEK293 cells quantified via Methylene-Blue assay and presented as percent survival of CTRL (%/CTRL). A 24 hours treatment with increasing concentration of OMN2 (Fig. 5A), OMN6 (Fig. 5B), OMN7 (Fig. 5D) and OMN11 (Fig. 5C) does not lead to cell death or alteration of the survival fraction.

Fig 6A: E. coli bacteria growth monitored over 17.5 hours via absorbance at 600nm. Bacteria growth or inhibition of growth is presented as OD600nm values over time. As the bacteria grow, OD values increase. A dose-response of OMN6 antimicrobial effect is demonstrated by the decreased OD values that represent bacterial death in correlation with increasing OMN6 concentration in µM.

Fig. 6B: The same experimental system as described for Fig.6A was applied, with the addition of 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS). This addition of FBS serves to better represent the environment existing in-vivo and predict the ability of OMN peptides to exert their effect in live animals and later in the human body

Fig. 6C and 6D: The same experiment was conducted with E.coli NDM-1 bacteria, an Imipenem (IPM) resistant strain. IPM concentration is given in µg/ml. Fig. 6C clearly shows that IPM has lost its inhibitory effect on bacteria growth as a result of the bacteria resistance. In Fig. 6D OMN6 exerts a powerful antimicrobial effect on this resistant strain. These results show that OMN6 is an effective antimicrobial agent against drug-resistant bacteria, on which a treatment with conventional antibiotics has failed.

Fig. 7: is a picture depicting an example of the antimicrobial effect of OMN6 on resistant bacteria. Multi Drug Resistant A.baumannii bacteria was plated on appropriate medium and incubated for 24-48 hours to allow the growth of colonies. Prior to plating, bacteria were incubated with OMN6 at increasing concentrations of between 0-10µM (see also in Fig. 8), and monitored as previously described (Fig. 6 and Example 5).
Bacteria in CTRL, when plated, yielded countless colonies, showing that their growth has not been inhibited. When OMN6 treated bacteria were plated, the medium remained clear and no colonies were seen. The absence of colonies indicates that all the bacteria were killed as a result of the treatment with OMN6.

Fig. 8: is an overview of the preliminary topical safety experiment in mice as detailed in Table 9. All the groups and treatments are presented as well as all the analysis assays performed. The figure depicts the results from the analysis of the hemolysis assay conducted. The figure depicts the quantification of Free-Hemoglobin averaged for each experimental group and presented as percent of the control group (%/CTRL).

Fig. 9: Is an overview of the preliminary intraperitoneal (IP) injection safety experiment in mice as detailed in Table 10. All the groups and treatments are presented as well as all the analysis assays performed. This Figure shows the results from the analysis of the hemolysis assay conducted. The figure depicts the quantification of Free-Hemoglobin averaged for each experimental group and presents it as % of CTRL.

Fig. 10 summarizes the results of an experiment conducted to evaluate the efficacy of OMN6 in-vivo. Mice were injected subcutaneously (SC) with 108 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/mouse of E. coli ESBL, a resistant strain. Experiment group was treated with OMN6 at a concentration of 8 mg/kg and CTRL group was treated with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution as a sham treatment. After four days, mice were sacrificed and skin samples were analyzed for bacterial burden (Fig.10A) and abscess size in mm2 (Fig.10B). Results show that the bacterial burden was lowered by 94% in the group treated with OMN6. Abscess size was decreased by 80% in the group treated by OMN6. Considering these results, it is clear that OMN6 is exerting a strong antimicrobial effect and is highly efficient in-vivo.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION



[0026] The invention is based on peptides from the Cecropin family, which are expressed mainly in insects from the Lepidoptera and Diptera orders.

[0027] The present application discloses degradation-resistant, peptides that can be used as antibiotic medicmants. In some embodiments, the peptides comprise at least one cysteine residue at their carboxy- and amino-terminus. As described herein, under oxidative environment, e.g. as in various infections, the cysteines in the carboxy- and amino-terminus of the peptides of the invention, are covalently bonded, thus creating a cyclic form of the peptides, wherein said cyclic peptides represent higher stability while maintaining its original biological activity.

[0028] The present invention provides a cyclic Cecropin peptide comprising a core amino sequence acid that is extended at the N-terminus by an N-terminal group and extended at the C-terminus by a C-terminal group, wherein the N-terminal group and the C-terminal group are identical or different and form a covalent bond so as to form a cyclic Cecropin peptide.

[0029] As disclosed herein, the core amino acid sequence, is identical or similar to the amino acid sequence of a member of the Cecropin family.

[0030] As used herein, in one embodiment the phrase "intermolecular covalent linkage" refers to covalent bond that is formed between two identical or different molecules.

[0031] In some embodiments, the member of the Cecropin family belongs to the group of AMP CMIV, Cecropin A, Cecropin B, Cecropin B2, Cecropin D, Cecropin IA, and Cecropin P1.

[0032] Reference is made to Tables 1, 2 and 3 which show a library of 11 exemplary antimicrobial peptides of the invention (sequences 1-11, Table 1), the original sequences from the Cecropin family (sequences 12-22, Table 2), and nucleic acid sequences encoding the peptides as set forth in SEQ ID Nos. 1-11, Table 3).

[0033] Table 1 presents the amino acid sequence of the modified peptides. Inserted cysteine and methionine residues appear in bold.
Table 1: Omnix Medical Modified Peptides
NameSequence IDSpecies origin / Original CecropinAmino acid sequence
OMN 1 SEQ ID NO: 1 S. peregrina Cecropin IA

 
OMN 2 SEQ ID NO: 2 H. cecropia Cecropin B

 
OMN 3 SEQ ID NO: 3 M. sexta Cecropin B-2

 
OMN 4 SEQ ID NO: 4 H. cecropia Cecropin D

 
OMN 5 SEQ ID NO: 5 A. pernyi Cecropin D

 
OMN 6 SEQ ID NO: 6 H. cecropia Cecropin A

 
OMN 7 SEQ ID NO: 7 B. mori AMP CMIV

 
OMN 8 SEQ ID NO : 8 B. mori Cecropin A

 
OMN 9 SEQ ID NO: 9 A. pernyi Cecropin B

 
OMN 10 SEQ ID NO: 10 D. melanogaster Cecropin A

 
OMN 11 SEQ ID NO: 11 S.s. domesticus Cecropin P1

 


[0034] Table 2 presents the amino acid sequences of exemplary peptides from the Cecropin family and their origin.
Table 2: Cecropin Family of Peptides
Sequence IDSpecies originOriginal CecropinAmino acid sequence
SEQ ID NO: 12 S. peregina Cecropin IA

 
SEQ ID NO: 13 H. cecropia Cecropin B

 
SEQ ID NO: 14 M. sexta Cecropin B-2

 
SEQ ID NO: 15 H. cecropia Cecropin D

 
SEQ ID NO: 16 A. pernyi Cecropin D

 
SEQ ID NO: 17 H. cecropia Cecropin A

 
SEQ ID NO: 18 B. mori AMP CMIV

 
SEQ ID NO: 19 B. mori Cecropin A

 
SEQ ID NO: 20 A. pernyi Cecropin B

 
SEQ ID NO: 21 D. melanogaster Cecropin A

 
SEQ ID NO: 22 S.s. domesticus Cecropin P1

 


[0035] Table 3 presents the nucleic acid sequences encoding respectively the peptides of sequences 1-11.
Table 3: Nucleotide Sequence encoding the modified peptides of the invention.
NameSequence IDSpecies origin / Original CecropinNucleotide sequence
OMN 1 SEQ ID NO: 23 S. peregrina Cecropin IA

 
OMN 2 SEQ ID NO: 24 H. cecropia Cecropin B

 
OMN 3 SEQ ID NO: 25 M. sexta Cecropin B-2

 
OMN 4 SEQ ID NO: 26 H. cecropia Cecropin D

 
     

 
OMN 5 SEQ ID NO: 27 A. pernyi Cecropin D

 
OMN 6 SEQ ID NO: 28 H. cecropia Cecropin A

 
OMN 7 SEQ ID NO: 29 B. mori AMP CMIV

 
OMN 8 SEQ ID NO: 30 B. mori Cecropin A

 
OMN 9 SEQ ID NO: 31 A. pernyi Cecropin B

 
OMN 10 SEQ ID NO: 32 D. melanogaster Cecropin A

 
OMN 11 SEQ ID NO: 33 S.s. domesticus Cecropin P1

 


[0036] In some embodiments of the invention, the cyclic peptide has a topology, wherein the topology is head-to-tail, side-chain-to-side-chain, head-to-side-chain or side-chain-to-tail or backbone-to-backbone or side-chain-to-backbone or head-to-backbone or tail-to-backbone. The cyclic peptide according to some embodiments of the invention is homodetic cyclic peptide, cyclic isopeptide, cyclic depsipeptide or bicyclic peptide. In some embodiments, the covalent linkage is formed under oxidative and/or acidic physiological conditions. In some embodiments, the peptide of the invention is a stapled peptide.

[0037] As used herein, in one embodiment relating to the topology of the cyclic peptide, the phrase "head-to-tail" refer to cyclization of the peptide via amide bond formation between the amino terminus and the carboxyl terminus of the peptide.

[0038] As used herein, in one embodiment relating to the topology of the cyclic peptide, the phrase "side-chain-to-side-chain" refers to cyclization of the peptide via the formation of covalent bond between two side chains.

[0039] As used herein, in one embodiment relating to the topology of the cyclic peptide, the phrase "head-to-side-chain" refers to cyclization of the peptide via the formation of covalent bond between the amino terminus and a side chain of the peptide.

[0040] As used herein, in one embodiment relating to the topology of the cyclic peptide, the phrase "side-chain-to-tail" refers to cyclization of the peptide via the formation of covalent bond between the carboxyl terminus and a side chain of the peptide.

[0041] As used herein, in one embodiment relating to the topology of the cyclic peptide, the phrase "backbone-to-backbone" refers to cyclization of the peptide via the formation of covalent bond between two different backbone atoms of the peptide.

[0042] As used herein, in one embodiment relating to the topology of the cyclic peptide, the phrase "side-chain-to-backbone" refers to cyclization of the peptide via the formation of covalent bond between a side chain and a backbone atom of the peptide.

[0043] As used herein, in one embodiment relating to the topology of the cyclic peptide, the phrase "head-to-backbone" refers to cyclization of the peptide via the formation of covalent bond between the amino terminus and a backbone atom of the peptide.

[0044] As used herein, in one embodiment relating to the topology of the cyclic peptide, the phrase "tail-to-backbone" refers to cyclization of the peptide via the formation of covalent bond between the carboxyl terminus and a backbone atom of the peptide.

[0045] In some embodiments, the core amino acid sequence of a member of the Cecropin family is as set forth in SEQ ID Nos: 12-22 as detailed in Table 2. The core amino acid sequence may comprise of L or D stereoisomers or combination thereof. In some embodiments of the invention, the core amino acid sequence has at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90 %, 95% or 99% sequence identity to the amino acid sequences set forth in SEQ ID Nos: 12-22. The core amino acid sequence may comprise according to some embodiments, substitution, conservative amino acid substitutions, conservatively modified sequence variants, deletion, and/or insertion at one or more position or is in reverse order.

[0046] As used herein, in one embodiment the phrase "conservative amino acid substitutions" or the phrase "conservatively modified sequence variant" refer to trivial changes in amino acid sequence were one of skill will recognize that individual substitutions, deletions or additions to a nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide, or protein sequence which alters, adds or deletes a single amino acid or a small percentage of amino acids in the encoded sequence is a "conservatively modified sequence variant", including where the alteration results in the substitution of an amino acid with a chemically similar amino acid (conservative amino acid substitutions). Conservative substitution tables providing functionally similar amino acids are well known in the art. Guidance concerning which amino acid changes are likely to be phenotypically silent can also be found in Bowie et al., 1990, Science 247: 1306 1310. Such conservatively modified variants are in addition to and do not exclude polymorphic variants, interspecies homologs, and alleles. Typical conservative substitutions include but are not limited to: 1) Alanine (A), Glycine (G); 2) Aspartic acid (D), Glutamic acid (E); 3) Asparagine (N), Glutamine (Q); 4) Arginine (R), Lysine (K); 5) Isoleucine (I), Leucine (L), Methionine (M), Valine (V); 6) Phenylalanine (F), Tyrosine (Y), Tryptophan (W); 7) Serine (S), Threonine (T); and 8) Cysteine (C), Methionine (M) (see, e.g., Creighton, Proteins (1984)). Amino acids can be substituted based upon properties associated with side chains, for example, amino acids with polar side chains may be substituted, for example, Serine (S) and Threonine (T); amino acids based on the electrical charge of a side chains, for example, Arginine (R) and Histidine (H); and amino acids that have hydrophobic side chains, for example, Valine (V) and Leucine (L). As indicated, changes are typically of a minor nature, such as conservative amino acid substitutions that do not significantly affect the folding or activity of the protein.

[0047] In some embodiments of the invention, the amino acid sequence of the member of the Cecropin family which forms the core amino acid of the peptide of the invention comprises 17-144 amino acids. In some embodiments of the invention, the amino acid sequence of the member of the Cecropin family comprises 20-140 amino acids. In some embodiments of the invention, the amino acid sequence of the member of the Cecropin family comprises 25-130 amino acids. In some embodiments of the invention, the amino acid sequence of the member of the Cecropin family comprises 20-40 amino acids. In some embodiments of the invention, the amino acid sequence of the member of the Cecropin family comprises 25-30 amino acids. In some embodiments of the invention, the amino acid sequence of the member of the Cecropin family comprises 20-50 amino acids. In some embodiments of the invention, the amino acid sequence of the member of the Cecropin family comprises 15-50 amino acids. In some embodiments of the invention, the amino acid sequence of the member of the Cecropin family comprises 20-70 amino acids. In some embodiments of the invention, the amino acid sequence of the member of the Cecropin family comprises 20-100 amino acids. In some embodiments of the invention, the peptide comprises a C-terminus group and/or an N terminus group wherein the C-terminus group and/or the N terminus group comprises one or more of cysteine, cysteine derivative, an amino acid sequence which contains cysteine or a group comprising a thiol moiety or any combination thereof.

[0048] In some embodiments of the invention, the C-terminus group and/or the N terminus group are each selected from the group consisting of cysteine, cysteine derivative, an amino acid sequence which contains cysteine or any other group comprising a thiol moiety. In some embodiments of the invention, the N -terminus group comprises the amino acid sequence methionine-cysteine, methionine-cysteine derivative, methionine derivative-cysteine or methionine derivative -cysteine derivative and the C -terminus group is cysteine or a cysteine derivative. In some embodiments of the invention, the C -terminus group comprises the amino acid sequence methionine-cysteine, methionine-cysteine derivative, methionine derivative-cysteine or methionine derivative -cysteine derivative and the N -terminus group is cysteine or a cysteine derivative.

[0049] In some embodiments, the N -terminus group and the C-terminus group are covalently bound so as to form a cyclic peptide by a covalent linkage which is a disulfide bond, an amide, lactam or peptide bond.

[0050] In some embodiments of the invention, the c-terminus group and the N terminus group are each selected from the group of L-amino acids, D-amino acids, non-natural amino acid or amino acid derivative.

[0051] In some embodiments of the invention, the peptide is self-assembled within a physiological membrane such that the intermolecular covalent linkage is formed between the N -terminus group of the peptide to the N-terminus or a C-terminus group of an additional identical peptide or wherein the intermolecular covalent linkage is formed between the C -terminus group of the peptide to the N-terminus or a C-terminus groups of an additional identical peptide.

[0052] In some embodiments of the invention, wherein the peptide is as set forth in SEQ ID Nos. 1-11. In some embodiments, the peptide is as set forth in SEQ ID. No. 6, which is also designated here OMN 6.

[0053] In some embodiments, the peptides of the invention are stabilized by an amide group added to the C-terminus group and or by an acetyl group to the N- terminus group. In some embodiments, the peptides of the invention are stabilized by any technique which is known in the art such as the addition of a non-proteinaceous or proteinaceous moiety.

[0054] In an embodiment of the invention, the non-proteinaceous moiety is polyethylene glycol (PEG) or derivative thereof, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), albumin, divinyl ether, maleic anhydride copolymer (DIVEMA; and poly(styrene comaleic anhydride) (SMA), hyaluronic acid (HA), alginic acid (AA), polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate (Poly-HEMA), glyme or polyisopropylacrylamide or any combination thereof.

[0055] Also disclosed herein is a functionally equivalent molecule that mimics the functional activity of any of the peptide or peptide variants provided in this invention. The term "functionally equivalent molecule" refers in the application to any compound such as but not restricted to peptidomimetic or stapled peptide. The functionally equivalent molecule may be obtained by retro-inverso or D-retro-enantiomer peptide technique, consisting of D-amino acids in the reversed sequence. The functionally equivalent molecule may be obtained by using amino acid derivative.

[0056] As used herein, in one embodiment, the term "amino acid derivative" refers to a group derivable from a naturally or non-naturally occurring amino acid, as described and exemplified herein. Amino acid derivatives are apparent to those of skill in the art and include, but are not limited to, ester, amino alcohol, amino aldehyde, amino lactone, and N-methyl derivatives of naturally and non-naturally occurring amino acids. In an embodiment, an amino acid derivative is provided as a substituent of a compound described herein, wherein the substituent is -NH-G(Sc)-C(0)- Q or -OC(0)G(Sc)-Q, wherein Q is -SR, -NRR or alkoxyl, R is hydrogen or alkyl, Sc is a side chain of a naturally occurring or non-naturally occurring amino acid and G is C1-C2 alkyl. In certain embodiments, G is Ci alkyl and Sc is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, heteroalkyl, arylalkyl and heteroarylalkyl.

[0057] As used herein, in one embodiment, the term "peptide" may be derived from a natural biological source, synthesized, or produced by recombinant technology. It may be generated in any manner, including by chemical synthesis. One or more of the amino acids may be modified, for example, by the addition of a chemical entity such as a carbohydrate group, a phosphate group, a farnesyl group, an isofamesyt group, a fatty acid group, an acyl group (e.g., acetyl group), a linker for conjugation, functionalization, or other known protecting/blocking groups.

[0058] As used herein, in one embodiment, the term "peptide" may be fragments, derivatives, analogs, or variants of the foregoing peptides, and any combination thereof. "Fragments of peptides", as that term or phrase is used herein, include proteolytic fragments, as well as deletion fragments. "Variants of peptides" include fragments and peptides with altered amino acid sequences due to amino acid substitutions, deletions, or insertions.

[0059] Variants may occur naturally or be non-naturally occurring. Examples include fusion proteins, peptides having one or more residues chemically derivatized by reaction of a functional side group, and peptides that contain one or more naturally occurring amino acid derivatives of the twenty standard amino acids. These modifications may also include the incorporation of D-amino acids, or other non-encoded amino-acids. In one embodiment, none of the modifications should substantially interfere with the desired biological activity of the peptide, fragment thereof. In another embodiment, modifications may alter a characteristic of the peptide, fragment thereof, for instance stability or half-life, without interfering with the desired biological activity of the peptide, fragment thereof. In one embodiment, as used herein the terms "peptide" and "protein" may be used interchangeably having all the same meanings and qualities.

[0060] In one embodiment, peptides of the present invention are purified using a variety of standard protein purification techniques, such as, but not limited to, affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, filtration, electrophoresis, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, reverse phase chromatography, concanavalin A chromatography, chromatofocusing and differential solubilization.

[0061] In one embodiment, to facilitate recovery, the expressed coding sequence can be engineered to encode the peptide of the present invention and fused cleavable moiety. In one embodiment, a fusion protein can be designed so that the peptide can be readily isolated by affinity chromatography; e.g., by immobilization on a column specific for the cleavable moiety. In one embodiment, a cleavage site is engineered between the peptide and the cleavable moiety and the peptide can be released from the chromatographic column by treatment with an appropriate enzyme or agent that specifically cleaves the fusion protein at this site [e.g., see Booth et al., Immunol. Lett. 19:65-70 (1988); and Gardella et al., J. Biol. Chem. 265:15854-15859 (1990)].

[0062] In one embodiment, the peptide of the present invention is retrieved in a substantially pure form.

[0063] In one embodiment, the phrase "substantially pure" refers to a purity that allows for the effective use of the protein in the applications described herein.

[0064] In one embodiment, the peptide of the present invention can also be synthesized using in vitro expression systems. In one embodiment, in vitro synthesis methods are well known in the art and the components of the system are commercially available.

[0065] In one embodiment, a peptide of this invention is produced by a synthetic process. In some embodiments the peptide is produced using recombinant DNA technology. A "recombinant" peptide, or protein refers to a peptide, or protein produced by recombinant DNA techniques; i.e., produced from cells transformed by an exogenous DNA construct encoding the desired peptide or protein.

[0066] In some embodiments, the recombinant peptides, fragments thereof or peptides are synthesized and purified; their therapeutic efficacy can be assayed either in vivo or in vitro. In one embodiment, the activities of the peptides of the present invention can be ascertained using various assays including inter-alia cell viability, survival of mice, and recovery of wounds.

[0067] In one embodiment, a peptide of this invention comprises at least 20 amino acids. In another embodiment, a peptide comprises at least 25 amino acids. In other embodiments, a peptide comprises at least 30 amino acids or at least 50 amino acids or 75 amino acids, or 100 amino acids, or 125 amino acids, or 150 amino acids, or 200 amino acids, or 250 amino acids or 300 amino acids or 350 amino acids or 400 amino acids.

[0068] As used herein, in one embodiment, the terms "peptide" and "fragment" may be used interchangeably having all the same meanings and qualities. As used herein, in one embodiment the term "peptide" includes native peptides (either degradation products, synthetically synthesized peptides or recombinant peptides) and peptidomimetics (typically, synthetically synthesized peptides), such as peptoids and semipeptoids which are peptide analogs, which may have, for example, modifications rendering the peptides more stable while in a body or more capable of penetrating into bacterial cells. Such modifications include, but are not limited to N terminus modification, C terminus modification, peptide bond modification, including, but not limited to, CH2-NH, CH2-S, CH2-S=O, O=C-NH, CH2-O, CH2-CH2, S=C-NH, CH=CH or CF=CH, backbone modifications, and residue modification. Methods for preparing peptidomimetic compounds are well known in the art and are specified, for example, in Quantitative Drug Design, C.A. Ramsden Gd., Chapter 17.2, F. Choplin Pergamon Press (1992). Further details in this respect are provided herein under.

[0069] Peptide bonds (-CO-NH-) within the peptide may be substituted, for example, by N-methylated bonds (-N(CH3)-CO-), ester bonds (-C(R)H-C-O-O-C(R)-N-), ketomethylen bonds (-CO-CH2-), α-aza bonds (-NH-N(R)-CO-), wherein R is any alkyl, e.g., methyl, carba bonds (-CH2-NH-), hydroxyethylene bonds (-CH(OH)-CH2-), thioamide bonds (-CS-NH-), olefinic double bonds (-CH=CH-), retro amide bonds (-NH-CO-), peptide derivatives (-N(R)-CH2-CO-), wherein R is the "normal" side chain, naturally presented on the carbon atom.

[0070] These modifications can occur at any of the bonds along the peptide chain and even at several locations (2-3) at the same time.

[0071] Natural aromatic amino acids, Trp, Tyr and Phe, may be substituted for synthetic non-natural acids such as TIC, naphthylelanine (Nol), ring-methylated derivatives of Phe, halogenated derivatives of Phe or o-methyl-Tyr.

[0072] As used herein, in one embodiment the term "amino acid" refers to naturally occurring and synthetic α, β γ or δ amino acids, and includes but is not limited to, amino acids found in proteins, i.e. glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, proline, serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, asparagine, glutamine, aspartate, glutamate, lysine, arginine and histidine. In certain embodiments, the amino acid is in the L-configuration. Alternatively, the amino acid can be a derivative of alanyl, valinyl, leucinyl, isoleuccinyl, prolinyl, phenylalaninyl, tryptophanyl, methioninyl, glycinyl, serinyl, threoninyl, cysteinyl, tyrosinyl, asparaginyl, glutaminyl, aspartoyl, glutaroyl, lysinyl, argininyl, histidinyl, β-alanyl, β-valinyl, β-leucinyl, β-isoleuccinyl, β-prolinyl, β-phenylalaninyl, β-tryptophanyl, β-methioninyl, β-glycinyl, β-serinyl, β-threoninyl, β-cysteinyl, β-tyrosinyl, β-asparaginyl, β-glutaminyl, β-aspartoyl, β-glutaroyl, β-lysinyl, β-argininyl or β-histidinyl. As used herein, in one embodiment the phrase "Conservatively modified variants" applies to both amino acid and nucleic acid sequences. "Amino acid variants" refers to amino acid sequences. With respect to particular nucleic acid sequences, conservatively modified variants refers to those nucleic acids which encode identical or essentially identical amino acid sequences, or where the nucleic acid does not encode an amino acid sequence, to essentially identical or associated (e.g., naturally contiguous) sequences. Because of the degeneracy of the genetic code, a large number of functionally identical nucleic acids encode most proteins. For instance, the codons GCA, GCC, GCG and GCU all encode the amino acid alanine. Thus, at every position where an alanine is specified by a codon, the codon can be altered to another of the corresponding codons described without altering the encoded polypeptide. Such nucleic acid variations are "silent variations", which are one species of conservatively modified variations. Every nucleic acid sequence herein which encodes a polypeptide also describes silent variations of the nucleic acid. One of skill will recognize that in certain contexts each codon in a nucleic acid (except AUG, which is ordinarily the only codon for methionine, and TGG, which is ordinarily the only codon for tryptophan) can be modified to yield a functionally identical molecule. Accordingly, silent variations of a nucleic acid which encodes a polypeptide is implicit in a described sequence with respect to the expression product.

[0073] As to amino acid sequences, one of skill will recognize that individual substitutions, deletions or additions to a nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide, or protein sequence which alters, adds or deletes a single amino acid or a small percentage of amino acids in the encoded sequence is a "conservatively modified variant", including where the alteration results in the substitution of an amino acid with a chemically similar amino acid. Conservative substitution tables providing functionally similar amino acids are well known in the art. Guidance concerning which amino acid changes are likely to be phenotypically silent can also be found in Bowie et al., 1990, Science 247: 1306 1310. Such conservatively modified variants are in addition to and do not exclude polymorphic variants, interspecies homologs, and alleles. Typical conservative substitutions include but are not limited to: 1) Alanine (A), Glycine (G); 2) Aspartic acid (D), Glutamic acid (E); 3) Asparagine (N), Glutamine (Q); 4) Arginine (R), Lysine (K); 5) Isoleucine (I), Leucine (L), Methionine (M), Valine (V); 6) Phenylalanine (F), Tyrosine (Y), Tryptophan (W); 7) Serine (S), Threonine (T); and 8) Cysteine (C), Methionine (M) (see, e.g., Creighton, Proteins (1984)). Amino acids can be substituted based upon properties associated with side chains, for example, amino acids with polar side chains may be substituted, for example, Serine (S) and Threonine (T); amino acids based on the electrical charge of a side chains, for example, Arginine (R) and Histidine (H); and amino acids that have hydrophobic side chains, for example, Valine (V) and Leucine (L). As indicated, changes are typically of a minor nature, such as conservative amino acid substitutions that do not significantly affect the folding or activity of the protein.

[0074] In some embodiments, the peptide of the invention is an isolated peptide. As used herein, in one embodiment the term "isolated" means altered "by the hand of man" from its natural state; i.e., that, if it occurs in nature, it has been changed or removed from its original environment, or both.

[0075] The peptides of the invention may be assayed for example by an agarose dilution MIC assay, a broth dilution, time-kill assay, or equivalent methods. Antibiotic activity is measured as inhibition of growth or killing of a microorganism (e.g., bacteria, fungi).

[0076] As disclosed herein, , under oxidative environment, e.g. as in infections, the cysteines in the carboxy- and amino-terminus of the peptide of the invention are covalently attached to one another, thus creating a cyclic form of the peptide, which represents higher stability while maintaining the peptide's original biological activity or even an improved activity compared to the original form. In some embodiments, these peptides are used as an antibiotic medicament.

[0077] The application also discloses a method for expressing the novel cysteine harboring peptides from the Cecropin family in single cell heterologous expression systems. The method enables a large scale expression while avoiding rapid degradation by proteolysis activity.

[0078] Also disclosed herein is a nucleic acid sequence encoding the peptide of any one of the sequences as set for in SEQ ID Nos. 1-11 or a vector comprising the nucleic acid sequence encoding the peptide of any one of the sequences as set for in SEQ ID Nos. 1-11.

[0079] A massive production of AMCP's in heterologous expression system such as the yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae / Pichia pastoris or compatible bacteria strains, serves in some embodiments of the invention to generate a 1 class of agents effective against a wide range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria which overcome the problem of antibiotic resistance.

[0080] According to one method, the desired genes, such as, but not limited to, any of the peptides listed in Table 1, e.g. the AMCP6 gene (SEQ ID NO:25), are identified, isolated, and cloned into a suitable vector after the addition of Cysteine codons to each of the carboxy- and amino-terminus of the genes. The vector is suitable for high-quantity expression of the target peptides, e.g. pPIC9K and pET28 plasmids, and are transformed into an acceptable target expression system, e.g. BL21, Pichia pastoris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, etc.

[0081] Desired genes encoding proteins from the Cecropin family are genetically engineered to possess an even number of cysteines located at their carboxy and amino terminus. Table 1 provides a detailed list of several peptides of the Cecropin family, including their naive amino acid sequence and the added Cysteine and Methionine residues.

[0082] One method is the insertion of an ATG codon (encoding the methionine amino acid) to the 5' of mature Cecropin genes. When unmodified peptides are engineered and cysteine residues are inserted downstream of native ATG codon.

[0083] In another embodiment, the insertion of desired AMCP gene downstream to a region encoding for 6 histidine residues (His-Tag) is provided. A large number of compatible vectors suitable for this purpose are known to those of skill in the art. One example is the use of the vector pET28a, for the expression of the peptides in compatible bacterial expression system. The use the 6 histidine residues His-Tag is a well-known technique for isolation and purification of proteins from expression system cells.

[0084] The use of eukaryotic expression systems is commonly used for the production of foreign proteins. One example of such system is the methanoltrophic Pichia pastoris yeast strain. P. pastoris has been developed into an excellent host system for massive production of desired proteins. One of the advantages of using P. pastoris over E. coli bacterial cells is that the proteins of interest are usually folded correctly and secreted to the growth medium. Furthermore, P. pastoris does not have the endotoxin problem associated with bacteria especially when concerning antimicrobial peptides as required in this invention. Therefore, one embodiment of the invention is the insertion of AMCP genes into pPIC9K, a Pichia Vector for multi-copy integration and secreted expression (Invitrogen). AMCP gene of choice is cloned into said expression, resulting in pPIC9K-AMCP (9.5 Kb). Cloning the AMCP genes downstream to the AOX1 promoter verifies that their expression is under its regulation. For example, AMCP gene containing ATG-TGC codons, encoding methionine and cysteine respectively, at the 5' of its naive origin; and TGC- codon, encoding cysteine, at its 3'; results in the expression of desired cyclic peptides of the invention.

[0085] Disclosed herein is a method of overcoming inherent or acquired resistance of a microorganism to an antibiotic agent, comprising: contacting the microorganism to the peptide of the invention as described herein. The microorganism is, in some embodiments, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella Pneumoniaea, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella serotype Typhi, Acinetobacter baumannii, a member of Enterobacteriaceae spp., Pseudomonas spp. Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter spp. or any combination thereof,

[0086] As used herein "inherent resistance" of a microorganism to an antibiotic agent refers to a natural resistance to the action of the agent even in the absence of prior exposure to the agent. (R. C. Moellering Jr., Principles of Anti-infective Therapy; In: Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 4.sup.th Edition, Eds.; G. L. Mandell, J. E. Bennett, R. Dolin. Churchill Livingstone, New York USA, 1995, page 200).

[0087] As used herein, "acquired resistance" of a microorganism to an antibiotic agent refers to a resistance that is not inhibited by the normal achievable serum concentrations of a recommended antibiotic agent based on the recommended dosage. (NCCLS guidelines).

[0088] As used herein, "tolerance" of a microorganism to an antibiotic agent refers to when there is microstatic, rather than microcidal effect of the agent. Tolerance is measured by an MBC:MIC ratio greater than or equal to 32. (Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, Eds., C. R. Mahon and G. Manuselis, W.B. Saunders Co., Toronto Canada, 1995, page 92).

[0089] As noted above, this invention provides a cyclic peptide of the invention for use in methods of treating infections caused by a microorganism, methods of killing a microorganism, and methods of enhancing the activity of an antibiotic agent. In particular, these methods are especially applicable when a microorganism is resistant to an antibiotic agent, by a mechanism, such as tolerance, inherent resistance, or acquired resistance. In this invention, infections are treated by administering a therapeutically effective dose of a cationic peptide alone or in combination with an antibiotic agent to a patient with an infection. Similarly, the combination can be contacted with a microorganism to effect killing.

[0090] In some embodiments of the invention, there is provided a cyclic peptide of the invention for use in disinfecting a wound by contacting the wound with the peptide or the pharmaceutical composition of the invention. The wound may be in some embodiments, a blister wound, a soft tissue wound, a cutaneous abscess, a surgical wound, a sutured laceration, a contaminated laceration, a burn wound, a decubitus ulcer, a stasis ulcer, a leg ulcer, a foot ulcer, a venous ulcer, a diabetic ulcer, an ischemic ulcer, a pressure ulcer, an oral infection, a periodontal disease, a partial thickness burn, or a full thickness burn.

[0091] In some embodiments of the invention, there is provided a a cyclic peptide of the invention for use in treating an infection, the method comprising administering the peptide or the pharmaceutical composition of the invention to a subject in need thereof.

[0092] In some embodiments of the invention, the invention provides use of the peptide as described herein or a pharmaceutical composition comprising the same in the preparation of a medicament for treating an infection in a subject. The infection may be bacterial, viral- and/or fungal infection.

[0093] As used herein in the specification and in the claims section below, the term "treat" or "treating" and their derivatives includes substantially inhibiting or slowing a pathogen growth, or killing the same. The pathogen may be selected from bacteria, virus, parasite and pathologic fungi.

[0094] According to the treatments disclosed herein, the peptide of the invention should be used in an effective amount to treat infections in mammals. As used herein, "effective amount" means an amount necessary to achieve the desired result. For example, an effective amount of the peptides of the invention to remove a bacterial infection from a mammal within 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 7 days or 10 days. The "effective amount" for purposes herein is that determined by such considerations as are known in the art. Effective doses may be extrapolated from dose-response curves derived from in vitro or animal model test systems. It is to be understood that the "effective amount" is dependent on the treated bacteria, the subject's physical condition, etc. Determination of optimal ranges of effective amounts of the active ingredient is within the skill of the art.

[0095] In some embodiments of the invention, there is provided a pharmaceutical composition comprising the peptide of the invention. The pharmaceutical composition may be in a form of a liquid, cream, gel, paste, powder, emulsion, an ointment, a liniment, a lotion, a transdermal system, an injection fluid, a suspension, a patch film patch or spray. In some embodiments, the formulation is in a form of capsule or a tablet or designed for being injected. The composition may be administered in conjunction with one or more additional anti-inflammatory active agent.

[0096] According to an embodiment, the compositions of the present invention may be formulated for topical, oral, ocular or pulmonary (e.g. for inhalation) administration. Other formulations are described hereinbelow and are within the scope of the invention.

[0097] As used herein a "pharmaceutical composition" refers to a preparation of the active ingredients described herein with other chemical components such as physiologically suitable carriers and excipients. The purpose of the composition is to facilitate administration of the active ingredients (e.g., the peptides of the invention) to the subject.

[0098] As used herein the term "active ingredient" refers to the peptide compositions accountable for the intended biological effect (i.e., for treatment or prevention of an infection).

[0099] Hereinafter, the phrases "physiologically acceptable carrier" and "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" which may be interchangeably used to refer to a carrier or a diluent that does not cause significant irritation to the subject and does not abrogate the biological activity and properties of the administered active ingredients. An adjuvant is included under these phrases.

[0100] Herein, the term "excipient" refers to an inert substance added to the composition (pharmaceutical composition or cosmetic composition) to further facilitate administration of an active ingredient of the present invention.

[0101] Techniques for formulation and administration of drugs may be found in "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences" Mack Publishing Co., Easton, PA, latest edition.

[0102] Techniques for formulation and administration may be found in "Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy" Twentieth Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa. (1995). For human or animal administration, preparations should meet sterility, pyrogenicity, general safety and purity standards comparable to those required by the FDA. Administration of the pharmaceutical formulation can be performed in a variety of ways, as described herein.

[0103] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition including a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and an active ingredient which is the peptide of the invention. The phrase "active ingredient" refers to any of the peptides, the fragments thereof, the functionally equivalent molecule that mimics the functional activity of the peptide, or a polynucleotide encoding a peptide according to the embodiments of the present invention. The pharmaceutical composition can contain one or more of the above-identified active ingredients of the present invention. Typically, the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention will include an active ingredient of the present invention, as well as a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The term "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" refers to any suitable adjuvants, carriers, excipients, or stabilizers, and can be in solid or liquid form such as, tablets, capsules, powders, solutions, suspensions, or emulsions.

[0104] Typically, the composition will contain from about 0.01 to 99 percent of the active ingredient. In some embodiments, the composition will contain from about 20 to 75 percent of an active ingredient and will further contain adjuvants, carriers and/or excipients. Determination of optimal ranges of effective amounts of the active ingredient is within the skill of the art. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition may comprise about 0.01 to about 100 mg/kg body-weight of the peptide. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition may comprise about 0.5 to about 100 mg/kg body-weight of the peptide. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition may comprise about 100 to about 500 mg/kg body-weight of the peptide. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition may comprise about 100 to about 300 mg/kg body-weight of the peptide. Treatment regimen for the administration of the peptide of the present invention can also be determined readily by those with ordinary skill in art. That is, the frequency of administration and size of the dose can be established by routine optimization.

[0105] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is in a form of a solid unit dosage form such as a capsule, tablet and the like, such as an ordinary gelatin type containing the active ingredient thereof of the present invention, and a carrier, for example, lubricants and inert fillers such as, lactose, sucrose, or cornstarch. In another embodiment, the active ingredient is tabulated with conventional tablet bases such as lactose, sucrose, or cornstarch in combination with binders like acacia, cornstarch, or gelatin, disintegrating agents, such as cornstarch, potato starch, or alginic acid, and a lubricant, like stearic acid or magnesium stearate. The tablets, capsules, and the like can also contain a binder such as gum tragacanth, acacia, corn starch, or gelatin; excipients such as dicalcium phosphate; a disintegrating agent such as corn starch, potato starch, alginic acid; a lubricant such as magnesium stearate; and a sweetening agent such as sucrose, lactose, or saccharin. When the dosage unit form is a capsule, it can contain, in addition to materials of the above type, a liquid carrier such as a fatty oil.

[0106] Various other materials may be present as coatings or to modify the physical form of the dosage unit. For instance, tablets can be coated with shellac, sugar, or both. A syrup can contain, in addition to active ingredient, sucrose as a sweetening agent, methyl and propylparabens as preservatives, a dye, and flavoring such as cherry or orange flavor.

[0107] For oral therapeutic administration, the active ingredient can be incorporated with excipients and used in the form of tablets, capsules, elixirs, suspensions, syrups, and the like.

[0108] The active ingredient of the present invention may be orally administered, for example, with an inert diluent, or with an assimilable edible carrier, or they can be enclosed in hard or soft shell capsules, or they can be compressed into tablets, or they can be incorporated directly with the food of the diet.

[0109] The pharmaceutical forms suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions. In all cases, the form should be sterile and should be fluid to the extent that easy syringability exists. It should be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and should be preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (e.g., glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol), suitable mixtures thereof, and vegetable oils.

[0110] For use as aerosols, the active ingredient thereof of the present invention in solution or suspension may be packaged in a pressurized aerosol container together with suitable propellants, for example, hydrocarbon propellants like propane, butane, or isobutane with conventional adjuvants. The materials of the present invention also may be administered in a non-pressurized form such as in a nebulizer or atomizer.

[0111] When administering the active ingredient of the present invention, and pharmaceutical compositions thereof, they can be administered systemically or, alternatively, they can be administered directly to a specific site. Thus, administering can be accomplished in any manner effective for delivering the active ingredients thereof or the pharmaceutical compositions to the specific targeted cells. Exemplary modes of administration include, without limitation, administering the active ingredients thereof or compositions orally, topically, transdermally, parenterally, subcutaneously, intravenously, intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, by intranasal instillation, by intracavitary or intravesical instillation, intraocularly, intraarterially, intralesionally, or by application to mucous membranes, such as, that of the nose, throat, and bronchial tubes.

[0112] Toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of the peptides described herein can be determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures in cell cultures or experimental animals, e.g., by determining the IC50 (the concentration which provides 50% inhibition) and the LD50 (lethal dose causing death in 50 % of the tested animals) for a subject compound. The data obtained from these cell culture assays and animal studies can be used in formulating a range of dosage for use in human. The dosage may vary depending upon the dosage form employed and the route of administration utilized. The exact formulation, route of administration and dosage can be chosen by the individual physician in view of the patient's condition. (See, for example, Fingl et al., 1975, in The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Ch. 1 p.1.

[0113] Depending on the severity and responsiveness of the condition to be treated, dosing can also be a single administration of a slow release composition, with course of treatment lasting from several days to several weeks or until cure is effected or diminution of the disease state is achieved.

[0114] The amount of a composition to be administered will, of course, depend on the subject being treated, the severity of the affliction, the manner of administration, the judgment of the prescribing physician, and all other relevant factors. Determination of the exact dose to be administered is conducted by methods known to a person of skill in the art.

[0115] It is further understood that the active ingredient of the invention can be formulated or administered together with additional active ingredients as required to treat the condition of the patient.

[0116] Alternately, one may administer the composition in a local rather than systemic manner, for example, by injecting the composition including the active ingredient (and a physiologically acceptable carrier) directly into a tissue region of a patient (e.g. to the infected skin or into a healthy skin that surrounds the infected skin).

[0117] Suitable routes of administration of the compositions may, for example, include ocular (e.g., to the eye), topical (e.g., to a keratinous tissue, such as the skin, hair, nail, scalp), transdermal, subdermal, pulmonary and oral (e.g., by mouth) administrations.

[0118] According to an embodiment, the composition of the present invention is administered topically, pulmonary (e.g. via inhalation), orally or ocularly.

[0119] As used herein the phrase "dermal administration" refers to applying or spreading the composition of the present invention onto the surface of the body, i.e. skin, scalp, hair, nails and the like, preferably on the surface affected by the infection.

[0120] As used herein the phrase "transdermal administration" refers to administration of the compositions of the present invention across the skin for systemic administration (e.g. via transdermal patches or by transdermal implants). The transdermal administration is typically effected in close proximity to the site of infection, however, transdermal administration may be carried out in any anatomical location as see fit by one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0121] As used herein the phrase "subdermal administration" refers to administering the compositions of the present invention under the skin (i.e. completely buried in the skin, e.g. via subdermal implants). The subdermal administration is typically effected in close proximity to the site of the infection, however, subdermal administration may be carried out in any anatomical location as see fit by one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0122] Compositions of the present invention may be manufactured by processes well known in the art, e.g., by means of conventional mixing, dissolving, granulating, dragee-making, levigating, emulsifying, encapsulating, entrapping or lyophilizing processes.

[0123] Compositions for use in accordance with some embodiments of the invention thus may be formulated in conventional manner using one or more physiologically acceptable carriers comprising excipients and auxiliaries, which facilitate processing of the active ingredients into preparations which, can be used cosmetically or pharmaceutically. Proper formulation is dependent upon the route of administration chosen.

[0124] In addition, a dose can be formulated in tissue cultures systems (e.g. ex-vivo systems) or in animal models to achieve a desired concentration or titer. Such information can be used to more accurately determine useful doses in humans. For example, a therapeutically effective amount can be evaluated in-vivo by determining the level of inflammation before and after administration of the composition in a subject affected by an inflammatory state [e.g. by use of a blood test such as a complete blood count (CBC), by observation of skin wounds and so forth].

[0125] Toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of the active ingredients described herein can be determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures in vitro, in cell cultures or experimental animals. The data obtained from these in vitro and cell culture assays and animal studies can be used in formulating a range of dosage for use in humans. The dosage may vary depending upon the dosage form employed and the route of administration utilized. The exact formulation, route of administration, and dosage can be chosen by the individual physician in view of the patient's condition. (See, e.g., Fingl, E. et al. (1975), "The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics," Ch. 1, p.1.)

[0126] Depending on the severity of the condition (e.g., the area, depth and degree of the infection) and the responsiveness of the subject to treatment, dosing can be of a single or a plurality of administrations, with course of treatment lasting from several days to several weeks, several months or several years, or until cure is effected or diminution of the infection is achieved. Alternatively, the compositions are administered in order to prevent occurrence of an infection in a subject at risk of developing an infection (e.g. a subject suffering from a chronic inflammatory disease). The compositions may be administered for prolonged periods of time (e.g. several days, several weeks, several months or several years) as to prevent occurrence of an infection.

[0127] According to an embodiment of the present invention, the compositions of the present invention are administered at least once a day. According to another embodiment, the compositions are administered twice a day, three times a day or more.

[0128] According to an embodiment of the present invention, administering is effected chronically.

[0129] According to another embodiment, administering is effected for at least about 10 days, 12 days, 14 days, 16 days, 18 days, 21 days, 24 days, 27 days, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days or more.

[0130] The amount of a composition to be administered will, of course, be dependent on the subject being treated, the severity of the affliction, the manner of administration, the judgment of the prescribing physician, etc.

[0131] The compositions of the present invention may be formulated as a unit dosage form. In such form, the preparation is subdivided into unit doses containing appropriate quantities of the active ingredients such as for a single administration. The unit dosage form can be a packaged preparation, the package containing discrete quantities of preparation, for example, an ampule, a dispender, an adhesive bandage, a non-adhesive bandage, a wipe, a baby wipe, a gauze, a pad and a sanitary pad.

[0132] Additional factors may be incorporated into the compositions of the present invention (i.e., plant extracts as described hereinabove). These include, but are not limited to, extracellular matrix components (e.g. vitronectin, laminin, collagen, elastin), growth factors (e.g. FGF 1, FGF 2, IGF 1, IGF 2, PDGF, EGF, KGF, HGF, VEGF, SDF-1, GM-CSF, CSF, G-CSF, TGF alpha, TGF beta, NGF and ECGF), growth factors [e.g. erythropoietin, fibroblast growth factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], hormones (e.g., insulin, growth hormone (GH), CRH, Leptin, Prolactin and TSH), angiogenic factors (e.g., angiogenin and angiopoietin), coagulation and anticoagulation factors [e.g., Factor I, Factor XIII, tissue factor, calcium, vWF, protein C, protein S, protein Z, fibronectin, antithrombin, heparin, plasminogen, low molecular weight heparin (Clixan), high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI2), urokinase, thrombomoduline, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), alpha 2-antiplasmin and Protein Z-related protease inhibitor (ZPI)], cytokine inhibitors (e.g. Cyclosporin A; Alpha-2-Macroglobulin, Pentamidine, Pentoxifylline, Dexamethasone), chemokine inhibitors (e.g. Peptide 3, NR58.3-14-3), enzymes (e.g. endoglycosidases, exoglycosidases, endonucleases, exonucleases, peptidases, lipases, oxidases, decarboxylases, hydrases, chondroitinase, chondroitinase ABC, chondroitinase AC, hyaluronidase, keratanase, heparanases, heparanase splice variance, collagenase, trypsin, catalases), neurotransmitters, neuropeptides (e.g. substance P), vitamins (e.g., D-biotin, Choline Chloride, Folic acid, Myo-inositol, Niacinamide, D-Pantothenic acid, Calcium salts, Pyridoxal.HCl, Pyrodixine.HCl, Riboflavin, Thiamine.HCl, Vitamin B12, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin B1-6, vitamin K, vitamin A and vitamin PP), carbohydrates (e.g. Mono/Di/Polysaccharides including glucose, mannose, maltose and fructose), ions, chelators (e.g. Fe chelators, Ca chelators), antioxidants (e.g., Vitamin E, Quarcetin, superoxide scavengers, Superoxide dismutase, H2O2 scavengers, free radicals scavengers, Fe scavengers), fatty acids (e.g., Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Cholesterols, free fatty acids and non free fatty acids, fatty alcohol, Linoleic acid, oleic acid and lipoic acid), antibiotics (e.g., Penicillins, Cephalosporins and Tetracyclines), amino acids (e.g., essential and non essential (from A-Z) especially glutamine and arginine), salts (e.g., prurivat salts and sulfate salts), sulfates (e.g. Calcium Sulfate), steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens, progestagens, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids), analgesics, anesthetics, anti-bacterial agents, anti-yeast agents, anti-fungal agents, anti-viral agents, pro-biotic agents, anti-protozoal agents, anti-pruritic agents, anti-dermatitis agents, anti-emetics, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-hyperkeratolyic agents, antiperspirants, anti-seborrheic agents, antihistamine agents, hypoxia inducible factors (e.g. HIF-1 alpha and beta and HIF-2), catecholamines (e.g., Epinephrine and Nor-epinephrine), Nucleosides and Nucleotides (e.g., Purins and Pyrimidines), Prostaglandins (e.g. Prostaglandin E2), Leucotriens, Erythropoietins (e.g. Thrombopoietin), Proteoglycans (e.g. Heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate), Hydroxyapatites [e.g. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2)], Haptoglobins (Hp1-1, Hp2-2 and Hp1-2), Superoxide dismutases (e.g. SOD 1/2/3), Nitric Oxides, Nitric Oxide donors (e.g. nitroprusside, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, Glutathione peroxidases, Hydrating compounds (e.g. vasopressin), cells (e.g. Platelets), cell medium (e.g. M199, DMEM/F12, RPMI, Iscovs), serum (e.g. human serum, fetal calf serum, , fetal bovine serum), buffers (e.g., HEPES, Sodium Bicarbonate), detergents (e.g., Tween), disinfectants, herbs, fruit extracts, vegetable extracts (e.g. cabbage, cucumber), flower extracts, additional plant extracts, flavinoids (e.g. pomegranate juice), spices, leafs (e.g. Green tea, Chamomile), Polyphenols (e.g. Red Wine), honey, lectins, microparticles, nanoparticles (lyposomes), micelles, calcium carbonate (CaCO3, e.g. precipitated calcium carbonate, ground/pulverized calcium carbonate, albacar, PCC, GCC), calcite, limestone, crushed marble, ground limestone, lime, and chalk (e.g. whiting chalk, champagne chalk, french chalk).

[0133] The present formulation may also contain ingredients, substances, elements and materials containing, hydrogen, alkyl groups, aryl groups, halo groups, hydroxy groups, alkoxy groups, alkylamino groups, dialkylamino groups, acyl groups, carboxyl groups, carboamido groups, sulfonamide groups, aminoacyl groups, amide groups, amine groups, nitro groups, organo selenium compounds, hydrocarbons, and cyclic hydrocarbons.

[0134] The present formulation may be combined with substances such as benzoyl peroxide, vasoconstrictors, vasodilatators, salicylic acid, retinoic acid, azelaic acid, lactic acid, glycolic acid, pyreuric acid, tannins, benzlidenecamphor and derivatives thereof, alpha hydroxyis, surfactants.

[0135] Compositions of some embodiments of the present invention may be bioconjugated to polyethyleneglycol (e.g. PEG, SE-PEG) which preserves the stability (e.g., against protease activities) and/or solubility (e.g., within a biological fluid such as blood, digestive fluid) of the active ingredients (i.e. plant extract compositions of the present invention) while preserving their biological activity and prolonging its half-life.

[0136] The carrier utilized in the compositions of the invention can be in a wide variety of forms. These include emulsion carriers, including, but not limited to, oil-in-water, water-in-oil, water-in-oil-in-water, and oil-in-water-in-silicone emulsions, a cream, an ointment, an aqueous solution, a lotion, a soap, a paste, an emulsion, a gel, a spray or an aerosol.

[0137] Methods for preparing compositions having such properties are well known to those skilled in the art, and are described in detail in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1990 (supra); and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, 6th ed., Williams & Wilkins (1995).

EXAMPLES


Example 1


Enhanced stability of OMN6 in comparison with native Cecropin A and BSA.



[0138] Proteinase-K (ProtK) was used to assess the stability of OMN6 versus native Cecropin A (CecA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (See Fig. 1 A). 10µg of each protein were incubated with increasing concentrations of between 5-20ng of ProtK as specified, for 2 hours at 37°C. Samples were boiled at 100°C for five minutes and separated on 15% acrylamide gel. The gel was then stained with Coommassie Blue and excess dye was removed over-night. Results clearly show that 20 ng of ProtK was sufficient to completely degrade CecA and BSA (lanes: 3, 9 respectively). As can be seen, OMN6 is protected from ProtK proteolysis and was not degraded (lane: 6). Results also show that ProtK at a low concentration of 5ng was sufficient to partially degrade CecA and BSA (lanes: 2, 8 respectively). In lane 2, the CecA band was weaker than the untreated sample band in lane 1. In lane 8, fragments of degraded BSA were detected, evidence of partial degradation. OMN6 was not degraded by ProtK at all. These results prove that OMN6, after the genetic engineering, is more stable than its native form, Cecropin A. The same experimental system as described above was used to assess the stability of OMN2, OMN7 and OMN11 against proteolytic degradation by ProtK (see Fig. 1B). In each case, as specified, results show that OMN peptides are not degraded by ProtK. The peptides are stable as can be seen from the equal intensity of the bands presented for each peptide.

Example 2


Fig. 2A: OMN6 Exerts a More Powerful Antimicrobial Effect than Native Peptide Cecropin-A.



[0139] An assay was conducted in order to compare the antimicrobial activity of the native peptide Cecropin A (CecA) vs. a peptide of the invention OMN6. E. coli bacteria were cultured with CecA or OMN6 in concentration of 12.5µM for 17-20 hours. The growth of the bacteria was continuously monitored via spectrophotometry at 600nm. As bacterial growth progresses, OD600nm values rise, and where the growth is inhibited OD600nm values remain constant. The results clearly show that at the concentration of 12.5 µM, the genetically engineered peptide OMN6 exerted a strong antimicrobial effect and completely inhibited bacterial growth for more than 17 hours, the entire duration of the experiment. At higher concentrations the bacterial growth was totally inhibited as well (data not shown). In contrast, when bacteria were incubated under the same experimental conditions with CecA at 12.5µM, there was no significant inhibition of growth. The bacteria completely overcame the inhibitory effect of CecA after 10 hours. The bacteria then continued to thrive and grow to density similar to that of the CTRL group. These results taken together serve to strongly suggest that OMN6 is a new and stronger antimicrobial agent than its native counterpart CecA.

Fig.2B: OMN6 is Stable in Presence of Proteinase-K and retains its potent antimicrobial activity.



[0140] The susceptibility of OMN6/CecA to proteolytic degradation was assessed and the effects of stability on activity were determined. Native peptide-CecA and engineered peptide-OMN6 were incubated with 20ng of Proteinase-K (ProtK) at 37°C for two hours (left bars and right bars, respectively). E. coli at 500,000 CFU/ml were incubated for 18 hours with either CecA or OMN6 pretreated with ProtK. After the incubation, bacterial survival was determined via absorption at OD600nm and via CFU count on agar plates.

[0141] The results as shown in Fig. 2A show that the genetically engineered peptide, OMN6, is a stronger antimicrobial agent than the native form CecA. The inhibition of bacterial growth exerted by CecA is overcome after 10 hours while OMN6 inhibits growth for more than 17 hours. Moreover, the effect of OMN6 is of a bactericidal nature as there were no colonies present when the experiment groups detailed in this example were plated. Most importantly, CecA is prone to proteolysis by ProtK and loses its antibacterial activity due to this degradation. It is clear that CecA treated with ProtK for 2 hours has lost its ability to kill bacteria. At 12.5µM of CecA, bacteria are able to grow to more than 70% of the CTRL-control (non-treated bacteria group) (left bars). When OMN6 was treated with 20ng of ProtK OMN6 was not degraded; rather, was stable and did not lose its antibacterial activity. At 12.5µM of OMN6, bacteria growth was inhibited to less than 10% of the CTRL group (right bars).

[0142] Examples 1 and 2 emphasize that OMN6 is a stable peptide. OMN6 is a potent antimicrobial agent even after incubation with a strong protease like ProtK. In contrast, the native peptide CecA, which is prone to proteolysis, degrades by proteases and loses its ability to inhibit growth or kill bacteria after incubation with ProtK.

Example 3


OMN6 treatment leads to bacteria cell lysis and leakage of GFP from cells to the surrounding media.



[0143] In order to determine and evaluate the Mechanism of Action (MOA) by which the peptides achieve the remarkable antimicrobial effect they exert, the following experiments were conducted: GFPuv E. coli bacteria are a strain that upon induction expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). The GFP fluorescence can be detected at 395/509 nm, while live bacteria can be detected via absorbance at 600nm (OD600).

[0144] GFPuv E.coli bacteria ubiquitously express GFP in their cytoplasm upon induction and the fluorescent protein can be detected and visualized. The bacteria were grown and induced to express GFP for three hours, the bacteria were then treated with double distilled water (DDW) or OMN6 and incubated for 30 minutes (Fig.3A, and Fig. 3B, respectively). At that point, the bacteria were imaged via a microscope (x60 Olympus lens) under UV light. In the CTRL group, treated with DDW, the bacteria were clearly unharmed. All the bacteria were alive, intact and there was no evidence of GFP leaking from inside the cells to the outside media (Fig.3 A). When the E.coli GFPuv bacteria were treated with 50µM OMN6 50 for 30 minutes, there was massive leaking of GFP from the cells' cytoplasm to the outside media (Fig.3 B). Since GFP is a protein of 238 amino-acid residues (26.9 kDa), this protein is a large protein and it cannot leak from the cells when the plasma membrane is intact. It is evident that OMN6 punctures the membrane and leads to the formation of pores through which GFP can leak. The formation of these pores constitutes a physical damage that leads to the bacteria death. In contrast to small-molecule antibiotics, bacteria do not develop resistance against physical disturbance of pore formation in their plasma membrane.

[0145] In another experiment, bacteria were grown and induced to express GFP. The bacteria were treated with DDW (for CTRL) or with OMN6. Bacteria were then centrifuged (5000RPM for five minutes) and the pellet was separated from the growth media supernatant (see Fig.4A). The supernatant (sup) from the two experiment groups CTRL and OMN6, was separated from the pellet and analyzed for the level of fluorescence units (FU) (see Fig.4B). The results clearly show that in the CTRL group, where the bacteria remain unharmed, the intact bacterial cells retain all of the GFP. Fluorescence was detected only inside the bacteria which were concentrated in the pellet at the bottom of the tube. In the group treated with OMN6 50µM for 30 minutes, the bacteria have undergone extensive lysis and as a result, GFP leaked out of the cells and was therefore found in the surrounding media. Both supernatants were probed for the presence of bacteria via absorbance at 600 nm and both supernatants were completely void of bacteria cells (data not shown). The rationale behind this experiment is that once the sup is free of bacteria cells, if the peptide causes the lysis of bacterial cells it will cause the GFP to leak out of the cells into the growth media. Thus, in the CTRL group, where the bacteria are intact, no fluorescence is detected in the sup while in the sup from the group treated with OMN6, the GFP that leaked out of the lysed cells is detected.

Example 4


OMN2, OMN6, OMN7 and OMN11 Do Not Present Cytotoxic Effects on HEK293 Cells.



[0146] Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK293) are human originated cells widely accepted as a model cell-line for evaluating adverse effects of potentially hazardous substances. HEK293 cells were cultured to 80% confluency and introduced to increasing concentrations of OMN2, OMN6, OMN7 and OMN11. CTRL group treated with DDW.

[0147] After 24 hours, all experiment groups were subjected to Methylene-Blue assay in-order to evaluate and determine cell survival. No significant changes in cell morphology or survival were observed in all of the groups (Fig.5A-D).

Example 5


OMN6 Does Not Present Cytotoxic Effects on Human Primary Erythrocytes.



[0148] Since the peptides of the invention are intended inter-alia to operate in wounds or other damaged tissue, a direct contact with patients' blood may occur. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted in order to assess whether OMN6 has cytotoxic effects on human primary erythrocytes. These cells lack any defense mechanism to protect them against damage to the plasma membrane and therefor are a standard model for evaluating cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells. The parameter that was measured was the ability of OMN6 to cause hemolysis, red blood cells death, in human erythrocytes. The experiments were performed on human blood samples using ABX PENTRA DF120 machine routinely used by hospital personnel to conduct such tests. The results show, that hemolysis of cells did not occur. The erythrocytes did not die as a result of being contact with OMN6. The number of cells at the beginning of the experiment has not been changed throughout the entire duration of the experiment in any of the experiment groups and the number of cells/mml did not vary between the CTRL group and the experiment group (Table 4).

[0149] The Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) of the erythrocytes is a well-accepted indication of the cells' health and membrane integrity. The experiment was conducted to assess whether OMN6, which forms pores in bacterial membranes, has the ability to damage human cells plasma-membrane. As can be seen from the results demonstrated in Table 5, OMN6 did not cause any decrease in cell volume throughout the time of the experiment. These results strongly indicate that the peptide does not damage eukaryotic cell-membranes. (Table 5).

[0150] OMN6 peptide does not target human membranes of primary erythrocytes and HEK293 cells. No significant reduction in cell counts or other adverse effect were observed with any of the peptides. These results show the peptides safety and their highly selective targeting of bacteria cells.

[0151] Table 4 and Table 5: hemolysis and Mean Corpuscular Values (MCV) of human primary erythrocytes were evaluated after treatment with OMN6. Treatment with OMN6 did not cause hemolysis of erythrocytes. Cell count was conducted and the number of cells/ml did not vary between CTRL group and experiment groups throughout the entire duration of the experiment (Table 4).

[0152] Erythrocytes Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) was determined as well, MCV values did not change throughout the entire duration of the experiment and MCV values of experiment group did not vary from those of CTRL group (Table 5).




Example 6


OMN Peptides Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Values on Sensitive and Resistant Bacteria In-Vitro.



[0153] In order to determine the MIC values of the peptides, growth and inhibition of various bacteria were monitored after treatment with the peptides of the invention (Table 6). E. coli bacteria were cultured with or without OMN6 in increasing concentrations of 0.8-200µM and with or without Fetal Bovine Serum 10% for 17-20 hours. The growth of the bacteria was continuously monitored via spectrophotometry at 600nm. As bacterial growth progresses, OD600 nm values rise, and where the growth is inhibited OD600nm values remain constant.

[0154] The results clearly show that at Minimal Inhibitory Cone. (MIC) of 12.5µM, the genetically engineered peptide OMN6 exerted a strong antimicrobial effect and inhibited bacterial growth for 17 hours, at higher concentrations the bacterial growth was totally inhibited as well. When culture media is supplemented with FBS 10%, MIC value of OMN6 stands at 6.25µM (Fig.6B).

[0155] E. coli NDM1 is a Carbapenem resistant strain of bacteria. The experimental system described above was used to determine the antimicrobial effect of OMN6 on this bacteria compared to the antibiotic drug Imipenem (IPM), a member of the Carbapenem family of antibiotics. The MIC value for IPM on sensitive E.coli is 4µg/ml, in a MIC above 8µg/ml the bacteria is considered resistant. Fig.6C clearly shows that even when the concentration of IPM is increased to 64µg/ml, 16 times the value of MIC, the growth of the resistant bacteria is not inhibited at all. Moreover, this strain was also exposed to 128µg/ml and growth was not inhibited at all (data not shown). When OMN6 12.5µM was introduced to the system, it completely inhibited bacterial growth (Fig.6D).

[0156] These results demonstrate that when bacteria develop resistance to a specific drug, this drug is no longer effective even at high concentrations. This drug can no longer be used for therapeutic purposes as it has lost its ability to kill the resistant bacteria. The bacteria resistance against a specific antibiotic drug or against a multitude of antibiotic drugs does not affect their susceptibility to the antimicrobial peptides of the invention.

[0157] The experimental system and parameters described here were used to determine the MIC values of OMN2, OMN6, OMN7 and OMN11 on various bacteria strains (Table 7 and Table 8).
Table 6: Bacteria Strains
ATCC#Resistance
Escherichia coli NDM1
ATCC® BAA-2452™ Carbepenem-resistant (Imipenem and Ertapenem)
Escherichia coli ESBL
ATCC® BAA-198™ Multidrug resistant
Klabsiella Pneumoniaea NDM1
ATCC® BAA-2473™ Carbepenem-resistant (Imipenem and Ertapenem)
Klabsiella Pneumoniaea KPC+
ATCC® BAA-2344™ Carbapenem resistant (Imipenem and Ertapenem)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Multidrug resistant
ATCC® BAA-2110™
Salmonella serotype Typhi Resistant to ampicillin Chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, tetracycline
ATCC® 700408™
Acinetobacter baumannii Multidrug resistant
ATCC® BAA-1793





Example 7


OMN Peptides Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) Values on Sensitive and Resistant Bacteria In-Vitro.



[0158] In order to determine the Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values of the peptides, colony formation of various bacteria strains was monitored and determined after treatment with the peptides of the invention. Multi-Drug Resistant A. baumannii bacteria were cultured with or without OMN6 in increasing concentrations, as is detailed in Fig.6 and Example 6. Immediately afterwards, samples of each experimental group were diluted to 1X104 to 1X 106 as necessary, and further, the samples were plated on appropriate medium-agar plates. All the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 hours. Colonies were counted and CFU/ml in the original sample, prior to plating, were calculated and determined. An example of the plates, after incubation, is presented in Fig.7 where the plate on the left side of the image is the CTRL sample treated with DDW and in the right side of the image increasing concentrations of OMN6 are presented, as specified therein. The results show abundant growth of bacteria in the CTRL group, no inhibition of growth is detected in the CTRL, as well as in OMN6 at concentrations of 0.62µM and 1.25µM groups. In the groups treated with OMN6 at 2.5µM, 5µM and 10µM the plates are clear, i.e void of colonies.

[0159] These results clearly demonstrate the antimicrobial effect of OMN6. Furthermore, the fact that the MIC values (Fig.6 and Example 6) are very similar to the MBC values (Fig.7 and Example 7) points to a bactericidal effect of the OMN peptides of the invention. The growth of the bacteria was not merely inhibited but the bacteria were killed upon contact with the peptides.

[0160] The experimental system and parameters described here were used to determine the MBC values of OMN2, OMN6, OMN7 and OMN11 on various bacteria strains with and without the supplementation of 10% FBS (Table 6 and Table 8).



[0161] The combined results from the MIC experiments and the MBC experiments detailed above show that OMN peptides of the invention are highly effective antimicrobial agents. Treatment with OMN peptides directly leads to the death of resistant bacteria strains. The fact that MIC and MBC values are identical, points to a strong and rapid bactericidal effect. This bactericidal effect lowers the occurrence of resistance development as well as the chance of tolerance.

Example 8


OMN6 Antimicrobial Peptide Preliminary Safety in Mouse Model.



[0162] The antimicrobial peptide OMN6 was administered to mice in order to evaluate and quantify whether toxic effects are present. OMN6 peptide (C195H332N56O49S3) was administered topically according to concentrations and groups detailed in Table 9.



[0163] Mice approved for this experiment: Outbred Hsd:ICR (CD-1®)- weight 18-20g. Saline solution (0.9%NaCl) as sham treatment or OMN6 dissolved in saline were administered directly onto the skin of mice after the hair was shaved. A total volume of 16µl was administered to each animal. In this experiment, the peptide OMN6 of the invention was administered in a single dose, at four different concentrations (mg/kg). Mortality of mice in all experiment groups was monitored in comparison to a Sham (CTRL) group. Food and water consumption, post treatment, was monitored by individual weight measurements once every two days. At the end of the experiment, blood was taken from all animals and 200µl of blood was separated and plasma was analyzed for erythrocyte hemolysis.

[0164] Experimental map:
  1. 1. Mice (six per group) were given a single-dose administration on day 1, according to group specification (Table 9). Food and water consumption (weight analysis) along with mortality of mice in all groups were monitored for four days post treatment. At the end of the five day trial, the animals were sacrificed.
  2. 2. Free Hgb (hemoglobin) assay was performed on day 5, on all samples from all groups, for erythrocyte hemolysis analysis.
  3. 3. Water/food availability, temperature and other conditions remained unchanged between the groups for the entire five day trial.
  4. 4. Erythrocyte hemolysis analysis was performed via hemoglobin assay kit (Sigma-Aldrich, 3 Plaut St. Rehovot, Israel).
The results from the topical administration experiment clearly show that OMN6 does not exert any toxic or otherwise adverse effects when it is administered topically. Mortality was not observed in any of the groups throughout the entire 5-day experiment. Clinical signs such as: diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, stand-on-end hair, apathy or restlessness were not observed in any of the groups throughout the entire 5-day experiment. Weight-loss was not observed in any of the groups throughout the entire 5-day experiment, and further, in all cages animals gained weight at a normal rate.
No evidence of hemolysis of erythrocytes was observed in any of the experiment groups. The results strongly suggest that the peptides are highly specific and target only bacteria cells without harming eukaryotic membranes at all.

[0165] IP administration of OMN6: OMN6 was administered IP to mice in order to evaluate and quantitate any toxic effects if present. OMN6 peptide was administered via intraperitoneal injection according to concentrations and groups detailed in Table 10.



[0166] Mice used in this experiment: Outbred Hsd: ICR (CD-1®) - weight 18-20g. Saline solution (0.9%NaCl) supplemented with 4mM C2H3NaO2 (sodium acetate) as sham treatment, or OMN6 dissolved in saline were administered as specified in Table 9 A total volume of 100µl was administered to each animal. Mortality of mice in experiment group was monitored in comparison to a Sham (CTRL) group. Food and water consumption, post treatment, was monitored by individual weight measurements once every two days. At the end of the experiment, blood was taken from all animals, and a 200µl volume of complete blood was separated and plasma was analyzed for erythrocyte hemolysis.

[0167] Experimental map:
  1. 1. Mice (six per group) were given a single-dose administration on day 1, according to group specification (Table 10). Food and water consumption (weight analysis) along with mortality of mice in all groups were monitored for 3 days post treatment. At the end of the four day trial, the animals were sacrificed.
  2. 2. Free Hgb (hemoglobin) assay was performed on day 4, on all samples from all groups, for erythrocyte hemolysis analysis.
  3. 3. Water/food availability, temperature and other conditions remained unchanged between the groups for the entire four day trial.
  4. 4. The Erythrocyte hemolysis analysis was performed via hemoglobin assay kit (Sigma-Aldrich, 3 Plaut St. Rehovot, Israel).


[0168] The results clearly show that OMN6 does not exert any toxic or otherwise adverse effects when injected IP into mice. Mortality was not observed in any of the groups throughout the entire four-day experiment. Clinical signs such as: diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, stand-on-end hair, apathy or restlessness were not observed in any of the groups throughout the entire four-day experiment. Weight-loss was not observed in any of the groups throughout the entire four-day experiment, further in all of the cages animals gained weight at a normal rate.

[0169] The results demonstrate that the peptides of the invention are safe. No evidence of hemolysis of erythrocytes was observed in any of the experiment groups. Histological analysis was conducted (data not shown). No evidence of pathological changes or aberrations was observed in any of the experiment groups.

Example 9:


OMN6 Efficacy in Mouse Model Subcutaneous Infection with E. coli.



[0170] Animals: Healthy adult female mice weighing 16-20 g were used. CD-I outbred (Harlan Breeding Labs, Jerusalem, Israel) were used in all experiments. Animals were caged in groups of 5-10 and were maintained on chow (Ralston Purina) and water ad-libitum.
Bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC BAA-198) is an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) TEM-26 multi drug resistant strain. Stock cultures were grown in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) (Becton, Dickinson and company BD. Maryland, USA) at 37°.
Colonies were counted after incubation for 24 hours on TSB-agar (BD), and results were expressed as colony forming units (CFU)/ml.
Inoculum: All broth cultures were adjusted to 1x108 CFU/animal for the challenge dose by adding TSB to a final volume of 50µl. Bacteria were administered via subcutaneous (SC) injection with tuberculin syringes capped with 29-gauge needles. Recipient animals had the right flank shaved and depilated with hair remover cream (ORNA19, Israel). To inject the inoculum, the needle was inserted SC 1 cm lateral to the thoracic spine and just anterior to the right hind extremity. The needle was tracked anteriorly and SC for 1 cm; then 50 µl of inoculum was injected.

[0171] OMN6 peptide at 8mg/kg in a total volume of 80µl was injected SC after one hour to the same area. All animals appeared well and fully active within 2-4 hours after this procedure. All animals were monitored for food and water consumption, mortality and any other adverse effects for the entire 5-day duration of the experiment.
Evaluation of Bacterial Burden: A 2cm2 area of skin was incised and the inner side, where the abscess was located, was scraped with a sterile scalpel. Scraped tissue was filtered through a 40µm cell-strainer. Filtered mass was collected, centrifuged at 500RPM for 2 minutes and a sample from the supernatant was plated on TBS-agar plates for 24 hours at 37°. Colonies were then counted and results are presented as CFU/abscess (see Fig.10A).
Evaluation of Abscesses: Animals were assessed for the presence and size of abscesses on day 5. The animals were anesthetized (Ketamine 225mg/kg /Xylazine 6mg/kg BW IP), the right hind flank area was gently exposed by aseptic technique. Abscesses were recorded and then measured by calipers: the product of the longest diameter (D) and corresponding perpendicular diameter (d) was determined as "abscess size" (D x d) findings presented in mm2 (see Fig.10B).

[0172] Results: Fig. 10A: The bacteria burden found in the group of animals inoculated with bacteria and treated with a sham-saline treatment was: 300CFU/mouse The bacteria burden found in the group of animals inoculated with bacteria and treated with OMN6 at 8mg/kg was 20CFU/mouse.
The results show 93.3% decrease in bacteria burden, pointing to a strong antimicrobial effect of OMN6 in-vivo. The fact that the measurements were made after five days, points to a powerful and rapid bactericidal effect of OMN6 leading to direct death of almost all the bacteria that were introduced to the mouse. To conclude, a single dose of OMN6 was enough to eliminate the bacteria, significantly reducing the bacteria burden and the formation of an abscess. Accordingly, it is clear that OMN6 is effective in-vivo and has a long lasting effect of a bactericidal nature.
Fig. 10B: The average size of the abscesses found in the group of animals inoculated with bacteria and treated with a sham-saline treatment was 35.25mm2
The average size of the abscesses found in the group of animals inoculated with bacteria and treated with OMN6 at 8mg/kg was 7.25mm2

[0173] The results show 80% decrease in abscess size, pointing to a strong antimicrobial effect of OMN6 in-vivo. Furthermore, the fact that the measurements were made after five days points to a powerful and rapid bactericidal effect of OMN6 leading to direct death of all the bacteria that were introduced to the mouse.

SEQUENCE LISTING



[0174] 

<110> OMNIX MEDICAL LTD. BACHNOFF, Niv COHEN-KUTNER, Moshe

<120> NOVEL ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES AND EXPRESSION THERE OF

<130> P-79517-PC

<150> 62/119,186
<151> 2015-02-22

<160> 33

<170> PatentIn version 3.5

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Claims

1. A cyclic Cecropin peptide comprising a core amino acid sequence that is extended at the N-terminus by an N-terminal group and extended at the C-terminus by a C-terminal group, wherein the N-terminal group and the C-terminal group are identical or different and form a covalent bond so as to form a cyclic Cecropin peptide.
 
2. The cyclic peptide of claim 1, wherein the C-terminal group and/or the N terminal group comprises one or more of cysteine, a cysteine derivative, an amino acid sequence which contains cysteine or a group comprising a thiol moiety, or any combination thereof.
 
3. The cyclic peptide of claim 1, wherein the C-terminal group and/or the N terminal group are each cysteine, a cysteine derivative, or an amino acid sequence which contains cysteine or another group comprising a thiol moiety.
 
4. The cyclic peptide of claim 1, wherein the N-terminal group comprises the amino acid sequence methionine-cysteine, methionine-cysteine derivative, methionine derivative-cysteine or methionine derivative-cysteine derivative and the C-terminal group is cysteine or a cysteine derivative.
 
5. The cyclic peptide of claim 1, wherein the C-terminal group comprises the amino acid sequence methionine-cysteine, methionine-cysteine derivative, methionine derivative-cysteine or methionine derivative-cysteine derivative, and the N-terminal group is cysteine or a cysteine derivative
 
6. The cyclic peptide of claim 1, wherein the covalent bond is a disulfide bond or is an amide, lactam or peptide bond.
 
7. The cyclic peptide of claim 1, wherein the peptide has an amino acid sequence which is at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 99% or 100% identical to an amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID Nos. 1-11.
 
8. The cyclic peptide of claim 1, wherein the peptide is as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 6 or is at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% or 99% identical to the amino acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 6.
 
9. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the cyclic peptide of any of claims 1-8.
 
10. A cyclic peptide according to any of claims 1-8, for use in treating infection or disinfecting a wound, wherein the cyclic peptide may be administered by injection.
 
11. The cyclic peptide for use according to claim 10, wherein the cyclic peptide is administered with one or more additional anti-inflammatory active agents.
 
12. The cyclic peptide for use according to claim 10 or 11, wherein the wound is a blister wound, a soft tissue wound, a cutaneous abscess, a surgical wound, a sutured laceration, a contaminated laceration, a burn wound, a decubitus ulcer, a stasis ulcer, a leg ulcer, a foot ulcer, a venous ulcer, a diabetic ulcer, an ischemic ulcer, a pressure ulcer, an oral infection, a periodontal disease, a partial thickness burn, or a full thickness burn.
 


Ansprüche

1. Cyclisches Cecropin-Peptid, umfassend eine Kern-Aminosäuresequenz, die an dem N-Terminus um eine N-terminale Gruppe verlängert ist und an dem C-Terminus um eine C-terminale Gruppe verlängert ist, wobei die N-terminale Gruppe und die C-terminale Gruppe identisch oder verschieden sind und eine kovalente Bindung bilden, um ein cyclisches Cecropin-Peptid zu bilden.
 
2. Cyclisches Peptid gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die C-terminale Gruppe und/oder die N-terminale Gruppe eines oder mehrere von Cystein, einem Cysteinderivat, einer Aminosäuresequenz, die Cystein enthält, oder einer Gruppe, die eine Thioleinheit umfasst, oder eine beliebige Kombination davon umfasst.
 
3. Cyclisches Peptid gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die C-terminale Gruppe und/oder die N-terminale Gruppe jeweils Cystein, ein Cysteinderivat oder eine Aminosäuresequenz, die Cystein enthält, oder eine andere Gruppe, die eine Thioleinheit umfasst, sind.
 
4. Cyclisches Peptid gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die N-terminale Gruppe die Aminosäuresequenz Methionin-Cystein, Methionin-Cysteinderivat, Methioninderivat-Cystein oder Methioninderivat-Cysteinderivat umfasst und die C-terminale Gruppe Cystein oder ein Cysteinderivat ist.
 
5. Cyclisches Peptid gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die C-terminale Gruppe die Aminosäuresequenz Methionin-Cystein, Methionin-Cysteinderivat, Methioninderivat-Cystein oder Methioninderivat-Cysteinderivat umfasst und die N-terminale Gruppe Cystein oder ein Cysteinderivat ist.
 
6. Cyclisches Peptid gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die kovalente Bindung eine Disulfidbindung ist oder eine Amid-, Lactam- oder Peptidbindung ist.
 
7. Cyclisches Peptid gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei das Peptid eine Aminosäuresequenz aufweist, die wenigstens 70 %, 75 %, 80 %, 85 %, 90 %, 95 %, 99 % oder 100 % identisch mit einer in SEQ ID Nr:1-11 beschriebenen Aminosäuresequenz ist.
 
8. Cyclisches Peptid gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei das Peptid wie in SEQ ID Nr:6 beschrieben ist oder wenigstens 70 %, 75 %, 80 %, 85 %, 90 %, 95 % oder 99 % identisch mit der in SEQ ID Nr:6 beschriebenen Aminosäuresequenz ist.
 
9. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend das cyclische Peptid gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1-8.
 
10. Cyclisches Peptid gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1-8 für die Verwendung zur Behandlung von Infektion oder zum Desinfizieren einer Wunde, wobei das cyclische Peptid durch Injektion verabreicht werden kann.
 
11. Cyclisches Peptid zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 10, wobei das cyclische Peptid mit einem oder mehreren zusätzlichen entzündungshemmenden Wirkstoffen verabreicht wird.
 
12. Cyclisches Peptid zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 10 oder 11, wobei die Wunde eine Blasenwunde, eine Weichgewebewunde, ein Hautabszess, eine chirurgische Wunde, eine genähte Lazeration, eine kontaminierte Lazeration, eine Verbrennungswunde, ein Dekubitusgeschwür, ein Stasisgeschwür, ein Beingeschwür, ein Fußgeschwür, ein venöses Geschwür, ein diabetisches Geschwür, ein ischämisches Geschwür, ein Druckgeschwür, eine Mundinfektion, eine Periodontalerkrankung, eine Verbrennung 2. Grades oder eine Verbrennung 3. Grades ist.
 


Revendications

1. Peptide de Cécropine cyclique comprenant une séquence d'acides aminés centrale qui est étendue au niveau de l'extrémité N par un groupement N-terminal et étendue au niveau de l'extrémité C par un groupement C-terminal, où le groupement N-terminal et le groupement C-terminal sont identiques ou différents et forment une liaison covalente de sorte à former un peptide de Cécropine cyclique.
 
2. Peptide cyclique selon la revendication 1, où le groupement C-terminal et/ou le groupement N-terminal comprend un ou plusieurs des membres du groupe constitué par la cystéine, un dérivé de cystéine, une séquence d'acides aminés qui contient la cystéine ou un groupement comprenant une entité thiol, ou n'importe laquelle de leurs combinaisons.
 
3. Peptide cyclique selon la revendication 1, où chacun des groupements C-terminal et/ou N-terminal est la cystéine, un dérivé de cystéine, une séquence d'acides aminés qui contient la cystéine ou un groupement comprenant une entité thiol.
 
4. Peptide cyclique selon la revendication 1, où le groupement N-terminal comprend la séquence d'acides aminés méthionine-cystéine, méthionine-dérivé de cystéine, dérivé de méthionine-cystéine ou dérivé de méthionine-dérivé de cystéine et le groupement C-terminal est la cystéine ou un dérivé de cystéine.
 
5. Peptide cyclique selon la revendication 1, où le groupement C-terminal comprend la séquence d'acides aminés méthionine-cystéine, méthionine-dérivé de cystéine, dérivé de méthionine-cystéine ou dérivé de méthionine-dérivé de cystéine et le groupement N-terminal est la cystéine ou un dérivé de cystéine.
 
6. Peptide cyclique selon la revendication 1, où la liaison covalente est une liaison disulfure ou une liaison amide, lactame ou peptide.
 
7. Peptide cyclique selon la revendication 1, où le peptide présente une séquence d'acides aminés qui est identique à au moins 70 %, 75 %, 80 %, 85 %, 90 %, 95 %, 99 % ou 100 % à une séquence d'acides aminés décrite dans les SEQ ID n° 1-11.
 
8. Peptide cyclique selon la revendication 1, où le peptide est tel que décrit dans la SEQ ID NO: 6 ou est identique à au moins 70 %, 75 %, 80 %, 85 %, 90 %, 95 % ou 99 % à la séquence d'acides aminés décrite dans la SEQ ID NO: 6.
 
9. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant le peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8.
 
10. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 pour utilisation dans le traitement d'une infection ou la désinfection d'une plaie, où le peptide cyclique peut être administré par injection.
 
11. Peptide cyclique pour utilisation selon la revendication 10, où le peptide cyclique est administré avec un ou plusieurs principes actifs anti-inflammatoires supplémentaires.
 
12. Peptide cyclique pour utilisation selon la revendication 10 ou 11, où la plaie est une cloque, une plaie des tissus mous, un abcès cutané, une plaie chirurgicale, une lacération suturée, une lacération contaminée, une brûlure, un ulcère de décubitus, un ulcère statique, un ulcère de jambe, un ulcère de pied, un ulcère veineux, un ulcère diabétique, un ulcère ischémique, une escarre, une infection orale, une maladie parodontale, une brûlure d'épaisseur partielle, ou une brûlure d'épaisseur totale.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description