(19)
(11)EP 3 209 694 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/37

(21)Application number: 15801482.9

(22)Date of filing:  21.10.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61P 35/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/GB2015/053156
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/063060 (28.04.2016 Gazette  2016/17)

(54)

THERAPEUTIC AGENTS AND USE THEREOF

THERAPEUTISCHE WIRKSTOFFE UND VERWENDUNG DAVON

AGENTS THÉRAPEUTIQUES ET LEUR UTILISATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 22.10.2014 GB 201418809

(43)Date of publication of application:
30.08.2017 Bulletin 2017/35

(73)Proprietor: Swansea University
Swansea, South Wales SA2 8PP (GB)

(72)Inventors:
  • CONLAN, Robert
    Swansea South Wales SA2 8PP (GB)
  • GONZALEZ, Deyarina
    Swansea South Wales SA2 8PP (GB)

(74)Representative: Myint, Julie Marie et al
Symbiosis IP Limited Cardiff MediCentre Heath Park
Cardiff CF14 4UJ
Cardiff CF14 4UJ (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2010/019656
  
  • N. SEVILLANO ET AL: "Internalization of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) is Required to Mediate Intracellular Responses", JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 145, no. 1, 25 October 2008 (2008-10-25), pages 21-30, XP055239669, GB ISSN: 0021-924X, DOI: 10.1093/jb/mvn137 cited in the application
  • GIRON M D ET AL: "SEQUENCING OF TWO ALTERNATIVELY SPLICE MRNAS CORRESPONDING TO THE EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN OF THE RAT RECEPTOR FOR ADVANCED GLYCOSYLATION END PRODUCTS (RAGE)", BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, ACADEMIC PRESS INC. ORLANDO, FL, US, vol. 251, no. 1, 1 January 1998 (1998-01-01), pages 230-234, XP002951821, ISSN: 0006-291X, DOI: 10.1006/BBRC.1998.9446
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present application relates to therapeutic agents, in particular antibody-drug conjugates, useful in the treatment of proliferative disease, in particular gynaecological cancers such as ovarian and endometrial cancers, in which the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) protein exhibits altered expression compared to physiologically normal tissues.

Background of the Invention



[0002] The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules,1 located on chromosome 6p21.3 at the major histocompatibility complex class III region.2 Full length RAGE is 404 amino acids in length, comprising an extracellular domain, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain and a short cytosolic tail. Ligand binding properties are provided by the extracellular domain, which can be divided into three functional regions; the V domain, C1 and C2 domains (Figure 1 hereinafter).3 An increasing number of ligands are known to bind RAGE including, advanced glycation end products (the receptors namesake), high-mobility group protein 1, and members of the S100 protein family.4-7 Central to its role in an inflammatory responses, is the internalisation of RAGE following ligand binding, which is a key component of RAGE-mediated signal transduction.8 Tissue distribution of RAGE under physiological conditions is limited, and with the exception of the lungs, expression is low.9

[0003] The up-regulation of RAGE expression is associated with a wide range of diseases, in particular in a range of inflammatory diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.4,14 There is also evidence linking RAGE to cancer progression in mice and humans10-13

[0004] Following the limited success of therapies which use monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of cancer, there has been some considerable interest in drug-antibody conjugates. The approach here is to attach to the antibodies, small molecule drugs, such as cytotoxins or other anti-cancer agents. The antibody acts as a targeting agent, carrying the drug directly to the tumour cell, and thus permitting discrimination between cancer cells and normal tissue.

[0005] However, initial work has shown that the selection of appropriate targets is critical for effective therapies to be developed.

[0006] Humanised anti-RAGE antibodies and therapeutic agents comprising them are described for example in WO2010/019656. It is suggested that they may be useful in a wide range of diseases in which RAGE is implicated.

[0007] The applicants have found that RAGE is upregulated in a number of specific cancers, including in particular gynaecological cancers such as endometrial or ovarian cancer. Furthermore, they have found that this receptor can be effectively targeted by antibodies in complex with cytotoxic drugs, thereby producing useful anti-cancer effects.

Summary of the Invention



[0008] According to the present invention there is provided a therapeutic agent comprising a cell binding agent which binds the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) linked to an anti-cancer drug, for use in the treatment of a endometrial or ovarian cancer wherein the cell binding agent is an antibody or a binding fragment thereof that following binding becomes internalised within a cell.

[0009] The cell binding agent is suitably one of, but without limitation to, an antibody or a binding fragment thereof, such as a Fab, Fab', F(ab)2, F(ab')2 and FV, VH and VK fragments. Antibodies may be monoclonal or polyclonal but in particular are monoclonal antibodies. Whilst the antibody may be from any source (murine, rabbit etc.), for human therapeutic use, they suitably comprise a human antibody or an antibody which has been partly or fully humanised.

[0010] The sequence of human RAGE is known, as well as a further twenty two variants including soluble RAGE (sRAGE). These are shown herein as SEQ ID NO 1 through SEQ ID NO 23, with full RAGE being SEQ ID NO 1 and sRAGE being SEQ ID No 2. The cell binding agent therefore is required to bind to an epitopic region of SEQ ID NO 1 or SEQ ID NO 2 or SEQ ID 3 or SEQ ID NO 4 or SEQ ID NO 5 or SEQ ID NO 6 or SEQ ID NO 7 or SEQ ID NO 8 or SEQ ID NO 9 or SEQ ID NO 10 or SEQ ID NO 11 or SEQ ID NO 12 or SEQ ID NO 13 or SEQ ID NO 14 or SEQ ID NO 15 or SEQ ID NO 16 or SEQ ID NO 17 or SEQ ID NO 18 or SEQ ID NO 19 or SEQ ID NO 20 or SEQ ID NO 21 or SEQ ID NO 22 or SEQ ID NO 23.

[0011] However, it is also known that RAGE is subject to protein ectodomain shedding.15 In a particular embodiment of the invention, the cell binding agent of the complex of the invention binds a region of the ectodomain of RAGE which remains after any such shedding occurs. For example amino acids 317 to 344 of SEQ ID NO 1, herein denoted as SEQ ID NO 24. In this way, the activity of the agent may be maximised since it might be expected to continue to act, even after shedding. In particular therefore, the therapeutic agent of the invention comprises a cell binding agent which binds a residual extracellular fragment of RAGE remaining after shedding of the ectodomain. In a particular embodiment therefore, the cell binding agent binds to an epitopic region of SEQ ID NO 24.

[0012] In another embodiment, the therapeutic agent of the invention comprises a cell binding agent which binds a V-type domain of the RAGE, where the V-type domain is found at amino acids 23 to 116 of SEQ ID NO 1. In yet another embodiment, as taught herein, the therapeutic agent binds a domain of RAGE for which MAB11451 is specific.

[0013] In a particular embodiment, the anti-cancer molecule used in the therapeutic is a cytotoxin, such as a small molecule cytotoxin, a hormone, a cytokine/chemokine or other cell signalling molecule, or a nucleic acid and shall hereinafter be referred to as an 'anti-cancer drug.'

[0014] In particular, the anti-cancer drug is a cytotoxin that inhibits or prevents the function of cells and/or causes destruction of cells. Examples of cytotoxins include, but are not limited to, radioactive isotopes, chemotherapeutic agents, and toxins such as small molecule toxins or enzymatically active toxins of bacterial, fungal, plant or animal origin, including synthetic analogues and derivatives thereof. The cytotoxic agent may be selected from the group consisting of an auristatin, a DNA minor groove binding agent, a DNA minor groove alkylating agent, an enediyne, a lexitropsin, a duocarmycin, a taxane, a puromycin, a dolastatin, a maytansinoid and a vinca alkaloid or a combination of two or more thereof.

[0015] Other suitable anti-cancer drugs include topoisomerase inhibitors, alkylating agents (eg. nitrogen mustards; ethylenimes; alkylsulfonates; triazenes; piperazines; and nitrosureas), an antimetabolite (eg mercaptopurine, thioguanine, 5-fluorouracil), a mitotic disrupter (eg. plant alkaloids-such as vincristine and/or microtubule antagonists-such as paclitaxel), a DNA intercalating agent (eg carboplatin and/or cisplatin), a DNA synthesis inhibitor, a DNA-RNA transcription regulator, an enzyme inhibitor, a gene regulator, a hormone response modifier, a hypoxia-selective cytotoxin (eg. tirapazamine), an epidermal growth factor inhibitor, an anti-vascular agent (eg. xanthenone 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid), a radiation-activated prodrug (eg. nitroarylmethyl quaternary (NMQ) salts) or a bioreductive drug or a combination of two or more thereof.

[0016] Non-limiting examples of chemotherapeutic agents include Auristatin, Erlotinib (TARCEVA(R)), Bortezomib (VELCADE(R)), Fulvestrant (FASLODEX(R)), Sutent (SU11248), Letrozole (FEMARA(R)), Imatinib mesylate (GLEEVEC(R)), PTK787/ZK 222584, Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin(R)), 5-FU (5-fluorouracil), Leucovorin, Rapamycin (Sirolimus, RAPAMUNE(R)), Lapatinib (GSK572016), Lonafarnib (SCH 66336), Sorafenib (BAY43-9006), and Gefitinib (IRESSA(R)), AG1478, AG1571 (SU 5271; Sugen) or combination of these.

[0017] The chemotherapeutic agent may be an alkylating agent-such as thiotepa, CYTOXAN(R) and/or cyclosphosphamide; an alkyl sulfonate-such as busulfan, improsulfan and/or piposulfan; an aziridine-such as benzodopa, carboquone, meturedopa and/or uredopa; ethylenimines and/or methylamelamines-such as altretamine, triethylenemelamine, triethylenepbosphoramide, triethylenethiophosphoramide and/or trimethylomelamine; acetogenin-such as bullatacin and/or bullatacinone; camptothecin; bryostatin; callystatin; cryptophycins; dolastatin; duocarmycin; eleutherobin; pancratistatin; sarcodictyin; spongistatin; nitrogen mustards-such as chlorambucil, chlornaphazine, cholophosphamide, estramustine, ifosfamide, mechlorethamine, mechlorethamine oxide hydrochloride, melphalan, novembichin, phenesterine, prednimustine, trofosfamide and/or uracil mustard; nitrosureas-such as carmustine, chlorozotocin, fotemustine, lomustine, nimustine, and/or ranimnustine; dynemicin; bisphosphonates-such as clodronate; an esperamicin; a neocarzinostatin chromophore; aclacinomysins, actinomycin, authramycin, azaserine, bleomycins, cactinomycin, carabicin, caminomycin, carzinophilin, chromomycinis, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, detorubicin, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine, ADRIAMYCIN(R). doxorubicin-such as morpholino-doxorubicin, cyanomorpholino-doxorubicin, 2-pyrrolino-doxorubicin and/or deoxydoxorubicin, epirubicin, esorubicin, idarubicin, marcellomycin, mitomycins-such as mitomycin C, mycophenolic acid, nogalamycin, olivomycins, peplomycin, potfiromycin, puromycin, quelamycin, rodorubicin, streptonigrin, streptozocin, tubercidin, ubenimex, zinostatin, zorubicin; anti-metabolites-such as methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); folic acid analogues-such as denopterin, methotrexate, pteropterin, trimetrexate; purine analogues-such as fludarabine, 6-mercaptopurine, thiamiprine, thioguanine; pyrimidine analogues-such as ancitabine, azacitidine, 6-azauridine, carmofur, cytarabine, dideoxyuridine, doxifluridine, enocitabine, floxuridine; androgens-such as calusterone, dromostanolone propionate, epitiostanol, mepitiostane, testolactone; anti-adrenals-such as aminoglutethimide, mitotane, trilostane; folic acid replenisher-such as frolinic acid; aceglatone; aldophosphamide glycoside; aminolevulinic acid; eniluracil; amsacrine; bestrabucil; bisantrene; edatraxate; defofamine; demecolcine; diaziquone; elformithine; elliptinium acetate; an epothilone; etoglucid; gallium nitrate; hydroxyurea; lentinan; lonidainine; macrocyclic depsipeptides such as maytansine and ansamitocins; mitoguazone; mitoxantrone; mopidanmol; nitraerine; pentostatin; phenamet; pirarubicin; losoxantrone; podophyllinic acid; 2-ethylhydrazide; procarbazine; razoxane; rhizoxin; sizofiran; spirogermanium; tenuazonic acid; triaziquone; 2,2',2"-trichlorotriethylamine; trichothecenes-such as verracurin A, roridin A and/or anguidine; urethan; vindesine; dacarbazine; mannomustine; mitobronitol; mitolactol; pipobroman; gacytosine; arabinoside; cyclophosphamide; thiotepa; taxoids-such as TAXOL(R). paclitaxel, abraxane, and/or TAXOTERE(R), doxetaxel; chloranbucil; GEMZAR(R). gemcitabine; 6-thioguanine; mercaptopurine; methotrexate; platinum analogues-such as cisplatin and carboplatin; vinblastine; platinum; etoposide; ifosfamide; mitoxantrone; vincristine; NAVELBINE(R), vinorelbine; novantrone; teniposide; edatrexate; daunomycin; aminopterin; xeloda; ibandronate; topoisomerase inhibitor RFS 2000; difluoromethylomithine (DMFO); retinoids-such as retinoic acid; capecitabine; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, acids, derivatives or combinations of these.

[0018] Examples of tubulin disruptors include taxanes-such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, vinca alkaloids, discodermolide, epothilones A and B, desoxyepothilone, cryptophycins, curacin A, combretastatin A-4-phosphate, BMS 247550, BMS 184476, BMS 188791; LEP, RPR 109881A, EPO 906, TXD 258, ZD 6126, vinflunine, LU 103793, dolastatin 10, E7010, T138067 and T900607, colchicine, phenstatin, chalcones, indanocine, T138067, oncocidin, vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine, vinflunine, halichondrin B, isohomohalichondrin B, ER-86526, pironetin, spongistatin 1, spiket P, cryptophycin 1, LU103793 (cematodin or cemadotin), rhizoxin, sarcodictyin, eleutherobin, laulilamide, VP-16 and D-24851 and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, acids, derivatives or combinations of these.

[0019] Examples of DNA intercalators include acridines, actinomycins, anthracyclines, benzothiopyranoindazoles, pixantrone, crisnatol, brostallicin, CI-958, doxorubicin (adriamycin), actinomycin D, daunorubicin (daunomycin), bleomycin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, mitomycin C, bizelesin, etoposide, mitoxantrone, SN-38, carboplatin, cis-platin, actinomycin D, amsacrine, DACA, pyrazoloacridine, irinotecan and topotecan and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, acids, derivatives or combinations of these.

[0020] The drug may be an anti-hormonal agent that acts to regulate or inhibit hormone action on tumours-such as antiestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators, including, but not limited to, tamoxifen, raloxifene, droloxifene, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, trioxifene, keoxifene, LY117018, onapristone, and/or fareston toremifene and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, acids, derivatives or combinations of two or more of any of the above. The drug may be an aromatase inhibitor that inhibits the enzyme aromatase, which regulates estrogen production in the adrenal glands-such as, for example, 4(5)-imidazoles, aminoglutethimide, megestrol acetate, AROMASIN(R). exemestane, formestanie, fadrozole, RIVISOR(R). vorozole, FEMARA(R). letrozole, and ARIMIDEX(R) and/or anastrozole and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, acids, derivatives or combinations of two or more of any of the above.

[0021] Other anti-cancer drugs include anti-androgens-such as flutamide, nilutamide, bicalutamide, leuprolide, goserelin and/or troxacitabine and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, acids, derivatives or combinations of any of these. Alternatively, the anti-cancer drug may be a protein kinase inhibitor, a lipid kinase inhibitor or an anti-angiogenic agent.

[0022] In a particular embodiment, the drug is a dolastatin. Dolastatins are antiproliferative agents, inhibiting the growth and reproduction of target cells and inducing apoptosis in a variety of malignant cell types. Two natural dolastatins, dolastatin 10 and dolastatin 15, have been selected for drug development based on their superior antiproliferative bioactivity. The pursuit of synthetic dolastatin analogues has led to the development of LU103793 (cematodin or cemadotin), a dolastatin 15 analogue. ILX-651 is an orally active third generation synthetic dolastatin 15 analogue. In one embodiment, the dolastatin is of the auristatin class. As used herein, the term dolastatin encompasses naturally occurring auristatins and non-naturally occurring derivatives, for example monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) ((S)-N-((3R,4S,5S)-1-((S)-2-((1R,2R)-3-(((1S,2R)-1-hydroxy-1-phenylpropan-2-yl)amino)-1-methoxy-2-methyl-3-oxopropyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-3-methoxy-5-methyl-1-oxoheptan-4-yl)-N,3-dimethyl-2-((S)-3-methyl-2-(methylamino)butanamido)butanamide) or monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF) ((S)-2-((2R,3R)-3-((S)-1-((3R,4S,5S)-4-((S)-N,3-dimethyl-2-((S)-3-methyl-2-(methylamino)butanamido)butanamido)-3-methoxy-5-methylheptanoyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)-3-methoxy-2-methylpropanamido)-3-phenylpropanoic acid).

[0023] Alternatively, the anti-cancer drug may comprise a nucleic acid such as an RNA molecule or nanomolecule which targets an oncogene gene, in particular an RNA molecule such as a small interfering RNA (siRNA), a short hairpin RNA (shRNA), a microRNA (miRNA), or a short activating RNA (saRNA) which are designed to silence or activate genes, and in particular oncogenes. A wide variety of such RNAs are known, and the therapeutic potential of these molecules has been extensively reviewed.16,17

[0024] The therapeutic agent of the invention comprises a cell binding agent linked to an anti-cancer drug as defined above. The means by which these two entities are linked together will depend upon factors such as the nature of the cell binding agent and the specific nature of the drug. In a particular embodiment, the cell binding agent is linked to the anti-cancer drug by way of a chemical linking group. The chemical linking group is suitably covalently bonded to both the cell binding agent and the anti-cancer drug. It is suitably such that it breaks down in the cell in-vivo to release the anti-cancer drug in a potent form.

[0025] Examples of suitable linkers may be chemically-labile, such as acid-cleavable hydrazine linkers or disulphide bonds; enzymatically-labile, such as peptide linkers or carbohydrate moieties; or non-cleavable linkers, such as thioether linkers or amides, as are known in the art.18

[0026] Generally, a chemical entity comprising the linker group is reacted with the cell binding agent under conditions in which the linker group becomes attached to the cell binding agent, either by conjugation or by covalent bonding.

[0027] In a particular embodiment, the chemical entity comprising the linker group is a maleimidocaproyl-valine-citrullin-p-aminobenzyloxycarbonyl linker. This linker is 'self-immolative' in the sense that it breaks down in vivo in a cell to release the anti-cancer drug. The linker exhibits high plasma stability and a protease cleavage site. Enzymatic cleavage leads to 1, 6-elimination of the 4-aminobenzyl group, releasing the anti-cancer drug.18,19

[0028] The relative amount of drug: cell binding agent may be varied and will depend upon the relative amount of linker applied to the cell binding agent. It should be sufficient to provide a useful therapeutic ratio for the agent, but the loading should not be so high that the structure of the cell binding agent and in particular its ability to enter the cell via the RAGE receptor is compromised. The amounts will therefore vary depending upon the particular cell binding agent and the particular anti-cancer drug used. However, typically the ratio of drug:cell binding agent molecules in the therapeutic agent is in the range of from 1:1 to 1:8, for example from 1:1.5 to 1:3.5.

[0029] As taught herein the therapeutic agents described above are useful in the treatment of gynaecological proliferative disease. In particular, the applicants have found that the cell binding agent will bind to the RAGE receptor of a cell, in particular a gynaecological tumour cell, and become internalised within the cell. At this stage, any chemical linkers may be cleaved or the cell binding agent metabolised allowing the anti-cancer drug or an active metabolite to produce the desired effect. The applicants have found that therapeutic agents of this type are effective against human gynaecological cancer cells as illustrated hereinafter.

[0030] The therapeutic agent of the invention is used in the treatment of gynaecological proliferative conditions in which RAGE is overexpressed. The applicants have found that such proliferative conditions include gynaecological cancers such as endometrial or ovarian cancer. For example, the agent is used to treat the gynaecological cancers as described above.

[0031] For use in these therapies, the therapeutic agents of the invention are suitably administered in the form of a pharmaceutical composition.

[0032] A pharmaceutical composition is taught herein comprising a therapeutic agent as described above in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0033] Suitable pharmaceutical compositions will be in either solid or liquid form. They may be adapted for administration by any convenient peripheral route, such as parenteral, oral, vaginal or topical administration or for administration by inhalation or insufflation. The pharmaceutical acceptable carrier may include diluents or excipients which are physiologically tolerable and compatible with the active ingredient. These include those described for example in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences.20

[0034] Parenteral compositions are prepared for injection, for example subcutaneous, intramuscular, intradermal, and intravenous or via needle-free injection systems. Also, they may be administered by intraperitoneal injection. They may be liquid solutions or suspensions, or they may be in the form of a solid that is suitable for solution in, or suspension in, liquid prior to injection. Suitable diluents and excipients are, for example, water, saline, dextrose, glycerol, or the like, and combinations thereof. In addition, if desired the compositions may contain minor amounts of auxiliary substances such as wetting or emulsifying agents, stabilizing or pH-buffering agents, and the like.

[0035] Oral formulations will be in the form of solids or liquids, and may be solutions, syrups, suspensions, tablets, pills, capsules, sustained-release formulations, or powders. Oral formulations include such normally employed excipients as, for example, pharmaceutical grades of mannitol, lactose, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium saccharin, cellulose, magnesium carbonate, and the like.

[0036] Topical formulations will generally take the form of suppositories, pessaries, intranasal sprays or aerosols, buccal or sublingual tablets or lozenges. For suppositories or pessaries, traditional binders and excipients may include, for example, polyalkylene glycols or triglycerides; such suppositories or pessaries may be formed from mixtures containing the active ingredient. Other topical formulations may take the form of a lotion, solution, cream, ointment or dusting powder that may optionally be in the form of a skin patch.

[0037] In a further aspect, it is taught herein a method of treating a proliferative disease selected from gynaecological cancer, such as endometrial or ovarian cancer in which RAGE is over expressed, said method comprising administering to a patient in need thereof an effective amount of a therapeutic agent as described above, or a pharmaceutical composition comprising it, also as described above.

[0038] The amount of therapeutic agent administered will vary depending upon factors such as the specific nature of the agent used, the size and health of the patient, the nature of the condition being treated etc. in accordance with normal clinical practice. Typically, a dosage in the range of from 0.01-1000 mg/Kg, for instance from 0.1-10mg/Kg, would produce a suitable therapeutic or protective effect.

[0039] Dosages may be given in a single dose regimen, split dose regimens and/or in multiple dose regimens lasting over several days. Effective daily doses will, however vary depending upon the inherent activity of the therapeutic agent, such variations being within the skill and judgment of the physician.

[0040] The therapeutic agent of the present invention may be used in combination with one or more other active agents, such as one or more pharmaceutically active agents. In particular, the applicants have found that anti-hormonal agents such as antiestrogens and/or selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen, may themselves upregulate RAGE expression in gynaecological cancer. Therefore, these agents may act synergistically with the agents of the invention, when the anti-cancer drug carried by the ADC may be the same or different.

[0041] Therapeutic agents of the invention may be prepared using conventional methods.

[0042] In particular they may be produced by linking together a cell binding agent which binds the RAGE and an anti-cancer drug.

[0043] Suitable methods comprise reacting a moiety comprising the linking group with one of either an anti-cancer drug or a cell binding agent, and contacting the product with the other of the anti-cancer drug and the cell binding agent to form the therapeutic agent.

[0044] In particular, where the anti-cancer drug is a small molecule, the linking group may be incorporated during the manufacturing process. Thus a particular cytotoxin with a linker attached is Maleimidocaproyl-Val-Cit-PABC-MMAE of structure (I)

This structure includes the self-immolative linker group maleimidocaproyl-valine-citrulline-p-aminobenzyloxy carbonyl.

[0045] Thus in a particular embodiment, in a first step, a linking group is added to the anti-cancer drug and one or more of the resulting product is reacted with the cell binding agent. Suitable reaction conditions for the manufacture of linker attached cytotoxic agents could comprise those described by Doronina et al 2006.19 Suitable reaction conditions for the attachment of linker attached cytotoxic agents such as maleimidocaproyl-Val-Cit-PABC-MMAE, could also comprise those described by Doronina et al 2006.19 Specific conditions for each of the stages would be understood or could be determined by the skilled person.

Detailed Description of the Invention



[0046] The invention will now be particularly described by way of example with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings in which

Figure 1 is a graphical representation of the multiligand transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, RAGE and some of its variant forms;

Figure 2 is a series of images showing RAGE protein expression in biopsies from the endometrium and ovary of a healthy patient and patients with endometrial or ovarian cancer.

Figure 3 is a series of graphs showing (A) the expression of AGER mRNA in four endometrial epithelial cell lines derived from two well-differentiated type I and type II adenocarcinomas; HEC1 (HEC1A, HEC1B, HEC50) and Ishikawa respectively; (B) the results of an immunohistochemistry study showing that endometrial RAGE is overexpressed in hyperplasia and Endometrial cancer; and (C) immunohistochemistry results for RAGE staining in healthy ovary or ovarian cancer (OC) biopsies.

Figure 4 is a series of Western blots showing RAGE protein expression in the cell lines of Figure 3;

Figure 5 is representative Western blots showing expression of RAGE protein in six ovarian cancer cell lines: TOV21G, TOV112D, UWB1.289, UACC-1598, COV644 and SKOV3, and one normal ovarian cell line: HOSEpiC;

Figure 6 is a series of graphs showing RAGE expression scoring (intensity and distribution: H-score) in endometrial biopsy samples, taken during the proliferative phase of the menstrual;

Figure 7 is a series of graphs showing RAGE expression scoring (intensity and distribution: H-score) in endometrial biopsy samples, taken during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle;

Figure 8 is a series of graphs showing AGER mRNA expression in endometrial biopsy samples taken from polycystic ovary syndrome patients during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle;

Figure 9 is a series of graphs showing AGER mRNA expression in endometrial biopsy samples taken from polycystic ovary syndrome patients, during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle;

Figure 10 is a series of confocal microscopy images showing the internalisation of anti-RAGE antibody in HEC 1A cells;

Figure 11 is a series of graphs illustrating how delivering cytotoxins in the form of RAGE targeting ADC improves drug potency in endometrial cancer cells;

Figure 12 is a series of graphs showing how delivering cytotoxins in the form of RAGE targeting ADC improves drug potency in ovarian cancer cells;

Figure 13 is a series of graphs showing that RAGE targeting ADCs are more potent killers of endometrial cancer cells than cytotoxin or antibody treatment alone;

Figure 14 is a graph illustrating that RAGE targeting ADCs induce apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells.

Figure 15 is a series of graphs showing that RAGE targeting ADCs are more potent killers of ovarian cancer cells than cytotoxin or antibody treatment alone;

Figure 16 is a graph showing that RAGE targeting ADCs induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells;

Figure 17 is a graph illustrating how using a non-cleavable linker improves ADC potency in endometrial (Ishikawa) and ovarian (TOV112D) cancer cells.

Figure 18 is a series of confocal microscopy images showing antibody internalisation in ovarian (B-F) and endometrial cancer cells (G-K) that have been treated with 5 different anti-RAGE antibodies;

Figure 19 is a series of graphs showing cell survival rates in HEC 1A cells when treated with ADCs in accordance with the invention. (A) IC50 curves at 96 h, and (B) a time-course graph of cells treated with ADCs (5 µg/ml);

Figure 20 is a series of graphs showing cell survival data for a range of cell lines when treated with ADCs in accordance with the invention;

Figure 21 shows the results of experiments revealing the effect of tamoxifen (Tx) on endometrial expression of RAGE.


EXAMPLE 1


Expression of RAGE in gynaecological cancers and non-oncological proliferative conditions



[0047] Endometrial biopsies were collected from the endometrium of a healthy patient (Fig. 2A), and patients with endometrial cancer (Fig. 2B), endometrial hyperplasia (Fig. 2C), or endometriosis (Fig. 2D). Biopsies were fixed and paraffin embedded for analysis of RAGE expression by immunohistochemistry.

[0048] Further biopsy images show RAGE expression in a healthy ovary (Fig. 2E) and ovarian cancer (endometrioid adenocarcinoma; Fig. 2F). Positive staining was observed in the epithelial cells of the ovarian cystic masses whereas healthy tissue did not express the target.

[0049] The expression of AGER mRNA in four endometrial epithelial cell lines derived from two well-differentiated type I and type II adenocarcinomas; HEC1 (HEC1A, HEC1B, HEC50) and Ishikawa respectively, was measured. Epithelial cells were cultured in 6-well plates in control medium. Total RNA was extracted once cells reached confluence for analysis of AGER mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. Data are presented as box plots showing the median (line), 25th and 75th percentiles (box) and 10th and 90th percentile (whiskers), n = 5, in Fig. 3A.

[0050] In a further experiment, RAGE protein expression was measured in the endometrial biopsies from patients diagnosed with hyperplasia, endometrial cancer Type I or Type II and postmenopausal (PM) controls by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial biopsy samples were grouped as follows: PM (n=25, median=0.2), Hyperplasia (n=21, median=5.5), type I EC (n=18, median=1.5), type II EC (n=17, median=2). IHC samples were scored blind by three independent observers. Values shown are median IHC scores and statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney test *p<0.05, **p<0.01, compared to PM control.

[0051] The results are shown in Fig. 3B. RAGE expression was noted in the membrane and cytoplasm of the tumour cells as well as endometrial cells obtained from hyperplasia patients. PM staining was almost negative. Statistically significant differences in RAGE expression were observed between PM control and all study groups.

[0052] RAGE protein expression was also measured by Immunohistochemistry in ovarian biopsies from patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer (n = 19) and healthy control patients (n = 8). IHC samples were scored blind by three independent observers. The results are shown graphically in Fig. 3C. Values shown are median IHC scores and statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney test, **p<0.01, compared to healthy control.

[0053] RAGE protein expression in the four endometrial cancer epithelial cell lines (HEC1A, HEC1B, HEC50 and Ishikawa), six ovarian cancer epithelial cell lines (TOV21G, TOV112D, UWB1.289, UACC-1598, COV644, SKOV3) and a non-cancerous ovarian cell line (HOSEpiC) were determined by Western blot. Epithelial cells were cultured in 6-well plates in control medium. Protein was extracted once cells reached confluence for analysis of RAGE protein expression. Data are presented as representative Western blots for endometrial and ovarian cell lines, Fig. 4 and 5, respectively.

[0054] These results clearly show that RAGE is upregulated in these gynaecological cancers.

[0055] In further experiments, endometrial biopsies were collected from patients during the proliferative phase (n = 32) of the menstrual cycle, and subdivided into four groups: fertile (n = 9), endometriosis (n = 11), ovulatory PCOS (n = 12) or anovulatory PCOS (n = 14). Biopsies were fixed and paraffin embedded for analysis of RAGE expression by immunohistochemistry. RAGE expression scoring (intensity and distribution: H-score) in glandular epithelium (A), luminal epithelium (B) and stroma (C) was performed blind, by three independent reviewers. The results are shown in Fig. 6. Data are presented as box plots showing the median (line), 25th and 75th percentiles (box) and 10th and 90th percentile (whiskers), and analysed by Mann-Whitney U test, values differ from fertile: * P < 0.05.

[0056] In a separate test, endometrial biopsies were collected from patients during the secretory phase (n = 41) of the menstrual cycle, and, as before, subdivided into four groups: fertile (n = 12), endometriosis (n = 18), ovulatory PCOS (n = 11) or anovulatory PCOS (n = 14). Biopsies were fixed and paraffin embedded for analysis of RAGE expression by immunohistochemistry.

[0057] RAGE expression scoring (intensity and distribution: H-score) in glandular epithelium (A), luminal epithelium (B) and stroma (C) was performed blind, by three independent reviewers. The results are shown in Fig. 7. Data are presented as box plots showing the median (line), 25th and 75th percentiles (box) and 10th and 90th percentile (whiskers), and analysed by Mann-Whitney U test, values differ from fertile: * P < 0.05.

[0058] In another set of experiments, endometrial biopsies were collected from patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome during the proliferative phase and secretive phase (n = 32) of the menstrual cycle, and subdivided into three groups: fertile (n = 2), endometriosis (n = 6) or anovulatory PCOS (n = 7). Total RNA was extracted from whole endometrial biopsies (A) and endometrial epithelial biopsies (B) for analysis of AGER mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. The results are shown in Fig. 8 and 9, respectively. Data are presented as box plots showing the median (line), 25th and 75th percentiles (box) and 10th and 90th percentile (whiskers), and analysed by Mann-Whitney U test, values differ from fertile: * P < 0.05.

[0059] These data show that expression of AGER mRNA and its protein product RAGE is increased in endometrial and ovarian cancers, as well as endometriosis, hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome patients during the proliferative and secretive phase of the menstrual cycle. AGER mRNA expression is also increased in endometrial epithelial cells during the proliferative and secretive phases of the menstrual cycle, and RAGE protein expression is increased in endometrial epithelium during the proliferative phase, and in the endometrial epithelium and stroma during the secretive phase of the menstrual cycle.

EXAMPLE 2


Efficacy of RAGE as a carrier



[0060] HEC 1A cells derived from an endometrial adenocarcinoma were cultured on 8-well chamber slides to 80% confluence. Cells were treated with murine, anti-human RAGE (MAB11451; Clone 176902) for the times shown. Cells were fixed and permeabalised, before staining with anti-murine FITC-labelled secondary antibody. Representative images were acquired on a Zeiss 710 confocal microscope and examples are shown in Fig. 10.

[0061] This showed that Anti-RAGE antibody is rapidly internalised in cells, making it a good carrier for drugs.

EXAMPLE 3


Preparation of Antibody-drug conjugates



[0062] A murine IgG2B antibody against recombinant human RAGE (R&D Systems Cat No.MAB11451) was reconstituted to 1.59 mg/mL in 10 mM Tris/Cl, 2 mM EDTA pH 8.0. The antibody was reduced with 3.5 molar equivalents of 10 mM TCEP:Ab in water for 2 h at 37°C. Without purification the reduced antibody was split in two one each half alkylated with 6.5 molar equivalents of 10 mM vcMMAE or mcMMAF:Ab in DMA (final DMA concentration in the alkylation mixture was 5% v/v) for 2 h at 22°C. Following alkyation N-acetyl cysteine was used to quench any unreacted toxin linker. The conjugates were purified using a HiTrap G25 column equilibrated in 5 mM histidine/Cl, 50 mM trehalose, 0.01% w/v olysorbate 20, pH 6.0. The conjugates were analysed by size exclusion chromatography for monomeric content and concentration (using a calibration curve of naked antibody) using size exclusion chromatography. Running conditions: Agilent 1100 HPLC, TOSOH TSKgel G3000SWXL 7.8 mm x 30 cm, 5 µm column, 0.5 mL/min in, 0.2 M Potassium Phosphate, 0.25 M Potassium Chloride, 10% IPA, pH 6.95. Drug loading of the conjugates was confirmed using a combination of HIC and reverse phase chromatography. HIC was carried out using a TOSOH Butyl-NPR 4.6 mm x 3.5 cm, 2.5 µm column run at 0.8 mL/min with a 12 min linear gradient between A - 1.5M (NH4)2SO4, 25 mM NaPi, pH 6.95±0.05 and B - 75% 25 mM NaPi, pH 6.95±0.05, 25% IPA. Reverse phase analysis was performed on a Polymer Labs PLRP 2.1 mm x 5 cm, 5 µm column run at 1 mL/min at 80°C with a 25 min linear gradient between 0.05% TFA/H2O and 0.04% TFA/CH3CN. Samples were first reduced by incubation with DTT at pH 8.0 at 37°C for 15 min. Due to the complex disulphide structure of an IgG2B and hence potential conjugation site variability both the HIC and PLRP chromatographic patterns were too complex to provide an accurate estimation of average drug loading but did confirm a significant level of drug conjugation.

[0063] The resulting RAGE ADC was designated 'SNIPER'.

EXAMPLE 4


Effects of ADC on Human gynaecological cancer cells



[0064] The cytotoxicity of the SNIPER ADC prepared in Example 3 was tested in a direct comparison to treatment with drug alone or anti-RAGE antibody alone.

[0065] Endometrial (Ishikawa) or ovarian (TOV112D) cancer cells were cultured in 96-well plates and treated with an extended concentration range of MMAE, MMAF, RAGE MMAE or RAGE MMAF for 24 or 48 h. Data was analysed by non-linear regression and IC50 concentrations determined for each treatment. After 24 h treatment, RAGE MMAE (Fig. 11E: IC50 = 31.02 µg/ml ≡ 0.65 as MMAE µM MMAE) was twice as potent as MMAE alone (Fig 11A: IC50 = 1.4 µM), whilst RAGE MMAF (Fig. 11G: IC50 = 16.66 µg/ml ≡ 0.32 µM MMAF) was four times more potent as MMAF alone (Fig 11C: IC50 = 1.3 µM). After 48 h treatment, RAGE MMAE (Fig. 11F: IC50 = 9.54 µg/ml ≡ 0.2 as MMAE µM MMAE) was again twice as potent as MMAE alone (Fig 11B: IC50 = 0.46 µM), and RAGE MMAF (Fig. 11H: IC50 = 6.48 µg/ml ≡ 0.12 µM MMAF) was five times more potent as MMAF alone (Fig 11D: IC50 = 0.63 µM).

[0066] IC50 concentrations in ovarian (TOV112D) cancer cells after 24 h treatment were 16.67 ug/ml (≡ 0.65 µM MMAE) for RAGE MMAE (Fig. 12C) and 2.5 µg/ml (≡ 0.05 µM MMAF) for RAGE MMAF (Fig. 12D). It was not possible to determine IC50 values for the MMAE or MMAF treatments (Fig 12A & B, respectively) alone in these cells (i.e. the IC50 was greater than the top concentration tested).

[0067] These data demonstrate that delivering cytotoxic agents in the form of a RAGE targeting ADC increases the potency of the drug.

[0068] In separate experiments, Ishikawa (A) or HEC1A (B) cells were seeded into 96-well plates and treated with control medium or medium containing MMAE, MMAF, anti-RAGE antibody, SNIPER MMAE or SNIPER MMAF (shown as RAGE MMAE and RAGE MMAF respectively in Figure 13) for 24 h. After treatment, cell viability in both cell lines (Fig. 13), and cell apoptosis in Ishikawa cells (caspase activation; Fig. 14) were determined by a fluorescence-based cell viability assay (Apotox Glo Triplex assay, Promega) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Data are presented as box plots showing the median (line), 25th and 75th percentiles (box) and 10th and 90th percentile (whiskers), n = 4. Data were analysed by ANOVA and Dunnett's pairwise multiple comparison t-test. Values differ from control: * P < 0.05. Cell killing and the induction of apoptosis was significantly increased following treatment with ADCs compared to treatment with the drug or antibody alone.

[0069] In separate experiments, TOV112D, UWB1.289 or UACC-1595 cells were seeded into 96-well plates and treated with control medium or medium containing MMAE, MMAF, anti-RAGE antibody, SNIPER MMAE or SNIPER MMAF for 24 h. After treatment, cell viability in TOV112D, UWB1.289 and UACC-1595 cells (Fig. 15) and the degree of apoptosis in TOV112D cells (caspase activation; Fig. 16) were determined by a fluorescence-based cell viability assay (Apotox Glo Triplex assay, Promega) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Data are presented as box plots showing the median (line), 25th and 75th percentiles (box) and 10th and 90th percentile (whiskers), n = 4. Data were analysed by ANOVA and Dunnett's pairwise multiple comparison t-test. Values differ from control: * P < 0.05. Cell killing and the induction of apoptosis was significantly increased following treatment with ADCs compared to treatment with the drug or antibody alone.

[0070] These data demonstrate that treating cancerous cells with ADCs targeting RAGE is an effective killing strategy that significantly improves the efficacy of the conjugated cytotoxin.

Example 5


Comparison of Cleavable and Non-cleavable linkers



[0071] The linkers used in Examples 3 & 4 were directly compared. Ishikawa or TOV112D cells were seeded into 96-well plates and treated with control medium or medium containing MMAE, MMAF, SNIPER MMAE or SNIPER MMAF for 24 h. After treatment, cell viability (Fig. 17) was determined by a fluorescence-based cell viability assay (Apotox Glo Triplex assay, Promega) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Data are presented as box plots showing the median (line), 25th and 75th percentiles (box) and 10th and 90th percentile (whiskers), n = 4. Data were analysed by ANOVA and Dunnett's pairwise multiple comparison t-test. Values differ between groups: * P < 0.05. SNIPER ADCs were used at 20 ug/ml and drug alone treatments were at equivalent molar concentrations. Cell killing was increased following treatment with ADCs comprising the non-cleavable linker, MMAF, compared to the cleavable linker, MMAE.

[0072] These data demonstrate the importance of the correct antibody-linker-drug combination for effective cancer cell killing.

Example 6


Internalisation of Anti-RAGE antibodies in ovarian and endometrial cells



[0073] Using conventional methods as described for example in Köhler, G. & Milstein, C. Nature 256, 495-497 (1975 and Köhler, G. & Milstein, C. Eur. J. Immun. 6, 511-519 (1976), a series of anti-RAGE antibodies were developed. These were designated AA4, HG6 and DF6. The VH protein sequence of AA4 was as shown in SEQ ID NO 25 and the VL protein sequence of AA4 was as shown in SEQ ID NO 26. The VH protein sequence of HG6 was as shown in SEQ ID NO 25 and the VL protein sequence of HG6 was as shown in SEQ ID NO 26. The VH protein sequence of DF6 was as shown in SEQ ID NO 25 and the VL protein sequence of DF6 was as shown in SEQ ID NO 26.

[0074] TOV112D ovarian (B-F) or HEC 1A endometrial (G-K) cancer cells were cultured on 8-well chamber slides to 80% confluence. Cells were treated with different anti-human RAGE antibodies for 1 h. The antibodies used were MOL403, MOL405, AA4, HG6 and DF6, which bind to the following regions of RAGE, respectively: V-type domain, stub region (SEQ ID No. 24), C-type domain 1, C-type domain 1 and stub region (SEQ ID No. 24). Cells were fixed and permeabilised, before staining with FITC or Alexfluor 488 labelled secondary antibody. Representative images were acquired on a Zeiss 710 confocal microscope and the results are shown in Fig. 18.

[0075] All antibodies were internalised in the cells, but internalisation of the MOL403 (V-type domain binding) antibody was assessed as being significantly greater than the other antibodies tested.

Example 7


Effects of ADC on healthy and cancer cells over 96 hours



[0076] The methodology of Example 4 was repeated over a 96 h period, using a range of cell lines including endometrial cancer cell lines, Ishikawa, HEC1A, HEC1B, HEC50 and ovarian cancer cells TOV112D as well as healthy endometrial and ovarian cells. The antibody construct used was the SNIPER construct of Example 3.

[0077] Results are shown in Table 1 hereinafter. The results show that ADCs are more efficacious after 96 h. In addition, it is clear from Table 1 that the SNIPER-ADC kills endometrial/ovarian cancer cells more effectively than the healthy control cells.

Example 8


Relative Efficacy of RAGE ADCs against gynaecological cancer cells



[0078] Analysis of the cell killing abilities of ADCs comprising the antibody clones AA4, HG6 and DF6 with MMAE or MMAF, revealed that they were less efficacious than the SNIPER ADC. Antibodies were conjugated to MMAE or MMAF as previously described, and cell viability over a period of 24 to 96 h was determined, also as previously described. Within the concentration ranges tested, 0.01 to 100 µg/ml; it was not possible to determine IC50 values for any of the new antibody clones at the 24, 48 or 72 h time points. After 96 h exposure, IC50 values were determined, showing that the ADCs were less efficacious than the SNIPER ADC at 96 h. An example IC50 comparison graph is shown in Fig. 19A. In addition, comparison of cell killing during the course of the experiment demonstrated that the SNIPER ADC was significantly more effective than the other ADCs (a comparison between AA4 MMAE and SNIPER MMAE is shown in Fig. 19B).

[0079] Comparisons of the AA4, HG6 and DF6 ADCs to the SNIPER ADC were made within normal ovarian (HOSEpic) and ovarian cancer (TOV112D and SKOV3) cells, and normal endometrial (Healthy) and endometrial cancer (HEC1A, HEC1B and Ishikawa) cells. Cells were treated for 96 h with 5 µg/ml of each of the ADCs, and cell health monitored as previously described. Within the ovarian cell lines, the SNIPER MMAE ADC was more efficacious compared to the other MMAE ADCs in SKOV3 cells, whilst the SNIPER MMAF ADC was more efficacious in TOV112D and SKOV3 cells (Fig. 20A, B). Data are presented as mean (SEM), and were analysed by ANOVA and Dunnett's pairwise multiple comparison t-test. Values differ from the antibody only control: * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001.

[0080] Within the endometrial cells, the SNIPER MMAE and the SNIPER MMAF ADCs were both significantly more efficacious compared to the other ADCs in HEC1A, HEC1B and Ishikawa cells. There was no significant effect on healthy endometrial cells by any of the ADCs tested (Fig. 20C, D).

Example 9


Tamoxifen upregulates endometrial RAGE expression.



[0081] RAGE protein expression was measured by Immunohistochemistry in endometrial biopsies from patients diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia, Type I or Type II endometrial cancer (EC), postmenopausal controls as well as breast cancer patients taking tamoxifen as part of their treatment that have developed, or not, endometrial cancer. 138 patients were grouped as follows: PM (n=25, median=0.2), Hyperplasia (n=21, median=5.5), type I EC (n=18, median=1.5), type II EC (n=17, median=2), TX no EC (n=19, median=4), type I EC plus TX (n=21, median=4) and type II EC plus TX (n=17, median=0.2) .

[0082] IHC samples were scored blind by three independent observers. Values shown are median IHC scores and statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney test *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, compared to PM control. Table number 2 below shows between group comparisons.

[0083] The results are shown in Fig. 21. RAGE expression was noted in the membrane and cytoplasm of tumour cells and endometrial cells obtained from hyperplasia patients. PM staining was almost negative. RAGE expression was also observed in the epithelium and stromal cells of the endometrium from breast cancer patients taken tamoxifen that have not developed Endometrial cancer (Tx no EC). Tamoxifen upregulation of RAGE was also observed in endometrium from EC patients compared to endometrium of EC not taking tamoxifen.

[0084] Estrogen receptor α (ER) expression was also measured and was found to be expressed in all groups. Its expression was used as control for tamoxifen action in EC patients.
Table 1
IC50
TissueCell lineSNIPER-MMAE (µq/ml) [Drug only equivalent, µM]SNIPER-MMAF(µg/ml) [Drug only equivalent, µM]
  24 h48 h96 h24 h48 h96 h
Endometrium Healthy ND 10.72
[0.22]
15.19
[0.31]
ND 7.25
[0.14]
4.17
[0.08]
HEC1A 10.34
[0.22]
4.69
[0.1]
1.02
[0.02]
24.11
[0.46]
0.81
[0.02]
0.74
[0.02]
HEC1B 29.04
[0.61]
8.65
[0.18]
5.67
[0.12]
ND 1. 96
[0.04]
1.27
[0.02]
HEC50 ND 7.64
[0.16]
2.18
[0.05]
17.82
[0.33]
0.86
[0.02]
0.94
[0.02]
Ishikawa 31.02
[0.65]
9.54
[0.2]
3.86
[0.08]
16.7
[0.32]
6.48
[0.12]
2.42
[0.04]
Ovary Healthy ND ND 41.02
[0.86]
ND 14.36
[0.27]
4.87
[0.09]
TOV112D 22.6
[0.47]
16.17
[0.34]
0.54
[0.01]
ND 2.51
[0.05]
0.59
[0.01]
ND = not determined within the ADC concentration range used (0.01 to 100 µg/ml)
Table 2
Comparisons RAGE expressionEC type II plus TxEC type IEC type IITX no ECHyperplasiaPM
EC type I plus Tx 0.0320 0.05 00 0.0003 0.5419 0.0093 0.0002
EC type II plus Tx   0.3 572 0.4442 0.0074 0.0007 0.0450
EC type I     0.8008 0.2476 0.0015 0.0301
EC type II       0.0003 0.0014 0.0072
TX no EC         0.0011 0.0003
Hyperplasia           0.0011
Sequences referred to herein
SEQ ID NO
1

 
2

 
3

 
4

 
5

 
6

 
7

 
8

 
9

 
10

 
11 MAAGTAVGACASGGGPIGGGARRWSSSSWWNRNPDL
12

 
13

 
14

 
15

 
16

 
17

 
18

 
19

 
20

 
21

 
22

 
23

 
24 SISIIEPGEEGPTAGSVGGSGLGTLALA
25

 
26

 
27

 
28

 

References



[0085] 
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<211> 246
<212> PRT
<213> Homo sapiens

<220>
<223> Rage variant

<400> 19



<210> 20
<211> 250
<212> PRT
<213> Homo sapiens

<220>
<223> Rage variant

<400> 20

<210> 21
<211> 121
<212> PRT
<213> Homo sapiens

<220>
<223> Rage variant

<400> 21



<210> 22
<211> 388
<212> PRT
<213> Homo sapiens

<220>
<223> Rage variant

<400> 22



<210> 23
<211> 149
<212> PRT
<213> Homo sapiens

<220>
<223> Rage variant

<400> 23

<210> 24
<211> 28
<212> PRT
<213> Homo sapiens

<220>
<223> Rage fragment

<400> 24

<210> 25
<211> 113
<212> PRT
<213> Mus sp.

<220>
<223> Antibody VH sequence

<400> 25



<210> 26
<211> 112
<212> PRT
<213> Mus sp.

<220>
<223> Antibody VL sequence

<400> 26

<210> 27
<211> 112
<212> PRT
<213> Mus sp.

<220>
<223> Antibody VH sequence

<400> 27



<210> 28
<211> 112
<212> PRT
<213> Mus sp.

<220>
<223> Antibody VL sequence

<400> 28




Claims

1. A therapeutic agent comprising a cell binding agent which binds the Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) linked to an anti-cancer drug, for use in the treatment of ovarian or endometrial cancer wherein the cell binding agent is an antibody or a binding fragment thereof that following binding becomes internalised within a cell.
 
2. The therapeutic agent for use according to claim 1 wherein the cell binding agent is a monoclonal antibody.
 
3. The therapeutic agent for use according to claim 2 wherein the monoclonal antibody is a human or humanised antibody.
 
4. The therapeutic agent for use according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the cell binding agent binds a region of RAGE comprising SEQ ID NO 24, or to a V-type domain of RAGE.
 
5. The therapeutic agent for use according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the anti-cancer drug is a cytotoxin, a hormone, a cytokine/chemokine or other cell signalling molecule, or a nucleic acid.
 
6. The therapeutic agent for use according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the cell binding agent is linked to the anti-cancer drug by way of a chemical linking group.
 
7. The therapeutic agent for use according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the ratio of drug: cell binding agent molecules is in the range of from 1:1 to 1:8.
 
8. The therapeutic agent for use according to claim 7 wherein the ratio of drug:cell binding agent molecules is in the range of from 1:1.5 to 1:3.5.
 


Ansprüche

1. Therapeutischer Wirkstoff, umfassend ein zellbindendes Mittel, das den Rezeptor für fortgeschrittene Glykierungsendprodukte (RAGE, en: Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts) bindet und an ein Krebsmedikament gebunden ist, zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung von Eierstock- oder Endometriumkrebs, wobei das zellbindende Mittel ein Antikörper oder ein Bindungsfragment davon ist, der bzw. das nach der Bindung innerhalb einer Zelle internalisiert wird.
 
2. Therapeutischer Wirkstoff zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das zellbindende Mittel ein monoklonaler Antikörper ist.
 
3. Therapeutischer Wirkstoff zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 2, wobei der monoklonale Antikörper ein humaner oder humanisierter Antikörper ist.
 
4. Therapeutischer Wirkstoff zur Verwendung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das zellbindende Mittel eine Region von RAGE, umfassend SEQ ID NO 24, oder an eine V-Typ-Domäne von RAGE bindet.
 
5. Therapeutischer Wirkstoff zur Verwendung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Krebsmedikament ein Zytotoxin, ein Hormon, ein Zytokin/Chemokin oder ein anderes Zell-Signalmolekül oder eine Nukleinsäure ist.
 
6. Therapeutischer Wirkstoff zur Verwendung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das zellbindende Mittel über eine chemisch bindende Gruppe an das Krebsmedikament gebunden ist.
 
7. Therapeutischer Wirkstoff zur Verwendung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Molekülverhältnis Medikament:zellbindendes Mittel im Bereich von 1:1 bis 1:8 liegt.
 
8. Therapeutischer Wirkstoff zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 7, wobei das Molekülverhältnis Medikament:zellbindendes Mittel im Bereich von 1:1,5 bis 1:3,5 liegt.
 


Revendications

1. Agent thérapeutique comprenant un agent de liaison cellulaire qui se lie au récepteur des produits finaux de glycation avancée (RAGE) lié à un médicament anticancéreux, destiné à être utilisé dans le traitement du cancer de l'ovaire ou de l'endomètre, l'agent de liaison cellulaire étant un anticorps ou un fragment de liaison de celui-ci dont la liaison suivante devient internalisée dans une cellule.
 
2. Agent thérapeutique destiné à être utilisé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'agent de liaison cellulaire est un anticorps monoclonal.
 
3. Agent thérapeutique destiné à être utilisé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel l'anticorps monoclonal est un anticorps humain ou humanisé.
 
4. Agent thérapeutique destiné à être utilisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'agent de liaison cellulaire se lie à une région de RAGE comprenant SEQ ID N° 24, ou à un domaine de type V de RAGE.
 
5. Agent thérapeutique destiné à être utilisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le médicament anticancéreux est une cytotoxine, une hormone, une cytokine/chimiokine ou une autre molécule de signalisation cellulaire, ou un acide nucléique.
 
6. Agent thérapeutique destiné à être utilisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'agent de liaison cellulaire est lié au médicament anticancéreux au moyen d'un groupe de liaison chimique.
 
7. Agent thérapeutique destiné à être utilisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le rapport médicament sur
molécules d'agent de liaison cellulaire est compris entre 1:1 et 1:8.
 
8. Agent thérapeutique destiné à être utilisé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel le rapport médicament sur
molécules d'agent de liaison cellulaire est compris entre 1:1,5 et 1:3,5.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description