(19)
(11)EP 3 209 862 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
04.12.2019 Bulletin 2019/49

(21)Application number: 15817602.4

(22)Date of filing:  19.10.2015
(51)Int. Cl.: 
E21B 49/00  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/RU2015/000685
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/064301 (28.04.2016 Gazette  2016/17)

(54)

ESTIMATE OF COMPACTION WITH BOREHOLE GRAVITY MEASUREMENTS

SCHÄTZUNG DER VERDICHTUNG MIT BOHRLOCHSCHWERKRAFTMESSUNGEN

ESTIMATION DE COMPACTAGE AU MOYEN DE MESURES GRAVIMÉTRIQUES DE TROU DE FORAGE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 20.10.2014 US 201462066073 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
30.08.2017 Bulletin 2017/35

(73)Proprietor: Baker Hughes, a GE company, LLC
Houston, TX 77073 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • VASILEVSKIY, Alexandr Nikolaevich
    Novosibirsk 630090 (RU)
  • EDWARDS, Carl
    Katy, Texas 77494 (US)
  • DAOUD, Mohamed
    Katy, Texas 77382 (US)
  • CSUTAK, Sebastian
    Houston, Texas 77073 (US)

(74)Representative: BRP Renaud & Partner mbB Rechtsanwälte Patentanwälte Steuerberater 
Königstraße 28
70173 Stuttgart
70173 Stuttgart (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A- 4 457 077
US-A- 5 753 813
US-A1- 2009 223 291
US-A1- 2014 165 720
US-A- 5 705 812
US-A1- 2004 182 147
US-A1- 2010 107 753
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


    1. Field of Invention



    [0001] The present disclosure relates to a method of measuring subsidence and compaction with a gravimeter. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to a method of measuring subsidence and compaction by measuring gravitational forces at locations in a wellbore over time.

    2. Description of Prior Art



    [0002] Hydrocarbons from subterranean strata are typically produced from formations in the strata by forming wells that intersect one or more of the formations. Pressure in the reservoir and the stress in the rock balance the overburden pressure and the reservoir stays in equilibrium and maintains its shape. Due to the production of fluids from the subterranean formation, such as water and/or hydrocarbon trapped in the formation, pressure in the formation is reduced. If strength of the rock is insufficient, the rock strain is increased in the vertical direction causing compaction within the reservoir.

    [0003] Compaction is sometimes estimated by measuring the change in distance between two or more features or markers in the formation. These features are usually radioactive "bullets" shot through the casing into the formation. This distance between markers is measured by a tool with multiple detectors. Distances between adjacent features that are much larger or smaller than accuracy of the detectors requires moving the tool, which is usually deployed on wireline. The inherent elasticity of wireline reduces the accuracy with which the feature distance can be estimated.

    [0004] Subsidence typically refers to a change in depth or elevation of the earth that is above the reservoir. Subsidence can be caused by fluid withdrawal from a reservoir, but there are other mechanisms. Above a reservoir, subsidence is generally not accompanied by compaction. However, within the reservoir, compaction and subsidence may occur at the same depth. Methods for measuring subsidence at the surface include tracking the elevation of a global positioning satellite ("GPS") receiver; where the receiver can be mounted permanently at the surface or stationed periodically at the same location. For greater accuracy, a difference method using two GPS receivers can be used. One drawback of GPS is that it is not operational below the surface.

    [0005] US5753813 discloses a method of detecting the presence of subsidence and compaction in a formation, using markers implanted in the formation.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0006] Disclosed herein is a method of estimating compaction in a formation, wherein the method includes obtaining a first initial value of gravity from a first location in the formation, and which represents the force of gravity at the first location at an initial time, obtaining a second initial value of gravity at a second location that is spaced vertically away from the first location, and which represents the force of gravity at the second location at about the initial time. The method further includes comparing the first and second initial values of gravity to obtain an initial difference in gravity values, obtaining a first later in time value of gravity from the first location, and which represents the force of gravity at the first location at a point in time later than the initial time, obtaining a second later in time value of gravity from the second location, and which represents the force of gravity at the second location at a point in time later than the initial time, obtaining a later point in time difference in gravity value by comparing the first and second later in time values of gravity, and estimating formation compaction by comparing the initial difference in gravity values and the later point in time difference in gravity values. The method can further include dividing the initial difference in gravity values and the later point in time difference in gravity values by the free air constant. Alternatively, estimating formation compaction can be further based on the gravitational constant G and density of fluid that is in the portion of the formation undergoing compression. In another example, the step of estimating formation compaction further considers changes in porosity of the formation being compaction and changes of density of the fluid in the formation being compaction. Yet further optionally, the step of estimating formation compaction further considers changes in the free air constant. In one alternative, the first location is along a wall of a borehole that intersects the formation. The second location can be a bottom of a borehole that intersects the formation, along a sidewall of the borehole, or on the earth's surface and outside of the borehole. The method can further include providing markers at the first and second locations, and providing additional markers at locations spaced vertically away from the first and second locations, and measuring values of gravity at the additional markers at the initial time and at points in time later than the initial time. The values of gravity can be obtained with a gravimeter that is disposed in a downhole tool.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



    [0007] Some of the features and benefits of the present invention having been stated, others will become apparent as the description proceeds when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

    FIG. 1 is a side sectional view of an example of a formation intersected by a borehole and having multiple zones.

    FIG. 2 is a side sectional view of the formation of FIG. 1 after a period of time and having experienced subsidence and compaction.

    FIG. 3 is a side sectional view of an example of using a gravimeter to measure gravity in the borehole of FIG. 1.

    FIGS. 4A and 4B are side sectional views of an example of a wellbore before and after compaction.

    FIG. 5 is a graphical illustration of an example of a relationship between a porosity reduction term and fluid density.



    [0008] While the invention will be described in connection with the preferred embodiments, it will be understood that it is not intended to limit the invention to that embodiment. On the contrary, it is intended to cover all alternatives, modifications, and equivalents, as may be included within the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION



    [0009] The method and system of the present disclosure will now be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings in which embodiments are shown. The method and system of the present disclosure may be in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the illustrated embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey its scope to those skilled in the art. Like numbers refer to like elements throughout. In an embodiment, usage of the term "about" includes +/- 5% of the cited magnitude. In an embodiment, usage of the term "substantially" includes +/- 5% of the cited magnitude.

    [0010] It is to be further understood that the scope of the present disclosure is not limited to the exact details of construction, operation, exact materials, or embodiments shown and described, as modifications and equivalents will be apparent to one skilled in the art. In the drawings and specification, there have been disclosed illustrative embodiments and, although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for the purpose of limitation.

    [0011] Referring to Figure 1, an example is shown in side sectional view of a wellbore 10 that projects downward into a subterranean formation 12. A derrick 14 is mounted on surface S and over wellbore 10. Included in the formation are zones Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 that are also intersected by wellbore 10. Zones Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 are separated from one another by boundary lines L1, L2, L3, L4. In one example Figure 1 illustrates the formation 12 prior to fluid production, and where pressure in the reservoir and stress in the rock balance the overburden pressure and the reservoir stays in equilibrium and maintains its shape. As illustrated in Figure 2, subsidence and compaction can occur within the formation 12 over time due to fluids being produced from the formation 12. Removing fluid from the reservoir lowers reservoir pressure, and if the rock strength is insufficient to support the weight of formation above it, rock strain is increased vertically to cause compaction in the reservoir. Compaction rates as measured over a nominal 10 meter interval can be as high as 50 mm/year, but are more typically 0.5 mm/year. (Mirzwinski, 2014). Subsidence, as illustrated by arrow As, causes a lowering of the surface S. Similarly in the example illustrated, compaction, which can be represented by a difference in arrows AC1, AC2, results in a shift in lines L1, L2, L3, and compression of zones Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4.

    [0012] Figure 3 is a side sectional example of the formation 12 and wellbore 10 of Figures 1 and 2. Optionally a wellhead assembly 16 is over the wellbore 10 instead of the derrick 14 (Figure 2). A wellbore tool 18 is shown inserted into the wellbore 10, and which includes a gravimeter 20. An example of a gravimeter for use with what is described in the present disclosure can be found in Edwards et al., U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2012/0271549, having Serial Number 13/449,788, filed April 18, 2012, and assigned to the assignee of the present application. Markers 221, 222, are shown illustrated in the formation 12 at known depths and spaced axially apart at different depths in the wellbore 10. Markers 221, 222, can also be referred to as features; and examples exist wherein material for the markers 221, 222 includes radioactive material, such as bullets. Alternatively, the 221, 222, can be in collars of tubulars disposed downhole, as well as large rapid changes as a function of depth of the intensity of naturally emitted gamma-rays that typically occur at the boundary between sandstone and shale rock types or other reservoir features. Other suitable formation features will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. A sensor sub 24 in the tool 18 is equipped with sensors (not shown) for detecting the proximity of the markers 221, 222. Example sensors include radiation detectors, seismic receivers, electro-magnetic wave sensors, and the like. Measurement of the compaction shown in Figure 2 can be estimated with the system illustrated in Figure 3. In an example of use, a free air gradient, such as that described above, is measured at surface S. Gravity at vertically spaced apart locations is measured, where at least one of the locations is within the formation, and a difference between the measured values of gravity is obtained. In one example, the locations are in the wellbore 10, such as at markers 221, 222. At a point in time later, which can be hours, days, weeks, months, or years, gravity at the aforementioned locations in the wellbore 10 (i.e. at markers 221, 222) is re-measured and another difference between the measured values of gravity is obtained. An analysis of the differences between the gravity values over time can yield a change in spacing between the markers 221, 222, which in turn can be used to estimate compaction, a rate of compaction, subsidence, or a rate of subsidence in the formation 12. The differences in gravity can be obtained by measurements at the markers 221, 222 alone, one of the markers 221, 222 and at or above surface S, or both markers 221, 222 and at or above surface S. One of the advantages of the method and system described herein is that compaction can be measured without contacting the formation 12, and without the need to insert a probe or other invasive instrument into the formation 12 during the step of measuring. Additional advantages of the method and system described herein include the ability to estimate compaction, a rate of compaction, subsidence, or a rate of subsidence in the formation, without the need for radioactive material or any type of ballistics. Moreover, the disclosed method and system can be used to measure compaction over intervals of less than 10 meters and in excess of 100 meters, and is not limited to spacing constraints.

    [0013] Figures 4A and 4B provide side sectional illustrations of how the distance between markers 221, 222 can change over time when compaction takes place in the formation 12. More specifically, depicted in Figure 4A are markers 221, 222 disposed in the formation 12, and where ΔZo represents a vertical distance between marker 221 and marker 222 at an initial point in time. Further illustrated in this example is that marker 221 is in zone Z3, and marker 222 is in zone Z4. Figure 4B depicts how the vertical distance between the markers 221, 222 has changed at a point in time, which occurs after the initial point in time as represented in Figure 4A. In the example of Figure 4B, some compaction has taken place in the formation 12 within zone Z3, which results in some subsidence YS, which in turn creates an elevational drop in the upper boundary of zone Z3.

    [0014] As provided above, in one example compaction in the formation 12 is estimated by measuring a change in the gravity differences between the markers 221, 222 caused by the compaction. Equation (1) below provides an example relationship for compaction where it is assumed that no fluid flows from the formation being compacted:

    In Equation (1) C represents compaction in meters; Δgo represents a difference in gravity between markers 221, 222 prior to compaction (at the initial point in time); ΔgT represents a difference in gravity between markers 221, 222 after compaction (after the initial point in time); and F represents the free air gradient. In an embodiment, the free air gradient F is assumed to be a constant 3.086 x 10-6 uGal/(m x s2). Here the layered earth model is being used for gravity near the Earth's surface such that:

    In Equation (1.1) B is the Bouguer term. It represents the gravity caused by a horizontal slab of earth between two measurements points. It is

    where G represents the gravitational constant (6.674 x 10-11 Nm2kg-2); and ρ represents density between the two measurement point either before or after compaction. Here it is assumed that no fluid flowing out during compaction is equivalent to a situation that the total mass between the measurement points is conserved and the Bouguer term is constant.

    [0015] Eqn. (1) represents an example of a first approximation to compaction. But fluids often do flow from reservoirs during compaction. In fact, "compaction drive accounts a significant fraction of the produced fluids in the Ekofisk formation. Fertl, W., G. V. Chilingarian, et al. (1995). Surveillance Technology To Detect And Monitor Compaction And Subsidence Effects. Subsidence Due to Fluid Withdrawal. G. V. Chilingarian, E. C. Donaldson and T. F. Yen, Elsevier: 439. DOI:10.1016/S0376-7361(06)80057-9; and Sulak, R. M. and J. Danielsen (1989). "Reservoir Aspects of Ekofisk Subsidence." Journal of Petroleum Technology 41(7). DOI: 10.2118/17852-PA.

    [0016] To improve the approximation for compaction, several cases can be considered. In one example the case to consider is when the density of the fluid flowing from the reservoir is constant over time. This might be the case for compaction of a water zone in a reservoir or compaction in an aquifer. Equation (2) below provides the relationship for when fluid density flowing from the reservoir remains constant over time.

    where ρf represents fluid density. Thus in the example where compaction C is estimated using Equation (2), the density of the fluid flowing out of the formation 12 during compaction is also estimated. Estimation of the fluid density is within the capabilities of those of ordinary skill in the art. The term 4πGρf accounts for fluid outflow during the compaction process as the Bouguer term before compaction is different from the Bouguer term after compaction. The mass between the measurement points is no longer conserved. What is conserved is the mass of the solid matrix. This includes all of the minerals and perhaps some classes of organic material such as kerogen.

    [0017] Graphically illustrated in Figure 5 is an example plot that compares the size of 4πGρf to the free-air gradient F. For water, the terms is about 30% of the free-air gradient. For oils, its value is somewhat less: between 20% and 30%. For methane gas it is less than 10%.

    [0018] In another approximation, an outflow of fluids is considered, as well as a change in fluid density during compaction. Cases where this approximation might be needed are for oil or gas reservoirs that are under pressure drive. Another case might be a water fluid in which water is replacing oil. In this example of estimating compaction:

    where ΔZο represents a depth difference between the markers 221, 222 prior to compaction; and ϕ' represents porosity in the formation 12 after compaction. In this approximation two addition terms are included, which are proportional to the porosity after compaction and the change in density of the fluids. If the change in density is small these terms may be safely ignored. Thus in the example wherein Equation (3) is implemented to estimate compaction C, porosity of the formation 12 is evaluated, which is also within the capabilities of those of ordinary skill in the art. Those skilled in the art may also find equivalent expressions for Equation (3) that use the porosity before compaction and/or the distance between markers after compaction.

    [0019] Equation 4 below provides a relationship for estimating compaction that considers fluid flowing from the formation 12 during compaction, a change in fluid density, and a change in the free air gradient. Tectonic events, such as an earthquake, can affect the free air gradient.

    where FT represents the free air gradient at a time T after the initial period of time, and that can be after the formation 12 has been compacted; and ΔF represents a difference in the free air gradient F between the initial time and a time T after the initial period of time. Where the relationship outlined in Equation 4 is used to estimate compaction C, values of the free air gradient F are obtained, another step which is within the capabilities of one of ordinary skill in the art.

    [0020] In addition to measuring compaction, estimates of subsidence within the formation can be made when one of the measurement points (i.e. markers or features) is fixed over time, or when its change in positon is well known. An example of the former is the use of any point that is below the production zones of the reservoir, such as at the bottom of the well. An example of the later is the use of a point at the well head, where its movement can be quantified by global positioning satellite ("GPS") or other common means of measuring subsidence.

    [0021] Finally, it is to be noted that Equations (2) through (4) use single values for density and porosity. This can be deemed equivalent to assuming that the reservoir between the measurement points is a single uniform layer. Equations (2) though (4) can be generalized to multiple layers simply by replacing the density and porosity with the depth averaged quantities of those values.

    [0022] The present invention described herein, therefore, is well adapted to carry out the objects and attain the ends and advantages mentioned, as well as others inherent therein. While a presently preferred embodiment of the invention has been given for purposes of disclosure, numerous changes exist in the details of procedures for accomplishing the desired results. For example, an array of quad sensors for downhole use can be included in place of, or included with, the gravimeter. Further, the number of markers or features disposed in the wellbore can be more than two. Additionally, the markers can be congregated within a single zone in the formation, or spread among more than one zone. These and other similar modifications will readily suggest themselves to those skilled in the art, and are intended to be encompassed within the present invention disclosed herein and the scope of the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. A method of estimating compaction in a formation (12) comprising:

    a. obtaining a first initial value of gravity from a first location in the formation (12), and which represents the force of gravity at the first location at an initial time;

    b. obtaining a second initial value of gravity at a second location that is spaced vertically away from the first location, and which represents the force of gravity at the second location at about the initial time;

    c. comparing the first and second initial values of gravity to obtain an initial difference in gravity values;

    d. obtaining a first later in time value of gravity from the first location, and which represents the force of gravity at the first location at a point in time later than the initial time;

    e. obtaining a second later in time value of gravity from the second location, and which represents the force of gravity at the second location at a point in time later than the initial time;

    f. obtaining a later point in time difference in gravity value by comparing the first and second later in time values of gravity; and

    g. estimating formation compaction by comparing the initial difference in gravity values and the later point in time difference in gravity values.


     
    2. The method of Claim 1, further comprising dividing the initial difference in gravity values and the later point in time difference in gravity values by the free air constant (F).
     
    3. The method of Claim 2, wherein the step of estimating formation compaction is further based on the gravitational constant G and density of fluid that is in the portion of the formation undergoing compaction.
     
    4. The method of Claim 3, wherein the step of estimating formation compaction further considers changes in porosity of the formation (12) being compaction and changes of density of the fluid in the formation being compaction.
     
    5. The method of Claim 4, wherein the step of estimating formation compression further considers changes in the free air constant.
     
    6. The method of Claim 1, wherein the first location is along a wall of a borehole that intersects the formation (12).
     
    7. The method of Claim 1, wherein the second location comprises a place selected from the group consisting of a bottom of a borehole that intersects the formation (12), along a sidewall of the borehole, and on the earth's surface and outside of the borehole.
     
    8. The method of Claim 1, further comprising providing markers (221, 222) at the first and second locations, and providing additional markers at locations spaced vertically away from the first and second locations, and measuring values of gravity at the additional markers at the initial time and at points in time later than the initial time.
     
    9. The method of Claim 1, wherein the values of gravity are obtained with a gravimeter that is disposed in a downhole tool.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zum Schätzen einer Verdichtung in einer Formation (12), umfassend:

    a. Erhalten eines ersten Anfangswertes der Schwerkraft von einer ersten Stelle in der Formation (12), der die Schwerkraft an der ersten Stelle zu einem Anfangszeitpunkt repräsentiert;

    b. Erhalten eines zweiten Anfangswertes der Schwerkraft an einer zweiten Stelle, die vertikal beabstandet von der ersten Stelle ist, und der die Schwerkraft an der zweiten Stelle zu ungefähr dem Anfangszeitpunkt repräsentiert;

    c. Vergleichen des ersten und des zweiten Anfangswertes der Schwerkraft, um eine anfängliche Differenz von Schwerkraftwerten zu erhalten;

    d. Erhalten eines ersten späteren Wertes der Schwerkraft von der ersten Stelle, der die Schwerkraft an der ersten Stelle zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt als dem Anfangszeitpunkt repräsentiert;

    e. Erhalten eines zweiten späteren Wertes der Schwerkraft von der zweiten Stelle, der die Schwerkraft an der zweiten Stelle zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt als dem Anfangszeitpunkt repräsentiert;

    f. Erhalten einer späteren Differenz des Schwerkraftwertes durch Vergleichen des ersten und des zweiten späteren Wertes der Schwerkraft; und

    g. Schätzen der Formationsverdichtung durch Vergleichen der anfänglichen Differenz von Schwerkraftwerten und der späteren Differenz von Schwerkraftwerten.


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend: Teilen der anfänglichen Differenz von Schwerkraftwerten und der späteren Differenz von Schwerkraftwerten durch die Außenluftkonstante (F).
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, wobei der Schritt des Schätzens der Formationsverdichtung ferner auf der Gravitationskonstanten G und der Dichte des Fluids basiert, das sich in dem Teil der Formation befindet, der einer Verdichtung unterzogen wird.
     
    4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei der Schritt des Schätzens der Formationsverdichtung ferner Änderungen bei der Porosität der Formation (12), die eine Verdichtung sind, und Änderungen der Dichte des Fluids in der Formation, die eine Verdichtung sind, berücksichtigt.
     
    5. Verfahren von Anspruch 4, wobei der Schritt des Schätzens der Formationsverdichtung ferner Änderungen bei der Außenluftkonstante berücksichtigt.
     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die erste Stelle entlang einer Wand eines Bohrlochs liegt, das die Formation (12) schneidet.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die zweite Stelle einen Ort umfasst, der aus der Gruppe bestehend aus einem Boden eines Bohrlochs, das die Formation (12) schneidet, entlang einer Seitenwand des Bohrlochs und auf der Erdoberfläche und außerhalb des Bohrlochs ausgewählt ist.
     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend: Bereitstellen von Markern (221, 222) an der ersten und zweiten Stelle und Bereitstellen zusätzlicher Marker an Stellen, die vertikal von der ersten und zweiten Stelle beabstandet sind, und Messen von Schwerkraftwerten an den zusätzlichen Markern zum Anfangszeitpunkt und zu späteren Zeitpunkten als dem Anfangszeitpunkt.
     
    9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Werte der Schwerkraft mit einem Gravimeter erhalten werden, das in einem Bohrlochwerkzeug angeordnet ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé d'estimation de compactage dans une formation (12) comprenant :

    a. l'obtention d'une première valeur gravimétrique initiale à partir d'un premier emplacement dans la formation (12), et qui représente la force de gravité au premier emplacement à un instant initial ;

    b. l'obtention d'une seconde valeur gravimétrique initiale à un second emplacement qui est espacé verticalement du premier emplacement, et qui représente la force de gravité au second emplacement environ au moment initial ;

    c. la comparaison des première et seconde valeurs gravimétriques initiales pour obtenir une différence initiale de valeurs gravimétriques ;

    d. l'obtention d'une première valeur gravimétrique ultérieure en temps à partir du premier emplacement, et qui représente la force de gravité au premier emplacement à un instant ultérieur au temps initial ;

    e. l'obtention d'une seconde valeur gravimétrique ultérieure en temps à partir du second emplacement, et qui représente la force de gravité au second emplacement à un instant ultérieur au temps initial ;

    f. l'obtention d'une différence de valeur gravimétrique à un instant ultérieur en comparant les première et seconde valeurs gravimétriques ultérieures en temps ; et

    g. l'estimation de compactage de formation en comparant la différence initiale des valeurs gravimétriques et la différence des valeurs gravimétriques à un instant ultérieur.


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre la division de la différence initiale de valeurs gravimétriques et de la différence de valeurs gravimétriques à un instant ultérieur par la constante d'air libre (F).
     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel l'étape d'estimation de compactage de formation est en outre basée sur la constante gravitationnelle G et la densité de fluide qui est dans la partie de la formation soumise au compactage.
     
    4. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel l'étape d'estimation de compactage de formation considère en outre des changements de porosité de la formation (12) étant compactage et des changements de densité du fluide dans la formation étant compactage.
     
    5. Procédé selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'étape d'estimation de compression de formation considère en outre des changements de la constante d'air libre.
     
    6. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le premier emplacement est le long d'une paroi d'un trou de forage qui coupe la formation (12).
     
    7. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le second emplacement comprend un endroit choisi parmi le groupe constitué par un fond d'un trou de forage qui coupe la formation (12), le long d'une paroi latérale du trou de forage, et à la surface de la terre et à l'extérieur du trou de forage.
     
    8. Procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre la fourniture de marqueurs (221, 222) au niveau des premier et second emplacements, et la fourniture de marqueurs supplémentaires à des emplacements espacés verticalement des premier et second emplacements, et la mesure de valeurs gravimétriques au niveau des marqueurs supplémentaires au moment initial et à des instants ultérieurs par rapport au temps initial.
     
    9. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les valeurs gravimétriques sont obtenues avec un gravimètre qui est disposé dans un outil de fond de trou.
     




    Drawing















    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description