(19)
(11)EP 3 211 043 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/20

(21)Application number: 17157284.5

(22)Date of filing:  22.02.2017
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C09C 1/00  (2006.01)
C08K 9/06  (2006.01)
C09D 7/00  (2018.01)
C08K 3/00  (2018.01)
C08K 9/02  (2006.01)

(54)

EFFECT PIGMENTS BASED ON AL2O3-FLAKES

EFFEKTPIGMENTE MIT AL2O3-SUBSTRATEN

PIGMENTS À EFFET BASÉS SUR DES SUBSTRATS DE AL2O3


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 23.02.2016 EP 16156942

(43)Date of publication of application:
30.08.2017 Bulletin 2017/35

(73)Proprietor: Merck Patent GmbH
64293 Darmstadt (DE)

(72)Inventors:
  • Schoen, Sabine
    45701 HERTEN (DE)
  • Jungnitz, Michael
    63303 DREIEICH (DE)
  • Schlueter, Stefan
    64404 BICKENBACH (DE)
  • Fritsche, Kirsten
    64283 DARMSTADT (DE)
  • Plueg, Carsten
    64367 MUEHLTAL (DE)
  • Andes, Stephanie
    63454 HANAU (DE)
  • Schoenefeld, Ulrich
    64404 BICKENBACH (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 632 109
EP-A2- 2 799 398
WO-A1-2015/139825
US-A1- 2017 130 054
EP-A2- 0 649 886
WO-A1-2012/055493
DE-A1- 3 334 598
US-E- R E41 858
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes with high weather resistance and less photoactivity and to their use thereof in paints, industrial coatings, automotive coatings, printing inks, cosmetic formulations.

    [0002] Imparting a pearlescent luster, metallic luster, color flop or multicolor effect can be achieved by using pearlescent pigments based on natural or synthetic transparent flakes. Pearlescent pigments based on α-Al2O3 flakes are well-known in the literature and commercially available, for example, under the trademark Xirallic® from Merck KGaA.

    [0003] The effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes of the prior art often have the disadvantages that they do not have a very high chemical and weather stability and sometimes show a greyish color masstone and/or tend to agglomerate when incorporated into cosmetic and paint compositions.

    [0004] Metal oxide coated Al2O3 flakes based on aluminum oxide flakes doped with titanium dioxide are known from U.S. 5,702,519. Alpha-alumina flakes with a defined thickness and particle size distribution are known from EP 2 799 398 A2. Silver-coloured effect pigments are disclosed in WO 2015/139825 A1. Weather resistant effect pigments and pearlescent pigments for water-borne surface coating systems are known from WO 2012/055493 A1, EP 0 632 109 A1, EP 0 649 886 A2 and DE 33 34 598 A1.

    [0005] WO 2006/101306 A1 and WO 2008/026829 A1 relate to zinc doped Al2O3 flakes and to pearlescent pigments based on these Al2O3 flakes. These zinc doped Al2O3 flakes are not stable under acidic conditions and thus not suitable for all applications.

    [0006] These effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes of the prior art also often have the disadvantages that they do not have a very sufficient high chemical and weather stability and sometimes show a greyish color masstone and/or tend to agglomerate when incorporated into cosmetic and paint compositions.

    [0007] The object of the present invention is to provide improved effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes which do not show the disadvantages of the prior art and are characterized by a high stability and high gloss and do not show any tendency to agglomeration when incorporated into compositions. Surprisingly, it has now been found that the properties of the effect pigments based on alumina flakes coated with one or more metal oxides can be increased by using alumina flakes with precisely defined ratios of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes (substrate) and the total amount of all metal oxide(s) of the coating layer(s).

    [0008] In particular the agglomeration behaviour and the weather stability of the effect pigments can be favourably influenced by the defined Al2O3 / metal oxide ratio. In addition, the effect pigments with the defined ratio show improved luster, chroma and very pure colors.

    [0009] Thus, the present invention relates to effect pigments according to Claim 1 based on alumina flakes characterized in that Al2O3 flakes are coated with one or more layers of a metal oxide or metal oxide mixture whereas the ratio of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes and the total amount of the metal oxide(s) of the coating layers is in the range of 27 : 73 to 83 : 17 based on the total weight of the effect pigment and that the pigments contain on the surface a protective layer.

    [0010] The effect flakes according to the invention can be employed in all formulations where effect pigments are usually employed, such as, for example, in inks, coatings, preferably automotive coatings, industrial coatings, plastics, cosmetic formulations.

    [0011] Compared to the prior art, the effect pigments according to the present invention show improved application properties like improved weather stability and less tendency to agglomeration and to become greyish and at the same time show improved optical properties, in particular increased chroma, higher luster, lower haze and excellent finishing and at the same time a high chemical stability.

    [0012] The mandatory feature of the effect pigments according to the invention is the ratio of Al2O3 (substrate) to the total amount of metal oxide on the surface of the Al2O3 substrate. The term "metal oxide" also includes metal oxide mixtures.

    [0013] In this patent application the term "amount" refers to the weight of the Al2O3 flakes and the weight of all metal oxides including metal oxide mixtures of all coating layers on the surface of the Al2O3 flakes.

    [0014] The coating of Al2O3 substrates with one or more metal oxides is well-known and suitable metal oxides are selected preferably from TiO2, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, SnO2, ZrO2, ZnO, Cr2O3, FeTiO5, or mixtures thereof. Preferred metal oxide mixtures are selected from TiO2/Fe2O3.

    [0015] The term metal oxide in this patent application also includes SiO2.

    [0016] The effect pigments are based on Al2O3 flakes which have preferably a thickness of 130-500 nm. Preferred Al2O3 flakes have a thickness of preferably 130-400 nm and in particular 150-350 nm.

    [0017] Preferred Al2O3 flakes have a particle size distribution characterized by a Gaussian distribution in which the volume size fractions are distributed as follows:
    • D50 is in the range of 15-30 µm, preferably 15-25 µm
    • D90 is in the range of 30-45 µm, preferably 30-40 µm.


    [0018] In this patent application D10, D50 and D90 of the alumina flakes are evaluated by using Malvern MS 2000.

    [0019] The particle size distribution D50 is also known as the median diameter or the medium value of the particle size distribution; it is the value of the particle diameter at 50 % in the cumulative distribution and is one of the important parameters characterizing the particle size of pigments.

    [0020] Correspondingly, the D90 value indicates the maximum longitudinal dimensions of the Al2O3 flakes, as determined again by means of laser granulometry in the form of sphere equivalents, which 90 % of the particles attain at maximum, or fall below, out of the entirety of all Al2O3 particles.

    [0021] In a preferred embodiment the D10 value of the alumina flakes according to the present invention is > 9.0, preferably ≥ 9.5.

    [0022] The D10 value indicates the value of the longitudinal dimension of the Al2O3 flakes, as determined by means of laser granulometry in the form of the sphere equivalent, which 10% of the flakes attain at most, or fall below, out of the entirety of all the Al2O3 flakes.

    [0023] In a preferred embodiment, the Al2O3 flakes according to the present invention have a standard deviation of the thickness distribution of less than 80, preferably 5-60 and in particular 10-50.

    [0024] In this patent application the average thickness is determined on the basis of a cured paint film in which the Al2O3 flakes are oriented substantially plane-parallel to the substrate. For this purpose a transverse section of the cured paint film is examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the thickness of 100 Al2O3 flakes being ascertained and statistically averaged.

    [0025] The desired size and thickness distribution can be obtained by suitable classification of the flakes, such as by classifying through selected screens and the like.

    [0026] The Al2O3 flakes according to the invention preferably have an aspect ratio (diameter/thickness ratio) of 30-200, in particular of 50-150.

    [0027] In a preferred embodiment the Al2O3 flakes of the present invention are α-Al2O3 flakes.

    [0028] The Al2O3 flakes can be prepared by methods known per se, as described in the literature.

    [0029] To control the particle size, thickness, optical properties and/or surface morphology it could be helpful to use doped Al2O3. The dopant is preferably selected from the following group of compounds: TiO2, ZrO2, SiO2, In2O3, SnO2, ZnO and combinations thereof. The Al2O3 flakes can contain one or more dopants, preferably in amounts of 0.01-5 wt.% based on the Al2O3 flake. In a preferred embodiment the Al2O3 flakes contain one dopant only.

    [0030] In a preferred embodiment the dopant is TiO2, ZrO2 or ZnO, preferably used in amounts of 0.05-3 wt.% based on the Al2O3 flakes.

    [0031] The Al2O3 flakes are preferably coated with at least one high refractive index layer, like a layer of metal oxide, such as, for example, TiO2, ZrO2, SnO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeTiO5, Cr2O3, CoO, Co3O4. The TiO2 layer may be in the rutile or anatase modification. In general, the highest quality and gloss and at the same time the most stable effect pigments are obtained when the TiO2 is in the rutile modification. In order to obtain the rutile modification, an additive can be used which is able to direct the TiO2 into the rutile modification. Useful rutile directors are disclosed in the U.S. 4,038,099 and U.S. 5,433,779 and EP 0 271 767. A preferred rutile director is SnO2.

    [0032] Preferred effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes are coated with one or more layers of metal oxides, preferably with one metal-oxide layer only, in particular with TiO2, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, SnO2, ZrO2 or Cr2O3. Especially preferred are Al2O3 flakes coated with TiO2 or Fe2O3 and mixtures thereof.

    [0033] The thickness of each high-refractive-index layer depends on the desired interference color. The thickness of each layer on the surface of the Al2O3 flakes is preferably 20-400 nm, preferably 30-300 nm, in particular 30-200 nm.

    [0034] The number of layers on the surface of the Al2O3 flakes is preferably one or two, furthermore three, four, five, six or seven layers.

    [0035] In particular, interference packages consisting of high- and low-refractive-index layers on the surface of the Al2O3 flakes result in effect pigments having increased gloss and a further increased interference color or color flop.

    [0036] Suitable colorless low-refractive-index materials for coating are preferably metal oxides or the corresponding oxide hydrates, such as, for example, SiO2, Al2O3, AlO(OH), B2O3, MgO*SiO2, compounds such as MgF2 or a mixture of said metal oxides.

    [0037] In the case of multilayers applied on the surface of the Al2O3 flakes the interference system is, in particular, a TiO2-SiO2-TiO2 layer sequence.

    [0038] Furthermore, the effect pigments according to the invention may also have a semitransparent metal layer as outer layer. Coatings of this type are known, for example, from DE 38 25 702 A1. The metal layers are preferably chromium or aluminum layers having layer thicknesses of 5-25 nm. Furthermore, the effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes can be finally coated with an organic or inorganic dye as a top coat, preferably with Prussian Blue or Carmine Red.

    [0039] Particularly preferred effect pigments based on the Al2O3 flakes according to the invention have the following layer sequence(s):

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2/Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + Fe3O4

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Fe3O4

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + MgO*SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2/Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + SiO2 + TiO2/Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2/Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2/Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + SiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + SiO2/Al2O3

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Al2O3

            Al2O3 flake + SnO2

            Al2O3 flake + SnO2 + Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + SnO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + ZrO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Prussian Blue

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Carmine Red



    [0040] The TiO2 layer(s) in the preferred embodiments mentioned above can be in the rutile or anatase modification. In a preferred embodiment the TiO2 layer is in the rutile modification. In a preferred embodiment the rutile modification is prepared by applying first a thin SnO2 layer having a layer thickness in the range of 1-20 nm, followed by a TiO2 layer.

    [0041] The Al2O3 flakes mentioned above in the preferred embodiments can be doped or undoped.

    [0042] In this application, the term "coating" or "layer" is taken to mean the complete enveloping of the Al2O3 flakes according to the invention.

    [0043] The effect pigments based on doped or undoped Al2O3 flakes preferably consist of 27-83 wt.% of Al2O3 flakes and 17-73 wt.% of the coating layer(s) based on the total effect pigment.

    [0044] In case that the interference and/or masstone color of the effect pigment is silver, the ratio of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes and the amount of the metal oxide(s) of the coating layer(s) is preferably in the range of 60 : 40 to 80 : 20 based on the total effect pigment.

    [0045] In case that the interference and/or masstone color of the effect pigment is blue, the ratio of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes and the amount of the metal oxide(s) of the coating layer(s) is preferably in the range of 35 : 65 to 60 : 40 based on the total effect pigment.

    [0046] In case that the interference and/or masstone color of the effect pigment is red, the ratio of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes and the amount of the metal oxide(s) of the coating layer(s) is preferably in the range of 35 : 65 to 65 :35 based on the total effect pigment.

    [0047] The Al2O3 flakes can be coated for example by wet chemical coating, by CVD or PVD processes.

    [0048] The coating of the α-Al2O3 flakes with one or more layers, preferably one or more metal oxide layers, is preferably carried out by wet-chemical methods, it being possible to use the wet-chemical coating methods developed for the preparation of pearlescent pigments. Methods of this type are described, for example, in DE 14 67 468, DE 19 59 988, DE 20 09 566, DE 22 14 545, DE 22 15 191, DE 22 44 298, DE 23 13 331, DE 15 22 572, DE 31 37 808, DE 31 37 809, DE 31 51 343, DE 31 51 354, DE 31 51 355, DE 32 11 602, DE 32 35 017 or also in further patent documents and other publications known to the person skilled in the art.

    [0049] In the case of wet coating, the Al2O3 flakes are suspended in water, and one or more hydrolysable metal salts are added at a pH which is suitable for hydrolysis, which is selected in such a way that the metal oxides or metal-oxide hydrates are precipitated directly onto the flakes without secondary precipitations occurring. The pH is usually kept constant by simultaneous metered addition of a base and/or acid. The pigments are subsequently separated off, washed and dried at 50-150 °C for 1-18 h and calcined for 0.5-3 h, where the calcination temperature can be optimised with respect to the respective coating present. In general, the calcination temperatures are 500 - 1000 °C, preferably 600 - 900 °C. If desired, the pigments can be separated off after application of individual coatings, dried and optionally calcined and then re-suspended again for the application of the further layers.

    [0050] The application of a SiO2 layer to the Al2O3 flake and/or to the already coated Al2O3 flake is generally carried out by addition of a potassium or sodium water-glass solution at a suitable pH.

    [0051] Furthermore, the coating can also be carried out in a fluidised-bed reactor by gas-phase coating, it being possible to use, for example, the methods proposed in EP 0 045 851 and EP 0 106 235 for the preparation of pearlescent pigments correspondingly.

    [0052] The hue and chroma of the effect pigment based on Al2O3 flakes according to the invention can be varied within very broad limits through the different choice of the coating amounts or the layer thicknesses resulting therefrom. Fine tuning for a certain hue and or chroma can be achieved beyond the pure choice of amount by approaching the desired color under visual or measurement technology control.

    [0053] The effect pigments according to the present invention can be employed indoors and outdoors. Outdoor application, in particular, makes high demands of the effect pigment. Various factors, such as exposure to light, high atmospheric humidity, high and low temperatures, occur here which act on the effect pigment. In particular, plastic parts and paint coats for outdoor applications are often subjected to extreme weathering conditions and long-lasting intense exposure to light over an extended time, which results in ageing of the materials.

    [0054] In order to improve the weatherabiltiy, dispersibility and/or compatibility with the user media, it is possible, for example, for functional coatings of Al2O3 or ZrO2 or mixtures thereof to be applied to the pigment surface. Furthermore, organic post-coatings are possible, for example with silanes, as described, for example, in EP 0090259, EP 0 634 459, WO 99/57204, WO 96/32446, WO 99/57204, U.S. 5,759,255, U.S. 5,571,851, WO 01/92425, US RE41,858 E or in J.J. Ponjeé, Philips Technical Review, Vol. 44, No. 3, 81 ff. and P.H. Harding J.C. Berg, J. Adhesion Sci. Technol. Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 471-493.

    [0055] In the case that the after-coating layer or functional coating layer contains one or more layers of a metal oxide the amount of metal oxide of the functional coating layer has to be considered in the ratio of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes and the amount of the metal oxide(s) of the coating layer(s) which has to be in the range of 27 : 83 to 83 : 17.

    [0056] Effect pigments according to the present invention which are pre-treated and contain small amounts of oxides or hydroxides of rare earth metal compounds show improved weatherability and less greyish effects. In particular effect pigments according to the present invention which contain oxides or hydroxides of rare earth metal compounds in the amount of 0.01-3 %, in particular 0.05 to 2 wt.%, show further improved photostability and weather stability.

    [0057] Thus, the invention furthermore relates to effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes which contain 0.01 - 3 wt.% of oxides and hydroxides of rare earth metal compounds based on the total pigment.

    [0058] Preferred rare earth metal compounds are Ce2O3, La2O3, and Y2O3.

    [0059] In addition to the rare earth metal compounds, for example Ce2O3, the preferred further metal oxides present in the protective layer are Al2O3, SiO2 and ZrO2. Furthermore, the protective layer can contain an organic component in particular selected from organic coupling agents, organofunctional silanes, amino compounds, organic phosphorus compounds.

    [0060] Suitable coupling reagents are for example, organosilanes, organoaluminates, organotitanates and/or zirconates. The coupling agents are preferably organosilanes.

    [0061] Examples of organosilanes are propyltrimethoxysilane, n-hexyltrimethoxysilane, propyltriethoxysilane, isobutyltrimethoxysilane, n-octyltrimethoxysilane, i-octyltrimethoxysilane, n-octyltriethoxysilane, n-decyltrimethoxysilane, dodecyltrimethoxysilane, hexadecyltrimethoxysilane, vinyltrimethoxysilane, preferably n-octyltrimethoxysilane and n-octyltriethoxysilane. Suitable oligomeric, alcohol-free organosilane hydrolysates are, inter alia, the products marketed under the trade name Dynasylan® Hydrosil by Evonik Industries, such as, for example, Dynasylan® Hydrosil 2926, Dynasylan® Hydrosil 2909, Dynasylan® Hydrosil 2907, Dynasylan® Hydrosil 2781, Dynasylan® Hydrosil 2776, Dynasylan® Hydrosil 2627. In addition, oligomeric vinylsilane and also aminosilane hydrolysate is suitable as organic coating. Functionalised organosilanes are, for example, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AMMO), 3-methacryloxytrimethoxysilane (DAMO), 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO), beta-(3,4-epoxy-cyclohexyl)ethyltrimethoxysilane, gamma-isocyanatopropyltrimethoxysilane, 1,3-bis(3-glycidoxypropyl)-1,1,3,3,-tetramethyldisiloxane, ureidopropyltriethoxysilane, preferably 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, 3-methacryloxytrimethoxysilane, 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane, beta-(3,4-epoxycyclohexyl)ethyltrimethoxysilane, gamma-isocyanatopropyltrimethoxysilane. Examples of polymeric silane systems are described in WO 98/13426 and are marketed, for example, by Evonik Industries under the trade name Dynasylan® Hydrosil. The amount of organic coating is preferably 0.2 to 5% by weight, based on the effect pigment, more preferably 0.5 to 2% by weight.

    [0062] Suitable coupling agents are among others zirconium aluminates of the following structure:

    in which
    X
    denotes NH2, COOH, -COO-, hydroxyphenyl, methacrylate, carboxyphenyl, alkyl, mercapto, phenyl, H, vinyl, styryl, melamin, epoxy, aryl or alkyl
    n
    denotes 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12.


    [0063] Other suitable coupling reagents are metal acid esters of the following structure

            Mn(OR)y

    wherein
    M
    denotes Zr, Ti or Al,
    n
    denotes the valence of the metal,
    y
    is 1, 2 or 3 depending on the valence of the metal
    R
    denotes
    1. (i) alkyl of 1-12 carbon atoms or aryl,
    2. (ii) alkyl or aryl substituted by -N(alkyl)3, -NH(alkyl)2, -NH2(alkyl), -NH3, N(aryl)3, -NH(aryl)2 or -NH2(aryl), where aryl can be substituted by halogen, nitro, amino or hydrogen,
    3. (iii) -CH2-aryl.


    [0064] Particularly suitable metal acid esters for example acrylate functional and methacrylamide-functional titanates and methacrylamide-functional zirconates are commercially available.

    [0065] The proportion of the total amount of effect pigment made up by the protective layer on surface of the coated Al2O3 flakes is preferably 2 to 20 wt.%, more preferably 2 to 10 wt.% and in particular 2 to 5 wt.%. The protective layer as such contains preferably 0.2 - 2 wt.% of a rare earth metal oxide, more preferably Ce2O3, 0.2 - 2 wt. % of SiO2 and 0.2 - 4 wt.% of Al2O3 and/or ZrO2 and 1 - 10 wt.% of an organic component. In a preferred embodiment the organic component is a coupling agent.

    [0066] In a preferred embodiment the protective layer consists of 0.4 -1.5 wt.% of Ce2O3, 0.4 - 1 wt. % of SiO2 and 0.5 - 2.5 wt.% of Al2O3 and/or ZrO2 and 2 - 5 wt.% of the coupling agent.

    [0067] Particular preferred are effect pigments according to the invention which contain a protective layer wherein the amount of Ce2O3 is ≤ 2 wt.% based on the total effect pigment.

    [0068] Effect pigments according to the present invention which contain a protective layer with a cerium oxide content of ≤ 2 wt.% show further advantages, i.e. no yellowing in the dark, low or no yellowing under UV irradiation and humidity with phenolic antioxidants (for example BHT), high light fastness and high weather stability.

    [0069] The protective coating on the effect pigments according to the invention is prepared by methods known to the skilled person. In a preferred embodiment the effect pigments are pre-treated by wet chemical coating.

    [0070] In a preferred embodiment the effect pigment is suspended into water and after the pH has been adjusted to a value from 3 to 5, an aqueous salt solution or solid salt of the rare earth metal and aqueous salt solutions or solid salts of the metals aluminum and zirconium, or mixtures thereof, are added in a concentration of 1 to 4 % by weight, based on oxide of the protection layer, to the pigment suspension. The pH value is raised to 9 and a dilute sodium or potassium silicate solution is added while the pH value is kept constant. In the last step, 1-10 wt.%, preferably 2 to 5 wt.% of at least one coupling reagent, based on the effect pigment, is added, the suspension is stirred and the pH value is adjusted to a value of 5 to 8. The treated effect pigment obtained is worked up and isolated by methods which are conventional for the person skilled in the art, for example by filtration, drying, and sieving.

    [0071] The drying can be carried out at temperatures of preferably at 80 to 180 °C °C, usually for ≥ 10 minutes, if necessary for 6 - 18 hours.

    [0072] Effect pigments according to the invention containing a protective layer with ≤ 2 wt.% of Ce2O3 based on the total pigment, show further improved properties like improved photostability, less greyish coloration, very good weather resistance, very good suitability for water-thinnable surface-coating systems, in particular automotive paint systems, with respect to dispersibility, stability, coloristic properties, microbubble formation, swelling and luster.

    [0073] The thickness of the protective layer on the effect pigment is in a preferred embodiment in the range of 0.5 - 10 nm, in particular 1 - 5 nm.

    [0074] In a preferred embodiment the effect pigments according to the invention have a specific surface area of ≤ 12 m2/g, preferably ≤ 8 m2/g, measured by the BET method (DIN ISO 9277: 2003-05).

    [0075] The effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes according to the invention are compatible with a multiplicity of color systems, preferably from the area of paints, automotive coatings, industrial coatings, printing inks and cosmetic formulations. For the preparation of printing inks for, for example, gravure printing, flexographic printing, offset printing and offset overvarnishing, a multiplicity of binders, in particular water-soluble grades, as sold, for example, by BASF, Marabu, Pröll, Sericol, Hartmann, Gebr. Schmidt, Sicpa, Aarberg, Siegberg, GSB-Wahl, Follmann, Ruco or Coates Screen INKS GmbH, is suitable. The printing inks can be water-based or solvent-based. The pigments are furthermore also suitable for the laser marking of paper and plastics and for applications in the agricultural sector, for example for greenhouse sheeting, and, for example, for the coloring of tent awnings.

    [0076] It goes without saying that, for the various applications, the effect pigments according to the present invention can also advantageously be used in blends with organic dyes, organic pigments or other pigments, such as, for example, transparent and opaque white, colored and black pigments, and with flake-form iron oxides, holographic pigments, LCPs (liquid crystal polymers) and conventional transparent, colored and black luster pigments based on metal oxide-coated mica and SiO2 flakes, etc. The effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes according to the invention can be mixed in any ratio with commercially available pigments and fillers.

    [0077] Fillers which may be mentioned are, for example, natural and synthetic mica, nylon powder, pure or filled melamine resins, talc, SiO2, glasses, kaolin, oxides or hydroxides of aluminum, magnesium, calcium or zinc, BiOCI, barium sulfate, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, carbon, and physical or chemical combinations of these substances. There are no restrictions regarding the particle shape of the filler. It can be, for example, flake-form, spherical or needle-shaped in accordance with requirements.

    [0078] The effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes according to the invention are simple and easy to handle. The Al2O3 flakes and the effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes can be incorporated into the system in which it is used by simple stirring. Laborious milling and dispersing of the Al2O3 flakes and the effect pigments is not necessary.

    [0079] The effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes according to the invention can be used for pigmenting coating materials, printing inks, plastics, agricultural films, button pastes, for the coating of seed, for the coloring of food, coatings of medicaments or cosmetic formulations. The concentration of the Al2O3 flakes and the effect pigments in the system in which it is to be used for pigmenting is generally between 0.01 and 50 % by weight, preferably between 0.1 and 5 % by weight, based on the overall solids content of the system. This concentration is generally dependent on the specific application.

    [0080] Plastics containing the effect pigments according to the invention in amounts of 0.1 to 50 % by weight, in particular from 0.5 to 7 % by weight, are frequently notable for a particular gloss effect.

    [0081] In the coating sector, especially in automotive coatings and automotive finishing, the effect pigments according to the invention are preferably employed in amounts of 0.5-10 % by weight.

    [0082] In the coating material, the effect pigments according to the invention have the advantage that the desired color and gloss is obtained by a single-layer coating (one-coat systems or as a base coat in a two-coat system).

    [0083] In the pigmentation of binder systems, for example for paints and printing inks for intaglio, offset or screen printing, the effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes with Stapa®-aluminum and gold bronze pastes from Eckart GmbH have proven particularly suitable. The effect pigment is incorporated into the printing ink preferably in amounts of 2-50 % by weight, more preferably 5-30 % by weight and, in particular, 8-15 % by weight. The printing inks containing the effect pigment according to the invention in combination with a metal effect pigment exhibit purer hues and are of improved printability owing to the good viscosity values.

    [0084] The invention likewise provides pigment preparations containing the effect pigments according to the present invention and further effect pigments, binders and, if desired, additives, the said preparations being in the form of substantially solvent-free, free-flowing granules. Such granules contain up to 95 % by weight of the effect pigment according to the invention. A pigment preparation in which the Al2O3 flakes and the effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes according to the invention is pasted up with a binder and with water and/or an organic solvent, with or without additives, and the paste is subsequently dried and brought into a compact particulate form, e.g. granules, pellets, briquettes, a masterbatch or tablets, is particularly suitable as a precursor for printing inks.

    [0085] The invention thus also relates to the use of the effect pigments in formulations from the areas of paints, coatings, automobile coatings, automotive finishing, industrial coatings, paints, powder coatings, printing inks, security printing inks, plastics, ceramic materials and cosmetics. The coated and uncoated Al2O3 flakes can furthermore be employed in glasses, in paper, in paper coating, in toners for electrophotographic printing processes, in seed, in greenhouse sheeting and tarpaulins, in thermally conductive, self-supporting, electrically insulating, flexible sheets for the insulation of machines or devices, as absorber in the laser marking of paper and plastics, as absorber in the laser welding of plastics, in pigment pastes with water, organic and/or aqueous solvents, in pigment preparations and dry preparations, such as, for example, granules, for example in clear coats in the industrial and automobile sectors, in sunscreens, as filler, in particular in automobile coatings and automotive finishing.

    [0086] Without further elaboration, it is believed that one skilled in the art can, using the preceding description, utilize the present invention to its fullest extent. The preceding preferred specific embodiments are, therefore, to be construed as merely illustrative, and not limitative of the remainder of the disclosure in any way whatsoever.

    [0087] In the foregoing and in the examples, all temperatures are set forth uncorrected in degrees Celsius and, all parts and percentages are by weight, unless otherwise indicated.

    [0088] The preceding examples can be repeated with similar success by substituting the generically or specifically described reactants and/or operating conditions of this invention for those used in the preceding examples.

    [0089] From the foregoing description, one skilled in the art can easily ascertain the essential characteristics of this invention and, without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, can make various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to various usages and conditions.

    [0090] The following examples are intended to explain the invention in greater detail, but without restricting it. Above and below, all percentages are per cent by weight.

    Examples


    Example 1: Production of Al2O3 flakes



    [0091] 74.6 g of aluminum sulfate 18-hydrate, 57.1 g of poly aluminum chloride (PAC: Central Glass Co., LTD, 10 % solution as Al2O3), 57.3 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate, and 46.9 g of potassium sulfate are dissolved in 300 ml of deionized water by heating above 60 °C. 3.0 g of 34.4 % of a titanyl sulfate solution are added to the solution. The resulting solution is designated as the aqueous solution (a).
    0.45 g of sodium tertiary phosphate 12-hydrate and 55.0 g of sodium carbonate are added to 300 ml of deionized water. The resulting solution is designated as the aqueous solution (b).
    The aqueous solution (b) is added with stirring to the aqueous solution (a) and kept at about 60 °C. Stirring is continued for 1 h. The obtained mixture of solution (a) and solution (b) is a slurry. This slurry is evaporated to dryness and the dried product is heated at 1150 °C for 6 h. Water is added to the heated product to dissolve free sulfate. Insoluble solids are filtered off and washed with water. Finally, the product is dried.
    The obtained alumina flake is examined by X-ray diffractometry. The diffraction pattern have only peaks attributed to corundum structure (α-alumina structure).
    The obtained Al2O3 flakes have a D50 value of 16.0 µm and D90 value of 30.8 µm and a thickness of 200 nm.
    The thickness distribution of the α-Al2O3 flake is 28.

    Example 2: Production of Al2O3 flakes



    [0092] 74.6 g of aluminum sulfate 18-hydrate, 57.1 g of poly aluminum chloride (PAC: Central Glass Co., LTD, 10 % solution as Al2O3), 57.3 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate, and 46.9 g of potassium sulfate are dissolved in 300 ml of deionized water by heating above 60 °C. 3.0 g of 34.4 % of a titanyl sulfate solution and 5.5 g of 5.0 % indium chloride(lll) solution are added to the solution. The resulting solution is designated as the aqueous solution (a).
    0.45 g of sodium tertiary phosphate 12-hydrate and 55.0 g of sodium carbonate are added to 300 ml of deionized water. The resulting solution is designated as the aqueous solution (b).
    The aqueous solution (b) is added with stirring to the aqueous solution (a) and kept at about 60 °C. Stirring is continued for 1 h. The obtained mixture of solution (a) and solution (b) is a slurry. This slurry is evaporated to dryness and the dried product is heated at 1200 °C for 4 h. Water is added to the heated product to dissolve free sulfate. Insoluble solids are filtered off and washed with water. Finally, the product is dried.
    The obtained alumina flake is examined by X-ray diffractometry. The diffraction pattern have only peaks attributed to corundum structure (α-alumina structure).

    [0093] The obtained Al2O3 flakes have a D50 value of 19.0 µm and D90 value of 35.6 µm and a thickness of 250 nm.
    The thickness distribution of the α-Al2O3 flake is 32.

    Example 3: Production of Al2O3 flakes



    [0094] 1.3 g of 27 % Al2(SO4)3 solution, 345 g of Na2SO4, 280 g of K2SO4 and 6 g of ZnSO4*7H2O solution are added to 1,205 ml water and heated at 70 °C. An alkali solution is added consisting of 320 g of Na2CO3 and 2.7 g of (NaPO3)6 in 900 ml water at 70 °C. The aluminium sulfate mixture solution is titrated with the alkali solution while stirring to pH 6.8. A gel mixture of pseudo-boehmite and flux is obtained. The gel mixture is aged at 90 °C for 20 hours, distilled under vacuum at 60 °C and dried at 110 °C for 20 h. The dried gel mixture is ground to a size less than 5 mm and calcined in a 2 l alumina crucible at 500 °C for 1 h to remove the moisture. The temperature is elevated to 930 °C and maintained for 0.5 h, so that a homogeneous molten salt is formed and flaky crystals are formed by the coagulation of aciculary-alumina particles. Crystallization is performed at 1,150 °C for 5.5 h to obtain a flaky α-alumina crystal by filtering. The flaky α-alumina crystal is suspended in 3,000 l of a 0.5 % sulfuric acid solution. The particles are stirred at 60 °C for 48 h for complete dispersion. The mixture is filtered again, washed with water and dried at 100 °C. A transparent flaky α-alumina having a thickness of 255 nm and an average particle size of 15.6 µm is obtained.

    Example 4: Coating of Al2O3 flakes



    [0095] 20 g alumina flakes of Example 1 are suspended in 250 ml of deionized water. The resulting suspension is adjusted to pH 1.8-1.9 by addition of 10% HCI and is kept thoughout the entire procedure at about 75 °C. After stirring for 10 min, simultaneously a solution of 0.8 g of SnCl4 in 15 ml of deionized water and a 32% solution of NaOH are added dropwise while maintaining the pH at 1.8-1.9. After stirring for 30 min, a solution containing 29 g of TiCl4 in 50 ml of deionized water is added simultaneously with a 10 % solution of NaOH while keeping the pH at 1.8-1.9. After stirring for 15 min the pH is adjusted to pH 7.5 by adding 32% sodium hydroxide solution. After 10 min of stirring, a solution containing 4.8 g of Na2SiO3 in 25 ml of deionized water is added to the suspension. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of HCI is added to keep the pH at 7.5. After 10 min stirring the pH is adjusted to 1.8 by adding a 10 % solution of HCI. The suspension is allowed to settle and the volume is adjusted to ca. 280ml by partly removing the clear solution on top of the settled particles.
    While stirring, an additional layer of SnO2 is deposited by simultaneous dropwise adding of a solution of 0.8 g of SnCI in 15 ml of deionized water and 32% solution of sodium hydroxide while maintaining the pH at 1.8-1.9. After stirring for 30 min, a solution containing 21.9 g of TiCl4 in 50 ml of deionized water is added simultaneously with a 10% solution of NaOH while maintaining the pH at 1.8-1.9. After 30 min stirring, the pH is adjusted to 5.0-5.3 and filtered. The filter cake is washed with water and dried. Finally, the dried solids are calcined at 850 °C for 30 minutes to give a highly bluish and glossy pearlescent pigment. At the luster angle, a strong bluish color and very high glossy appearance can be seen at a more wider angle.

    Example 5: Coating of Al2O3 flakes



    [0096] 20 g alumina flakes of Example 2 are suspended in 400 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension (kept at about 65 °C) is added a solution containing 125 g of TiCl4 per liter. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of NaOH is added to keep the pH at 2.1. The addition of the TiCl4 solution is stopped when the resulting product takes on a yellowish color. Then a solution containing 50 g of Na2SiO3 per liter is added to the resulted suspension. Simultaneously a 10% solution of HCI is added to keep the pH at 7. Next a solution containing 125 g of TiCl4 per liter is added to the resulted suspension. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of NaOH is added to keep the pH at 2.1. The addition of the TiCl4 solution is stopped when the resulting product takes on a bluish color. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, and dried. Finally, the dried solids are calcined at 850 °C for 30 minutes to give a highly bluish and glossy pearlescent pigment. At the luster angle, a strong bluish color and very high glossy appearance can be seen at a more wider angle.

    Example 6: Coating of Al2O3 flakes



    [0097] 20 g alumina flakes of Example 2 are suspended in 250 ml of deionized water. The resulting suspension is adjusted to pH 1.8-1.9 by addition of 10% HCI and is kept thoughout the entire procedure at about 75 °C. After stirring for 10 min, simultaneously a solution of 0.8 g of SnCl4 in 15 ml of deionized water and a 32% solution of NaOH are added dropwise while maintaining the pH at 1.8-1.9. After stirring for 30 min, a solution containing 29 g of TiCl4 in 50 ml of deionized water is added simultaneously with a 10 % solution of NaOH while keeping the pH at 1.8-1.9. After stirring for 15 min the pH is adjusted to pH 7.5 by adding 32% sodium hydroxide solution. After 10 min of stirring, a solution containing 4.8 g of Na2SiO3 in 25 ml of deionized water is added to the suspension. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of HCl is added to keep the pH at 7.5. After 10 min stirring the pH is adjusted to 1.8 by adding a 10 % solution of HCl. The suspension is allowed to settle and the volume is adjusted to ca. 280ml by partly removing the clear solution on top of the settled particles.
    While stirring, an additional layer of SnO2 is deposited by simultaneious dropwise adding of a solution of 0.8 g of SnCI in 15 ml of deionized water and 32% solution of sodium hydroxide while maintaining the pH at 1.8-1.9. After stirring for 30 min, a solution containing 21,9 g of TiCl4 in 50 ml of deionized water is added simultaneously with a 10% solution of NaOH while maintaining the pH at 1.8-1.9. After 30 min stirring, the pH is adjusted to 5.0-5.3 and filtered. The filter cake is washed with water and dried. Finally, the dried solids are calcined at 850 °C for 30 minutes to give a highly bluish and glossy pearlescent pigment. At the luster angle, a strong bluish color and very high glossy appearance can be seen at a more wider angle.

    Example 7: Coating of Al2O3 flakes



    [0098] 20 g alumina flakes of Example 3 are suspended in 400 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension (kept at about 65 °C) is added a solution containing 125 g of TiCl4 per liter. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of NaOH is added to keep the pH at 2.1. The addition of the TiCl4 solution is stopped when the resulting product takes on a yellowish color. Then a solution containing 50 g of Na2SiO3 per liter is added to the resulting suspension. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of HCl is added to keep the pH at 7. Next a solution containing 125 g of TiCl4 per liter is added to the resulted suspension. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of NaOH is added to keep the pH at 2.1. The addition of the TiCl4 solution is stopped when the resulting product takes on a bluish color. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, and dried. Finally, the dried solids are calcined at 850 °C for 30 minutes to give a highly bluish and glossy pearlescent pigment. At the luster angle, a strong bluish color and very high glossy appearance can be seen at a more wider angle.

    Example 8: Coating of Al2O3 flakes



    [0099] 20 g alumina flakes of Example 3 are suspended in 250 ml of deionized water. The resulting suspension is adjusted to pH 1.8-1.9 by addition of 10% HCI and is kept thoughout the entire procedure at about 75 °C. After stirring for 10 min, simultaneously a solution of 0.8 g of SnCl4 in 15 ml of deionized water and a 32% solution of NaOH are added dropwise while maintaining the pH at 1.8-1.9. After stirring for 30 min, a solution containing 29 g of TiCl4 in 50 ml of deionized water is added simultaneously with a 10 % solution of NaOH while keeping the pH at 1.8-1.9. After stirring for 15 min the pH is adjusted to pH 7.5 by adding 32% sodium hydroxide solution. After 10 min of stirring, a solution containing 4.8 g of Na2SiO3 in 25 ml of deionized water is added to the suspension. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of HCl is added to keep the pH at 7.5. After 10 min stirring the pH is adjusted to 1.8 by adding a 10 % solution of HCl. The suspension is allowed to settle and the volume is adjusted to ca. 280ml by partly removing the clear solution on top of the settled particles.
    While stirring, an additional layer of SnO2 is deposited by simultaneous dropwise adding of a solution of 0.8 g of SnCl in 15 ml of deionized water and 32% solution of sodium hydroxide while maintaining the pH at 1.8-1.9.

    [0100] After stirring for 30 min, a solution containing 21,9 g of TiCl4 in 50 ml of deionized water is added simultaneously with a 10% solution of NaOH while maintaining the pH at 1.8-1.9. After 30 min stirring, the pH is adjusted to 5.0-5.3 and filtered. The filter cake is washed with water and dried. Finally, the dried solids are calcined at 850 °C for 30 minutes to give a highly bluish and glossy pearlescent pigment. At the luster angle, a strong bluish color and very high glossy appearance can be seen at a more wider angle.

    Example 9: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0101] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 4 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 7 with 10% HCl, is added 100 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.05 g Na2SiO3 during 90 min. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of HCI is added to keep the pH at 7. Subsequently 100 ml of a solution containing 6.5 g aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O) is added during 90 min to the suspension while keeping the pH to 7 with 10% NaOH. After raising the pH to 7.5 with 10% NaOH 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0102] The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity resistance (humidity cabinet test), moderate weathering resistance due to remaining photoactivity.

    Example 10: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0103] A 2 wt.% aqueous solution containing 2.55 g sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2*H2O) was added at room temperature with stirring to a 5 wt-% aqueous solution containing 3.90 g zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl2*8H2O) so slowly as not to form any white precipitate. To the clear solution thus obtained was added 4.1 g of a 35 wt.% hydrochloride acid, yielding a mixing solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite. 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 4 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 2.5 with 10% HCl, is added 2.95 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O). The solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite is added during 60 min while keeping the pH at 2.5 with 10 % NaOH. Then the pH is raised to 7.0 during 60 min by addition of 10% NaOH. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5), 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8), and 0.5 g n-hexyltrimethoxysilane (CAS No. 3069-19-0) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh). The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity and weathering resistance.

    Example 11: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0104] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 4 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 3.0 with 10% HCl, is added 1.70 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O) and 3.27 g of aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O. The pH is raised to 7.5 during 90 min with 10% NaOH. Then 50 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.03 g Na2SiO3 is added during 90 min while keeping the pH to 7.5 with 10% HCl. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.5 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0105] The surface-treated effect pigments according to Example 11 with reduced cerium content show, compared to the Examples 9 and 10, superior humidity properties (very good humidity) and weathering resistance.

    Example 12: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0106] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 5 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 7 with 10% HCl, is added 100 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.05 g Na2SiO3 during 90 min. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of HCl is added to keep the pH at 7. Subsequently 100 ml of a solution containing 6.5 g aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O) is added during 90 min to the suspension while keeping the pH to 7 with 10% NaOH. After raising the pH to 7.5 with 10% NaOH 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0107] The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity resistance (humidity cabinet test), moderate weathering resistance due to remaining photoactivity.

    Example 13: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0108] A 2 wt.% aqueous solution containing 2.55 g sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2*H2O) was added at room temperature with stirring to a 5 wt-% aqueous solution containing 3.90 g zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl2*8H2O) so slowly as not to form any white precipitate. To the clear solution thus obtained was added 4.1 g of a 35 wt.% hydrochloride acid, yielding a mixing solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite. 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 5 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 2.5 with 10% HCl, is added 2.95 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O). The solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite is added during 60 min while keeping the pH at 2.5 with 10 % NaOH. Then the pH is raised to 7.0 during 60 min by addition of 10% NaOH. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5), 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8), and 0.5 g n-hexyltrimethoxysilane (CAS No. 3069-19-0) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).
    The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity and weathering resistance.

    Example 14: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0109] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 5 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 3.0 with 10% HCl, is added 1.70 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O) and 3.27 g of aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O. The pH is raised to 7.5 during 90 min with 10% NaOH. Then 50 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.03 g Na2SiO3 is added during 90 min while keeping the pH to 7.5 with 10% HCl. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.5 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0110] The surface-treated effect pigments according to Example 14 with reduced cerium content show, compared to the Examples 12 and 13, superior humidity properties (very good humidity) and weathering resistance.

    Example 15: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0111] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 6 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 7 with 10% HCl, is added 100 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.05 g Na2SiO3 during 90 min. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of HCl is added to keep the pH at 7. Subsequently 100 ml of a solution containing 6.5 g aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O) is added during 90 min to the suspension while keeping the pH to 7 with 10% NaOH. After raising the pH to 7.5 with 10% NaOH 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0112] The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity resistance (humidity cabinet test), moderate weathering resistance due to remaining photoactivity.

    Example 16: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0113] A 2 wt.% aqueous solution containing 2.55 g sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2*H2O) was added at room temperature with stirring to a 5 wt-% aqueous solution containing 3.90 g zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl2*8H2O) so slowly as not to form any white precipitate. To the clear solution thus obtained was added 4.1 g of a 35 wt.% hydrochloride acid, yielding a mixing solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite. 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 6 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 2.5 with 10% HCl, is added 2.95 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O). The solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite is added during 60 min while keeping the pH at 2.5 with 10 % NaOH. Then the pH is raised to 7.0 during 60 min by addition of 10% NaOH. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5), 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8), and 0.5 g n-hexyltrimethoxysilane (CAS No. 3069-19-0) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).
    The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity and weathering resistance.

    Example 17: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0114] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 6 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 3.0 with 10% HCl, is added 1.70 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O) and 3.27 g of aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O. The pH is raised to 7.5 during 90 min with 10% NaOH. Then 50 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.03 g Na2SiO3 is added during 90 min while keeping the pH to 7.5 with 10% HCl. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.5 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0115] The surface-treated effect pigments according to Example 17 with reduced cerium content show compared to the Examples 15 and 16 superior humidity properties (very good humidity) and weathering resistance.

    Example 18: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0116] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 7 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 7 with 10% HCl, is added 100 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.05 g Na2SiO3 during 90 min. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of HCl is added to keep the pH at 7. Subsequently 100 ml of a solution containing 6.5 g aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O) is added during 90 min to the suspension while keeping the pH to 7 with 10% NaOH. After raising the pH to 7.5 with 10% NaOH 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0117] The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity resistance (humidity cabinet test), moderate weathering resistance due to remaining photoactivity.

    Example 19: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0118] A 2 wt.% aqueous solution containing 2.55 g sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2*H2O) was added at room temperature with stirring to a 5 wt-% aqueous solution containing 3.90 g zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl2*8H2O) so slowly as not to form any white precipitate. To the clear solution thus obtained was added 4.1 g of a 35 wt.% hydrochloride acid, yielding a mixing solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite. 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 7 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 2.5 with 10% HCl, is added 2.95 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O). The solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite is added during 60 min while keeping the pH at 2.5 with 10 % NaOH. Then the pH is raised to 7.0 during 60 min by addition of 10% NaOH. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5), 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8), and 0.5 g n-hexyltrimethoxysilane (CAS No. 3069-19-0) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).
    The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity and weathering resistance.

    Example 20: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0119] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 7 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 3.0 with 10% HCl, is added 1.70 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O) and 3.27 g of aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O. The pH is raised to 7.5 during 90 min with 10% NaOH. Then 50 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.03 g Na2SiO3 is added during 90 min while keeping the pH to 7.5 with 10% HCl. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.5 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0120] The surface-treated effect pigments according to Example 20 with reduced cerium content show compared to the Examples 18 and 19 superior humidity properties (very good humidity) and weathering resistance.

    Example 21: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0121] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 8 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 7 with 10% HCl, is added 100 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.05 g Na2SiO3 during 90 min. Simultaneously a 10 % solution of HCl is added to keep the pH at 7. Subsequently 100 ml of a solution containing 6.5 g aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O) is added during 90 min to the suspension while keeping the pH to 7 with 10% NaOH. After raising the pH to 7.5 with 10% NaOH 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0122] The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity resistance (humidity cabinet test), moderate weathering resistance due to remaining photoactivity.

    Example 22: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0123] A 2 wt.% aqueous solution containing 2.55 g sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2*H2O) was added at room temperature with stirring to a 5 wt-% aqueous solution containing 3.90 g zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl2*8H2O) so slowly as not to form any white precipitate. To the clear solution thus obtained was added 4.1 g of a 35 wt.% hydrochloride acid, yielding a mixing solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite. 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 8 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 2.5 with 10% HCl, is added 2.95 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O). The solution of zirconium oxychloride and sodium hypophosphite is added during 60 min while keeping the pH at 2.5 with 10 % NaOH. Then the pH is raised to 7.0 during 60 min by addition of 10% NaOH. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5), 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8), and 0.5 g n-hexyltrimethoxysilane (CAS No. 3069-19-0) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.0 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).
    The surface-treated effect pigments show a good humidity and weathering resistance.

    Example 23: Surface treatment of coated Al2O3 flakes



    [0124] 100 g of alumina flakes coated according to Example 8 are suspended in 1000 ml of deionized water. To the resulting suspension, kept at about 70 °C and adjusted to pH 3.0 with 10% HCl, is added 1.70 g of cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3*7H2O) and 3.27 g of aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3*18H2O. The pH is raised to 7.5 during 90 min with 10% NaOH. Then 50 ml of a water glass solution containing 3.03 g Na2SiO3 is added during 90 min while keeping the pH to 7.5 with 10% HCl. 1.5 g of 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 13822-56-5) and 1.5 g 3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (CAS No. 2530-83-8) are added subsequently during 15 min each to the suspension while keeping the pH at 7.5 with 10% HCl or 10% NaOH. The suspending solids are filtered off, washed with water, dried at 140°C and sieved (325 mesh).

    [0125] The surface-treated effect pigments according to example 23 with reduced cerium content show, compared to the Examples 21 and 22, superior humidity properties (very good humidity) and weathering resistance.


    Claims

    1. Effect pigments based on Al2O3 flakes characterized in that Al2O3 flakes are coated with one or more layers of a metal oxide or a metal oxide mixture whereas the ratio of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes and amount of the metal oxide(s) of the coating layer(s) is in the range of 27 : 73 to 83 : 17 based on the total weight of the effect pigment and that the effect pigments contain on the surface a protective layer which contains at least one rare earth metal oxide, at least one metal oxide selected from silizium, aluminium or zirconium or mixtures thereof and an organic compound and that the protective layer has a thickness of 0.5 - 10 nm.
     
    2. Effect pigments according to Claim 1 characterised in that the Al2O3 flakes are coated on the surface with one or two metal oxide layers.
     
    3. Effect pigments according to Claim 1 or 2 characterised in the Al2O3 flakes are doped with TiO2, ZrO2, SiO2, SnO2, In2O3, ZnO and combinations thereof.
     
    4. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 3, characterised in that the amount of doping is 0.01 - 5 % by weight based on the Al2O3 flake.
     
    5. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 4, characterised in that they are doped with TiO2 or ZnO.
     
    6. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 5, characterised in that the particle thickness of the Al2O3 flakes is in the range of 130 - 500 nm.
     
    7. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 6, characterised in that the Al2O3 flakes have a standard deviation of thickness distribution of less than 80.
     
    8. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 7, characterised in that the doped or undoped Al2O3 flakes are coated with the following layer sequence:

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2/Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + Fe3O4

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Fe3O4

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + MgO*SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2/Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + SiO2 + TiO2/Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2/Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2/Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + SiO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + SiO2/Al2O3

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Al2O3

            Al2O3 flake + SnO2

            Al2O3 flake + SnO2 + Fe2O3

            Al2O3 flake + SnO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3 flake + ZrO2

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Prussian Blue

            Al2O3 flake + TiO2 + Carmine Red


     
    9. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 8, characterised in that the Al2O3 flakes are coated with TiO2 in the rutile or anatase modification.
     
    10. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 9, characterised in that the Al2O3 flakes are coated with TiO2 in the rutile modification.
     
    11. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 10 characterised in that the ratio of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes and the amount of the metal oxide(s) of the coating layer(s) is in the range of 60 : 40 to 80 : 20 based on the total weight of the effect pigment.
     
    12. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 10 characterised in that the ratio of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes and the amount of the metal oxide(s) of the coating layer(s) is in the range of 35 : 65 to 60 : 40 based on the total weight of the effect pigment.
     
    13. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 10 characterised in that the ratio of the amount of Al2O3 of the Al2O3 flakes and the amount of the metal oxide(s) of the coating layer(s) is in the range of 35 : 65 to 65 : 35 based on the total weight of the effect pigment.
     
    14. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 13, characterized in that the rare earth metal compound is Ce2O3, La2O3 and Y2O3.
     
    15. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 14 characterized in that the organic component is selected from organic coupling agents, organofunctional silanes, amino compounds, organic phosphorus compounds.
     
    16. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 15, characterized in that the rare earth metal oxide in the protective layer is cerium oxide.
     
    17. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 16, characterized in that the amount of the rare earth metal oxide in the effect pigment is 0.01 - 3 wt.%.
     
    18. Effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 17, characterized in that the protective layer contains 0.2- 2 wt.% of at least one rare earth metal oxide, 0.2 - 2 wt. % of SiO2 and 0.2 - 4 wt.% of Al2O3 and/or ZrO2 and 1 - 10 wt.% of the organic component.
     
    19. Use of the effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 18 in formulations from the areas of paints, coatings, automobile coatings, automotive finishing, industrial coatings, paints, powder coatings, printing inks, security printing inks, plastics, ceramic materials, cosmetics, glasses, paper, paper coating, toners for electrophotographic printing processes, seeds, greenhouse sheeting and tarpaulins, thermally conductive, self-supporting, electrically insulating, flexible sheets for the insulation of machines or devices, as absorber in the laser marking of paper and plastics, absorber in the laser welding of plastics, pigment pastes with water, organic and/or aqueous solvents, in pigment preparations and dry preparations.
     
    20. Formulations containing one or more effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 18 in amounts of 0.01-95 % by weight, based on the formulation as a whole.
     
    21. Formulations containing one or more effect pigments according to one or more of Claims 1 to 18, characterised in that it contains at least one component selected from the group of water, polyols, polar and nonpolar oils, fats, waxes, film formers, polymers, copolymers, surfactants, free-radical scavengers, antioxidants, stabilisers, odour enhancers, silicone oils, emulsifiers, solvents, preservatives, thickeners, rheological additives, fragrances, colorants, effect pigments, UV absorbers, surface-active assistants and/or cosmetic active compounds, fillers, binders, pearlescent pigments, color pigments and organic dyes.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Effektpigmente basierend auf Al2O3-Plättchen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass Al2O3-Plättchen mit einer oder mehreren Schichten eines Metalloxids oder einer Metalloxidmischung beschichtet werden, wobei das Verhältnis der Menge an Al2O3 der Al2O3-Plättchen zur Menge des Metalloxids/der Metalloxide der Beschichtungsschicht(en) im Bereich von 27 : 73 bis 83 : 17, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht des Effektpigments, liegt, und dass die Effektpigmente eine Schutzschicht auf der Oberfläche enthalten, die mindestens ein Seltenerdmetalloxid, mindestens ein aus Silicium, Aluminium oder Zirconium oder Mischungen davon ausgewähltes Metalloxid und eine organische Verbindung enthält, und dass die Schutzschicht eine Dicke von 0,5 - 10 nm aufweist.
     
    2. Effektpigmente nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Al2O3-Plättchen auf der Oberfläche mit einer oder zwei Metalloxidschichten beschichtet werden.
     
    3. Effektpigmente nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Al2O3-Plättchen mit TiO2, ZrO2, SiO2, SnO2, In2O3, ZnO und Kombinationen davon dotiert werden.
     
    4. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 3,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Menge der Dotierung 0,01 - 5 Gew.-%, bezogen auf das Al2O3-Plättchen, beträgt.
     
    5. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 4,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie mit TiO2 oder ZnO dotiert werden.
     
    6. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Teilchendicke der Al2O3-Plättchen im Bereich von 130 - 500 nm liegt.
     
    7. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Al2O3-Plättchen eine Standard-abweichung der Dickenverteilung von weniger als 80 aufweisen.
     
    8. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die dotierten oder undotierten Al2O3-Plättchen mit der folgenden Schichtfolge beschichtet sind:

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2/Fe2O3

            Al2O3-Plättchen + Fe2O3

            Al2O3-Plättchen + Fe3O4

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + Fe2O3

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + Fe3O4

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + MgO*SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3-Plättchen + Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2/Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + SiO2 + TiO2/Fe2O3

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2/Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2/Fe2O3

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + SiO2

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + SiO2/Al2O3

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + Al2O3

            Al2O3-Plättchen + SnO2

            Al2O3-Plättchen + SnO2 + Fe2O3

            Al2O3-Plättchen + SnO2 + TiO2

            Al2O3-Plättchen + ZrO2

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + Berliner Blau

            Al2O3-Plättchen + TiO2 + Karminrot


     
    9. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Al2O3-Plättchen mit TiO2 in der Rutil- oder Anatasemodifikation beschichtet sind.
     
    10. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Al2O3-Plättchen mit TiO2 in der Rutilmodifikation beschichtet sind.
     
    11. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verhältnis der Menge an Al2O3 der Al2O3-Plättchen zur Menge des Metalloxids/der Metalloxide der Beschichtungsschicht(en) im Bereich von 60 : 40 bis 80 : 20, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht des Effektpigments, liegt.
     
    12. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verhältnis der Menge an Al2O3 der Al2O3-Plättchen zur Menge des Metalloxids/der Metalloxide der Beschichtungsschicht(en) im Bereich von 35 : 65 bis 60 : 40, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht des Effektpigments, liegt.
     
    13. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verhältnis der Menge an Al2O3 der Al2O3-Plättchen zur Menge des Metalloxids/der Metalloxide der Beschichtungsschicht(en) im Bereich von 35 : 65 bis 65 : 35, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht des Effektpigments, liegt.
     
    14. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 13, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Seltenerdmetallverbindung Ce2O3, La2O3 und Y2O3 ist.
     
    15. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 14, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die organische Komponente aus organischen Kupplungsmitteln, organofunktionellen Silanen, Aminoverbindungen, organischen Phosphorverbindungen ausgewählt ist.
     
    16. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 15, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Seltenerdmetalloxid in der Schutzschicht Ceroxid ist.
     
    17. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 16, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Menge des Seltenerdmetalloxids in dem Effektpigment 0,01 - 3 Gew.-% beträgt.
     
    18. Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 17, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Schutzschicht 0,2- 2 Gew.-% mindestens eines Seltenerdmetalloxids, 0,2 - 2 Gew.-% SiO2 und 0,2 - 4 Gew.-% Al2O3 und/oder ZrO2 und 1 - 10 Gew.-% der organischen Komponente enthält.
     
    19. Verwendung der Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 18 in Formulierungen aus den Bereichen Lacke, Farben, Autolacke, Autoreparaturlackierungen, Industrielacke, Anstrichmittel, Pulverlacke, Druckfarben, Sicherheitsdruckfarben, Kunststoffe, keramische Materialien, Kosmetika, Gläser, Papier, Papierbeschichtung, Toner für elektrophotographische Druckverfahren, Saatgut, Gewächshausfolien und Zeltplanen, wärmeleitende, selbsttragende, elektrisch isolierende, flexible Folien zur Isolierung von Maschinen oder Vorrichtungen, als Absorber bei der Lasermarkierung von Papier und Kunststoffen, Absorber beim Laserschweißen von Kunststoffen, Pigmentanteigungen mit Wasser, organischen und/oder wässrigen Lösungsmitteln, in Pigmentzubereitungen und Trockenpräparaten.
     
    20. Formulierungen enthaltend ein oder mehrere Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 18 in Mengen von 0,01-95 Gew.-%, bezogen auf die Formulierung insgesamt.
     
    21. Formulierungen enthaltend ein oder mehrere Effektpigmente nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 18, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie mindestens eine Komponente enthalten, die aus der Gruppe Wasser, Polyole, polare und unpolare Öle, Fette, Wachse, Filmbildner, Polymere, Copolymere, Tenside, Radikalfänger, Antioxidantien, Stabilisatoren, Geruchsverbesserer, Silikonöle, Emulgatoren, Lösungsmittel, Konservierungsmittel, Verdicker, rheologische Zusatzstoffe, Duftstoffe, Farbmittel, Effektpigmente, UV-Absorber, oberflächenaktive Hilfsmittel und/oder kosmetische Wirkstoffe, Füllstoffe, Bindemittel, Perlglanzpigmente, Farbpigmente und organische Farbstoffe ausgewählt ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Pigments à effet à base de paillettes de Al2O3, caractérisés en ce que les paillettes de Al2O3 sont revêtues par une ou plusieurs couches d'un oxyde de métal ou d'un mélange d'oxydes de métaux, où le rapport de la quantité de Al2O3 des paillettes de Al2O3 à la quantité du ou des oxydes de métaux de la ou des couches de revêtement se trouve dans la plage allant de 27 : 73 à 83 : 17 sur la base du poids total du pigment à effet et en ce que les pigments à effet contiennent à leur surface une couche protectrice qui contient au moins un oxyde de métal de type terre rare, au moins un oxyde de métal choisi parmi le silicium, l'aluminium ou le zirconium ou des mélanges de ceux-ci et un composé organique et en ce que la couche protectrice possède une épaisseur de 0,5 - 10 nm.
     
    2. Pigments à effet selon la revendication 1, caractérisés en ce que les paillettes de Al2O3 sont revêtues à leur surface par une ou deux couches d'oxyde de métal.
     
    3. Pigments à effet selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisés en ce que les paillettes de Al2O3 sont dopées par TiO2, ZrO2, SiO2, SnO2, In2O3, ZnO et des combinaisons de ceux-ci.
     
    4. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 3, caractérisés en ce que la quantité de dopage est de 0,01 - 5 % en poids sur la base de la paillette de Al2O3.
     
    5. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 4, caractérisés en ce qu'ils sont dopés par TiO2 ou ZnO.
     
    6. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 5, caractérisés en ce que l'épaisseur de particule des paillettes de Al2O3 se trouve dans la plage de 130 - 500 nm.
     
    7. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 6, caractérisés en ce que les paillettes de Al2O3 présentent un écart-type de la distribution d'épaisseur inférieur à 80.
     
    8. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 7, caractérisés en ce que les paillettes de Al2O3 dopées ou non dopées sont revêtues par la séquence de couches suivante :

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2/Fe2O3

            paillette de Al2O3 + Fe2O3

            paillette de Al2O3 + Fe3O4

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + Fe2O3

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + Fe3O4

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + SiO2 + TiO2

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + MgO*SiO2 + TiO2

            paillette de Al2O3 + Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2/Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + SiO2 + TiO2/Fe2O3

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2/Fe2O3 + SiO2 + TiO2/Fe2O3

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + SiO2

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + SiO2/Al2O3

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + Al2O3

            paillette de Al2O3 + SnO2

            paillette de Al2O3 + SnO2 + Fe2O3

            paillette de Al2O3 + SnO2 + TiO2

            paillette de Al2O3 + ZrO2

            paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + Bleu de Prusse paillette de Al2O3 + TiO2 + rouge carmin.


     
    9. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 8, caractérisés en ce que les paillettes de Al2O3 sont revêtues par du TiO2 selon la modification rutile ou anatase.
     
    10. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 9, caractérisés en ce que les paillettes de Al2O3 sont revêtues par du TiO2 selon la modification rutile.
     
    11. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 10, caractérisés en ce que le rapport de la quantité de Al2O3 des paillettes de Al2O3 à la quantité du ou des oxydes de métaux de la ou des couches de revêtement se trouve dans la plage allant de 60 : 40 à 80 : 20 sur la base du poids total du pigment à effet.
     
    12. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 10, caractérisés en ce que le rapport de la quantité de Al2O3 des paillettes de Al2O3 à la quantité du ou des oxydes de métaux de la ou des couches de revêtement se trouve dans la plage allant de 35 : 65 à 60 : 40 sur la base du poids total du pigment à effet.
     
    13. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 10, caractérisés en ce que le rapport de la quantité de Al2O3 des paillettes de Al2O3 à la quantité du ou des oxydes de métaux de la ou des couches de revêtement se trouve dans la plage allant de 35 : 65 à 65 : 35 sur la base du poids total du pigment à effet.
     
    14. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 13, caractérisés en ce que le composé de métal de type terre rare est Ce2O3, La2O3 et Y2O3.
     
    15. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 14, caractérisés en ce que le composant organique est choisi parmi les agents de couplage organiques, les silanes organofonctionnels, les composés d'amino, les composés de phosphore organique.
     
    16. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 15, caractérisés en ce que l'oxyde de métal de type terre rare dans la couche protectrice est l'oxyde de cérium.
     
    17. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 16, caractérisés en ce que la quantité d'oxyde de métal de type terre rare dans le pigment à effet est de 0,01 - 3% en poids.
     
    18. Pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 17, caractérisés en ce que la couche protectrice contient 0,2- 2% en poids d'au moins un oxyde de métal de type terre rare, 0,2 - 2% en poids de SiO2 et 0,2 - 4% en poids de Al2O3 et/ou ZrO2 et 1 - 10% en poids du composant organique.
     
    19. Utilisation des pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 18, dans des formulations choisies parmi les domaines des peintures, des revêtements, des peintures pour la réparation automobile, des couches de finition pour automobiles, des revêtements industriels, des peintures, des revêtements en poudre, des encres d'impression, des encres d'impression de sécurité, des matières plastiques, des matériaux céramiques, des cosmétiques, des verres, du papier, des revêtements de papier, des toners pour les procédés d'impression électrophotographique, des semences, des bâches et toiles pour serres, des feuilles flexibles thermiquement conductrices, autoporteuses, électriquement isolantes, pour l'isolement de machines ou de dispositifs, comme absorbant dans le marquage au laser de papier et de matières plastiques, comme absorbant dans le soudage au laser de matières plastiques, des pâtes de pigment avec de l'eau, des solvants organiques et/ou aqueux, dans des préparations de pigment et des préparations sèches.
     
    20. Formulations contenant un ou plusieurs pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 18, selon des quantités de 0,01-95 % en poids, sur la base de la formulation dans son ensemble.
     
    21. Formulation contenant un ou plusieurs pigments à effet selon l'une ou plusieurs parmi les revendications 1 à 18, caractérisée en ce qu'elle contient au moins un composant choisi dans le groupe constitué par l'eau, les polyols, les huiles polaires et non polaires, les matières grasses, les cires, les agents filmogènes, les polymères, les copolymères, les agents tensioactifs, les agents antiradicalaires, les antioxydants, les stabilisants, les exhausteurs d'odeur, les huiles de silicone, les émulsifiants, les solvants, les conservateurs, les épaississants, les additifs rhéologiques, les fragrances, les colorants, les pigments à effet, les agents anti-UV, les auxiliaires tensioactifs et/ou les composés actifs cosmétiques, les charges, les liants, les pigments nacrés, les pigments colorés et les teintures organiques.
     




    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description