The invention relates to a halogen free flame-retardant polystyrene composition, to a halogen free flame-retardant compound and to the use of such flame-retardant compound.
The addition of flame retardants to polymer compositions is important and/or mandatory in many fields. Regulations on the use of polystyrene particle foams made of expandable polystyrene (EPS) or regulations on the use of polystyrene extrusion foam plates (XPS) as heat-insulating material for buildings require flame-retardancy in most cases. Polystyrene homo- and copolymers are predominantly rendered flame-resistant using halogen-containing, particularly brominated, organic compounds such as hexabromocyclo-dodecane (HBCD). However, this compound and a number of other brominated substances have been subjected to debate and/or were already banned due to the potential environmental and health hazard of these compounds.
As an alternative, halogen-free flame retardants for EPS have been explored. However, halogen-free flame retardants need to be used in substantially higher amounts for achieving the same flame-retardant effect as the halogen-containing flame retardants.
It is partly for this reason that halogen-free flame retardants, which are employed in solid polymers, cannot be used in the same manner in polymeric foams. Halogen-free flame retardants can interfere with the foaming process or can affect the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymeric foam. Moreover, in preparing expandable polystyrene by suspension polymerization, the high amounts of flame retardant may reduce stability of the suspension and can thus interfere with and/or affect the preparation process.
The effect of the flame retardants used in solid polymers is often unpredictable in polymeric foams, due to the particularities of such foams and due to differing fire tests.
As an example of halogen-free flame retardants, US2012/0178842
describes a process for the production of EPS rendered flame-retardant by a halogen-free method. In this method, acylcic oligophosphine chalcogenides having from 2 to 6 phosphorus atoms and having at least one phosphorus-phosphorus bond are used as a flame retardant.
describes flame-retardant expandable polymers. The flame-retardant properties are provided by specific phosphorous compounds such as 10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide.
There is still a need for a halogen-free flame retardant for expandable polystyrene that works at concentrations suitable for EPS preparation.
It is an aim of the present invention to provide a sufficiently fire-resistant, flame-retardant, expandable polystyrene composition. It is a further objective of the invention to provide such polystyrene composition with good foamability and good mechanical stability.
Accordingly, the present invention provides a polystyrene composition comprising a polystyrene and a compound according to formula (III), as claimed in claim 1. The polystyrene composition according to the invention has a good flame retardancy.
Preferably, the amount of the compound (III) is 1-10 wt% of the total composition.
The compounds of formula (III) thermally degrade between 200 and 300 °C, similar to the results of halogen containing flame retardants for EPS.
According to another aspect, the present invention relates to the compound according to formula (III).
The present invention further relates to the use of the compound according to formula (III) as a flame retardant for a polymer composition. The present invention further relates to the use of the compound according to formula (III) as a flame retardant for a polymer composition comprising styrene. The present invention further relates to the use of the compound according to formula (III) as a flame retardant for a polymer composition comprising styrene, wherein the polymer composition is an expandable polymer composition.
The compound of formula (III) may be prepared by a process comprising the steps of:
- (i) reacting phenyl dichlorophosphate and p-cresol in the presence of triethylamine and
- (ii) reacting pyrrolidine and the reaction product of step (i) to obtain the compound of formula (III).
Step (i) may for example be performed by adding a tetrahydrofuran solution of p-cresol and triethylamine to a tetrahydrofuran solution of phenyl dichlorophosphate and stirring the mixture solution. The solution of phenyl dichlorophosphate may be cooled before the addition of the solution of p-cresol and triethylamine. The stirring may e.g. be for 12-24 hours and at room temperature.
Step (ii) may for example be performed by adding diethylamine or pyrrolidine dropwise to the reaction product of step (i) and stirring. The stirring may e.g. be for 4-12 hours and at room temperature.
It is noted that US2004/0249029
describes a flame-retardant processing agent for polyester-based fiber products represented by a diaryl aminophosphate represented by formula:
wherein Ar1 and Ar2 independently denote an aryl group, R1 and R2 independently denote a hydrogen atom, a lower alkyl group, a cycloalkyl group, an aryl group, an allyl group or an aralkyl group, or R1 and R2 may be combined together to form a ring. US2004/0249029
does not describe the use of the flame-retardant processing agent for polystyrene or EPS.
It is further noted that US3937765
describes a method for preparing O,O-diaryl N,N-dialkyl phosphoramidates for use as a flame retardant in a polyurethane foam. US3937765
does not describe the use of the flame-retardant processing agent for polystyrene or EPS.
It is further noted that JP2000-154277
discloses a flame-retarding resin composition containing phosphoric acid amides such as diphenyl (cyclohexylamido) phosphate. JP2000-154277
does not disclose the compound of formula (III).
In general, useful blowing agents are volatile liquids and include but are not limited to aliphatic hydrocarbons, straight chain or branched, with up to 10 carbons; ketones such as acetone and methylethylketone; short chain alcohols such as alcohols having up to 10 carbons; and cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons. Preferred blowing agents are all pentane isomers and mixtures of pentane isomers. An especially preferred blowing agent is n-pentane. Blowing agents are typically used in amounts of about 2 wt% to about 20 wt% based on the weight of the composition, with about 2 wt% to about 10 wt% preferred based on the weight of the composition.
The EPS composition may further comprise a polyphenylene ether (PPE) resin. Examples of the PPE resin are mentioned in WO2013/034276
. The PPE resin is normally a homo- or copolymer having units of the formula
wherein Q, Q', Q", Q'" are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, hydrocarbon, halohydrocarbon, hydrocarbonoxy and halohydrocarbonoxy; and n represents the total number of monomer units and is an integer of at least about 20, and more usually at least 50.
The polyphenylene ether resin can be prepared in accordance with known procedures, such as those described in Hay, U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,306,874
; and Stamatoff, U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,257,357
; from the reaction of phenols including but not limited to 2,6-dimethylphenol; 2,6-diethylphenol; 2,6-dibutylphenol; 2,6-dilaurylphenol; 2,6-dipropylphenol; 2,6-diphenylphenol; 2-methyl-6-tolylphenol; 2-methyl-6-methoxyphenol; 2,3,6-trimethylphenol; 2,3,5,6-tetramethylphenol; and 2,6-diethyoxyphenol.
Each of these may be reacted alone to produce the corresponding homopolymer, or in pairs or with still other phenols to produce the corresponding copolymer. Examples of the homopolymer include poly(2,6-dimethyl-1, 4-phenylene)ether, poly(2,6-diethyl-1,4-phenylene)ether, poly(2,6-dibutyl-1,4-phenylene)ether, poly(2,6-dilauryl-1, 4-phenylene)ether, poly(2,6-dipropyl-1,4-phenylene)ether, poly(2,6-diphenyl-1,4-phenylene)ether, poly(2-methyl-6-methoxy-1,4-phenylene)ether, poly(2-methyl-6-butyl-1,4-phenylene)ether, poly(2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-phenylene)ether, poly(2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-phenylene)ether, poly(2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene)ether, and poly(2,6-diethyoxy-1,4-phenylene)ether. Examples of the copolymer include, especially those of 2,6-dimethylphenol with other phenols, poly(2,6-dimethyl-co-2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-phenylene)ether and poly(2,6-methyl-co-2-methyl-6-butyl-1,4-phenylene)ether.
For the purposes of the present invention, an especially preferred family of polyphenylene ethers includes those having alkyl substitution in the two positions ortho to the oxygen ether atom, i.e. those of the above formula wherein Q and Q' are alkyl, most preferably having 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Illustrative members of this class are: poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene)ether; poly(2,6-diethyl-1,4-phenylene)ether; poly(2-methyl-6-ethyl-1,4-phenylene)ether; poly(2-methyl-6-propyl-1,4-phenylene)ether; poly(2,6-dipropyl-1,4-phenylene)ether; poly(2-ethyl-6-propyl-1,4-phenylene) ether; and the like.
The most preferred polyphenylene ether resin for purposes of the present invention is poly(2,6-dimethyl -1,4-phenylene)ether.
The polyphenylene ether resin may be present in about 5 weight percent (wt%) to 95 wt % based on the weight of the composition, preferably about 30 wt% to about 60 wt% based on the weight of the composition.
In some embodiments, the composition according to the present invention comprises no or little amount, e.g. less than 0.01 wt% of a polyphenylene ether resin. This is preferable in view of the ease of recycle of the EPS beads.
The EPS composition may further comprise an impact modifier. Particularly suitable impact modifiers are the so called block copolymers, for example, A-B-A triblock copolymers and A-B diblock copolymers.
The A-B and A-B-A type block copolymer rubber additives which may be used are thermoplastic rubbers comprised of one or two alkenyl aromatic blocks which are typically styrene blocks and a rubber block, e. g., a butadiene block which may be partially hydrogenated. Mixtures of these triblock copolymers and diblock copolymers are especially useful. All impact modifiers generally used for compositions comprising a poly (arylene ether) resin, a polystyrene or a combination of a poly (arylene ether) resin and a polystyrene can be used.
Suitable A-B and A-B-A type block copolymers are disclosed in, for example, U. S. Patent Nos. 3,078,254
, and 3,594,452
and U. K. Patent 1,264,741
. Examples of typical species of A-B and A-B-A block copolymers include polystyrene-polybutadiene (SBR), polystyrene-poly (ethylenepropylene), polystyrene-polyisoprene, poly (a-methylstyrene)-polybutadiene, polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene (SBS), polystyrene-poly (ethylene-propylene)polystyrene, polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene and poly (a-methylstyrene)- polybutadiene-poly (a-methylstyrene), as well as the hydrogenated versions thereof, and the like. Mixtures comprising at least one of the aforementioned block copolymers are also useful. Such A-B and A-B-A block copolymers are available commercially from a number of sources, including Philips Petroleum under the trademark SOLPRENE, Shell Chemical Co., under the trademark KRATON, Dexco under the tradename VECTOR, and Kuraray under the trademark SEPTON.
A useful amount of impact modifier is up to about 30 wt% based on the weight of the composition, with about 5 wt% to about 15 wt% based on the weight of the composition preferred. In an especially preferred embodiment, the impact modifier comprises a polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene block copolymer.
Non-halogenated, fire retardant, expandable poly (arylene ether)/polystyrene blends can also include effective amounts of at least one additive selected. Possible additives include anti-oxidants; drip retardants; coating additives; dyes; pigments; colorants; nucleating agents; stabilizers; small particle minerals such as clay, mica, and talc; antistatic agents; plasticizers, lubricants ; mold release agents; and mixtures comprising at least one of the foregoing additives. Effective amounts of the additives vary widely, but they are usually present in an amount up to about 50% or more by weight, based on the weight of the entire composition.
water as blowing agent
To improve foamability, finely dispersed droplets of internal water may be introduced into the styrene polymer matrix. An example of a method for this is the addition of water to the molten styrene polymer matrix. The location of addition of the water may be upstream of, together with, or downstream of, the blowing agent feed. Dynamic or static mixers can be used to achieve homogeneous distribution of the water. An adequate amount is generally from 0 to 2% by weight of water, preferably from 0.05 to 1.5% by weight, based on the styrene polymer.
Expandable styrene polymers (EPS) with at least 90% of the internal water in the form of droplets of internal water with diameter in the range from 0.5 to 15 pm form, on foaming, foams with an adequate number of cells and with homogeneous foam structure.
The amount added of blowing agent and of water is selected in such a way that the expansion capability of the expandable styrene polymers (EPS), defined as bulk density prior to foaming/bulk density after foaming, is at most 125, preferably from 25 to 100.
It is also possible to produce the expandable styrene polymers (EPS) of the invention via suspension polymerization.
In the suspension polymerization process, it is preferable to use styrene alone as monomer. However, up to 20% of its weight can have been replaced by other ethylenically unsaturated monomers, such as alkylstyrenes, divinylbenzene, acrylonitrile, 1,1-diphenyl ether or alpha-methylstyrene.
The usual auxiliaries can be added during the suspension polymerization process, examples being peroxide initiators, suspension stabilizers, blowing agents, chain-transfer agents, expansion aids, nucleating agents, and plasticizers. The amounts of the compound (I) added in the polymerization process are from 0.5 to 25% by weight, preferably from 5 to 15% by weight. The amounts of blowing agents added are from 3 to 10% by weight, based on monomer. These amounts can be added prior to, during, or after polymerization of the suspension. Suitable blowing agents are aliphatic hydrocarbons having from 4 to 6 carbon atoms. It is advantageous to use inorganic Pickering dispersants as suspension stabilizers, an example being magnesium pyrophosphate or calcium phosphate.
The suspension polymerization process produces bead-shaped particles which are in essence round, with average diameter in the range from 0.2 to 2 mm.
In order to improve processability, the finished expandable styrene polymer pellets can be coated with glycerol ester, antistatic agent, or anticaking agent.
The EPS pellets can be coated with glycerol monostearate GMS (typically 0.25%), glycerol tristearate (typically 0.25%), Aerosil R972 fine-particle silica (typically 0.12%), or Zn stearate (typically 0.15%), or else antistatic agent.
The expandable styrene polymer pellets of the invention can be prefoamed in a first step by means of hot air or steam to give foam beads with density in the range from 8 to 200 kg/m3
, in particular from 10 to 50 kg/m3
, and can be fused in a second step in a closed mold, to give molded foams.
The expandable polystyrene particles can be processed to give polystyrene foams with densities of from 8 to 200 kg/m3
, preferably from 10 to 50 kg/m3
. To this end, the expandable beads are prefoamed. This is mostly achieved by heating of the beads, using steam in what are known as prefoamers. The resultant prefoamed beads are then fused to give moldings. To this end, the prefoamed beads are introduced into molds which do not have a gas-tight seal, and are treated with steam. The moldings can be removed after cooling.
Phosphate amine esters were synthesized from phenyl-dichlorophosphate by the replacement of one of the chlorines by a substituted alcohol and the other chlorine by a secondary amine, see Figure 1 showing the reaction scheme for the preparation of the phosphate amine esters.
Reference Example 1
Preparation of diethyl[(4-methylphenoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amine (formula (II)) Phenyl dichlorophosphate (5 g, 23.7 mmol) was dissolved in THF (100 ml) and was cooled in an ice-bath to < 10 °C. Triethylamine (4. 8 g ,47.4 mmol) and p-cresol (2.55 g 23.6 mmol) was added and the solution was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature. Diethylamine (1.72 g , 23.6 mmol) was added drop-wise and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water (50 ml) and ethyl acetate (100 ml) was added and the phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with water, filtered through a plug of silica and evaporated to yield 4.6 g product as oil.
H NMR (CDCl3
, ppm) δδ7.05-7.40 (9 H, m, aromatic protons), δδ3.35 (4 H, m, CH2
CH3), δδ2.3 (3 H, s, OCH3
), δδ1.76 (6 H, m, CH2CH3
C NMR (CDCl3
, ppm) δδ151 (1 C) δ 149 (1 C), δ 134 (1 C) δδ130 (2 C), δδ129 (2 C), δδ124 (1 C), δ 120 (2 C), δ 119 (2 C), δ 39 (2 C), δ 21 (s, 1 C), δδ14 (s, 2 C).
Preparation of 4-methylphenyl phenyl pyrrolidin-1-ylphosphonate (formula (III)) Phenyl dichlorophosphate (5 g, 23.7 mmol) was dissolved in THF (100 ml) and was cooled in an ice-bath to < 10 °C. Triethylamine (4. 8 g ,47.4 mmol) and p-cresol (2.55 g 23.6 mmol) was added and the solution was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature. Pyrrolidine (1.68 g , 23.6 mmol) was added drop-wise and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water (50 ml) and ethyl acetate (100 ml) was added and the phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with water, filtered through a plug of silica and evaporated to yield 7 g product as oil.
H NMR (CDCl3
, ppm) δδ7.05-7.35 (9 H, m, aromatic protons), δδ3.25 (4 H, t, CH2
CH3), δδ2.35 (3 H, s, OCH3
δδ1.05 (6 H, m, CH2CH3
C NMR (CDCl3
, ppm) δδ152 (1 C) δδ148 (1 C), δδ134 (1 C) δδ130 (2 C), δδ129 (2 C), δδ125 (1 C), δδ120 (2 C), δδ119 (2 C), δδ47 (2 C), δδ27 (2 C), δδ21 (1 C).