(19)
(11)EP 3 227 577 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.02.2019 Bulletin 2019/07

(21)Application number: 15820683.9

(22)Date of filing:  04.12.2015
(51)Int. Cl.: 
F16C 33/10  (2006.01)
F16C 17/02  (2006.01)
F04F 13/00  (2009.01)
F16C 17/04  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2015/063872
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/090203 (09.06.2016 Gazette  2016/23)

(54)

HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING FEATURES

HYDRODYNAMISCHE LAGERMERKMALE

CARACTÉRISTIQUES DE PALIER HYDRODYNAMIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 05.12.2014 US 201462088342 P
03.12.2015 US 201514958575

(43)Date of publication of application:
11.10.2017 Bulletin 2017/41

(73)Proprietor: Energy Recovery, Inc.
San Leandro, California 94577 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • DESHPANDE, Chinmay Vishwas
    San Leandro, California 94577 (US)

(74)Representative: Knöner, Gregor et al
Kahler Käck Mollekopf Partnerschaft von Patentanwälten mbB Vorderer Anger 239
86899 Landsberg am Lech
86899 Landsberg am Lech (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 719 920
WO-A1-96/17176
WO-A2-2009/046429
US-A- 5 129 738
EP-A1- 2 626 604
WO-A1-2014/030727
US-A- 3 201 183
US-B1- 6 244 749
  
  • STEINHILPER W ET AL: "OPTIMIERUNG HYDRODYNAMISCH ARBEITENDER GLEITLAGER", ANTRIEBSTECHNIK, VEREINIGTE FACHVERLAGE, MAINZ, DE, vol. 36, no. 10, 1 October 1997 (1997-10-01), pages 69-73, XP000704747, ISSN: 0722-8546
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

BACKGROUND



[0001] This section is intended to introduce the reader to various aspects of art that may be related to various aspects of the present invention, which are described and/or claimed below. This discussion is believed to be helpful in providing the reader with background information to facilitate a better understanding of the various aspects of the present invention. Accordingly, it should be understood that these statements are to be read in this light, and not as admissions of prior art.

[0002] Fluid handling equipment, such as rotary pumps and pressure exchangers, may be susceptible to loss in efficiency, loss in performance, wear, and sometimes breakage over time. As a result, the equipment must be taken off line for inspection, repair, and/or replacement. Unfortunately, the downtime of this equipment may be labor intensive and costly for the particular plant, facility, or work site. In certain instances, the fluid handling equipment may be susceptible to misalignment, imbalances, or other irregularities, which may increase wear and other problems, and also cause unexpected downtime. This equipment downtime is particularly problematic for continuous operations, Therefore, a need exists to increase the reliability and longevity of fluid handling equipment.

[0003] The document WO 2009/046429 A2 describes a rotary pressure transfer device with improved flow. The pressure transfer device has a cylindrical rotor including a plurality of longitudinal channels and two end covers. The rotor revolves around a central hollow stator. The end covers are mounted to the central hollow stator by means of a central tension rod that passes through the hollow stator.

[0004] The document US 3,201,183 A describes slide or journal bearings including an oval bearing the clearance of which is no greater than zero clearance.

[0005] The document US 6,244,749 B1 describes a high speed dynamic pressure bearing used to rotationally support various disc bodies, such as a magnetic disk or an optical disk.

[0006] The document EP 1 719 920 A1 relates to a rotary pressure exchanger which includes a cylindrical rotor having a plurality of channels and two end covers. A central rod is located in an elongated chamber disposed in the rotor and in a pair of aligned axial passageways through the end covers.

[0007] The document EP 2 626 604 A1 describes a dynamic thrust bearing having a sliding component and a pressure generating mechanism that prevents leakage of lubrication fluid during rotation.

SUMMARY



[0008] The invention is defined in the independent claims. The dependent claims describe embodiments of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0009] Various features, aspects, and advantages of the present invention will become better understood when the following detailed description is read with reference to the accompanying figures in which like characters represent like parts throughout the figures, wherein:

FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view of an embodiment of a rotary isobaric pressure exchanger (rotary IPX);

FIG. 2 is an exploded perspective view of an embodiment of a rotary IPX in a first operating position;

FIG. 3 is an exploded perspective view of an embodiment of a rotary IPX in a second operating position;

FIG. 4 is an exploded perspective view of an embodiment of a rotary IPX in a third operating position;

FIG. 5 is an exploded perspective view of an embodiment of a rotary IPX in a fourth operating position;

FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the rotary IPX of FIG 1;

FIG. 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the rotary IPX of FIG. 1 in which the rotor and end cover have deflection points;

FIG. 8 is an axial end view of an embodiment of a sleeve and rotor of the rotary IPX of FIG. 1;

FIG. 9 is an axial end view of an embodiment of a sleeve and rotor of the rotary IPX of FIG. 1;

FIG. 10 is an axial end view of an embodiment of an end cover of the rotary IPX of FIG. 1;

FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the hydrodynamic features of FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the hydrodynamic features of FIG. 10;

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the hydrodynamic features of FIG. 10;

FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the hydrodynamic features of FIG. 10;

FIG. 15 is a further embodiment of the hydrodynamic feature having a substantially arcuate cross section; and

FIG. 16 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a frac system with a hydraulic energy transfer system.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS



[0010] One or more specific embodiments of the present invention will be described below. These described embodiments are only exemplary of the present invention. Additionally, in an effort to provide a concise description of these exemplary embodiments, all features of an actual implementation may not be described in the specification. It should be appreciated that in the development of any such actual implementation, as in any engineering or design project, numerous implementation-specific decisions must be made to achieve the developers' specific goals, such as compliance with system-related and business-related constraints, which may vary from one implementation to another. Moreover, it should be appreciated that such a development effort might be complex and time consuming, but would nevertheless be a routine undertaking of design, fabrication, and manufacture for those of ordinary skill having the benefit of this disclosure.

[0011] As discussed in detail below, a hydraulic energy transfer system transfers work and/or pressure between a first fluid (e.g., a pressure exchange fluid) and a second fluid (e.g., frac fluid or a salinated fluid). In certain embodiments, the first fluid may be substantially "cleaner" than the second fluid. In other words, the second fluid may contain dissolved and/or suspended particles. Moreover, in certain embodiments, the second fluid may be more viscous than the first fluid. Additionally, the first fluid may be at a first pressure between approximately 5,000 kPa to 25,000 kPa, 20,000 kPa to 50,000 kPa, 40,000 kPa to 75,000 kPa, 75,000 kPa to 100,000 kPa or greater than a second pressure of the second fluid. In operation, the hydraulic energy transfer system may or may not completely equalize pressures between the first and second fluids. Accordingly, the hydraulic energy transfer system may operate isobarically, or substantially isobarically (e.g., wherein the pressures of the first and second fluids equalize within approximately +/- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 percent of each other).

[0012] The hydraulic energy transfer system may also be described as a hydraulic protection system, hydraulic buffer system, or a hydraulic isolation system, because it blocks or limits contact between the second fluid and various pieces of hydraulic equipment (e.g., high-pressure pumps, heat exchangers), while still exchanging work and/or pressure between the first and second fluids. By blocking or limiting contact between various pieces of hydraulic equipment and the second fluid (e.g., more viscous fluid, fluid with suspended solids), the hydraulic energy transfer system reduces abrasion/wear, thus increasing the life/performance of this equipment (e.g., high-pressure pumps). Moreover, it may enable the hydraulic system to use less expensive equipment, for example high-pressure pumps that are not designed for abrasive fluids (e.g., fluids with suspended particles). In some embodiments, the hydraulic energy transfer system may be a hydraulic turbocharger, a rotating isobaric pressure exchanger (e.g., rotary IPX), or a non-rotating isobaric pressure exchanger (e.g., bladder, reciprocating isobaric pressure exchanger). Rotating and non-rotating isobaric pressure exchangers may be generally defined as devices that transfer fluid pressure between a high-pressure inlet stream and a low-pressure inlet stream at efficiencies in excess of approximately 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% without utilizing centrifugal technology.

[0013] As explained above, the hydraulic energy transfer system transfers work and/or pressure between first and second fluids. These fluids may be multi-phase fluids such as gas/liquid flows, gas/solid particulate flows, liquid/solid particulate flows, gas/liquid/solid particulate flows, or any other multi-phase flow. Moreover, these fluids may be non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., shear thinning fluid), highly viscous fluids, non-Newtonian fluids containing proppant, or highly viscous fluids containing proppant. The proppant may include sand, solid particles, powders, debris, ceramics, or any combination therefore. For example, the disclosed embodiments may be used with oil and gas equipment, such as hydraulic fracturing equipment using a proppant (e.g., particle laden fluid) to frac rock formations in a well.

[0014] FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view of an embodiment of a rotary isobaric pressure exchanger 160 (rotary IPX) capable of transferring pressure and/or work between the first and second fluids with minimal mixing of the fluids. It should be noted that reference to various directions (e.g., axial direction 188, radial direction 189, and circumferential direction 191) may be referred to in the following discussion. The rotary IPX 160 may include a generally cylindrical body portion 162 that includes a sleeve 164 and a rotor 166 disposed within a housing 212. The rotary IPX 160 may also include two end caps 168 and 170 that include manifolds 172 and 174, respectively. Manifold 172 includes respective inlet and outlet ports 176 and 178, while manifold 174 includes respective inlet and outlet ports 180 and 182. In operation, these inlet ports 176, 180 enabling the first fluid to enter the rotary IPX 160 to exchange pressure, while the outlet ports 178, 182 enable the first fluid to then exit the rotary IPX 160. In operation, the inlet port 176 may receive a high-pressure (HP) first fluid, and after exchanging pressure, the outlet port 178 may be used to route a low-pressure (LP) first fluid out of the rotary IPX 160. Similarly, inlet port 180 may receive a LP second fluid and the outlet port 182 may be used to route a HP second fluid out of the rotary IPX 160. The end caps 168 and 170 include respective end covers 184 and 186 disposed within respective manifolds 172 and 174 that enable fluid sealing contact with the rotor 166. The rotor 166 may be cylindrical and disposed in the sleeve 164, which enables the rotor 166 to rotate about the axis 188. The rotor 166 may have a plurality of channels 190 extending substantially longitudinally through the rotor 166 with openings 192 and 194 at each end arranged symmetrically about the longitudinal axis 188. The openings 192 and 194 of the rotor 166 are arranged for hydraulic communication with inlet and outlet apertures 196 and 198; and 200 and 202 in the end covers 184 and 186, in such a manner that during rotation the channels 190 are exposed to fluid at high-pressure and fluid at low-pressure. As illustrated, the inlet and outlet apertures 196 and 1 98, and 200 and 202 may be designed in the form of arcs or segments of a circle (e.g., C-shaped).

[0015] In some embodiments, a controller using sensor feedback may control the extent of mixing between the first and second fluids in the rotary IPX 160, which may be used to improve the operability of the fluid handling system. For example, varying the proportions of the first and second fluids entering the rotary IPX 160 allows the plant operator to control the amount of fluid mixing within the hydraulic energy transfer system. Three characteristics of the rotary IPX 160 that affect mixing are: (1) the aspect ratio of the rotor channels 190, (2) the short duration of exposure between the first and second fluids, and (3) the creation of a fluid barrier (e.g., an interface) between the first and second fluids within the rotor channels 190. First, the rotor channels 190 are generally long and narrow, which stabilizes the flow within the rotary IPX 160. In addition, the first and second fluids may move through the channels 190 in a plug flow regime with very little axial mixing. Second, in certain embodiments, the speed of the rotor 166 reduces contact between the first and second fluids. For example, the speed of the rotor 166 may reduce contact times between the first and second fluids to less than approximately 0.15 seconds, 0.10 seconds, or 0.05 seconds. Third, a small portion of the rotor channel 190 is used for the exchange of pressure between the first and second fluids. Therefore, a volume of fluid remains in the channel 190 as a barrier between the first and second fluids. All these mechanisms may limit mixing within the rotary IPX 160. Moreover, in some embodiments, the rotary IPX 160 may be designed to operate with internal pistons that isolate the first and second fluids while enabling pressure transfer.

[0016] FIGS. 2-5 are exploded views of an embodiment of the rotary IPX 160 illustrating the sequence of positions of a single channel 190 in the rotor 166 as the channel 190 rotates through a complete cycle. It is noted that FIGS. 2-5 are simplifications of the rotary IPX 160 showing one channel 190, and the channel 190 is shown as having a circular cross-sectional shape. In other embodiments, the rotary IPX 160 may include a plurality of channels 190 with the same or different cross-sectional shapes (e.g., circular, oval, square, rectangular, polygonal, etc.). Thus, FIGS. 2-5 are simplifications for purposes of illustration, and other embodiments of the rotary IPX 160 may have configurations different from that shown in FIGS. 2-5. As described in detail below, the rotary IPX 160 facilitates pressure exchange between the first and second fluids by enabling the first and second fluids to momentarily contact each other within the rotor 166. In certain embodiments, this exchange happens at speeds that result in limited mixing of the first and second fluids.

[0017] In FIG. 2, the channel opening 192 is in a first position. In the first position, the channel opening 192 is in fluid communication with the aperture 198 in endplate 184 and therefore with the manifold 172, while opposing channel opening 194 is in hydraulic communication with the aperture 202 in end cover 186 and by extension with the manifold 174. As will be discussed below, the rotor 166 may rotate in the clockwise direction indicated by arrow 204. In operation, LP second fluid 206 passes through end cover 186 and enters the channel 190, where it contacts a LP first fluid 208 at a dynamic fluid interface 210. The second fluid 206 then drives the first fluid 208 out of the channel 190, through end cover 184, and out of the rotary IPX 160. However, because of the short duration of contact, there is minimal mixing between the second fluid 206 and the first fluid 208. As will be appreciated, a pressure of the second fluid 206 is greater than a pressure of the first fluid 208, thereby enabling the second fluid 206 to drive the first fluid 208 out of the channel 190.

[0018] In FIG. 3, the channel 190 has rotated clockwise through an arc of approximately 90 degrees. In this position, the outlet 194 is no longer in fluid communication with the apertures 200 and 202 of end cover 186, and the opening 192 is no longer in fluid communication with the apertures 196 and 198 of end cover 184. Accordingly, the LP second fluid 206 is temporarily contained within the channel 190.

[0019] In FIG. 4, the channel 190 has rotated through approximately 180 degrees of arc from the position shown in FIG. 2. The opening 194 is now in fluid communication with aperture 200 in end cover 186, and the opening 192 of the channel 190 is now in fluid communication with aperture 196 of the end cover 184. In this position, the HP first fluid 208 enters and pressurizes the LP second fluid 206 driving the second fluid 206 out of the fluid channel 190 and through the aperture 200 for use in the system or disposal.

[0020] In FIG. 5, the channel 190 has rotated through approximately 270 degrees of arc from the position shown in FIG. 6. In this position, the outlet 194 is no longer in fluid communication with the apertures 200 and 202 of end cover 186, and the opening 192 is no longer in fluid communication with the apertures 196 and 198 of end cover 184. Accordingly, the first fluid 208 is no longer pressurized and is temporarily contained within the channel 190 until the rotor 166 rotates another 90 degrees, starting the cycle over again.

[0021] FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the rotary IPX 160. It will be appreciated that FIG. 6 is a simplified view of the rotatory IPX 160 and certain details have been omitted for clarity. In the illustrated embodiment, the rotary IPX 160 includes the housing 212 containing the sleeve 164 (e.g., annular sleeve), the rotor 166, the end covers 184, 186, and a seal 214 (e.g., annular seal) among other components. As illustrated, the seal 214 may be disposed between the housing 212 and the end cover 186 to substantially block the flow of the first fluid 208 from exiting the housing 212. However, in the illustrated embodiment, the seal 214 is not positioned about the end cover 184. As discussed above, the HP first fluid 208 may enter the rotary IPX 160 through the inlet 176 and the aperture 196 to drive the LP second fluid 206 out of the channel 190. As a result, the rotor 166 and/or the end covers 184, 186 may be subjected to a pressure differential that may cause deflections.

[0022] In operation, the pressure differentials may act on the sleeve 164 and the end covers 184, 186. For example, a first pressure differential 216 may form in a vicinity of the aperture 198 causing the sleeve 164 to deflect radially inward (e.g., toward the axis 188). As a result, the radial clearance between the rotor 166 and the sleeve 164 is reduced and may increase wear between the rotor 166 and the sleeve 164 during operation. Moreover, a second pressure differential 218 may form near the end covers 184, 186 and the rotor 166. As a result, the end covers 184, 186 may deflect axially inward (e.g., toward the rotor 166), thereby reducing axial clearances between the rotor 166 and the end covers 184, 186. To this end, the likelihood of the rotor 166 contacting the end covers 184, 186 may increase because of the reduced clearances.

[0023] FIG. 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the rotary IPX 160 having deflection points along the sleeve 164 and the end cover 184. As mentioned above, the differential pressures 216, 218 may cause deflections of the sleeve 164 and/or the end cover 184. In the illustrated embodiment, the sleeve 164 includes a first deflection point 220 (e.g., radial deflection) forming a reduced clearance area 222 (e.g., radial clearance area) between the sleeve 164 and the rotor 166. Additionally, the end cover 184 includes a second deflection point 224 (e.g., axial deflection) having a reduced clearance area 226 (e.g., axial clearance area) between the end cover 184 and the rotor 166. As a result, without the disclosed embodiments, the rotor 166 may contact and/or rub against the sleeve 164 and/or the end cover 184. Moreover, while the illustrated embodiment includes the first and second deflection points 220, 224, in other embodiments there may be more or fewer deflection points. Additionally, the deflection points may be distributed across the entire length of the sleeve 164 and/or the end covers 184, 186.

[0024] FIG. 8 is an axial end view of an embodiment of the rotor 166 and the sleeve 164 having a non-circular cross-section. The non-circular cross-section may include an elliptical cross-section and may have an eccentricity ranging from greater than 0 to less than 1, and all ranges therebetween. As described above, the first pressure differential 216 may deform the sleeve 164 radially inward (e.g., toward the axis 188). In the illustrated embodiment, the sleeve 164 is substantially elliptically shaped. As a result, deformation of the sidewalls of the sleeve 164 may not decrease the clearance between the rotor 166 and the sleeve 164. For example, the top and bottom portions of the rotor 166 have a first radial clearance 228 between the rotor 166 and the sleeve 164 along a first plane 241. Additionally, the left and right sides of the rotor 166 have a second radial clearance 230 between the rotor 166 and the sleeve 164 along a second plane 243. In the illustrated embodiment, the second radial clearance 230 is larger than the first radial clearance 228. In certain embodiments, the difference in size between the first and second radial clearances 228, 230 may be specifically designed in areas to account for deflection (e.g., radial deflection) of the sleeve 164. In other words, the difference in the radial clearance 228 along the first plane 241 and the radial clearance 230 along the second plane 243 may be varied (e.g., made smaller or larger) for different conditions. Additionally, the difference in size between the first and second radial clearances 228, 230 may be approximately equal to the anticipated deflection distance as a result of the first pressure differential 216. Accordingly, if the first pressure differential 216 deforms/deflects the left and right sides of the sleeve 164 radially inward toward the rotor 166, the second radial clearance 230 will be substantially similar to the first radial clearance 228 after the deflection. In other words, the initial second radial clearance 230 may be particularly selected to form a substantially uniform radial clearance about the circumference of the rotor 166 once the first pressure differential 216 deflects the sleeve 164. While the illustrated embodiment includes a substantially equal second radial clearance 230 on the left and right sides of the rotor 166, in other embodiments the second radial clearance 230 on the left side may be different than the radial clearance on the right side. For example, under certain operating conditions, the sleeve 164 may deform more on the left side than the right side. As a result, the radial clearance on the left side may be larger than the radial clearance on the right side to accommodate the increased deflection/deformation.

[0025] FIG. 9 is an axial end view of an embodiment of the rotor 166 and the sleeve 164 having a pressure dam 232 (e.g., a hydrodynamic feature, radially inset feature). The pressure dam 232 protrudes from the wall of the sleeve 164 and is configured to control the flow of fluid in the sleeve 164. During operation, the rotor 166 rotates within the sleeve 164 surrounded by a fluid (e.g., the first fluid 208), acting as a hydrodynamic bearing (e.g., fluid bearing). As the rotor 166 rotates in a first direction 234, the fluid similarly rotates along with the rotor 166 in the first direction 234. The pressure dam 232 is configured to redirect the fluid toward the rotor 166 in a direction 236. That is, during rotation, the fluid contacts the pressure dam 232 and is redirected toward the rotor 166. Additionally, the quantity of fluid in a first section 238 of the sleeve downstream of the pressure dam 232 (e.g., along the first direction 234) is less than the quantity of fluid in a second section 240 of the sleeve 164 approximately 180 degrees from the pressure dam 232. As a result, the force acting on the rotor 166 is greater in the first section 238 because of the reduced area. Therefore, the first section 238 of the sleeve 164 may be positioned such that the anticipated area of max deflection is in the first section 238, such that the higher force will drive the rotor 166 away from the sleeve 164. Accordingly, the reduced radial clearance formed by the deflection of the sleeve 164 may be accounted for by driving the rotor 166 toward the second section 240.

[0026] As described above, the second pressure differential 218 may facilitate deflection/deformation of the end covers 184, 186. As a result, the likelihood of the rotor 166 contacting the end covers 184, 186 increases due to the reduced axial clearance between the rotor 166 and the end covers 184, 186. FIG. 10 is an axial end view of the end cover 186 having hydrodynamic features 242 distributed about a face of the end cover 186. For example, the hydrodynamic features 242 may include airfoil shaped indentations (e.g., recesses, depressions) in the end covers 184, 186. However, in other embodiments, the hydrodynamic features 242 may be circular, arcuate, elliptical, rectangular, or any other suitable shape. In the illustrated embodiment, hydrodynamic features 242 are distributed over a portion of the end cover 186. The hydrodynamic features 242 are configured to apply a hydraulic force against the rotor 166. For example, in certain embodiments, the rotor 166 may have a force acting on an axial end driving the rotor 166 toward the end cover 186. The hydrodynamic features 242 are configured to apply a counteracting hydraulic force against the rotor 166 (e.g., axially toward the rotor 166) to block the rotor 166 from contacting the end cover 186. Moreover, the hydrodynamic features 242 are configured to produce a larger hydraulic force as the rotational speed of the rotor 166 increases.

[0027] Returning to the hydrodynamic features 242, in certain embodiments, the hydrodynamic features 242 extend into the end cover 186 (e.g., depressions, cavities, recesses, indentations). For example, the hydrodynamic features may be formed by machining, cutting, or any other appropriate manufacturing process. As fluid enters the hydrodynamic features 242, the hydrodynamic features 242 generate lift by redirecting the fluid flow axially toward the rotor 166, thereby driving the rotor 166 away from the end cover 186. In some embodiments, the hydrodynamic features 242 may be disposed radially outside of the apertures 200, 202 or radially inset from the apertures 200, 202. While the illustrated embodiment includes airfoil shaped features 242, in other embodiments the hydrodynamic features 242 may be other shapes, such as arcs, squares, or the like. For example, the hydrodynamic features 242 may include rectangular features 242. In certain embodiments, hydrodynamic features 242 may include both the airfoil shaped features 242 and the rectangular features 242 on the axial face of the end covers 184, 186, the axial faces of the rotor 166, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the hydrodynamic features 242 on the end covers 184, 186 may be limited to only the airfoil shaped features 242 or only the rectangular features 242.

[0028] FIGS. 11-14 are cross-sectional views of embodiments of the hydrodynamic features 242 that may be formed on the face of the end covers 184, 186. As shown, the hydrodynamic features 242 are recessed into the face of the end cover 186. In FIG. 11, the hydrodynamic feature 242 includes a wedge-shaped depression (e.g., inwardly converging recess or inwardly angled recess). For example, a first side 248 is positioned at a first angle 250 while a second side 252 is positioned at a second angle 254. In certain embodiments, the first angle 250 is equal to the second angle 254. However, in other embodiments, the first angle 250 and the second angle 254 may be unequal. Additionally, in certain embodiments, the first angle 250 or the second angle 254 may be approximately 90 degrees, approximately 100 degrees, approximately 110 degrees, approximately 120 degrees, approximately 130 degrees, approximately 140 degrees, approximately 150 degrees, or any other suitable angle. Additionally, the first or second angles 250, 254 may be between approximately 90 degrees and approximately 110 degrees, between approximately 110 degrees and approximately 130 degrees, between approximately 130 degrees and approximately 150 degrees, or any other suitable range. Moreover, in other embodiments, the first or second angles 250, 254 may be greater than approximately 90 degrees, greater than approximately 100 degrees, greater than approximately 110 degrees, greater than approximately 120 degrees, greater than approximately 130 degrees, greater than approximately 140 degrees, greater than approximately 150 degrees, or any other suitable angle. In operation, the first fluid 208 enters the hydrodynamic feature 242 and engages the second side 252. As a result, the first fluid 208 is directed toward the rotor 166, providing a force that drives the rotor 166 away from the end cover 184. Additionally, while the second side 252 is configured to drive the first fluid 208 toward the rotor 166, the second side 252 also enables debris that may enter the hydrodynamic feature 242 to escape. For example, the sloped second side 252 forms a pathway for trapped debris (e.g., sand, proppant, salt, etc.) to leave the hydrodynamic feature 242.

[0029] FIG. 12 is a further embodiment of the hydrodynamic feature 242 having a substantially circular and/or arcuate cross section (e.g., inwardly curved recess, concave recess, U-shaped recess). In the illustrated embodiment, the hydrodynamic feature 242 has a radius 256. As described above, the first fluid 208 enters the hydrodynamic feature 242 and is directed toward the rotor 166 via contact with a far end of the hydrodynamic feature 242. Additionally, the curved edges of the hydrodynamic feature 242 enable debris that may enter the hydrodynamic feature 242 to escape the hydrodynamic feature 242. FIG. 13 is another embodiment of the hydrodynamic feature 242. In the illustrated embodiment, the second angle 254 is approximately equal to 90 degrees. However, the first side 248 is sloped at the first angle 250, greater than 90 degrees. For example, the first angle 250 may be approximately 110 degrees, approximately 120 degrees, approximately 130 degrees, approximately 140 degrees, approximately 150 degrees, or any other suitable angle. Additionally, the first angle 250 may be between approximately 90 degrees and approximately 110 degrees, between approximately 110 degrees and approximately 130 degrees, between approximately 130 degrees and approximately 150 degrees, or any other suitable range. Moreover, in other embodiments, the first angle 250 may be greater than approximately 90 degrees, greater than approximately 100 degrees, greater than approximately 110 degrees, greater than approximately 120 degrees, greater than approximately 130 degrees, greater than approximately 140 degrees, greater than approximately 150 degrees, or any other suitable angle. In operation, the first fluid 208 enters the hydrodynamic feature 242 and engages the second side 252. Accordingly, as described above, entering fluid may travel into the hydrodynamic feature 242 and engage the second side 252, thereby directing the fluid toward the rotor 166. FIG. 14 is another embodiment in which the first and second sides 248, 252 have rounded edges where the first and second sides 248, 252 encounter a bottom surface 258 of the hydrodynamic feature 242. Additionally, the end covers 184, 186 and/or the rotor 166 may include different types of hydrodynamic features 242 along the respective axial faces.

[0030] FIG. 16 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a frac system 10 (e.g., fluid handling system) with a hydraulic energy transfer system 12. In operation, the frac system 10 enables well completion operations to increase the release of oil and gas in rock formations. The frac system 10 may include one or more first fluid pumps 18 and one or more second fluid pumps 20 coupled to a hydraulic energy transfer system 12. For example, the hydraulic energy system 12 may include a hydraulic turbocharger, rotary IPX, reciprocating IPX, or any combination thereof. In addition, the hydraulic energy transfer system 12 may be disposed on a skid separate from the other components of a frac system 10, which may be desirable in situations in which the hydraulic energy transfer system 12 is added to an existing frac system 10. In operation, the hydraulic energy transfer system 12 transfers pressures without any substantial mixing between a first fluid (e.g., proppant free fluid) pumped by the first fluid pumps 18 and a second fluid (e.g., proppant containing fluid or frac fluid) pumped by the second fluid pumps 20. In this manner, the hydraulic energy transfer system 12 blocks or limits wear on the first fluid pumps 18 (e.g., high-pressure pumps), while enabling the frac system 10 to pump a high-pressure frac fluid into the well 14 to release oil and gas. In addition, because the hydraulic energy transfer system 12 is configured to be exposed to the first and second fluids, the hydraulic energy transfer system 12 may be made from materials resistant to corrosive and abrasive substances in either the first and second fluids. For example, the hydraulic energy transfer system 12 may be made out of ceramics (e.g., alumina, cermets, such as carbide, oxide, nitride, or boride hard phases) within a metal matrix (e.g., Co, Cr or Ni or any combination thereof) such as tungsten carbide in a matrix of CoCr, Ni, NiCr or Co.

[0031] While the invention may be susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments have been shown by way of example in the drawings and have been described in detail herein. However, it should be understood that the invention is not intended to be limited to the particular forms disclosed. Rather, the invention is defined by the following appended claims.


Claims

1. A system, comprising:

a hydraulic transfer system configured to exchange pressures between a first fluid and a second fluid, wherein the first fluid has a pressure higher than the second fluid, comprising:

a sleeve (164);

a cylindrical rotor (166) disposed within the sleeve (164) in a concentric arrangement, wherein the cylindrical rotor (166) is configured to rotate circumferentially about a rotational axis and has a first end face and a second end face disposed opposite each other;

a first end cover (186) having a first surface that interfaces with the first end face of the cylindrical rotor (166); and

a second end cover (184) having a second surface that interfaces with the second end face of the cylindrical rotor (166);

characterized in that

a radial clearance between the sleeve (164) and the cylindrical rotor (166) varies about the rotational axis.


 
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the hydraulic transfer system comprises a rotary isobaric pressure exchanger (160) or a hydraulic turbocharger.
 
3. The system of claim 1 or 2, wherein the sleeve (164) comprises an elliptical-shaped cross section in a radial direction perpendicular to the rotational axis.
 
4. The system of any one of the preceding claims, wherein a first bearing region between the sleeve (164) and the cylindrical rotor (166) at a first circumferential location relative to the rotational axis comprises more bearing fluid than a second bearing fluid region between the sleeve (164) and the cylindrical rotor (166) at a second circumferential location relative to the rotational axis during rotation of the rotor (166) such that a first pressure of the first section is higher than a second pressure of the second section.
 
5. The system of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the hydraulic transfer system is a rotary isobaric pressure exchanger (160, IPX), wherein the rotary isobaric pressure exchanger further comprises

a pressure dam (232) extending from a surface of the sleeve (164) in a radial direction toward the cylindrical rotor (166), wherein the pressure dam (232) is configured to redirect a bearing fluid flowing circumferentially about the cylindrical rotor (166) between the cylindrical rotor (166) and sleeve (164) in the radial direction toward the cylindrical rotor (166).


 
6. The system of claim 5, wherein a first bearing fluid region upstream of the pressure dam (232) comprises more bearing fluid than a second bearing fluid region downstream of the pressure dam (232) during rotation of the rotor (166) such that a first pressure of the first bearing fluid region is higher than a second pressure of the second bearing fluid region.
 
7. A system, comprising:

a rotary isobaric pressure exchanger (160, IPX) configured to exchange pressures between a first fluid and a second fluid, wherein the first fluid has a pressure higher than the second fluid, comprising:

a sleeve (164);

a cylindrical rotor (166) disposed within the sleeve (164) in a concentric arrangement, wherein the cylindrical rotor (166) is configured to rotate circumferentially about a rotational axis and has a first end face and a second end face disposed opposite each other;

a first end cover (186) having a first surface that interfaces with the first end face of the cylindrical rotor (166);

a second end cover (184) having a second surface that interfaces with the second end face of the cylindrical rotor (166);

characterized in that the rotary isobaric pressure exchanger (160) further comprises

a first plurality of recesses (242) formed in the first surface of the first end cover (186), wherein the first plurality of recesses (242) are configured to direct a bearing fluid in an axial direction to apply a hydrodynamic force against the first end face to keep the cylindrical rotor (166) from contacting the first end cover (186) during rotation of the cylindrical rotor (166).


 
8. The system of claim 7, wherein at least one recess of the first plurality of recesses (242) comprises a first side (248) and a second side (252) extending axially inward toward a third side (258), and wherein the first side (248) and the second side (252) converge toward the third side (258).
 
9. The system of claim 8, wherein the first side (248) of the at least one recess is configured to receive the bearing fluid (208), and the second side (252) of each recess of the plurality of recesses (242) is configured to form a flow path to enable trapped debris in the bearing fluid to exit the plurality of recesses (242).
 
10. The system of claim 8 or 9, wherein the first side (248), the second side (252), or both form an angled edge or a curved edge with the third side (258).
 
11. The system of claim 8, 9 or 10, wherein the first side (248), the second side (252), or both the first side and the second side of the at least one recess is angled at an obtuse angle relative to the third side (258).
 
12. The system of any one of claims 7-11, wherein the cylindrical rotor (166) disposed within the sleeve (164) comprises a wedge-shaped cross sectional area relative to the rotational axis or comprises an arcuate-shaped cross sectional area relative to the rotational axis.
 
13. The system of any one of claims 7-12, comprising a second plurality of recesses formed in the second surface of the second end cover (184), wherein the second plurality of recesses are configured to direct a bearing fluid in an axial direction to apply a hydrodynamic force against the second end face to keep the cylindrical rotor (166) from contacting the second end cover (184) during rotation of the cylindrical rotor (166).
 
14. The system of any one of claims 7-13, comprising a plurality of airfoil shaped indentations disposed in the first surface of the first end cover (186).
 
15. The system of any one of the preceding claims, comprising a frac system (10) having the hydraulic transfer system or the rotary isobaric pressure exchanger (160, IPX), wherein the first fluid comprises a proppant free fluid and the second fluid comprises a frac fluid having proppants.
 


Ansprüche

1. System, umfassend:

ein hydraulisches Transfersystem, das konfiguriert ist, um Drücke zwischen einem ersten Fluid und einem zweiten Fluid auszutauschen, wobei das erste Fluid einen höheren Druck als das zweite Fluid aufweist, umfassend:

eine Hülse (164);

einen zylindrischen Rotor (166), der in der Hülse (164) in einer konzentrischen Anordnung angeordnet ist, wobei der zylindrische Rotor (166) so konfiguriert ist, dass er sich in Umfangsrichtung um eine Drehachse dreht und eine erste Stirnfläche und eine zweite Stirnfläche aufweist, die einander gegenüberliegend angeordnet sind;

eine erste Endabdeckung (186) mit einer ersten Oberfläche, die mit der ersten Endfläche des zylindrischen Rotors (166) gekoppelt ist; und

eine zweite Endabdeckung (184) mit einer zweiten Oberfläche, die mit der zweiten Endfläche des zylindrischen Rotors (166) gekoppelt ist;

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass

ein radiales Spiel zwischen der Hülse (164) und dem zylindrischen Rotor (166) um die Drehachse variiert.


 
2. System nach Anspruch 1, wobei das hydraulische Transfersystem einen rotierenden isobaren Druckaustauscher (160) oder einen hydraulischen Turbolader umfasst.
 
3. System nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Hülse (164) einen elliptisch geformten Querschnitt in einer radialen Richtung senkrecht zur Drehachse aufweist.
 
4. System nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei ein erster Lagerbereich zwischen der Hülse (164) und dem zylindrischen Rotor (166) an einer ersten Umfangsstelle relativ zu der Drehachse mehr Lagerfluid umfasst als ein zweiter Lagerfluidbereich zwischen der Hülse (164) und dem zylindrischen Rotor (166) an einer zweiten Umfangsstelle relativ zur Drehachse während der Drehung des Rotors (166), so dass ein erster Druck des ersten Abschnitts höher ist als ein zweiter Druck des zweiten Abschnitts.
 
5. System nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das hydraulische Transfersystem ein rotierender isobarer Druckaustauscher (160, IPX) ist, wobei der rotierende isobare Druckaustauscher ferner umfasst
einen Druckdamm (232), der sich von einer Oberfläche der Hülse (164) in einer radialer Richtung in Richtung des zylindrischen Rotors (166) erstreckt, wobei der Druckdamm (232) so konfiguriert ist, dass er ein Lagerfluid umleitet, das um den zylindrischen Rotor (166) herum zwischen dem zylindrischen Rotor (166) und der Hülse (164) in radialer Richtung in Richtung des zylindrischen Rotors (166) fließt.
 
6. System nach Anspruch 5, wobei ein erster Lagerfluidbereich stromaufwärts des Druckdamms (232) mehr Lagerfluid umfasst als ein zweiter Lagerfluidbereich stromabwärts des Druckdamms (232) während der Rotation des Rotors (166), so dass ein erster Druck des ersten Lagerfluidbereichs höher ist als ein zweiter Druck des zweiten Lagerfluidbereichs.
 
7. System, umfassend:

einen rotierenden isobaren Druckaustauscher (160, IPX), der konfiguriert ist, um Drücke zwischen einem ersten Fluid und einem zweiten Fluid auszutauschen, wobei das erste Fluid einen höheren Druck als das zweite Fluid aufweist, umfassend:

eine Hülse (164);

einen zylindrischen Rotor (166), der in der Hülse (164) in einer konzentrischen Anordnung angeordnet ist, wobei der zylindrische Rotor (166) so konfiguriert ist, dass er sich in Umfangsrichtung um eine Drehachse dreht und eine erste Stirnfläche und eine zweite Stirnfläche aufweist, die einander gegenüberliegend angeordnet sind;

eine erste Endabdeckung (186) mit einer ersten Oberfläche, die mit der ersten Endfläche des zylindrischen Rotors (166) verbunden ist;

eine zweite Endabdeckung (184) mit einer zweiten Oberfläche, die mit der zweiten Endfläche des zylindrischen Rotors (166) verbunden ist;

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der rotierende isobare Druckaustauscher (160) ferner umfasst

eine erste Vielzahl von Ausnehmungen (242), die in der ersten Oberfläche der ersten Endabdeckung (186) ausgebildet sind, wobei die erste Vielzahl von Ausnehmungen (242) so konfiguriert ist, dass sie ein Lagerfluid in axialer Richtung lenken, um eine hydrodynamische Kraft gegen die erste Endfläche aufzubringen, um zu verhindern, dass der zylindrischen Rotor (166) die erste Endabdeckung (186) während der Drehung des zylindrischen Rotors (166) berührt.


 
8. System nach Anspruch 7, wobei wenigstens eine Ausnehmung der ersten Vielzahl von Ausnehmungen (242) eine erste Seite (248) und eine zweite Seite (252) umfasst, die sich axial nach innen zu einer dritten Seite (258) erstrecken, und wobei die erste Seite (248) und die zweite Seite (252) zur dritten Seite (258) hin zusammenlaufen.
 
9. System nach Anspruch 8, wobei die erste Seite (248) der wenigstens einen Ausnehmung so konfiguriert ist, dass sie das Lagerfluid (208) aufnimmt, und die zweite Seite (252) jeder Ausnehmung der Vielzahl von Ausnehmungen (242) so konfiguriert ist, dass sie einen Strömungsweg bildet, um eingeschlossenen Ablagerungen im Lagerfluid zu ermöglichen, die Vielzahl von Aussparungen (242) zu verlassen.
 
10. System nach Anspruch 8 oder 9, wobei die erste Seite (248), die zweite Seite (252) oder beide eine abgewinkelte Kante oder gekrümmte Kante mit der dritten Seite (258) bilden.
 
11. System nach Anspruch 8, 9 oder 10, wobei die erste Seite (248), die zweite Seite (252) oder sowohl die erste Seite als auch die zweite Seite der wenigstens einen Ausnehmung in einem stumpfen Winkel relativ zur dritten Seite (258) abgewinkelt sind.
 
12. System nach einem der Ansprüche 7-11, wobei der zylindrische Rotor (166), der in der Hülse (164) angeordnet ist, eine keilförmige Querschnittsfläche relativ zur Drehachse aufweist oder eine bogenförmige Querschnittsfläche relativ zur Drehachse aufweist.
 
13. System nach einem der Ansprüche 7-12, umfassend eine zweite Vielzahl von Ausnehmungen, die in der zweiten Oberfläche der zweiten Endabdeckung (184) ausgebildet sind, wobei die zweite Vielzahl von Ausnehmungen konfiguriert ist, um ein Lagerfluid in axialer Richtung zu lenken, um eine hydrodynamische Kraft gegen die zweite Endfläche aufzubringen, um zu verhindern, dass der zylindrische Rotor (166) die zweite Endabdeckung (184) während der Drehung des zylindrischen Rotors (166) berührt.
 
14. System nach Anspruch 7-13, umfassend eine Vielzahl flügelförmiger Vertiefungen, die in der ersten Oberfläche der ersten Endabdeckung (186) angeordnet sind.
 
15. System nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, umfassend ein Frac-System (10) mit dem hydraulischen Transfersystem oder dem rotierenden isobaren Druckaustauscher (160, IPX), wobei das erste Fluid ein Proppant-freies Fluid umfasst und das zweite Fluid ein Frac-Fluid mit Proppants umfasst.
 


Revendications

1. Système, comprenant :

un système de transfert hydraulique configuré pour échanger des pressions entre un premier fluide et un deuxième fluide, dans lequel le premier fluide a une pression supérieure au deuxième fluide, comprenant :

un manchon (164) ;

un rotor cylindrique (166) disposé au sein du manchon (164) dans un agencement concentrique, le rotor cylindrique (166) étant configuré pour tourner circonférentiellement autour d'un axe de rotation et ayant une première face d'extrémité et une deuxième face d'extrémité disposées à l'opposé l'une de l'autre ;

un premier couvercle d'extrémité (186) ayant une première surface qui interagit avec la première face d'extrémité du rotor cylindrique (166) ; et

un deuxième couvercle d'extrémité (184) ayant une deuxième surface qui interagit avec la deuxième face d'extrémité du rotor cylindrique (166) ;

caractérisé en ce que

un jeu radial entre le manchon (164) et le rotor cylindrique (166) varie autour de l'axe de rotation.


 
2. Système selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le système de transfert hydraulique comprend un échangeur de pression isobare rotatif (160) ou un turbocompresseur hydraulique.
 
3. Système selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, dans lequel le manchon (164) comprend une section transversale de forme elliptique dans une direction radiale perpendiculaire à l'axe de rotation.
 
4. Système selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel une première région porteuse entre le manchon (164) et le rotor cylindrique (166) en un premier emplacement circonférentiel par rapport à l'axe de rotation comprend davantage de fluide porteur qu'une deuxième région de fluide porteur entre le manchon (164) et le rotor cylindrique (166) en un deuxième emplacement circonférentiel par rapport à l'axe de rotation durant la rotation du rotor (166) de telle sorte qu'une première pression de la première section soit supérieure à une deuxième pression de la deuxième section.
 
5. Système selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le système de transfert hydraulique est un échangeur de pression isobare rotatif (160, IPX), l'échangeur de pression isobare rotatif comprenant en outre

un barrage de pression (232) s'étendant à partir d'une surface du manchon (164) dans une direction radiale vers le rotor cylindrique (166), le barrage de pression (232) étant configuré pour rediriger un fluide porteur s'écoulant circonférentiellement autour du rotor cylindrique (166) entre le rotor cylindrique (166) et le manchon (164) dans la direction radiale vers le rotor cylindrique (166).


 
6. Système selon la revendication 5, dans lequel une première région de fluide porteur en amont du barrage de pression (232) comprend davantage de fluide porteur qu'une deuxième région de fluide porteur en aval du barrage de pression (232) durant la rotation du rotor (166) de telle sorte qu'une première pression de la première région de fluide porteur soit supérieure à une deuxième pression de la deuxième région de fluide porteur.
 
7. Système, comprenant :

un échangeur de pression isobare rotatif (160, IPX) configuré pour échanger des pressions entre un premier fluide et un deuxième fluide, dans lequel le premier fluide a une pression supérieure au deuxième fluide, comprenant :

un manchon (164) ;

un rotor cylindrique (166) disposé au sein du manchon (164) dans un agencement concentrique, le rotor cylindrique (166) étant configuré pour tourner circonférentiellement autour d'un axe de rotation et ayant une première face d'extrémité et une deuxième face d'extrémité disposées à l'opposé l'une de l'autre ;

un premier couvercle d'extrémité (186) ayant une première surface qui interagit avec la première face d'extrémité du rotor cylindrique (166) ;

un deuxième couvercle d'extrémité (184) ayant une deuxième surface qui interagit avec la deuxième face d'extrémité du rotor cylindrique (166) ;

caractérisé en ce que l'échangeur de pression isobare rotatif (160) comprend en outre

une première pluralité d'évidements (242) formés dans la première surface du premier couvercle d'extrémité (186), la première pluralité d'évidements (242) étant configurée pour diriger un fluide porteur dans une direction axiale afin d'appliquer une force hydrodynamique contre la première face d'extrémité afin d'empêcher le rotor cylindrique (166) d'entrer en contact avec le premier couvercle d'extrémité (186) durant la rotation du rotor cylindrique (166).


 
8. Système selon la revendication 7, dans lequel au moins un évidement de la première pluralité d'évidements (242) comprend un premier côté (248) et un deuxième côté (252) s'étendant axialement vers l'intérieur vers un troisième côté (258), et dans lequel le premier côté (248) et le deuxième côté (252) convergent vers le troisième côté (258).
 
9. Système selon la revendication 8, dans lequel le premier côté (248) de l'au moins un évidement est configuré pour recevoir le fluide porteur (208), et le deuxième côté (252) de chaque évidement de la pluralité d'évidements (242) est configuré pour former une voie d'écoulement afin de permettre à des débris piégés dans le fluide porteur de sortir de la pluralité d'évidements (242).
 
10. Système selon la revendication 8 ou la revendication 9, dans lequel le premier côté (248), le deuxième côté (252), ou les deux forment un bord angulaire ou un bord incurvé avec le troisième côté (258).
 
11. Système selon la revendication 8, la revendication 9 ou la revendication 10, dans lequel le premier côté (248), le deuxième côté (252), ou à la fois le premier côté et le deuxième côté de l'au moins un évidement sont inclinés à un angle obtus par rapport au troisième côté (258).
 
12. Système selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 11, dans lequel le rotor cylindrique (166) disposé au sein du manchon (164) possède une aire de section transversale cunéiforme par rapport à l'axe de rotation ou possède une aire de section transversale de forme arquée par rapport à l'axe de rotation.
 
13. Système selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 12, comprenant une deuxième pluralité d'évidements formés dans la deuxième surface du deuxième couvercle d'extrémité (184), la deuxième pluralité d'évidements étant configurée pour diriger un fluide porteur dans une direction axiale afin d'appliquer une force hydrodynamique contre la deuxième face d'extrémité afin d'empêcher le rotor cylindrique (166) d'entrer en contact avec le deuxième couvercle d'extrémité (184) durant la rotation du rotor cylindrique (166).
 
14. Système selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 13, comprenant une pluralité d'indentations en forme de surface portante disposées dans la première surface du premier couvercle d'extrémité (186).
 
15. Système selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant un système de fracturation (10) ayant le système de transfert hydraulique ou l'échangeur de pression isobare rotatif (160, IPX), dans lequel le premier fluide comprend un fluide exempt d'agent de soutènement et le deuxième fluide comprend un fluide de fracturation ayant des agents de soutènement.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description