(19)
(11)EP 3 228 867 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
11.12.2019 Bulletin 2019/50

(21)Application number: 17157573.1

(22)Date of filing:  27.06.2012
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F04C 18/16(2006.01)

(54)

SCREW COMPRESSOR

SCHRAUBENVERDICHTER

COMPRESSEUR À VIS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 28.02.2012 BE 201200118

(43)Date of publication of application:
11.10.2017 Bulletin 2017/41

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
12758989.3 / 2839160

(73)Proprietor: ATLAS COPCO AIRPOWER N.V.
2610 Wilrijk (BE)

(72)Inventor:
  • DESIRON, Andries
    2610 Wilrijk (BE)

(74)Representative: V.O. 
P.O. Box 87930
2508 DH Den Haag
2508 DH Den Haag (NL)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 538 973
WO-A1-03/008808
DE-A1- 2 329 799
JP-A- S59 215 986
US-A- 5 246 349
US-A1- 2010 247 361
EP-A2- 0 629 778
WO-A1-2008/014433
DE-A1- 2 715 610
US-A- 5 222 874
US-A1- 2007 241 627
US-B2- 6 652 250
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to a screw compressor.

    [0002] More specifically the present invention relates to a screw compressor according to the pre-characterizing portion of claim 1.

    [0003] Such screw compressors are already known from US 2007/0241627 A1, which however present a number of disadvantages or which are open to improvement. The teachings of US 2007/0241627 A1 will be discussed further below.

    [0004] In order to be able to drive the compressor rotors, in the known screw compressors generally the motor shaft of the drive motor is directly or indirectly, for example via a drive belt or a gearwheel transmission, coupled to the rotor shaft of one of the compressor rotors.

    [0005] Hereby the rotor shaft of the compressor concerned must be adequately sealed, which is far from easy.

    [0006] Indeed, a certain pressure supplied by the screw compressor prevails in the compression housing, which has to be screened off from the compressor sections that are not under this pressure or from the ambient pressure.

    [0007] For such applications, a "contact seal" is often used.

    [0008] The rotor shaft of the compressor rotor concerned however turns at very high speeds, such that such a type of seal brings about enormous power losses during the operation of the screw compressor, resulting in a reduced efficiency of the screw compressor.

    [0009] Moreover, such a "contact seal" is subject to wear, and if it is not carefully installed such a "contact seal" is very sensitive to the occurrence of leaks.

    [0010] Another aspect of the known screw compressors of the type described above that is open to improvement, is that both the drive motor, the screw compressor and the bearings have to be provided with lubrication and cooling, that generally consist of separate systems and thus are not attuned to one another, require a number of different types of lubricants and/or coolants, and are thereby complicated or expensive.

    [0011] In addition, in such known screw compressors with separate cooling systems for the drive motor and compressor rotors, the possibilities for recovering the lost heat stored in the coolants in an optimum way are not fully utilised.

    [0012] A known screw compressor in which the compressor housing is connected to the motor housing, and which screw compressor is provided with a combined cooling and lubrication circuit, is disclosed in US 2007/0241627. US2007/0241627 discloses a vertically arranged screw compressor wherein the motor is connected to the compressor housing by means of an adaptor plate. The same coolant which is used to cool the motor is used to lubricate the compressor rotors. After lubricating and cooling the air screw compressor, the coolant is cooled, filtered and recirculated through the system following a coolant communication path. The adapter plate has a shaft opening through which the rotor shaft extends. Because the same coolant is used throughout the compressor system, there is no shaft seal needed between the motor and the compressor. The adapter plate does provide a favorable clearance between the cavities within the permanent magnet motor and the air screw compressor.

    [0013] JP S59 215986 discloses another screw compressor wherein the compressor housing is enclosed by an external casing. Air is drawn in via the motor housing thus cooling the motor stator coils. Oil is inserted in the compression chamber wherein the gas is compressed. The compressed oil/gas mixture is separated in the high pressure chamber between the compressor housing and the external casing. The separated oil is sucked out from the oil outlet by an oil pump, cooled by an oil cooler, and sent back to the screw compressor.

    [0014] The purpose of the invention is thus to provide a solution to one or more of the foregoing disadvantages and any other disadvantages.

    [0015] More particularly, it is an objective of the invention to offer a screw compressor that is robust and simple, whereby the risk of wear and leaks are kept to a minimum, whereby the lubrication of bearings and the cooling of components is realised by very simple means and whereby improved recovery of the heat losses occurring can be achieved.

    [0016] To this end the invention provides a screw compressor in accordance with claim 1.

    [0017] A first big advantage of such a screw compressor according to the invention is that the compressor housing forms a whole, consisting of a compression housing and motor housing that are directly attached to one another, so that the drive means of the compressor rotors, in the form of a drive motor, are integrated directly in the screw compressor.

    [0018] It should be noted here that the compression chamber and the motor chamber do not have to be sealed off from one another, as due to the direct installation of the motor housing and compression housing together, the motor shaft and one of the compressor rotors can be coupled completely within the contours of the compressor housing, without having to pass through a section that is at a different pressure, such as is usual in the known screw compressors, for example, whereby the motor shaft is coupled to a compressor rotor, whereby a section of the coupling is exposed to the ambient pressure.

    [0019] The characteristic that such a seal between the compression chamber and the motor chamber is not necessary, constitutes a considerable advantage of a screw compressor according to the invention, as a higher energy efficiency of the screw compressor is obtained than with the known screw compressors, and no wear of such a seal is possible and leaks as a result of the poor installation of such a seal are avoided.

    [0020] Another advantage of such a screw compressor according to the invention, whereby the motor chamber and the compression chamber form a closed whole, is that no external air cooling is required, so that the screw compressor can be better insulated with respect to the environment on a thermal level, and certainly also on an acoustic level, such that the noise generated by the screw compressor can be greatly reduced compared to the existing screw compressors.

    [0021] Through better thermal insulation of the screw compressor, sensitive electronic components installed in the vicinity of the screw compressor are more easily or better shielded against the heat produced by the screw compressor.

    [0022] Another very important aspect of a screw compressor according to the invention is that the same lubricants and coolants are used in a very simple way for both the drive motor and the compressor rotors, as the motor chamber and the compression chamber are not separated from one another by a seal.

    [0023] According to the invention, the screw compressor is provided with a fluid, for example an oil, with which both the drive motor and the compressor rotors are cooled and/or lubricated.

    [0024] Thus the design of the screw compressor according to the invention is greatly simplified, fewer different coolants and/or different lubricants are needed, and the whole can thus be constructed more cheaply.

    [0025] Moreover, it is the case that by having a fluid circulate during a single cycle both along the drive motor and along the compressor elements to cool the screw compressor, this fluid undergoes a greater temperature change than when separate cooling systems are used for the drive motor and the compressor rotors.

    [0026] Indeed, this fluid will absorb heat from both the drive motor and the compressor elements instead of just heat from one of the two components. A consequence of this is that the heat stored in the fluid can be more easily recovered than when the fluid only undergoes a small temperature change.

    [0027] However, account must be taken of the fact that a different operating temperature will have to be chosen for the drive motor or the compressor rotors.

    [0028] Another advantage of a screw compressor according to the invention is due to its characteristic that the rotor shafts of the compressor rotors, as well as the motor shaft, extend along axial directions that are oblique or transverse to the horizontal plane.

    [0029] Indeed, such an oblique position of the shafts with respect to the horizontal plane stimulates a good flow of the lubricants and/or coolants, as in principle they can flow over the drive motor and the compressor rotors under the influence of gravity, without additional means or additional energy being required for this purpose.

    [0030] According to a preferred embodiment of the screw compressor according to the invention, the screw compressor is preferably a vertical screw compressor, whereby in this case the rotor shafts of the compressor rotors, as well as the motor shaft, in normal operation of the screw compressor extend along axial directions that are vertical.

    [0031] As a result the effect of gravity can of course be reinforced, as a least insofar the channels for lubricants and coolants also extend vertically.

    [0032] With the intention of better showing the characteristics of the invention, a preferred embodiment of a screw compressor according to the invention is described hereinafter by way of an example, without any limiting nature, with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:

    figure 1 schematically shows a screw compressor according to the invention; and,

    figure 2 schematically shows an assembly to illustrate the use of such a screw compressor according to the invention.



    [0033] The screw compressor 1 according to the invention shown in figure 1 first and foremost contains a compression chamber 2 that is formed by a compression housing 3.

    [0034] In the compression chamber 2 a pair of meshed helical compressor rotors are rotatably mounted, more specifically a first helical compressor rotor 4 and a second helical compressor rotor 5.

    [0035] These helical compressor rotors 4 and 5 have a helical profile 6 that is affixed around a rotor shaft of the compressor rotor 4 and 5 concerned, respectively rotor shaft 7 and rotor shaft 8.

    [0036] Hereby the rotor shaft 7 extends along a first axial direction AA', while the rotor shaft 8 extends along a second axial direction BB' .

    [0037] Moreover, the first axial direction AA' and the second axial direction BB' are parallel to one another.

    [0038] Moreover, there is an inlet 9 through the walls of the compression housing 3 up to the compression chamber 2 for drawing in air, for example air from the surrounds 10 or originating from a previous compressor stage, as well as an outlet 11 for the removal of compressed air, for example to a compressed air consumer or a subsequent compressor stage.

    [0039] The compression chamber 2 of the screw compressor 1 is, as is known, formed by the inside walls of the compression housing 3, which have a form that closely fit the external contours of the pair of helical compressor rotors 4 and 5 in order to drive the air drawn in via the inlet 9, during the rotation of the compressor rotors 4 and 5, between the helical profile 6 and the inside walls of the compression housing 3 in the direction of the outlet 11, and thus to compress the air, and to build up pressure in the compression chamber 2. The direction of rotation of the compressor rotors 4 and 5 determines the drive direction and thus also determines which of the passages 9 and 11 will act as the inlet 9 or the outlet 11.

    [0040] The inlet 9 is hereby at the low pressure end 12 of the compressor rotors 4 and 5, while the outlet 11 is near the high pressure end 13 of the compressor rotors 4 and 5.

    [0041] Moreover, the screw compressor is provided with a drive motor 14.

    [0042] This drive motor 14 is provided with a motor housing 15 that is affixed above the compression housing 3 and whose inside walls enclose a motor chamber 16. In the motor chamber 16, a motor shaft 17 of the drive motor 14 is rotatably mounted, and in the embodiment shown this motor shaft 17 is directly coupled to the first helical compressor rotor 4 in order to drive it, but this does not necessarily need to be the case.

    [0043] The motor shaft 17 extends along a third axial direction CC', which in this case also coincides with the axial direction AA' of the rotor shaft 7, so that the motor shaft 17 is in line with the compressor rotor 4 concerned.

    [0044] To couple the motor shaft 17 to the compressor rotor 4, one end 18 of the motor shaft 17 is provided with a cylindrical recess 19 in which the end 20 of the rotor shaft 7, that is located close to a low pressure end 12 of the compressor rotor 4, can be suitably inserted.

    [0045] Moreover, the motor shaft 17 is provided with a passage 21 in which a bolt 22 is affixed, which is screwed into an internal screw thread provided in the aforementioned end 20 of the rotor shaft 7.

    [0046] Of course there are many other ways of coupling the motor shaft 17 to the rotor shaft 7, which are not excluded from the invention.

    [0047] Alternatively it is indeed not excluded that a screw compressor 1 according to the invention is constructed such that the motor shaft 17 also forms the rotor shaft 7 of one of the compressor rotors 4, by constructing the motor shaft 17 and rotor shaft 7 as a single piece, such that no coupling means are needed for coupling the motor shaft 17 and rotor shaft 7.

    [0048] Moreover, in the example shown in figure 1, the drive motor 14 is an electric motor 14 with a motor rotor 23 and motor stator 24, whereby more specifically in the example shown the motor rotor 23 of the electric motor 14 is equipped with permanent magnets 25 to generate a rotor field, while the motor stator 24 is equipped with electrical windings 26 to generate a stator field that is switched and acts in a known way on the rotor field in order to bring about a rotation of the motor rotor 23, but other types of drive motors 14 are not excluded according to the invention.

    [0049] According to a preferred embodiment of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention, the electric motor 14 is a synchronous motor 14.

    [0050] It is highly characteristic of the invention that the compression housing 3 and the motor housing 15 are connected directly together, in this case by bolts 27, to form a compressor housing 28 of the screw compressor 1, whereby more specifically the motor chamber 16 and the compression chamber 2 are not sealed off from one another.

    [0051] In the example shown the compression housing 3 and the motor housing 15 are actually constructed as separate parts of the compressor housing 28, that more or less correspond to the parts of the screw compressor 1 that respectively contain the drive motor 14 and the compressor rotors 4 and 5.

    [0052] However, attention is drawn here to the fact that the motor housing 15 and the compression housing 3 do not necessarily have to be constructed as such separate parts, but just as well can be constructed as a single whole.

    [0053] As an alternative it is not excluded that the compressor housing 28 is constructed from more or fewer parts, that entirely or partially contain the compressor rotors 4 and 5 or the drive motor 14 or all these components together.

    [0054] It is essential for the invention that, in contrast to what is the case with known screw compressors, no seal is used that separates the motor chamber 16 and the compression chamber 2 from one another, which for this reason alone, as explained in the introduction, is a considerable advantage of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention, on account of the lower energy losses, less wear and lower risk of leaks.

    [0055] In order to be able to control the electric drive motor 14 without problems, without having to use sensors that are exposed to the high pressures present in the set formed by the motor chamber 2 and the compressor chamber 16, the inductance of the electric motor 14 along the direct axis DD' , whereby the direction DD' of this direct axis corresponds to the primary direction DD' of the rotor field, is sufficiently different to the inductance of the electric motor 14 along an axis QQ' perpendicular to it, more specifically the quadrature axis QQ' .

    [0056] Preferably these inductances of the electric motor 14 according to the aforementioned direct axis DD' and the quadrature axis QQ' are different enough such that the position of the motor rotor 23 in the motor stator 24 can be determined by measuring the aforementioned inductance difference in the vicinity outside the compressor housing 28.

    [0057] According to the invention the drive motor 14 must of course also be of a type that can withstand the compressor pressure.

    [0058] A practical problem that must be solved with such drive motors 14 is to do with the electrical connections of the drive motor 14, and more specifically the transit holes for the electric cables from the outside, where atmospheric pressures prevail, through the motor housing 15 to the motor chamber 16, which in a screw compressor 1 according to the invention is under compressor pressure, which of course is not a simple problem.

    [0059] To realise such an electrical connection of the drive motor 14, according to the invention use can be made of a connection in which a glass-to-metal seal is applied.

    [0060] Metal pins are embedded in the openings in the motor housing 15, more specifically by sealing them off in the openings with a glass substance that is melted in around the pins .

    [0061] Then the electric cables concerned can be connected to both ends of the pins.

    [0062] Furthermore the drive motor 14 is preferably of a type that can generate a sufficiently large start-up torque in order to start the screw compressor 1 when the compression chamber 2 is under compressor pressure, whereby the release of compressed air when the screw compressor 1 is stopped can be avoided.

    [0063] The fact that the compression chamber 2 and the motor chamber 16 and the compression chamber 1 form a closed whole, in combination with another characteristic of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention, more specifically that the screw compressor 1 is not a horizontal, but preferably a vertical screw compressor 1, yields other important technical advantages, as will be demonstrated hereinafter.

    [0064] A vertical screw compressor 1 here means that the rotor shafts 7 and 8 of the compressor rotors 4 and 5, as well as the motor shaft 17 of the drive motor 14, during normal operation of the screw compressor 1 extend along axial directions AA', BB' and CC' that are vertical.

    [0065] However, according to the invention it is not excluded that the perfect vertical position can be departed from, for example by applying an oblique non-horizontal position.

    [0066] According to an even more preferred embodiment of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention, the compression housing 2 hereby forms a base 29 or bottom part of the entire compressor housing 28 of the screw compressor 1, while the motor housing 15 forms a head 30 or top part of the compressor housing 28.

    [0067] Furthermore, the low pressure ends 12 of the compressor rotors 4 and 5 are preferably the ends 12 that are the closest to the head 30 of the compressor housing 29, and the high pressure ends 13 of the compressor rotors 4 and 5 are the ends 13 that are the closest to the base 29 of the compressor housing 28, so that the inlet 12 for drawing in air and the low pressure side of the screw compressor 1 are higher than the outlet 13 for removing compressed air.

    [0068] This configuration is particularly useful to obtain efficient cooling and lubrication of the drive motor 14 and compressor rotors 4 and 5, and also to maintain operational reliability without additional means, when the screw compressor 1 is stopped, more specifically because the coolant and lubricant present can flow out under the effect of gravity.

    [0069] The components of the screw compressor 1 that certainly must be lubricated and cooled are of course the components that rotate, more specifically the compressor rotors 4 and 5, the motor shaft 17, as well as the bearings with which these components are supported in the compressor housing 28.

    [0070] A useful bearing arrangement is also shown in figure 1, as it enables the motor shaft 17 and the rotor shaft 7 and/or rotor shaft 8 to be constructed with a limited cross- section, or at least with a smaller cross-section than is generally the case with the known screw compressors of a similar type.

    [0071] In this case the rotor shafts 7 and 8 are hereby supported at both ends 12 and 13 by a bearing, while the motor shaft 17 is also supported by bearings at its end 31 on the head side of the compressor housing 28.

    [0072] More specifically, the compressor rotors 4 and 5 are supported axially and radially in the compressor housing 28 by bearings at their high pressure end 13, by means of a number of outlet bearings 32 and 33, in this case respectively a cylindrical bearing or needle bearing 32 in combination with a deep groove ball bearing 33.

    [0073] On the other hand, at their low pressure end 12 the compressor rotors 4 and 5 are only radially supported in the compressor housing 28 by bearings , by means of an inlet bearing 34, which in this case is also a cylindrical bearing or needle bearing 34

    [0074] Finally, at the end 31 opposite the driven compressor rotor 4, the motor shaft 17 is supported axially and radially in the compressor housing 28 by bearings, by means of a motor bearing 35, which in this case is a deep groove ball bearing 35.

    [0075] Tensioning means 36 are hereby provided at the end 31, in the form of a spring element 36, and more specifically a cupped spring washer 36, whereby these tensioning means 36 are intended to exert an axial pre-load on the motor bearing 35, and this pre-load is oriented along the axial direction CC of the motor shaft 17 in the direction against the force generated by the meshed helical compressor rotors 4 and 5, so that the axial bearing at the high pressure end of the compressor rotors 4 and 5 are somewhat relieved.

    [0076] Of course many other bearing arrangements for supporting the rotor shafts 7 and 8 and the motor shaft 17, realised with all kinds of different bearings, are not excluded from the invention.

    [0077] For cooling and lubricating the screw compressor 1, the screw compressor 1 according to the invention is preferably provided with a fluid 37, for example an oil, with which both the drive motor 14 and the compressor rotors 4 and 5 are cooled or lubricated, and preferably both the cooling function and the lubricating function are fulfilled by the same fluid 37.

    [0078] Furthermore, a screw compressor 1 according to the invention is equipped with a cooling circuit 38 for cooling both the drive motor 14 and the screw compressor 1 and through which fluid 37 can flow from the head 30 of the compressor housing 28 to the base 29 of the compressor housing 28.

    [0079] In the example shown this cooling circuit 38 consists of cooling channels 39 that are provided in the motor housing 15 and of the compression chamber 2 itself.

    [0080] The cooling channels 39 ensure that the fluid 37 does not get into the air gap between the motor rotor 23 and the motor stator 24, which would give rise to energy losses and similar .

    [0081] In the example shown, the majority of the cooling channels 39 are oriented axially and some parts of the cooling channels 39 are also concentric to the axis AA', but the orientation of these cooling channels 39 does not play much of a role, as long as a good flow of the fluid 37 is assured.

    [0082] According to the invention it is the intention here that the fluid 37 is driven through the cooling channels 39 under a compressor pressure generated by the screw compressor 1 itself, as will be explained hereinafter on the basis of figure 2.

    [0083] Thus a sufficiently large flow of fluid 37 can be obtained through the cooling channels 39, which is necessary in view of the considerable heat generated in the screw compressor 1.

    [0084] On the other hand the screw compressor 1 is also provided with a lubrication circuit 40 for lubricating the motor bearing 35 as well as the inlet bearings 34.

    [0085] This lubrication circuit 40 in this case consists of one or more branches 41 to the cooling channels 39 in the motor housing 15 for the supply of fluid 37 to the motor bearing 35, and of outlet channels 42 for removing fluid 37 from the motor bearing 35 up to the inlet bearings 34, from where the fluid 37 can flow in the compression chamber 2.

    [0086] In this way the fluid 37 can easily flow from the motor bearing 35 to the inlet bearings 34, from where the fluid 37 can further freely flow over the compressor rotors 4 and 5.

    [0087] In the example shown the branches 41 primarily extend in a radial direction, but again this is not necessarily the case according to the invention.

    [0088] Moreover the branches 41 have a diameter that is substantially smaller than the diameter of the cooling channels 39, such that only a small amount of fluid flows through the lubrication circuit 40 compared to the amount of fluid 37 that flows through the cooling circuit 38 for the cooling.

    [0089] It is hereby the intention that the flow of fluid 37 in the lubrication circuit 40, and certainly in the axially extending outlet channels 42, primarily takes place under the effect of gravity, and only to a small extent as a result of a compressor pressure generated by the screw compressor 1, so that when the screw compressor 1 is stopped the fluid 37 can flow out and does not accumulate.

    [0090] Another advantageous characteristic is that a reservoir 43 is provided under the motor bearing 35 to receive the fluid 37, to which the branches 41 and the outlet channels 42 are connected.

    [0091] Moreover, the reservoir 43 is hereby preferably sealed from the motor shaft 17 by means of a labyrinth seal 44.

    [0092] Another aspect of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention is that a lubrication circuit 45 is provided in the base 29 to lubricate the outlet bearings 32 and 33.

    [0093] This lubrication circuit 45 consists of one or more supply channels 46 for the supply of fluid 37 from the compression chamber 2 to the outlet bearings 32 and 33, as well as one or more outlet channels 47 for the return of fluid 37 from the outlet bearings 32 and 33 to the compression chamber 2. Hereby it is advantageous for the outlet channels 47 to lead to the compression chamber 2 above the entrance of the supply channels 46 in order to obtain the necessary pressure difference for a smooth flow of fluid 37 through the lubrication circuit 45.

    [0094] Moreover, according to the invention the motor housing 15 and/or the compressor housing 3, with their cooling channels 39, branches 41, outlet channels 42, lubrication circuit 45 and reservoir 43, are preferably produced by extrusion, as this is a very simple manufacturing process. Thus it will be understood that a very simple system is realised for lubricating the various bearings 32 to 35, as well as for cooling the drive motor 14 and the compressor rotors 4 and 5.

    [0095] Figure 2 shows a more practical arrangement in which a screw compressor 1 according to the invention is applied.

    [0096] An inlet pipe 48 is hereby connected to the inlet 9 of the screw compressor 1 in which there is an inlet valve 49, which enables the inflow of the air supply to the screw compressor 1 to be controlled.

    [0097] According to a preferred embodiment of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention, this inlet valve 49 is preferably a non-controlled or self-regulating valve, and in an even more preferred embodiment this inlet valve 49 is a non-return valve 49, which is indeed also the case in the example of figure 2.

    [0098] An outlet pipe 50 is connected to the outlet 11 that leads to a pressure vessel 51 that is equipped with an oil separator 52.

    [0099] Compressed air, mixed with fluid 37, more specifically oil 37, that acts as a lubricant and coolant, leaves the screw compressor 1 through the outlet 11, whereby the mixture in the pressure vessel 51 is separated into two flows by the oil separator 52, on the one hand an outflow of compressed air via the air outlet 53 above the pressure vessel 51, and on the other hand an outflow of fluid 37 via an oil outlet 54 at the bottom of the pressure vessel 51.

    [0100] In the example shown, the air outlet 53 of the pressure vessel 51 is also equipped with a non-return valve 55.

    [0101] Furthermore a consumer pipe 56, which can be closed by a tap or valve 57, is connected to the air outlet 53.

    [0102] A section 58 of the consumer pipe 56 is constructed as a radiator 58 that is cooled by means of a forced airflow of surrounding air 10 originating from a fan 59, of course with the intention of cooling the compressed air.

    [0103] Analogously, the oil outlet 54 is also provided with an oil return pipe 60 that is connected to the head 30 of the compressor housing 28 for the injection of oil 37.

    [0104] A section 61 of the oil return pipe 60 is also constructed as a radiator 61, which is cooled by a fan 62.

    [0105] A bypass pipe 63 is also provided in the oil return pipe 60 that is affixed in parallel over the section of the oil return pipe 60 with radiator 61.

    [0106] Via one valve 64, the oil 37 can be sent through the section 61, in order to cool the oil 37, for example during the normal operation of the screw compressor 1, or through the bypass pipe 63 in order not to cool the oil 37, such as during the start-up of the screw compressor 1, for example.

    [0107] As shown in greater detail in figure 2, the cooling circuit 38 and the lubrication circuit 40 are in fact connected to a return circuit 65 for the removal of fluid 37 from the outlet 11 in the base 29 of the screw compressor 1 and for returning the removed fluid 37 to the head 30 of the compressor housing 28.

    [0108] In the example shown this aforementioned return circuit 65 is formed by the set consisting of the outlet pipe 50 provided at the outlet 11, the pressure vessel 51 connected to the outlet pipe 50, and the oil return pipe 60 connected to the pressure vessel 51.

    [0109] Hereby, the outlet pipe 50 is connected to the base 29 of the compressor housing 28 and the oil return pipe 60 is connected to the head 30 of the compressor housing 28.

    [0110] Moreover, according to the invention it is the intention that during the operation of the screw compressor 1, the fluid 37 is driven through the return circuit 65 from the base 29 to the head 30 of the compressor housing 28 as a result of a compressor pressure generated by the screw compressor 1 itself.

    [0111] This is also indeed the case in the embodiment of figure 2, as the return circuit 65 starts from the side of the compression chamber 2 at the base 29 of the compressor housing 28, and this side of the compression chamber 2 is located at the high pressure end 13 of the compressor rotors 4 and 5.

    [0112] According to a preferred embodiment of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention the outlet pipe 50 between the pressure vessel 51 and the screw compressor 1 is free of closing means in order to enable a flow through the outlet pipe 50 in both directions.

    [0113] According to an even more preferred embodiment of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention, additionally the oil return pipe 60 is also free of self-regulating non- return valves.

    [0114] A great advantage of such an embodiment of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention is that its valve system for closing the screw compressor 1 is much simpler than with the known screw compressors.

    [0115] More specifically only an inlet valve 49 is needed to obtain a correct operation of the screw compressor 1, as well as means to close off the air outlet 53, such as for example a non-return valve 55 or a tap or valve 57.

    [0116] In addition, the inlet valve 49 does not even need to be a controlled valve 49 as is usually the case, but on the contrary preferably a self-regulating non-return valve 49, as shown in figure 2.

    [0117] Moreover, a more energy-efficient operation can be achieved even with this one valve 49.

    [0118] Indeed, with a screw compressor 1 according to the invention the drive motor 14 is integrated in the compressor housing 28, whereby the motor chamber 16 and the compression chamber 2 are not sealed off from one another, so that the pressure in the pressure vessel 51 and the pressure in the compression chamber 2, as well as in the motor chamber 16 are practically equal, i.e. equal to the compressor pressure.

    [0119] Consequently when the screw compressor 1 is stopped, the oil 37 present in the pressure vessel 51 will not be inclined to flow back to the screw compressor 1, and more specifically the drive motor 14, as is indeed the case with the known screw compressors whereby the pressure in the drive motor is generally the ambient pressure.

    [0120] With known screw compressors, a non-return valve always has to be provided in the oil return pipe 60, which is not the case with a screw compressor according to the invention.

    [0121] Analogously, with the known screw compressors a non-return valve is provided in the outlet pipe 50, in order to prevent the compressed air in the pressure vessel being able to escape via the screw compressor and the inlet when the screw compressor is stopped.

    [0122] In the known screw compressors these non-return valves also constitute a significant energy loss.

    [0123] With a screw compressor 1 according to the invention it is sufficient to hermitically close off the inlet 9 by means of the inlet valve 49, when the screw compressor 1 is stopped, so that both the pressure vessel 51 and the compression chamber 2 and motor chamber 16 remain under compression pressure after the screw compressor 1 has stopped.

    [0124] The inlet 9 is hermetically closed using a non-return valve 49, automatically under the pressure present in the screw compressor 1 and by the elasticity in the non-return valve 49, whereby when the screw compressor 1 is stopped there is no further suction force from the air to pull the nonreturn valve 49 open.

    [0125] This is not possible with known screw compressors, as they are always provided with a seal that separates the motor chamber and the compression chamber from one another, generally realised by means of a seal on the rotating rotor shaft 7.

    [0126] Keeping the compression chamber under pressure with the known screw compressors would give rise to damage of this seal.

    [0127] An advantage of the screw compressor 1 according to the invention, that is directly related to this, is that no or hardly any compressed air is lost when the screw compressor 1 is stopped.

    [0128] It will be understood that this constitutes an important energy saving.

    [0129] Another aspect is that the aforementioned extra non-return valves in the oil return pipe and in the outlet pipe in the known screw compressors, must be pushed open during operation such that large energy losses occur, which do not occur with a screw compressor 1 according to the invention.

    [0130] The use according to the invention of a screw compressor according to the invention is also very advantageous.

    [0131] It is hereby the intention that when the screw compressor 1 starts up, whereby no pressure has yet built up in the pressure vessel 51, the self-regulating inlet valve 49, which is constructed as a non-return valve 49, opens automatically through the action of the screw compressor 1 and a compression pressure is built up in the pressure vessel 51.

    [0132] Then, when the screw compressor 1 is stopped, the non-return valve 55 on the pressure vessel 51 automatically closes the air outlet 53 of the pressure vessel 51, and the inlet valve 49 also automatically hermetically closes the inlet pipe 48, so that, after the screw compressor 1 has stopped, both the pressure vessel 51 and the compression chamber 2 and motor chamber 16 of the screw compressor 1 remain under compression pressure.

    [0133] Thus little or no compressed air is lost.

    [0134] Moreover, pressure can be built up much more quickly when restarting, which enables a more flexible use of the screw compressor 1 and also contributes to the more efficient use of energy.

    [0135] When restarting the screw compressor 1, whereby there is still a compression pressure in the pressure vessel 51, the inlet valve 49 first closes automatically until the compressor rotors 4 and 5 reach a sufficiently high speed, after which the self-regulating inlet valve 49 opens automatically under the suction effect created by the rotation of the compressor rotors 4 and 5.

    [0136] The present invention is by no means limited to the embodiments of a screw compressor 1 according to the invention described as an example and shown in the drawings, but a screw compressor 1 according to the invention can be realised in all kinds of variants and in different ways, without departing from the scope of the invention.


    Claims

    1. Screw compressor that at least comprises the following elements:

    - a compression chamber (2) that is formed by a compression housing (3) in which a pair of meshed helical compressor rotors (4,5) in the form of a screw are rotatably mounted, which have rotor shafts (7,8) that extend along a first axial direction (AA') and a second axial direction (BB') that are parallel to one another;

    - a drive motor (14) that is provided with a motor chamber (16) formed by a motor housing (15), in which a motor shaft (17) is rotatably mounted that extends along a third axial direction (CC) and that drives at least one of the aforementioned two compressor rotors (4,5),

    wherein the compression housing (3) and the motor housing (15) are directly connected to one another to form a compressor housing (28),
    wherein the motor chamber (16) and the compression chamber (2) are not sealed off from one another,
    wherein the screw compressor (1) is a vertical screw compressor (1) whereby the rotor shafts (7,8) of the compressor rotors (4,5) as well as the motor shaft (17) extend along axial directions (AA', BB', CC') that are oblique or transverse to the horizontal plane,
    wherein the compression housing (3) forms a base (29) or bottom section of the compressor housing (28), and that the motor housing (15) forms a head (30) or top section of the compressor housing (28),
    wherein the screw compressor (1) is provided with a fluid (37), with which both the drive motor (14) and the compressor rotors (4,5) are cooled and/or lubricated,
    wherein the compressor rotors (4,5) have a high pressure end (13) that are supported in the compressor housing (28) by means of one or more outlet bearings (32,33),
    characterized in that a lubrication circuit (45) is provided in the base (29) for lubricating the outlet bearings (32,33), consisting of one or more supply channels (46) for the supply of the fluid (37) from the compression chamber (2) to the outlet bearings (32,33), as well as one or more outlet channels (47) for the return of the fluid (37) from the outlet bearings (32,33) to the compression chamber (2), wherein the outlet channels (47) lead to the compression chamber (2) above the entrance of the supply channels (46).
     
    2. A screw compressor according to claim 1, characterised in that the rotor shafts (7,8) of the compressor rotors (4,5), as well as the motor shaft (17) extend along axial directions AA', BB' and CC' that are vertical.
     
    3. Screw compressor according to claim 1 or 2, characterised in that the motor shaft (17) is directly coupled to one of the rotor shafts (7,8) of the compressor rotors (4,5) and extends along an axial direction (CC') in line with the axial direction (AA') of the rotor shaft (7) of the compressor rotor (4) concerned.
     
    4. Screw compressor according to claim 1 or 2, characterised in that the motor shaft (17) also forms the rotor shaft (7) of one of the compressor rotors (4,5) .
     
    5. Screw compressor according to any one of the previous claims, characterised in that the drive motor (14) is an electric motor (14) with a motor rotor (23) and a motor stator (24).
     
    6. Screw compressor according to claim 5, characterised in that the electric motor (14) is equipped with permanent magnets (25) to generate a magnetic field.
     
    7. Screw compressor according to claim 6, characterised in that the inductance of the electric motor (14) along the direct axis differs from the inductance of the electric motor (14) along an axis perpendicular to it, more specifically the quadrature axis, in order to be able to determine the position of the motor rotor (23) in the motor stator (24) by measuring the aforementioned inductance difference in the vicinity outside the compressor housing (28).
     
    8. Screw compressor according to any one of claims 5 to 7, characterised in that the electric motor (14) is a synchronous motor (14).
     
    9. Screw compressor according to any one of the claims 5 to 8, characterised in that the drive motor (14) is of a type that can withstand the compressor pressure.
     
    10. Screw compressor according to any one of the claims 5 to 9, characterised in that the drive motor (14) is of a type that can generate a sufficiently large start-up torque to start up the screw compressor (1) when the compression chamber (2) is under compressor pressure.
     
    11. Screw compressor according to any one of the previous claims, characterised in that the compressor rotors (4,5) at the high pressure end (13) are supported axially and radially in the compressor housing (28) by means of the one or more outlet bearings (32,33).
     
    12. Screw compressor according to any one of the previous claims, characterised in that the compressor rotors (4,5) have a low pressure end (12) that is only supported radially in the compressor housing (28) by bearings, by means of one or more inlet bearings (34).
     
    13. Screw compressor according to any one of the previous claims, characterised in that the motor shaft (17), at the end (31) opposite the driven compressor rotor (4), is supported axially and radially in the compressor housing (28) by means of one or more motor bearings (35).
     
    14. Screw compressor according to claim 13, characterised in that the motor shaft (17) is supported in the compressor housing (28) at its end (31) opposite the driven compressor rotor (4) by means of the motor bearing (35) that is a ball bearing (35), and which moreover is equipped with tensioning means (36) for exerting an axial pre-load on the ball bearing (35), and this pre-load is oriented along the axial direction (CC') of the motor shaft (17).
     
    15. Screw compressor according to any one of the previous claims, characterised in that the compression chamber (2) is provided with an inlet (9) for drawing in air, that is provided with a compressor rotor (4,5) near a low pressure end (12), and these low pressure ends (12) are the ends (12) of the compressor rotors (4,5) that are the closest to the head (30) of the compressor housing (28), as well as an outlet (11) for removing compressed air, that is provided with a compressor rotor (4,5) near a high pressure end (13), and these high pressure ends are the ends (13) of the compressor rotors (4,5) that are the closest to the base (29) of the compressor housing (28).
     
    16. Screw compressor according to any one of the previous claims, characterised in that the screw compressor (1) is provided with a cooling circuit (38) for cooling both the drive motor (14) and the screw compressor (1) and through which fluid (37) can flow from the head (30) of the compressor housing (28) to the base (29) of the compressor housing (28).
     
    17. Screw compressor according to claim 16, characterised in that the cooling circuit (38) consists of cooling channels (39) that are provided in the motor housing (15) and of the compression chamber (2) itself.
     
    18. Screw compressor according to claim 17, characterised in that the cooling channels (39) at least partially extend along the axial directions (AA' , BB', CC').
     
    19. Compressor device according to claim 17 or 18, characterised in that the fluid (37) is driven through the cooling channels (39) under a compressor pressure generated by the screw compressor (1).
     
    20. Screw compressor according to claims 12 and 13, characterised in that the screw compressor (1) is provided with a lubrication circuit (40) for lubricating the motor bearing (35) or the motor bearings (35) as well as the inlet bearings (34).
     
    21. Screw compressor according to claim 17 and 20, characterised in that the aforementioned lubrication circuit (40) consists of one or more branches (41) of the cooling channels (39) in the motor housing (15) for supplying fluid (37) to the motor bearing (35) or the motor bearings (35), and of outlet channels (42) for the removal of fluid (37) from the motor bearing (35) or the motor bearings (35) up to the inlet bearings (34) from where the fluid (37) can flow in the compression chamber (2).
     
    22. Screw compressor according to claim 20, characterised in that the flow of fluid (37) in the aforementioned lubrication circuit (40) primarily takes place under the effect of gravity.
     
    23. Screw compressor according to claim 21 or 22, characterised in that, at the motor bearing (35) or the motor bearings (35), a reservoir (43) is provided for receiving fluid (37) that is sealed off from the motor shaft (17) by means of a labyrinth seal (44).
     
    24. Screw compressor according to claims 16 and 20, characterised in that the cooling circuit (38) and the lubrication circuit (40) are connected to a return circuit (65) for the removal of fluid (37) from the outlet (11) in the base (29) of the screw compressor (1) and for returning the removed fluid (37) to the head (30) of the compressor housing (28).
     
    25. Screw compressor according to claim 24, characterised in that the aforementioned return circuit (65) is formed by a set consisting of an outlet pipe (50) provided at the outlet (11), a pressure vessel (51) connected to the outlet pipe (50) and an oil return pipe (60) connected to the pressure vessel (51).
     
    26. Screw compressor according to claim 25, characterised in that the outlet pipe (50) is connected to the base (29) of the compressor housing (28), and the oil return pipe (60) is connected to the head (30) of the compressor housing (28) .
     
    27. Screw compressor according to claims 25 or 26, characterised in that the outlet pipe (50) between the pressure vessel (51) and the screw compressor (1) is free of closing means in order to enable a flow through the outlet pipe (50) in both directions.
     
    28. Screw compressor according to any one of the claims 25 to 27, characterised in that the oil return pipe (60) is free of self-regulating non-return valves.
     
    29. Screw compressor according to any one of the claims 25 to 28, characterised in that the pressure vessel (51) has an air outlet (53) that is provided with a non-return valve (55).
     
    30. Screw compressor according to any one of the claims 24 to 29, characterised in that during the operation of the screw compressor (1), the fluid (37) is driven through the return circuit (65) from the base (29) to the head (30) of the compressor housing (28) as a result of a compressor pressure generated by the screw compressor (1) itself.
     
    31. Screw compressor according to any one of the claims 24 to 30, characterised in that the majority of the flow of fluid (37), that is returned via the return circuit (65), flows through the cooling circuit (38) and only a fraction flows through the lubrication circuit (40).
     
    32. Screw compressor according to any one of the previous claims, characterised in that the screw compressor (1) is provided at its inlet (9) with an inlet valve (49) that is a non-controlled or self-regulating valve (49).
     
    33. Screw compressor according to claim 32, characterised in that the inlet valve (49) is a non-return valve (49).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Schraubenkompressor, der mindestens die folgenden Elemente umfasst:

    - eine Kompressionskammer (2), die durch ein Kompressionsgehäuse (3) ausgebildet wird, in dem ein Paar verzahnter schraubenförmiger Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) in Form einer Schraube drehbar montiert sind, die Rotorwellen (7, 8) aufweisen, welche sich entlang einer ersten axialen Richtung (AA') und einer zweiten axialen Richtung (BB') erstrecken, die parallel zueinander verlaufen;

    - ein Antriebsmotor (14), der mit einer Motorkammer (16) vorgesehen ist, die durch ein Motorgehäuse (15) ausgebildet wird, in dem eine Motorwelle (17) drehbar montiert ist, welche sich entlang einer dritten axialen Richtung (CC') erstreckt und die mindestens einen der oben genannten zwei Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) antreibt,

    wobei das Kompressionsgehäuse (3) und das Motorgehäuse (15) direkt miteinander verbunden sind, um ein Kompressorgehäuse (28) auszubilden,
    wobei die Motorkammer (16) und die Kompressionskammer (2) nicht voneinander abgedichtet sind,
    wobei der Schraubenkompressor (1) ein vertikaler Schraubenkompressor (1) ist, wobei sich die Rotorwellen (7, 8) der Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) sowie die Motorwelle (17) entlang der axialen Richtungen (AA', BB', CC') erstrecken, die schräg oder quer zur horizontalen Ebene verlaufen,
    wobei das Kompressionsgehäuse (3) eine Basis (29) oder einen unteren Abschnitt des Kompressorgehäuses (28) bildet, und wobei das Motorgehäuse (15) einen Kopf (30) oder einen oberen Abschnitt des Kompressorgehäuses (28) bildet,
    wobei der Schraubenkompressor (1) mit einer Flüssigkeit (37) versehen ist, mit der sowohl der Antriebsmotor (14) als auch die Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) gekühlt und/oder geschmiert werden,
    wobei die Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) ein Hochdruckende (13) aufweisen, das im Kompressorgehäuse (28) mithilfe eines oder mehrerer Auslasslager (32, 33) gestützt wird,
    wobei das Kompressorgehäuse und das Motorgehäuse (15) direkt miteinander verbunden sind, um das Kompressorgehäuse (28) zu bilden,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass ein Schmierkreislauf (45) in der Basis (29) zum Schmieren der Auslasslager (32, 33) vorgesehen ist, der aus einem oder mehreren Versorgungskanälen (46) für die Zufuhr der Flüssigkeit (37) von der Kompressionskammer (2) zu den Auslasslagern (32, 33) besteht, sowie ein oder mehrere Ablasskanäle (47) für die Rückführung der Flüssigkeit (37) von den Auslasslagern (32, 33) zur Kompressionskammer (2), wobei die Ablasskanäle (47) oberhalb des Eingangs der Versorgungskanäle (46) zur Kompressionskammer (2) führen.
     
    2. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sich die Rotorwellen (7, 8) der Kompressor-Rotoren (4,5) sowie die Motorwelle (17) entlang der axialen Richtungen AA', BB' und CC' erstrecken, die vertikal verlaufen.
     
    3. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Motorwelle (17) direkt mit einer der Rotorwellen (7, 8) der Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) gekoppelt ist und sich entlang einer axialen Richtung (CC') in Übereinstimmung mit der axialen Richtung (AA') der Rotorwelle (7) des betreffenden Kompressor-Rotors (4) erstreckt.
     
    4. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Motorwelle (17) außerdem die Rotorwelle (7) eines der Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) bildet.
     
    5. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Antriebsmotor (14) ein Elektromotor (14) ist, und zwar mit einem Motorrotor (23) und einem Motorstator (24).
     
    6. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Elektromotor (14) mit Dauermagneten (25) ausgerüstet ist, um ein magnetisches Feld zu erzeugen.
     
    7. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Induktivität des Elektromotors (14) entlang der direkten Achse sich von der Induktivität des Elektromotors (14) entlang einer Achse unterscheidet, die senkrecht dazu verläuft, genauer gesagt die Quadraturachse, um die Position des Motorrotors (23) im Motorstator (24) durch Messen der oben genannten Differenz der Induktivität in der Nähe außerhalb des Kompressorgehäuses (28) bestimmen zu können.
     
    8. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Elektromotor (14) ein Synchronmotor (14) ist.
     
    9. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Antriebsmotor (14) von einer Art ist, die dem Druck des Kompressors standhalten kann.
     
    10. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Antriebsmotor (14) von einer Art ist, die ein ausreichend großes Anlaufdrehmoment erzeugen kann, um den Schraubenkompressor (1) anlaufen zu lassen, wenn die Kompressionskammer (2) unter Kompressordruck steht.
     
    11. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) am Hochdruckende (13) axial und radial im Kompressorgehäuse (28) mithilfe eines oder mehrerer Auslasslager (32, 33) gestützt werden.
     
    12. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) ein Niedrigdruckende (12) aufweisen, das radial nur im Kompressorgehäuse (28) durch Lager gestützt wird, und zwar mithilfe eines oder mehrerer Einlasslager (34).
     
    13. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Motorwelle (17) an dem Ende (31), das dem angetriebenen Kompressor-Rotor (4) gegenüberliegt, axial und radial im Kompressorgehäuse (28) mithilfe eines oder mehrerer Motorlager (35) gestützt wird.
     
    14. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 13, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Motorwelle (17) im Kompressorgehäuse (28) an ihrem Ende (31) gestützt wird, das dem angetriebenen Kompressor-Rotor (4) gegenüberliegt, und zwar mithilfe des Motorlagers (35), das ein Kugellager (35) ist und das darüber hinaus mit Vorspanneinrichtungen (36) ausgestattet ist, um eine axiale Vorspannung auf das Kugellager (35) auszuüben, und wobei diese Vorspannung entlang der axialen Richtung (CC') der Motorwelle (17) gerichtet ist.
     
    15. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Kompressionskammer (2) mit einem Einlass (9) zum Ansaugen von Luft versehen ist, der mit einem Kompressor-Rotor (4, 5) in der Nähe eines Niedrigdruckendes (12) versehen ist, und wobei diese Niedrigdruckenden (12) die Enden (12) der Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) sind, die am nächsten zum Kopf (30) des Kompressorgehäuses (28) liegen, sowie mit einem Auslass (11) versehen ist, um die komprimierte Luft zu entfernen, der mit einem Kompressor-Rotor (4, 5) in der Nähe eines Hochdruckendes (13) versehen ist, und wobei diese Hochdruckenden (13) die Enden (13) der Kompressor-Rotoren (4, 5) sind, die am nächsten zur Basis (29) des Kompressorgehäuses (28) liegen.
     
    16. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Schraubenkompressor (1) mit einem Kühlkreislauf (38) zum Kühlen sowohl des Antriebsmotors (14) als auch des Schraubenkompressors (1) versehen ist, und durch den die Flüssigkeit (37) vom Kopf (30) des Kompressorgehäuses (28) zur Basis (29) des Kompressorgehäuses (28) fließen kann.
     
    17. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 16, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Kühlkreislauf (38) aus Kühlkanälen (39), die im Motorgehäuse (15) vorgesehen sind, sowie aus der Druckkammer (2) selbst besteht.
     
    18. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 17, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sich die Kühlkanäle (39) zumindest teilweise entlang der axialen Richtungen (AA', BB', CC') erstrecken.
     
    19. Kompressorgerät nach Anspruch 17 oder 18, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Flüssigkeit (37) durch die Kühlkanäle (39) unter einem Kompressordruck gelenkt wird, der durch den Schraubenkompressor (1) erzeugt wird.
     
    20. Schraubenkompressor nach den Ansprüchen 12 und 13, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Schraubenkompressor (1) mit einem Schmierkreislauf (40) zum Schmieren des Motorlagers (35) oder der Motorlager (35) sowie der Einlasslager (34) versehen ist.
     
    21. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 17 und 20, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der oben genannte Schmierkreislauf (40) aus einer oder mehreren Verzweigungen (41) der Kühlkanäle (39) im Motorgehäuse (15) besteht, um dem Motorlager (35) oder den Motorlagern (35) Flüssigkeit (37) zuzuführen, sowie aus den Auslasskanälen (42) zum Entfernen der Flüssigkeit (37) vom Motorlager (35) oder den Motorlagern (25) bis zu den Eingangslagern (34) besteht, von wo aus die Flüssigkeit (37) in die Kompressionskammer (2) fließen kann.
     
    22. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 20, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Fluss der Flüssigkeit (37) in dem oben genannten Schmierkreislauf (40) hauptsächlich unter dem Einfluss der Schwerkraft stattfindet.
     
    23. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 21 oder 22, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass am Motorlager (35) oder an den Motorlagern (35) ein Vorratsbehälter (43) zur Aufnahme der Flüssigkeit (37) vorgesehen ist, der von der Motorwelle (17) mittels einer Labyrinthdichtung (44) abgedichtet ist.
     
    24. Schraubenkompressor nach den Ansprüchen 16 und 20, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Kühlkreislauf (38) und der Schmierkreislauf (40) mit einem Rücklauf (65) zum Entfernen der Flüssigkeit (37) vom Auslass (11) in der Basis (29) des Schraubenkompressors (1) und zum Rückführen der entfernten Flüssigkeit (37) zum Kopf (30) des Kompressorgehäuses (28) verbunden sind.
     
    25. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 24, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der oben genannte Rücklauf (65) durch ein Set ausgebildet wird, das aus einem Auslaufrohr (50), das am Auslass (11) vorgesehen ist, einem Druckbehälter (51), der mit dem Auslassrohr (50) verbunden ist, und einem Ölrücklaufrohr (60) besteht, das mit dem Druckbehälter (51) verbunden ist.
     
    26. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 25, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Auslassrohr (50) mit der Basis (29) des Kompressorgehäuses (28) verbunden ist, und dass das Ölrücklaufrohr (60) mit dem Kopf (30) des Kompressorgehäuses (28) verbunden ist.
     
    27. Schraubenkompressor nach den Ansprüchen 25 oder 26, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Auslassrohr (50) zwischen dem Druckbehälter (51) und dem Schraubenkompressor (1) frei von Schließelementen ist, um einen Fluss durch das Auslassrohr (50) in beiden Richtungen zu ermöglichen.
     
    28. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der Ansprüche 25 bis 27, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Ölrücklaufrohr (60) frei von selbstregelnden Rückschlagventilen ist.
     
    29. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der Ansprüche 25 bis 28, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Druckbehälter (51) einen Luftauslass (53) aufweist, der mit einem Rückschlagventil (55) versehen ist.
     
    30. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der Ansprüche 24 bis 29, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass während des Betriebs des Schraubenkompressors (1) die Flüssigkeit (37) durch den Rücklauf (65) von der Basis (29) zum Kopf (30) des Kompressorgehäuses (28) gelenkt wird, und zwar infolge eines Kompressordrucks, der durch den Schraubenkompressor (1) selbst erzeugt wird.
     
    31. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der Ansprüche 24 bis 30, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Mehrheit des Flusses der Flüssigkeit (37), die über den Rücklauf (65) zurückgeführt wird, durch den Kühlkreislauf (38) fließt und nur ein Bruchteil durch den Schmierkreislauf (40) fließt.
     
    32. Schraubenkompressor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Schraubenkompressor (1) an seinem Einlass (9) mit einem Einlassventil (49) versehen ist, das ein nicht geregeltes oder selbstgeregeltes Ventil (49) ist.
     
    33. Schraubenkompressor nach Anspruch 32, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Einlassventil (49) ein Rückschlagventil (49) ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Compresseur à vis qui comprend au moins les éléments suivants :

    une chambre de compression (2) qui est formée par un boîtier de compression (3) dans lequel on monte en rotation une paire de rotors de compresseur hélicoïdaux engrenés (4, 5) se présentant sous la forme d'une vis qui ont des arbres de rotor (7, 8) qui s'étendent le long d'une première direction axiale (A, A') et d'une deuxième direction axiale (BB') qui sont parallèles entre elles ;

    un moteur d'entraînement (14) qui est prévu avec une chambre de moteur (16) formée par un boîtier de moteur (15), dans lequel on monte en rotation un arbre de moteur (17) qui s'étend le long d'une troisième direction axiale (CC) et qui entraîne au moins l'un des deux rotors de compresseur (4, 5) mentionnés précédemment,

    dans lequel le boîtier de compression (3) et le boîtier de moteur (15) sont directement raccordés entre eux pour former un boîtier de compresseur (28),

    dans lequel la chambre de moteur (16) et la chambre de compression (2) ne sont pas scellées hermétiquement l'une par rapport à l'autre,

    dans lequel le compresseur à vis (1) est un compresseur à vis vertical (1), moyennant quoi les arbres de rotor (7, 8) des rotors de compresseur (4, 5) ainsi que l'arbre de moteur (17) s'étendent le long des directions axiales (AA', BB', CC') qui sont obliques ou transversales par rapport au plan horizontal,

    dans lequel le boîtier de compression (3) forme une base (29) ou une section inférieure du boîtier de compresseur (28) et en ce que le boîtier de moteur (15) forme une tête (30) ou section supérieure du boîtier de compresseur (28),

    dans lequel le compresseur à vis (1) est prévu avec un fluide (37), avec lequel à la fois le moteur d'entraînement (14) et les rotors de compresseur (4, 5) sont refroidis et/ou lubrifiés,

    dans lequel les rotors de compresseur (4, 5) ont une extrémité haute pression (13), qui sont supportés dans le boîtier de compresseur (28) au moyen d'un ou de plusieurs paliers de sortie (32, 33),

    caractérisé en ce qu'un circuit de lubrification (45) est prévu dans la base (29) pour lubrifier les paliers de sortie (32, 33), se composant d'un ou de plusieurs canaux d'alimentation (46) pour l'alimentation du fluide (37) de la chambre de compression (2) aux paliers de sortie (32, 33) ainsi qu'un ou plusieurs canaux de sortie (47) pour le retour du fluide (37) des paliers de sortie (32, 33) à la chambre de compression (2), dans lequel les canaux de sortie (47) mènent à la chambre de compression (2) au-dessus de l'entrée des canaux d'alimentation (46).


     
    2. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que les arbres de rotor (7, 8) des rotors de compresseur (4, 5) ainsi que l'arbre de moteur (17) s'étendent le long des directions axiales AA', BB' et CC' qui sont verticales.
     
    3. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisé en ce que l'arbre de moteur (17) est directement couplé à l'un des arbres de rotor (7, 8) des rotors de compresseur (4, 5) et s'étend le long d'une direction axiale (CC') en ligne avec la direction axiale (AA') de l'arbre de rotor (7) du rotor de compresseur (4) concerné.
     
    4. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisé en ce que l'arbre de moteur (17) forme également l'arbre de rotor (7) de l'un des rotors de compresseur (4, 5).
     
    5. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que le moteur d'entraînement (14) est un moteur électrique (14) avec un rotor de moteur (23) et un stator de moteur (24).
     
    6. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 5, caractérisé en ce que le moteur électrique (14) est équipé avec des aimants permanents (25) pour générer un champ magnétique.
     
    7. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 6, caractérisé en ce que l'inductance du moteur électrique (14) le long de l'axe direct diffère de l'inductance du moteur électrique (14) le long d'un axe perpendiculaire à ce dernier, plus spécifiquement l'axe de quadrature, afin de pouvoir déterminer la position du rotor de moteur (23) dans le stator de moteur (24) en mesurant la différence d'inductance mentionnée ci-dessus à proximité à l'extérieur du boîtier de compresseur (28).
     
    8. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 7, caractérisé en ce que le moteur électrique (14) est un moteur synchrone (14).
     
    9. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 8, caractérisé en ce que le moteur d'entraînement (14) est d'un type qui peut résister à la pression de compresseur.
     
    10. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 9, caractérisé en ce que le moteur d'entraînement (14) est d'un type qui peut générer un couple de démarrage suffisamment important pour démarrer le compresseur à vis (1) lorsque la chambre de compression (2) est sous pression de compresseur.
     
    11. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que les rotors de compresseur (4, 5) au niveau d'une extrémité haute pression (13), sont supportés de manière axiale et radiale dans le boîtier de compresseur (28) au moyen des un ou plusieurs paliers de sortie (32, 33).
     
    12. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que les rotors de compresseur (4, 5) ont une extrémité basse pression (12) qui est uniquement supportée de manière radiale dans le boîtier de compresseur (28) par des paliers, au moyen d'un ou de plusieurs paliers d'entrée (34).
     
    13. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que l'arbre de moteur (17), au niveau de l'extrémité (31) opposée au rotor de compresseur (4) entraîné, est supporté de manière axiale et radiale dans le boîtier de compresseur (28) au moyen des un ou plusieurs paliers de moteur (35).
     
    14. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 13, caractérisé en ce que l'arbre de moteur (17) est supporté dans le boîtier de compresseur (32) au niveau de son extrémité (31) opposée au rotor de compresseur entraîné (4) au moyen du palier de moteur (35) qui est un palier à billes (35) et qui est de plus équipé avec des moyens de tension (36) pour exercer une précharge axiale sur le palier à billes (35), et cette précharge est orientée le long de la direction axiale (CC') de l'arbre de moteur (17).
     
    15. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que la chambre de compression (2) est prévue avec une entrée (9) pour aspirer l'air, qui est prévue avec un rotor de compresseur (4,5) à proximité d'une extrémité basse pression (12), et ces extrémités basse pression (12) sont les extrémités (12) des rotors de compresseur (4, 5) qui sont le plus à proximité de la tête (30) du boîtier de compresseur (28), ainsi qu'une sortie (11) pour retirer l'air comprimé, qui est prévue avec un rotor de compression (4, 5) à proximité d'une extrémité haute pression (13) et ces extrémités haute pression sont les extrémités (13) des rotors de compresseur (4,5) qui sont les plus proches de la base (29) du boîtier de compresseur (28).
     
    16. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que le compresseur à vis (1) est prévu avec un circuit de refroidissement (38) pour refroidir à la fois le moteur d'entraînement (14) et le compresseur à vis (1) et à travers lequel le fluide (37) peut s'écouler à partir de la tête (30) du boîtier de compresseur (28) jusqu'à la base (29) du boîtier de compresseur (28).
     
    17. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 16, caractérisé en ce que le circuit de refroidissement (38) se compose de canaux de refroidissement (39) qui sont prévus dans le boîtier de moteur (15) et de sa chambre de compression (2).
     
    18. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 17, caractérisé en ce que les canaux de refroidissement (39) s'étendent au moins partiellement le long des directions axiales (AA', BB', CC').
     
    19. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 17 ou 18, caractérisé en ce que le fluide (37) est entraîné à travers les canaux de refroidissement (39) sous une pression de compresseur générée par le compresseur à vis (1).
     
    20. Compresseur à vis selon les revendications 12 et 13, caractérisé en ce que le compresseur à vis (1) est prévu avec un circuit de lubrification (40) pour lubrifier le palier de moteur (35) ou les paliers de moteur (35) ainsi que les paliers d'entrée (34).
     
    21. Compresseur à vis selon les revendications 17 et 20, caractérisé en ce que le circuit de lubrification (40) mentionné ci-dessus se compose d'une ou de plusieurs branches (41) des canaux de refroidissement (39) dans le boîtier de moteur (15) pour amener le fluide (37) au palier de moteur (35) ou aux paliers de moteur (35), et de canaux de sortie (42) pour le retrait du fluide (37) du palier de moteur (35) ou des paliers de moteur (35) jusqu'aux paliers d'entrée (34) de l'endroit où le fluide (37) peut s'écouler dans la chambre de compression (2).
     
    22. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 20, caractérisé en ce que l'écoulement de fluide (37) dans le circuit de lubrification (40) mentionné ci-dessus a principalement lieu sous l'effet de la gravité.
     
    23. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 21 ou 22, caractérisé en ce que, au niveau du palier de moteur (35) ou des paliers de moteur (35), un réservoir (43) est prévu pour recevoir du fluide (37) qui est scellé, de l'arbre de moteur (17) au moyen d'un joint à labyrinthe (44).
     
    24. Compresseur à vis selon les revendications 16 et 20, caractérisé en ce que le circuit de refroidissement (38) et le circuit de lubrification (40) sont raccordés à un circuit de retour (65) pour le retrait du fluide (37) de la sortie (11) dans la base (29) du compresseur à vis (1) et pour ramener le fluide (37) retiré à la tête (30) du boîtier de compresseur (28).
     
    25. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 24, caractérisé en ce que le circuit de retour (65) mentionné ci-dessus est formé par un ensemble se composant d'un tuyau de sortie (50) prévu au niveau de la sortie (11), d'un récipient de pression (51) raccordé au tuyau de sortie (50) et d'un tuyau de retour d'huile (60) raccordé au récipient de pression (51).
     
    26. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 25, caractérisé en ce que le tuyau de sortie (50) est raccordé à la base (29) du boîtier de compresseur (28) et le tuyau de retour d'huile (60) est raccordé à la tête (30) du boîtier de compresseur (28).
     
    27. Compresseur à vis selon les revendications 25 ou 26, caractérisé en ce que le tuyau de sortie (50) entre le récipient de pression (51) et le compresseur à vis (1) est dépourvu de moyens de fermeture afin de permettre un écoulement à travers le tuyau de sortie (50) dans les deux directions.
     
    28. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications 25 à 27, caractérisé en ce que le tuyau de retour d'huile (60) est dépourvu de valves de non-retour à autorégulation.
     
    29. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications 25 à 28, caractérisé en ce que le récipient de pression (51) a une sortie d'air (53) qui est prévue avec une valve de non-retour (55).
     
    30. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications 24 à 29, caractérisé en ce que, pendant le fonctionnement du compresseur à vis (1), le fluide (37) est entraîné par le biais du circuit de retour (65) de la base (29) à la tête (30) du boîtier de compresseur (28) en raison d'une pression de compresseur générée par le compresseur à vis (1) lui-même.
     
    31. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications 24 à 30, caractérisé en ce que la majeure partie de l'écoulement de fluide (37) qui est ramenée via le circuit de retour (65), s'écoule à travers le circuit de refroidissement (38) et uniquement une partie s'écoule à travers le circuit de lubrification (40).
     
    32. Compresseur à vis selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que le compresseur à vis (1) est prévu, au niveau de son entrée (9), avec une valve d'entrée (49) qui est une valve non contrôlée ou à autorégulation (49).
     
    33. Compresseur à vis selon la revendication 32, caractérisé en ce que la valve d'entrée (49) est une valve de non-retour (49).
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description