(19)
(11)EP 3 231 285 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
10.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/24

(21)Application number: 17169030.8

(22)Date of filing:  30.03.2012
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A01N 65/00(2009.01)
A01N 47/28(2006.01)
A01N 47/34(2006.01)
A01P 7/04(2006.01)
A01N 43/90(2006.01)
A01N 25/00(2006.01)
A01N 43/40(2006.01)

(54)

METHOD FOR MOSQUITO CONTROL

VERFAHREN ZUR BEKÄMPFUNG VON MOSQUITOS

PROCÉDÉ DE LUTTE CONTRE LES MOUSTIQUES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 21.04.2011 US 201161477781 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
18.10.2017 Bulletin 2017/42

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
12774208.8 / 2699096

(73)Proprietor: Dobson, Stephen
Lexington, KY 40503 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • Dobson, Stephen
    Lexington, KY 40503 (US)

(74)Representative: Appleyard Lees IP LLP 
15 Clare Road
Halifax HX1 2HY
Halifax HX1 2HY (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2017/096381
US-A1- 2010 192 451
JP-A- H05 320 001
US-B1- 6 512 012
  
  • G. J. DEVINE ET AL: "Using adult mosquitoes to transfer insecticides to Aedes aegypti larval habitats", PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, vol. 106, no. 28, 14 July 2009 (2009-07-14), pages 11530-11534, XP055133968, ISSN: 0027-8424, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0901369106
  • Y. K. CHUNG ET AL: "Evaluation of biological and chemical insecticide mixture against Aedes aegypti larvae and adults by thermal fogging in Singapore", MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, vol. 15, no. 3, 1 September 2001 (2001-09-01), pages 321-327, XP055128259, ISSN: 0269-283X, DOI: 10.1046/j.0269-283x.2001.00311.x
  • Stepen L. Dobson: "Declaration under 37 C.F.R. paragraph 1.132 submitted on 18.04.2018 (dated 19.12.2012)", 19 December 2012 (2012-12-19)
  • Stephen L. Dobson: "Declaration submitted on 15.11.2018 (dated 09.11.2018)", 9 November 2018 (2018-11-09)
  • Stephen L. Dobson: "Declaration submitted on 24.01.2020 (dated 22.01.2020)", 22 January 2020 (2020-01-22)
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to a method for mosquito control which comprises rearing adult insects; treating the adult insects with one or more insecticides comprising at least one larvicide, in a factory environment, to thereby produce insects carrying larvicide, wherein said larvicide has minimal impact on the adult insect and which larvicide affects juvenile survival or interferes with metamorphosis of juvenile mosquitoes to adulthood, wherein the larvicide is an insect growth regulator; and introducing the insects to an indigenous mosquito population, to thereby control the indigenous mosquito population; wherein the insects are non-mosquito arthropods that come in contact with the mosquito's breeding sites and are selected from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hemiptera.

[0002] The present invention also relates to an adult insect for mosquito control, said insect comprising: reared adult insect carriers carrying a larvicide resulting from the insects being treated with a larvicide in a factory environment, wherein said larvicide has minimal impact on the adult insect and which larvicide affects juvenile survival or interferes with metamorphosis of juvenile mosquitoes to adulthood, wherein the larvicide is an insect growth regulator; and wherein the insect is a non-mosquito arthropod that comes in contact with the mosquito's breeding sites and is selected from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hemiptera.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0003] Malaria, dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever, West Nile Virus (WNV) and other encephalites, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), human filariasis, dog heartworm and other pathogens important to animals are on the increase. These diseases are transmitted via insects and, in particular, mosquitoes. Methods for controlling mosquito populations include the use of pesticides and vector control methods.

[0004] Existing insecticidal control methods rely upon field technicians, who fail to find and treat many breeding sites, which can be numerous, cryptic and inaccessible. Additional methods consist of area-wide treatment via airplane or wind-assisted dispersal from truck-mounted foggers. Unfortunately, the latter fail to treat many breeding sites and are complicated by variable environmental conditions. Barrera et al., "Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Dengue as Influenced by Weather and Human Behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico," PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5:e1378, 2011, describing the effects of various breeding sites on disease.

[0005] Surveys of natural and artificial water containers demonstrate mosquitoes and other arthropods to be highly efficient in finding, inhabiting and laying eggs in variously sized, cryptic water pools, including tree holes and gutters high above ground level.

[0006] One prior formulation or method for treating mosquito populations includes the use of dissemination stations which are deployed in a target environment. The dissemination stations may be laced with a pesticide, including, but not limited to, a juvenile hormone analog. The dissemination station may include a box or other structure which attracts female mosquitoes. The mosquitoes enter the dissemination station, become exposed to the pesticide or hormone, and carry that hormone back to affect other mosquitoes by mating. An example of this mosquito control is described in the article by Devine et al., entitled "Using adult mosquitoes to transfer insecticides to Aedes aegypti larval habitats," PNAS, vol. 106, no. 28, July 14, 2009.

[0007] In tests of another dissemination station, researchers showed that males in the wild that acquire the pesticide from a station can transfer the pesticide to females during copulation. The females receiving pesticide particles via venereal transfer were then shown to cause a significant inhibition of emergence in larval bioassays. This was reported in the article by Gaugler et al, entitled "An autodissemination station for the transfer of an insect growth regulator to mosquito oviposition sites," Med. Vet. Entomol. 2011.

[0008] Chung et al ("Evaluation of biological and chemical insecticide mixture against Aedes aegypti larvae and adults by thermal fogging in Singapore" Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 2001, 15, 321-327) describes an experimental study to determine whether spraying a larvicide on adult mosquitoes will have any impact on the effectiveness of adulticide pesticides/insecticides sprayed to kill mosquitoes.

[0009] JP H05 320001 describes capturing female insects from the wild, allowing the female insects to become a carrier, by coming in contact with a larvicide in a glass tube and subsequently releasing that insect into the wild.

[0010] US 2010/0192451 describes compositions for attracting or stimulating oviposition comprising a suitable carrier.

[0011] In view of continuing mosquito problems, as noted, additional tools are required to control mosquitoes that are important as nuisance pests and disease vectors.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0012] The present invention is defined with reference to the appended claims.

[0013] Disclosed is novel, self-delivering, insecticidal formulations and delivery techniques. The formulations, in one form, are larvicide treated insects, such as male mosquitoes. The insecticidal formulations can control medically important mosquitoes. These medically important mosquitoes include mosquitoes having an economic or medical importance to animal or human health.

[0014] The disclosed formulations and delivery techniques relates to a larvicide treatment for males, as a formulation which can be used to control a mosquito population. The formulation can be generated by exposing adult insects, such as mosquitoes and, in particular, male mosquitoes, to a pesticide, such as a juvenile hormone which affects juvenile survival or interferes with metamorphosis of juvenile mosquitoes and has relatively little impact on adult mosquitoes. Advantageously, the adult insects are exposed to the pesticide in a controlled, factory environment. The factory-reared adult insects which have been exposed to the pesticide are referred to as direct treated individuals (DTI). The DTI are then released into an environment in which one wishes to control the mosquito population. The DTI control a mosquito population by interacting with untreated individuals (e.g., mating), such that the pesticide, e.g., a larvicide, is communicated to other individuals (known as Indirectly Treated Individuals; (ITI)).

[0015] The disclosed control method uses compounds that affect immature/juvenile stages (eggs, larvae, pupae) more than adults. A list of larvicidal compounds is maintained at the IR-4 Public Health Pesticides Database. Examples of compounds include (1) insect growth regulators such as juvenile hormone mimics or analogs, including methoprene, pyriproxyfen (PPF), and (2) Microbial larvicides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus, herein incorporated by reference. Exemplary compounds are provided in Tables 1 and 2, below, in the Detailed Description section.

[0016] Disclosed is a method for insect control. The method includes introducing insects which carry one or more insecticides comprising at least one larvicide, to an insect population, to thereby control the insect population. The insects are adult males and the method further includes exposing the adult male insects to a pesticide which affects juvenile survival or interferes with metamorphosis of juvenile insects to adulthood, and which pesticide has little impact on adult insects.

[0017] The insect population is a mosquito population. Further, the juvenile active insecticide (i.e. larvicide) is an insect growth regulator, such as juvenile hormone analogs or compounds which mimic juvenile hormones. For example, the larvicide may be pyriproxyfen or methoprene.

[0018] Also disclosed, in another form thereof, relates to a formulation for insect control which comprises an artificially generated adult insect carrier of a larvicide. The larvicide has minimal impact on the adult insect and the larvicide interferes with metamorphosis of juvenile insects to adulthood. In one specific formulation, the adult insect is a male mosquito and the larvicide is pyriproxyfen or methoprene.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING



[0019] The sole figure is a graph showing survival of treated (black) and untreated (white) adults, with bars showing standard deviation, in accordance with the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0020] Disclosed is a method and a formulation for mosquito control. The formulation, in one advantageous form, is larvicide treated males. The treated males are generated from medically important adult male mosquitoes obtained via factory-rearing or captured from the wild. As a demonstration of the chemical class of juvenile active insecticides (Table 1), the adult male mosquitoes are exposed to a larvicide, such as pyriproxyfen (PPF), advantageously in a controlled laboratory or factory environment. PPF is a juvenile hormone mimic which interferes with metamorphosis of juvenile mosquitoes and has relatively little impact on adult mosquitoes. Thus, PPF is commonly used as a mosquito larvicide, but is not used as an adulticide.

[0021] The disclosed treated males are subsequently referred to as the Direct Treated Individuals (DTI), and this is the insecticidal formulation. The DTI are released into areas with indigenous conspecifics. Male mosquitoes do not blood feed or transmit disease. Accordingly, male mosquitoes provide unique advantages in the present control method as couriers of the larvicide. The DTI interact with untreated individuals (e.g., mating), such that PPF is communicated to the other individuals to produce Indirectly Treated Individuals (ITI). The PPF is delivered by both the DTI and ITI in the wild/in the environment, into the breeding areas, where the PPF accumulates to lethal doses and acts as a larvicide. It is noted that the PPF would impact additional mosquito species that share the same breeding site, providing control of additional mosquito species.

[0022] In a disclosed control method, female mosquitoes can be used as the DTI. However, female mosquitoes blood feed and can vector disease. The use of female mosquitoes are applicable when the females are incapacitated prior to deployment in the environment and the females have limited procreation ability, bite and vector diseases.

[0023] The larvicidal active ingredients is an insect growth regulator which affects juvenile survival or affects immature/juvenile stages of development (eggs, larvae, pupae) more than adults. Examples of compounds are insect growth regulators such as juvenile hormone mimics or analogs, including methoprene, pyriproxyfen (PPF). Tables 1 provides an abridged, exemplary list of suitable compounds.
Table 1. Juvenile Active Insecticide - Chemical*
Azadirachtin
Diflubenzuron
Methoprene
Neem Oil (Azadirachta indica)
Novaluron
Pyriproxyfen
S-Methoprene
S-Hydropene
Temephos
*A list of Public Health Pesticides is maintained at the IR-4 Public Health Pesticides Database
The following compounds in Table 2 are reference examples of pesticides from the IR-4 Database, a number of which are insect growth regulators.
Table 2. Public Health Pesticides from the IR-4 Database*
(-)-cis-Permethrin Cyfluthrin Oil of Basil, African Blue (Ocimum kilimandscharicum × basilicum)
(-)-trans-Permethrin Cyhalothrin Oil of Basil, Dwarf Bush (Ocimum basilicum var. minimum)
(+)-cis-Permethrin Cyhalothrin, epimer R157836 Oil of Basil, Greek Bush (Ocimum minimum)
(±)-cis,trans-Deltamethrin Cyhalothrin, Total (Cyhalothrin-L + R157836 epimer) Oil of Basil, Greek Column (Ocimum × citriodorum 'Lesbos')
(1R)-Alpha-Pinene Cypermethrin Oil of Basil, Lemon (Ocimum americanum)
(1R)-Permethrin Cyphenothrin Oil of Basil, Sweet (Ocimum basilicum)
(1R)-Resmethrin DDD, o,p Oil of Basil, Thai Lemon (Ocimum × citriodorum)
(1R, cis) Phenothrin DDD, other related Oil of Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis)
(1R, trans) Phenothrin DDD, p,p' Oil of Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendra)
(1S)-Alpha-Pinene DDE Oil of Cassumunar Ginger (Zingiber montanum)
(1S)-Permethrin DDE, o,p Oil of Fishpoison (Tephrosia purpurea)
(E)-Beta-Caryophyllene DDT Oil of Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-ethylphenyl) ethane DDT, o,p' Oil of Gurjun Balsam (Dipterocarpus turbinatus balsam)
1,8-Cineole DDT, p,p' Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora)
1H-Pyrazole-3-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl] DDVP Oil of Lemon Mint (Monarda citriodora)
1-Naphthol DDVP, other related Oil of Melaleuca
1-Octen-3-ol DEET (Melaleuca spp.) Oil of Myrcia (Myrcia spp.)
2-(2-(p-(diisobutyl)phenoxy) ethoxy) ethyl dimethyl ammonium chloride Deltamethrin Oil of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol Deltamethrin (includes parent Tralomethrin) Oil of Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii)
2-Hydroxyethyl Octyl Sulfide Deltamethrin (isomer unspecified) Orange Oil (Citrus sinensis)
2-Isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine Deltamethrin, other related Oregano Oil (Origanum vulgare)
2-Pyrroline-3-carbonitrile, 2-(p-chlorophenyl)-5-hydroxy-4-oxo-5- Desmethyl Malathion Ortho-Phenylphenol
3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol acetate - Desulfinyl Fipronil Ortho-Phenylph enol, Sodium Salt
3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol acetate Desulfinylfipronil Amide Oviposition Attractant A
3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Diatomaceous Earth Oviposition Attractant B
4-Fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid Diatomaceous Earth, other related Oviposition Attractant C
Absinth Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) Diazinon Oviposition Attractant D
Absinthin Diazoxon Oxymatrine
Acepromazine Dibutyl Phthalate Paracress Oil (Spilanthes acmella)
Acetaminophen Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride P-Cymene
Acetamiprid Dieldrin Penfluron
Acetic Acid Diethyl Phosphate Pennyroyal Oil (American False Pennyroyal, Hedeoma pulegioides)
AI3-35765 Diethylthio Phosphate Peppermint (Mentha × piperita)
AI3-37220 Diflubenzuron Peppermint Oil (Mentha × piperita)
Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (60%C14, 25%C12, 15%C16) Dihydro Abietyl Alcohol Permethrin
Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (60%C14, 30%C16, 5%C12, 5%C18) Dihydro-5-heptyl-2(3H)-furanone Permethrin, other related
Alkyl Dimethylethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (50%C12, 30%C14, 17%C16, 3%C18) Dihydro-5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone Phenothrin
Alkyl Dimethylethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (68%C12, 32%C14) Dimethyl Phosphate Phenothrin, other related
Allethrin Dimethyldithio Phosphate Picaridin
Allethrin II Dimethylthio Phosphate Pine Oil (Pinus pinea = Stone Pine)
Allethrins Dinotefuran Pine Oil (Pinus spp.)
Allicin Dipropyl Isocinchomeronate (2, 5 isomer) Pine Oil (Pinus sylvestris = Scots Pine)
Allyl Caproate Dipropyl Isocinchomeronate Pine Tar Oil (Pinus
  (3, 5 isomer) spp.)
Allyl Isothiocyanate Dipropylene Glycol Pinene
Alpha-Cypermethrin d-Limonene Piperine
Alpha-lonone d-Phenothrin Piperonyl Butoxide
Alpha-Pinene Dried Blood Piperonyl Butoxide, technical, other related
Alpha-Terpinene Aluminum Phosphide d-trans-Beta-Cypermethrin Esfenvalerate Pirimiphos-Methyl PMD (p-Menthane-3,8-diol)
Amitraz Ester Gum Potassium Laurate
Ammonium Bicarbonate Estragole Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids
Ammonium Fluosilicate Etofenprox Potassium Sorbate
Anabasine Eucalyptus Oil (Eucalyptus spp.) Prallethrin
Anabsinthine Eugenol Propoxur
Andiroba Oil (Carapa guianensis) Eugenyl Acetate Propoxur Phenol
Andiroba Oil (Carapa procera) Extract of Piper spp. Propoxur, other related
Andiroba, African (Carapa procera) Extracts of Common Juniper (Juniperus communis) Putrescent Whole Egg Solids
Andiroba, American (Carapa guianensis) Fenchyl Acetate Pyrethrin I
Anethole Fenitrothion Pyrethrin II
Anise (Pimpinella anisum) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgaris) Pyrethrins
Aniseed Oil (Pimpinella anisum) Fennel Oil (Foeniculum vulgaris) Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids, manufg. Residues
Atrazine Fenoxycarb Pyrethrins, other related
Avermectin Fenthion Pyrethrum
Azadirachtin Fenthion Oxon Pyrethrum Marc
Azadirachtin A Fenthion Sulfone Pyrethrum Powder other than Pyrethrins
Bacillus sphaericus Fenthion Sulfoxide Pyriproxyfen
Bacillus sphaericus, serotype H-5A5B, strain 2362 Ferula hermonis Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, 3-bromo-5-(p-chlorophenyl)-4-cyanoPyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, 5-(p-chlorophenyl)-4-cyano-(metabolite of AC 303268)
   
Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Ferula hermonis Oil
Bacillus thuringiensis Finger Root Oil  
israelensis, serotype H-14 (Boesenbergia pandurata) Quassia
Bacillus thuringiensis    
israelensis, strain AM 65-52 Fipronil Quassin
Bacillus thuringiensis    
israelensis, strain BK, solids, spores, and insecticidal toxins, ATCC number 35646 Fipronil Sulfone R-(-)-1-Octen-3-ol
Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, strain BMP 144 Fipronil Sulfoxide Red Cedar Chips (Juniperus virginiana)
Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, strain EG2215 Fragrance Orange 418228 Resmethrin
Bacillus thuringiensis   Resmethrin, other
israelensis, strain IPS-78 Gamma-Cyhalothrin related
Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, strain SA3A Garlic (Allium sativum) Rhodojaponin-III
Balsam Fir Oil (Abies balsamea) Garlic Chives Oil (Allium tuberosum) Rose Oil (Rosa spp.)
Basil, Holy (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Garlic Oil (Allium sativum) Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Bendiocarb Geraniol Rosemary Oil (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Benzyl Benzoate Geranium Oil (Pelargonium graveolens) Rosmanol
Bergamot Oil (Citrus aurantium bergamia) Glyphosate, Isopropylamine Salt Rosmaridiphenol
Beta-Alanine Hexaflumuron Rosmarinic Acid
Beta-Caryophyllene Hydroprene Rotenone
Beta-Cyfluthrin Hydroxyethyl Octyl Sulfide, other related R-Pyriproxyfen
Beta-Cypermethrin Imidacloprid R-Tetramethrin
Beta-Cypermethrin ([(1R)-1a(S*),3a]isomer) Imidacloprid Guanidine Rue Oil (Ruta chalepensis)
Beta-Cypermethrin ([(1R)-1a(S*),3b]isomer) Imidacloprid Olefin Ryania
Beta-Cypermethrin ([(1S)-1a((R*),3a]isomer) Imidacloprid Olefinic-Guanidine Ryanodine
Beta-Cypermethrin ([(1S)-1a(R*),3b]isomer) Imidacloprid Urea S-(+)-1-Octen-3-ol
Beta-Myrcene Imiprothrin Sabinene
Beta-Pinene Indian Privet Tree Oil (Vitex negundo) Sabinene
Betulinic Acid lonone Sage Oil (Salvia officinalis)
Bifenthrin IR3535 (Ethyl Butylacetylaminopropionate) Sassafras Oil (Sassafras albidum)
Billy-Goat Weed Oil   Schoenocaulon
(Ageratum conyzoides) Isomalathion officinale
Bioallethrin = d-trans-Allethrin Isopropyl Alcohol S-Citronellol
Biopermethrin Japanese Mint Oil (Mentha arvensis) Sesame (Sesamum indicum)
Bioresmethrin Jasmolin I Sesame Oil (Sesamum indicum)
Bitter Orange Oil (Citrus aurantium) Jasmolin II Sesamin
Blend of Oils: of Lemongrass, of Citronella, of Orange, of Bergamot; Geraniol, lonone Alpha, Methyl Salicylate and Allylisothioc Kerosene Sesamolin
Boric Acid L-(+)-Lactic acid S-Hydroprene
Borneol Lactic Acid Silica Gel
Bornyl Acetate Lagenidium giganteum Silver Sagebrush (Artemisia cana)
Bromine Lagenidium giganteum (california strain) Silver Sagebrush Oil (Artemisia cana)
Butane Lambda-Cyhalothrin S-Methoprene
Butoxy Poly Propylene Glycol Lambda-Cyhalothrin R ester Sodium Chloride
Caffeic Acid Lambda-Cyhalothrin S ester Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
Camphene Lambda-Cyhalothrin total Solvent Naphtha (Petroleum), Light Aromatic
Camphor Lauryl Sulfate Soybean Oil (Glycine max)
Camphor Octanane Lavender Oil (Lavendula angustifolia) Spinosad
Canada Balsam Leaves of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) Spinosyn A
Carbaryl Leech Lime Oil (Citrus hystrix) Spinosyn D
Carbon Dioxide Lemon Oil (Citrus limon) Spinosyn Factor A Metabolite
Carnosic Acid Licareol Spinosyn Factor D Metabolite
Carvacrol Limonene S-Pyriproxyfen
Caryophyllene Linalool Succinic Acid
Cassumunar Ginger Oil (Zingiber montanum) Linalyl Acetate Sulfoxide
Castor Oil (Ricinus communis) Linseed Oil (Linum usitatissimum) Sulfoxide, other related
Catnip Oil (Nepeta cataria) Lonchocarpus utilis (Cube) Sulfur
Catnip Oil, Refined (Nepeta cataria) Lupinine Sulfuryl Fluoride
Cedarwood Oil (Callitropsis nootkatensis = Nootka Cypress, Alaska Yellow Cedarwood) Magnesium Phosphide Sweet Gale Oil (Myrica gale)
Cedarwood Oil (Cedrus deodara = Deodar Cedar) Malabar (Cinnamomum tamala) Tangerine Oil (Citrus reticulata)
Cedarwood Oil (Cedrus spp. = True Cedars) Malabar Oil (Cinnamomum tamala) Tansy Oil (Tanacetum vulgare)
Cedarwood Oil (Cupressus funebris = Chinese Weeping Cypress) Malaoxon Tar Oils, from Distillation of Wood Tar
Cedarwood Oil (Cupressus Malathion Tarragon Oil (Artemisia dracunculus)
Cedarwood Oil (Juniper and Cypress) Malathion Dicarboxylic Acid Tarwood Oil (Laxostylis alata)
Cedarwood Oil (Juniperus ashei = Ashe's Juniper, Texan Cedarwood) Malic Acid tau-Fluvalinate
Cedarwood Oil (Juniperus macropoda = Pencil Cedar) Marigold Oil (Tagetes minuta) Teflubenzuron
Cedarwood Oil (Juniperus spp.) Matrine Temephos
Cedarwood Oil (Juniperus virginiana = Eastern Redcedar, Southern Redcedar) Menthone Temephos Sulfoxide
Cedarwood Oil (Oil of Juniper Tar = Juniperus spp.) Metaflumizone Terpinene
Cedarwood Oil (Thuja occidentalis = Eastern Arborvitae) Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52 Spores Terpineol
Cedarwood Oil (Thuja spp. = Arborvitae) Methoprene Tetrachlorvinphos, Z-isomer
Cedarwood Oil (unspecified) Methoprene Acid Tetramethrin
Cedrene Methyl Anabasine Tetramethrin, other related
Cedrol Methyl Bromide Theta-Cypermethrin
Chevron 100 Neutral Oil Methyl Cinnamate Thiamethoxam
Chlordane Methyl cis-3-(2 2-dichlorovinyl)-2 2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate Thujone
Chlorfenapyr Methyl Eugenol Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)
Chloropicrin Methyl Nonyl Ketone Thyme Oil (Thymus vulgaris)
Chlorpyrifos Methyl Salicylate Thymol
Cinerin I Methyl trans-3-(2 2-dichlorovinyl)-2 2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate Timur Oil (Zanthoxylum alatum)
Cinerin II Metofluthrin Tralomethrin
Cinerins MGK 264 (N-octyl Bicycloheptene Dicarboximide) trans-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Mineral Oil Trans-Alpha-Ionone
Cinnamon Oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Mineral Oil, Petroleum Distillates, Solvent Refined Light Transfluthrin
cis-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid Mixture of Citronella Oil, Citrus Oil, Eucalyptus Oil, Pine Oil trans-Ocimene
cis-Deltamethrin MMF (Poly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha-isooctadecyl-omega-hydroxy) Transpermethrin
Cismethrin Mosquito Egg Pheromone trans-Resmethrin
cis-Permethrin Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) Trichlorfon
Citral Mugwort Oil (Artemisia vulgaris) Triethylene Glycol
Citric Acid Mustard Oil (Brassica spp.) Triflumuron
Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) Myrcene Trifluralin
Citronella Oil (Cymbopogon winterianus) Naled Turmeric Oil (Curcuma aromatica)
Citronellal Neem Oil (Azadirachta indica) Uniconizole-P
Citronellol Nepeta cataria (Catnip) Ursolic Acid
Citrus Oil (Citrus spp.) Nepetalactone Veratridine
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Nicotine Verbena Oil (Verbena spp.)
Clove Oil (Syzygium aromaticum) Nonanoic Acid Verbenone
CME 13406 Nornicotine Violet Oil (Viola odorata)
Coriander Oil (Coriandrum sativum) Novaluron White Pepper (Piper nigrum)
Coriandrol Ocimene Wintergreen Oil (Gaultheria spp.)
Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) Ocimum × citriodorum (Thai Lemon Basil) Wood Creosote
  Ocimum × citriodorum 'Lesbos' (Greek Column  
Corn Gluten Meal Basil) Wood Tar
Corn Oil (Zea mays ssp. Mays) Ocimum americanum (Lemon Basil) Wormwood Oil (Artemisia absinthium)
Corymbia citriodora (Lemon Eucalyptus) Ocimum basilicum (Sweet Basil) Ylang-ylang Oil (Canagium odoratum)
Cottonseed Oil (Gossypium spp.) Ocimum basilicum var. minimum (Dwarf Bush Basil) Zeta-Cypermethrin
Coumaphos Ocimum kilimandscharicum × basilicum (African Blue Basil) Zinc Metal Strips
Cryolite Ocimum minimum (Greek Bush Basil)  
Cube Extracts (Lonchocarpus utilis) Oil of Balsam Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)  
*A list of Public Health Pesticides is maintained at the IR-4 Public Health Pesticides Database;

Version from March 2012



[0024] The disclosed aforementioned methods can be applied to additional susceptible arthropods, including economically and medically important pests (including animal and human health), where one life stage and/or sex does not cause direct damage.

[0025] The present method is applied using non-targeted, beneficial or non-pest arthropods that utilize the same breeding site as the targeted arthropod. For example, the DTI could be PPF-treated arthropods that come in contact with the targeted insect's breeding sites. As an example, Oytiscidae adults (Predaceous Diving Beetles) could be reared or field collected and treated with PPF to become the DTI. Candidate insects serving as the DTI are: Diptera (e.g., Tipulidae, Chironomidae, Psychodidae, Ceratapogonidae, Cecidomyiidae, Syrphidae, Sciaridae, Stratiomyiidae, Phoridae), Coleoptera (e.g., Staphylinidae, Scirtidae, Nitidulidae, Oytiscidae, Noteridae) and Hemiptera (e.g., Pleidae, Belostomatidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Nepidae).

[0026] An additional benefit of the latter strategy (i.e. non-Culicid DTI) is that the DTI may be easier to rear, larger size (allowing increased levels of PPF), be less affected by the PPF, or have an increased probability of direct contact with the breeding site of the targeted arthropod (i.e. not necessarily rely on transfer of the PPF via mating, improved location of breeding sites).

[0027] It is noted that the species of DTI would vary based upon the specific application, habitat and location. For example, the regulatory issues may be simplified if the species used for DTI were indigenous. However, it is noted that there are numerous examples of exotic arthropods being imported for biological control. Furthermore, different DTI species may be more/less appropriate for urban, suburban and rural environments.

[0028] Referring to the following reference examples for exemplary purposes, Aedes albopictus were used in experiments from a colony established in 2008 from Lexington, KY. Callosobrochus maculatus were purchased from Carolina Biological Supply Company (Burlington, NC) and maintained on mung beans (Vigna radiata). Rearing and experiments were performed in ambient conditions (∼25°C ; 80% humidity). Larvae were reared in pans with ∼500ml water and crushed cat food (Science Diet; Hill's Pet Nutrition, Inc.). Adults were provided with raisins as a sugar source. For line maintenance, females were blood fed by the author.

[0029] Sumilarv 0.5G was generously provided by Sumitomo Chemical (London, UK). Liquid PPF was purchased from Pest Control Outlet (New Port Richey, FL). Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis technical powder was purchased from HydroToYou (Bell, CA). For application, Sumilarv granules were crushed into a fine powder and applied using a bellows-type dusting apparatus (J.T. Eaton Insecticidal Duster #530; Do-ityourself Pest Control, Suwanee, GA). Liquid PPF was applied using a standard squirt bottle (WalMart, Lexington, KY). Treated adults were held in individualized bags with a raisin as a sucrose source until used in larval bioassays. Larval bioassays were performed in 3 oz. Dixie Cups (Georgia-Pacific, Atlanta, GA) containing ten L3 larvae, 20ml water and crushed cat food.

[0030] Adult treatment does not affect survival. Male and female Ae. albopictus treated with pulverized Sumilarv showed good survival in laboratory assays, which is indistinguishable from that of untreated control individuals. In an initial assay, 100% survival was observed for adults in both the Sumilarv treated (n=8 replications) and untreated control groups (n=2 replications) during a two-day observation period. In a second comparison, adults were monitored for eight days. Similar to the initial experiment, no difference was observed between the treated and control groups. Specifically, a similar average longevity was observed comparing the Sumilarv treated (6.3±2.0 days; n=4) and undusted control (7.3 days; n=l) groups. In a third experiment, treated and untreated adults were separated by sex and monitored for eight days. Similar to prior experiments, survival was not observed to differ between the treated and untreated groups (Figure).

[0031] In a separate experiment, the survival of beetles (Callosobrochus maculatus) dusted with Sumilarv were compared to an undusted control group. In both the treatment and control groups, 100% survival was observed during the four day experiment.

[0032] To assess the larvicidal properties of treated adults, Sumilary dusted adults and undusted control adults were placed individually into bioassay cups with larvae. No adults eclosed from the five assay cups receiving a treated adult; in contrast, high levels of adult eclosion was observed from all four control assay cups that received an untreated adult. Chi square analysis shows the adult eclosion resulting in assays receiving a treated adult to be significantly reduced compared to that in the control group (X2 (1, N=9)=12.37, p<0.0004). The bioassay experiment was repeated in a subsequent, larger experiment, yielding similar results; adult eclosion in the treated group was significantly reduced compared to the control group (X2 (1, N=24)=13.67, p<0.0002).

[0033] A similar bioassay was used to assess the larvicidal properties of treated beetles. Similar to the prior results, adult eclosion from assays in the treated beetle group was significantly reduced compared to the control group (X2 (1, N=14)=13.38, p<0.0003).

[0034] To examine an additional formulation of PPF, an identical bioassay was performed, but a liquid PPF solution was applied to mosquito adults, instead of Sumilarv dust. Similar to the prior results, adult eclosion in the treated group was significantly reduced compared to the control group (X2 (1, N=14)=16.75, p<0.0001).

[0035] To examine a reference example of the biological class of juvenile active insecticides and different active ingredients, an identical bioassay was performed, but a powder formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis technical powder was applied to mosquito adults, using the same method as the Sumilarv dust. Similar to the prior results, no difference was observed between the longevity of treated versus untreated adults (X2 (1, N=15)=3.2308, p>0.09). Upon exposing larvae to treat adults, eclosion was significantly reduced compared to the control group (X2 (1, N=28)=15.328, p<0.0001).

[0036] The results demonstrate that C. maculatus and A. albopictus adults do not experience reduced survival resulting from direct treatment with the insecticides. Specifically, the survival of treated mosquitoes and beetles did not differ significantly from that of the untreated conspecifics. The results are consistent with the traits required for the proposed application of treated adults as a self-delivering larvicide. Treated adults must survive, disperse and find breeding sites under field conditions. The results of the feasibility assays reported here provide evidence of an advantageous method of mosquito or other arthropod control.

[0037] Bioassays characterizing the larvicidal properties of treated adults show significant lethality resulting from the presence of treated mosquitoes and beetles. Similar results were observed for multiple formulations (i.e. dust and liquid) and multiple active ingredients. Furthermore, representative examples (Table 1) of juvenile active insecticides have been demonstrated. This is also consistent with those traits required for the proposed application of treated arthropods as a self-delivering insecticide. Specifically, treated arthropods that reach mosquito breeding sites can be expected to impact immature mosquitoes that are present at the site. Disclosed is a method for treating insect populations, including, but not limited to, mosquito populations. Unlike prior control methods that disseminate a pesticide using dissemination stations, followed by an insect in the wild entering the dissemination station to become treated with the pesticide, the present formulation and present method starts with generating insect carriers in an artificial controlled environment or setting. The insect carriers can be factory-reared. Subsequently, the carriers are released into an environment as the control agent or formulation. Thus, the carriers, i.e. the insects with the pesticide, are the formulation for insect control, whereas, in prior methods and formulations, the formulation is a treated dissemination station, not a treated insect.

[0038] One of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the present treatment, which targets insect larvae, offers advantages over prior art techniques of insect control which target adult insects. The present method is a trans-generation insect control technique which targets the next generation of insects, whereas prior techniques target the present generation, i.e. adult insects. For example, García-Munguía et al., "Transmission of Beauveria bassiana from male to female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes," Parasites & Vectors, 4:24, 2011 is a paper published on February 26, 2011 describing mosquito control of adults and, thus, the paper describes the killing of the present generation of insects. The García-Munguía paper describes using fungus-treated males to deliver insecticidal fungus to adult females. The fungus shortens the female lifespan and reduces fecundity of adult females. This type of approach (using insects to deliver an adulticide) is not particularly novel, and has been used in several important insect species, including examples described in Baverstock et al., "Entomopathogenic fungi and insect behaviour: from unsuspecting hosts to targeted vectors," Biocontrol, 55:89-102, 2009.

[0039] As described above, the present technique uniquely uses factory-treatment of adult insects with a larvicide in which the larvicide is a insect growth regulator. Further disclosed is the manufacturing of larvicidal-treated insects for trans-generational delivery. Further, unlike prior techniques that treat adults with fungi that kills adults, the disclosed technique merely treats adult males with larvicidal compounds which do not kill the adult males; rather, the treatment delivers the larvicidal compounds in a trans-generational delivery to kill the next generation, i.e. larvae.

[0040] Advantages which follow from the present technique include using the adults treated with the larvicide to communicate the larvicide to other adults through the lifespan of the initially treated adult insect. As a result, there is an exponential effect of the present technique which delivers a larvicide using treated adults to transfer the treatment to other adults, rather than prior techniques which kill the adult insect.

[0041] Further, the present technique delivers the larvicide by the treated adults into breeding sites where the larvicide can affect and kill thousands of developing, immature mosquitoes. This technique is unlike prior techniques which merely target the adults and, thus, only kill the directly affected adults and not thousands of developing, immature mosquitoes, i.e. a next generation of insects.

[0042] In addition, the present technique allows for the treatment of insect breeding sites, including cryptic, i.e. previously unknown, breeding sites which prior insect control techniques do not treat.

[0043] Further, the present technique allows one to affect insect populations of the species of a treated insect, as well as other species which share a common breeding site. Since the present technique uses adult insects to deliver a larvicide to a breeding site, the present technique allows for the transmission of a larvicide to breeding sites which may be common among more than one insect species. As a result, the present technique can target the species of the treated insect, as well as insects which share a common breeding site.

[0044] In addition, in contrast to adulticide methods, the present larvicide technique allows a pesticide to persist in a breeding site after the treated insect has departed or died.

[0045] One additional advantage of the present method is that the agents being disseminated are the insects themselves, as carriers of the insecticide which will directly affect an insect population. Prior formulation and methods require indirect dissemination, in which insects of a population in the wild must first find a dissemination station, acquire an appropriate dose of the insecticide, and then return to the population with the larvicide of a dissemination station in order to have an affect on the insect population.


Claims

1. A method for mosquito control, comprising:

rearing adult insects;

treating the adult insects with one or more insecticides comprising at least one larvicide, in a factory environment, to thereby produce insects carrying larvicide, wherein said larvicide has minimal impact on the adult insect and which larvicide affects juvenile survival or interferes with metamorphosis of juvenile mosquitoes to adulthood, wherein the larvicide is an insect growth regulator; and

introducing the insects to an indigenous mosquito population, to thereby control the indigenous mosquito population;

wherein the insects are non-mosquito arthropods that come in contact with the mosquito's breeding sites and are selected from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hemiptera.


 
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the larvicide is pyriproxyfen or Methoprene.
 
3. An adult insect for mosquito control, said insect comprising:

reared adult insect carriers carrying a larvicide resulting from the insects being treated with a larvicide in a factory environment,

wherein said larvicide has minimal impact on the adult insect and which larvicide affects juvenile survival or interferes with metamorphosis of juvenile mosquitoes to adulthood, wherein the larvicide is an insect growth regulator; and

wherein the insect is a non-mosquito arthropod that comes in contact with the mosquito's breeding sites and is selected from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hemiptera.


 
4. The adult insect according to claim 3, wherein the larvicide is pyriproxyfen or Methoprene.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zur Moskitobekämpfung, bei dem man:

adulte Insekten heranzieht,

die adulten Insekten in einer Fabrikumgebung mit einem oder mehreren mindestens ein Larvizid umfassenden Insektiziden behandelt, unter Erhalt von larvizidtragenden Insekten, wobei das Larvizid eine minimale Wirkung auf das adulte Insekt hat und wobei das Larvizid das Überleben von Juvenilen beeinträchtigt oder die Metamorphose von juvenilen Moskitos zu erwachsenen stört, wobei es sich bei dem Larvizid um einen Insektenwachstumsregulator handelt und

die Insekten in eine indigene Moskitopopulation einbringt und so die indigene Moskitopopulation bekämpft,

wobei es sich bei den Insekten um Nicht-Moskito-Arthropoden handelt, die mit den Moskitobrutstätten in Kontakt kommen und aus Diptera, Coleoptera und Hemiptera ausgewählt sind.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei es sich bei dem Larvizid um Pyriproxyfen oder Methopren handelt.
 
3. Adultes Insekt zur Moskitobekämpfung, wobei das Insekt Folgendes umfasst:

herangezogene adulte Trägerinsekten, die ein von der Behandlung der Insekten mit einem Larvizid in einer Fabrikumgebung herrührendes Larvizid tragen,

wobei das Larvizid eine minimale Wirkung auf das adulte Insekt hat und wobei das Larvizid das Überleben von Juvenilen beeinträchtigt oder die Metamorphose von juvenilen Moskitos zu erwachsenen stört, wobei es sich bei dem Larvizid um einen Insektenwachstumsregulator handelt und

wobei es sich bei dem Insekt um ein Nicht-Moskito-Arthropoden handelt, der mit den Moskitobrutstätten in Kontakt kommen und aus Diptera, Coleoptera und Hemiptera ausgewählt ist.


 
4. Adultes Insekt nach Anspruch 3, wobei es sich bei dem Larvizid um Pyriproxyfen oder Methopren handelt.
 


Revendications

1. Méthode destinée au contrôle de moustiques, comprenant :

l'élevage d'insectes adultes ;

le traitement des insectes adultes par un ou plusieurs insecticides comprenant au moins un larvicide, dans un environnement de type usine, afin de produire ainsi des insectes qui portent un larvicide, où ledit larvicide présente un impact minimal sur l'insecte adulte et lequel larvicide affecte la survie des insectes juvéniles ou interfère avec la métamorphose des moustiques juvéniles en adultes, où le larvicide est un régulateur de la croissance des insectes ; et

l'introduction des insectes dans une population de moustiques indigène, afin de contrôler ainsi la population de moustiques indigène ;

dans laquelle les insectes sont des arthropodes autres que des moustiques, qui entrent en contact avec les sites de reproduction des moustiques et sont choisis parmi Diptera, Coleoptera et Hemiptera.


 
2. Méthode selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle le larvicide est le pyriproxyfène ou le méthoprène.
 
3. Insecte adulte destiné au contrôle de moustiques, ledit insecte comprenant :

des porteurs de type insecte adulte d'élevage portant un larvicide résultant du traitement des insectes par un larvicide dans un environnement de type usine ;

où ledit larvicide présente un impact minimal sur l'insecte adulte et lequel larvicide affecte la survie des insectes juvéniles ou interfère avec la métamorphose des moustiques juvéniles en adultes, où le larvicide est un régulateur de la croissance des insectes ; et

l'insecte étant un arthropode autre qu'un moustique, qui entre en contact avec les sites de reproduction des moustiques et est choisi parmi Diptera, Coleoptera et Hemiptera.


 
4. Insecte adulte selon la revendication 3, le larvicide étant le pyriproxyfène ou le méthoprène.
 




Drawing








Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description