(19)
(11)EP 3 233 935 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.11.2019 Bulletin 2019/47

(21)Application number: 15810738.3

(22)Date of filing:  17.12.2015
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C08F 4/651  (2006.01)
C08F 210/16  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2015/080316
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/097193 (23.06.2016 Gazette  2016/25)

(54)

ZIEGLER-NATTA CATALYST AND PREPARATION THEREOF

ZIEGLER-NATTA-KATALYSATOR UND HERSTELLUNG DAVON

CATALYSEUR ZIEGLER-NATTA ET SA PRÉPARATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 18.12.2014 EP 14198874

(43)Date of publication of application:
25.10.2017 Bulletin 2017/43

(73)Proprietor: Borealis AG
1220 Vienna (AT)

(72)Inventors:
  • SUMERIN, Victor
    00980 Helsinki (FI)
  • THORMAN, Joseph
    00100 Helsinki (FI)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 610 273
EP-A1- 2 799 456
WO-A1-2014/004396
EP-A1- 2 746 306
EP-A2- 0 376 936
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] This invention relates to a solid Ziegler-Natta catalyst component for producing olefin polymers and preparation of said catalyst component. Further the invention relates to a Ziegler Natta catalyst comprising said solid catalyst component, Group 13 metal compound as cocatalyst and optionally external additives. The invention further relates to the use of said catalyst component in producing olefin polymers, especially ethylene polymers with desired properties.

    Background of the invention



    [0002] Ziegler-Natta (ZN) type polyolefin catalysts are well known in the field of producing olefin polymers, like ethylene (co)polymers. Generally the catalysts comprise at least a catalyst component formed from a transition metal compound of Group 4 to 6 of the Periodic Table (IUPAC, Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, 1989), a metal compound of Group 1 to 3 of the Periodic Table (IUPAC), and, optionally, a compound of group 13 of the Periodic Table (IUPAC), and, optionally, an internal organic compound, like an internal electron donor. A ZN catalyst may also comprise further catalyst component(s), such as a cocatalyst and optionally external additives.

    [0003] A great variety of Ziegler-Natta catalysts have been developed to fulfill the different demands in reaction characteristics and producing poly(alpha-olefin) resins of desired physical and mechanical performance. Typical Ziegler-Natta catalysts contain a magnesium compound, an aluminium compound and a titanium compound supported on a particulate support. The commonly used particulate supports are inorganic oxide type of supports, such as silica, alumina, titania, silica-alumina and silica-titania, typically silica.

    [0004] The catalyst can be prepared by sequentially contacting the carrier with the above mentioned compounds, for example, as described in EP 688794 and WO 99/51646. Alternatively, it can be prepared by first preparing a solution from the components and then contacting the solution with a carrier, as described in WO 01/55230.

    [0005] Another group of typical Ziegler - Natta catalysts are based on magnesium dihalide, typically MgCl2, that contain a titanium compound and optionally a Group 13 compound, for example, an aluminium compound. Such catalysts are disclosed, for instance, in EP376936, WO 2005/118655 and EP 810235. The above described ZN-catalysts are claimed to be useful in olefin polymerisation, for example the production of ethylene (co)polymers.

    [0006] However, even though many catalysts of prior art show satisfactory properties for many applications there has been the need to modify and improve the properties and performance of the catalysts to achieve desired polymer properties and to have catalysts with desired performance in desired polymerisation processes.

    [0007] Hydrogen and comonomer responses and thus catalyst flexibility as regards to possibilities to control the molecular weight (Mw), polymer molecular weight distribution (MWD) and comonomer content are general indicators of the catalyst performance. Thus, problems relating to these properties indicate performance properties of the catalysts. Further, it's known that if high molecular weight polymer is desired, and the hydrogen amount cannot be reduced anymore, then external additives can be used in the polymerisation. However, in that case polymers are often produced at the expense of the catalyst productivity. There have been several attempts to find solutions by modifying the catalyst. One way to modify the catalyst is to use internal organic compounds. However, even if e.g. the molecular weight of the polymer is improved, often it happens at the cost of some other properties, usually catalyst productivity and comonomer response. Internal organic compounds can be internal electron donors or other compounds affecting the performance of the catalyst, and external additives comprise e.g. external electron donors and/or alkyl halides.

    [0008] US 5,055,535 discloses a method for controlling the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of polyethylene homopolymers and copolymers using a ZN catalyst comprising an electron donor selected from monoethers (e.g. tetrahydrofuran). The monoether is added to the catalytic component in the presence of the cocatalyst and is further characterised that under no circumstance should the monoethers be brought into contact with the catalytic component without the presence of the cocatalyst in the medium.

    [0009] WO 2007051607 A1 suggests the possibility of tailoring the properties of a multimodal ethylene polymer by using alkyl ether type internal electron donor, preferably tetrahydrofuran, to modify ZN catalyst component to influence the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of a higher molecular weight (HMW) component.

    [0010] WO2004055065 discloses solid catalyst component comprising Ti, Mg, halogen and electron donor in specific molar ratios for preparation copolymers of ethylene with α-olefins, where said α-olefins are homogeneously distributed along the polymer chains. The electron donor (ED) is preferably ether, like tetrahydrofuran. Said catalyst component is used in polymerisation together with alkylaluminium compound and optionally with external electron donor. The optional external electron donor is said to be equal to or different from the ED used in catalyst component.

    [0011] EP0376936 discloses a MgCl2 supported ZN catalyst, where spray-dried MgCl2/alcohol carrier material is treated with a compound of group IA to IIIA (Groups 1, 2 and 13 of the Periodic Table (IUPAC, Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, 1989)) then titanated with a titanium compound, optionally in the presence of internal electron donor. The optional internal donor compound (THF or di-isobutyl phthalate are given in those examples where internal electron was used) is added together with TiCl4 or after adding TiCl4.

    [0012] However, the activity of the donor modified catalysts of EP0376936 was much lower than the original catalyst without the donor. Moreover, during the donor treatment step, a 10 wt% solution of triethylaluminum and a number of hydrocarbon washings were used, which resulted in a large amount of organic solvent waste.

    [0013] WO 2014004396 A1 discloses a catalyst component, where bi-heterocyclic compounds are used as internal or external donor. The catalyst is used for propylene polymerisation.

    [0014] EP 2746306 discloses a supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst component comprising an internal electron donor selected from bi-cyclic ethers. The catalyst of EP 2746306 is prepared by depositing a soluble alkoxy compound of Group 1 to 3 metal, a compound of Group 13 metal, an internal electron donor and a transition metal compound of Group 4 to 6 on a particulate support, or alternatively forming precipitated support material by contacting a soluble magnesium alkoxide compound, an electron donor solution and a solution of aluminium alkyl chloride compound. After precipitation and suitable washing steps the obtained solid support material was treated with a titanium compound to obtain the catalyst component. In this case the molecular weight of the polymer is improved at the cost of catalyst productivity. Moreover, catalyst performance and morphology of precipitated MgCl2 based catalysts are typically sensitive to even small variations in preparation conditions, especially in large scale production.

    [0015] Although much development work in Ziegler-Natta catalyst preparation has been done, there is still room for improvement. As stated above, some of the methods are particularly sensitive to preparation conditions and/or large amounts of waste material are formed, which are disadvantages in preparing catalyst at a large scale. Modifications of the catalyst synthetic procedure may adversely affect the productivity of the subsequent catalyst so as to not be satisfactory for commercial scale production. Additionally, catalyst morphology can be difficult to control, especially in large scale production. In addition to the needs of catalyst properties and performance, catalyst preparation at commercial-scale should be as simple and robust as possible. Further, the chemicals used in the preparation should be viewed as safe from a health, safety and environment point of view.

    [0016] Therefore, it would be desired to find a more robust method to prepare the catalyst that allows production at a large scale of a catalyst which is less sensitive to morphology changes with changes in catalyst preparation conditions and chemicals. Further, it is desired that large amounts of waste material during the synthesis can be avoided.

    [0017] Further, from commercial point of view, the catalyst should show a reproducible composition and performance.

    [0018] There is also a need to find a catalyst which is able to produce copolymers with wider melt flow rate (MFR) and density windows, such that there is the possibility to produce high molecular weight copolymers with narrow MWD (molecular weight distribution) and high comonomer content combined with low melting temperature.

    [0019] And finally, the catalyst should have productivity on a level, which makes it useful in commercial polymerisation processes while producing a broad range of molecular weight polymers.

    [0020] Based on the teachings of prior art, it appears that donor modification might result in the improvement of some properties. However, very often these improvements are made at the cost of catalyst productivity and comonomer response. The MgCl2 based catalysts prepared by precipitation methods are typically sensitive towards changes in preparation conditions.

    Summary of the invention



    [0021] It has now been surprisingly found that the problems of the prior art can be solved, when a solid MgCl2 based catalyst component modified with a specific internal organic compound and prepared by a defined method as described below is used.

    [0022] Thus, the object of the present invention is to provide a new method for preparing a solid MgCl2 based catalyst component. The present invention relates also to a solid MgCl2 based catalyst component and a solid MgCl2 based catalyst component prepared by the inventive method. Further, the invention relates to a catalyst comprising said solid MgCl2 based catalyst component, a cocatalyst and optionally an external additive. An additional object of the present invention is the use of the solid MgCl2 based catalyst component prepared by the method of the invention in olefin polymerisation process.

    [0023] In the present disclosure, the term internal organic compound covers internal electron donors, which phrase is widely used in patent literature. Said internal organic compound denotes a compound being part of the solid catalyst component, i.e. added during the synthesis of the solid catalyst component. External additives cover any additive, covering but not restricted to, external electron donors, and mean a component being not part of the solid catalyst component, but fed as separate component to the polymerisation process.

    [0024] The phrases carrier and support have the same meaning in the present disclosure.

    Detailed description of the invention



    [0025] Accordingly, the present invention relates to a method for producing solid MgCl2 supported catalyst component comprising the steps
    1. a) providing solid carrier particles of MgCl2*mROH adduct
    2. b) pre-treating the solid carrier particles of step a) with a compound of Group 13 metal
    3. c) treating the pre-treated solid carried particles of step b) with a transition metal compound of Group 4 to 6
    4. d) recovering the solid catalyst component
    wherein the solid carrier particles are contacted with an internal organic compound of formula (I) or isomers or mixtures therefrom before treating the solid carrier particles in step c)

    and
    wherein in the formula (I)

    R1 to R5 are the same or different and can be hydrogen, a linear or branched C1 to C8-alkyl group, or a C3-C8-alkylene group, or two or more of R1 to R5 can form a ring,

    the two oxygen-containing rings are individually saturated or partially unsaturated or unsaturated, and

    R in the adduct MgCl2*mROH is a linear or branched alkyl group with 1 to 12 C atoms, and m is 1 to 6.



    [0026] Accordingly, the internal organic compound of formula (I) is contacted with the solid carrier particles before treatment of solid carrier particles with the transition metal compound of Group 4 to 6. Thus, said internal organic compound can be contacted with the solid carrier particles before step b), i.e. before pre-treating the solid carrier particles with Group 13 metal compound, or simultaneously with said pre-treatment step, or after step b), but before treating the solid carrier particles with the transition metal compound of Group 4 to 6.

    [0027] The present invention relates also to the solid catalyst component prepared by the method as described above. Further, the present invention provides a Ziegler-Natta catalyst comprising solid catalyst component prepared as defined above, a cocatalyst and optionally an external additive.

    [0028] Further, one object of the invention is to use the catalyst in accordance with the present invention in the process for producing ethylene polymers. The catalyst of the present invention or produced by the inventive method is especially suitable for producing ethylene copolymers in a multistage process.

    [0029] The invention will be described in the following in greater detail, referring to the particular preferred embodiments. Preferred embodiments are described in dependent claims as well as in the following description.

    [0030] As used herein, the term Ziegler Natta (ZN) catalyst component is intended to cover a catalyst component comprising a transition metal compound of Group 4 to 6, a compound of a metal of Group 13 of the Periodic Table (IUPAC, Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, 1989) and an internal organic compound supported on MgCl2 based carrier.

    [0031] Magnesium dihalide is used as a starting material for producing a carrier. The solid carrier used in this invention is a carrier where alcohol is coordinated with Mg dihalide, preferably MgCl2 The MgCl2 is mixed with an alcohol (ROH) and the solid carrier MgCl2*mROH is formed according to the well know methods. As examples, spray drying or spray crystallisation methods can be used to prepare the magnesium halide. Spherical and granular MgCl2*mROH carrier materials are suitable to be used in the present invention. The alcohol in producing MgCl2*mROH carrier material is an alcohol ROH, where R is a linear or branched alkyl group containing 1 to 12 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to 8 carbon atoms, like 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Ethanol is typically used. In MgCl2*mROH, m is 1 to 6, more preferably 1 to 4, especially 2,7 to 3,3.

    [0032] MgCl2*mROH is available from commercial sources or can be prepared by methods described in prior art. Preparation methods of MgCl2*mROH carrier is described in several patents e.g. in EP-A-0376936, EP-A-0424049, EP-A-655073, US4,071,674 and EP-A-0614467. The solid carrier particles of the invention may consist of MgCl2*mROH.

    [0033] Group 13 metal compound, used in step b) is preferably an aluminium compound. Particularly preferably the aluminium compound is an aluminium compound of the formula Al(alkyl)xX3-x (II), wherein each alkyl is independently an alkyl group of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to 8 carbon atoms, more preferably 1 to 6 carbon atoms, X is halogen, preferably chlorine and 1< x ≤ 3. The alkyl group can be linear, branched or cyclic, or a mixture of such groups.

    [0034] Preferred aluminium compounds are dialkyl aluminium chlorides or trialkyl aluminium compounds, for example dimethyl aluminium chloride, diethyl aluminium chloride, di-isobutyl aluminium chloride, and triethylaluminium or mixtures therefrom. Most preferably the aluminium compound is a trialkyl aluminium compound, especially triethylaluminium compound.

    [0035] The transition metal compound of Group 4 to 6 is preferably a Group 4 transition metal compound or a vanadium compound and is more preferably a titanium compound. Particularly preferably the titanium compound is a halogen-containing titanium compound of the formula XyTi(OR8)4-y, wherein R8 is a C1-20 alkyl, preferably a C2-10 and more preferably a C2-8 alkyl group, X is halogen, preferably chlorine and y is 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 3 or 4 and more preferably 4.

    [0036] Suitable titanium compounds include trialkoxy titanium monochlorides, dialkoxy titanium dichloride, alkoxy titanium trichloride and titanium tetrachloride. Preferably titanium tetrachloride is used.

    [0037] The internal organic compound is selected from bi-cyclic ether compounds of formula (I) or isomers or mixtures therefrom:

    wherein in the formula (I)

    R1 to R5 are the same or different and can be hydrogen, a linear or branched C1 to C8-alkyl group, or a C3-C8-alkylene group, or two or more of R1 to R5 can form a ring, and

    where by the two oxygen-containing rings are individually saturated or partially unsaturated or unsaturated.



    [0038] Examples of preferred linear or branched C1 to C8-alkyl groups are methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl and hexyl groups.

    [0039] Examples for preferred C3-C8-alkylene groups are pentylene and butylene groups.

    [0040] The two R1 are preferably the same and are a linear C1 to C4-alkyl groups, more preferably methyl or ethyl; or the two R1 form a ring with the carbon atom they are attached to a ring with 3 to 7 carbon atoms , preferably cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl ring.

    [0041] Most preferably both R1 are methyl.

    [0042] R2 to R5 are the same or different and are preferably H or a C1 to C2-alkyl groups, or two or more of R2 to R5 residues can form a ring. If one or more rings are formed by the residues R2 to R5, these are more preferably formed by R3 and R4 and/or R4 and R5.

    [0043] Preferably the residues R2 to R5 do not form rings and more preferably at most two of the residues R2 to R5 are a methyl, the others are H. Most preferably R2 to R5 are all H. Furthermore both oxygen-containing rings are preferably saturated or partially unsaturated or unsaturated.

    [0044] Each partially unsaturated or unsaturated oxygen-containing ring can have one or two double bonds.

    [0045] More preferably both oxygen-containing rings are saturated.

    [0046] Examples of preferred internal organic compounds are 2,2-di(2-tetrahydrofuryl)propane, 2,2-di-(2-furan)-propane, and isomers or mixtures thereof.

    [0047] In the most preferred embodiment, 2,2-di(2-tetrahydrofuryl)propane (DTHFP) is used with the isomers thereof. DTHFP is typically a 1:1 mol/mol diastereomeric mixture of D,L-(rac)-DTHFP and meso-DTHFP.

    [0048] According to the present invention, it has been found that using an internal organic compound that is enriched in isomers of DTHFP, that the catalyst morphological properties are not influenced. It was found that by using enriched rac-DTHFP, where the ratio of D,L-(rac)-DTHFP/meso-DTHFP is at least 2/1 mol/mol, it was possible to produce the catalyst morphology as good as with the equimolar (rac) and (meso) mixture.
    1H-NMR of DTHFP: a 1:1 mol/mol mixture of rac and meso diastereomers is disclosed in Figure 1.
    1H-NMR of DTHFP: a 2:1 mol/mol mixture of rac-DTHFP (D,L-(rac)-DTHFP/meso-DTHFP is disclosed in Figure 2.

    [0049] Enrichment was surprisingly successful via complexation with MgCl2. This enrichment step forms an additional inventive step in the present invention.

    [0050] According to the method of the present invention it is an essential feature that the internal organic compound, as defined above, is added to the catalyst mixture before, during or after the pre-treating of the MgCl2-mROH with the Group 13 metal compound, but before treating it with the compound of a transition metal of Group 4 to 6.

    [0051] The molar ratio of the internal organic compound of formula (I) / the adduct MgCl2*mROH added to the catalyst mixture is in the range of 0,02 to 0,20 mol/mol, preferably 0,05 to 0,15 mol/mol.

    [0052] Thus, according to the first embodiment of the invention the solid catalyst component is prepared by

    i) providing solid MgCl2*mROH carrier, wherein m is 1 to 4 and R is a linear or branched alkyl group containing 1 to 8 C atoms

    ii) pre-treating the solid carrier particles of step i) with an Al compound

    iii) adding the internal organic compound of formula (I) into the pre-treated solid carrier of step ii) or

    iii') simultaneously with step ii) adding the internal organic compound of formula (I) into the solid carrier

    iv) treating the pre-treated solid carried particles of step iii) or iii') with TiCl4 and

    v) recovering the solid catalyst component



    [0053] Thus, according to the second embodiment of the invention the solid catalyst component is prepared by

    i) providing solid MgCl2*mROH carrier, wherein m is 1 to 4 and R is a linear or branched alkyl group containing 1 to 8 C atoms

    ii-1) adding the internal organic compound of formula (I) into the solid carrier of step i)

    iii-1) pre-treating the solid carrier particles of step ii-1) with an Al compound

    iv-1) treating the pre-treated solid carried particles of step iii-1) with TiCl4 and

    v-1) recovering the solid catalyst component.



    [0054] According to the embodiments above the Al compound can be added to the solid carrier before or after adding the internal organic compound or simultaneously with the internal organic compound to the carrier.

    [0055] Most preferably in the first and second embodiments, m is 2,7 to 3,3, ROH is ethanol, aluminum compound is an aluminium trialkyl compound, such as triethyl aluminium, and as internal donor is used 2,2-di(2-tetrahydrofuryl)propane, or 2,2-di-(2-furan)-propane, especially 2,2-di(2-tetrahydrofuryl)propane or isomers or mixtures thereof.

    [0056] According to the catalyst preparation method of the present invention the pre-treatment with the Group 13 metal compound, preferably an aluminum compound, can be done by adding a solution of said aluminum compound in inert organic solvent, preferably in inert aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent, for example in heptane. The method of the invention allows use of a concentrated aluminum compound solution. In the case where triethylaluminiun (TEA) is used, a 15 to 100 wt-% solution of TEA in an inert hydrocarbon, preferably a 25 to 100 wt-% solution of TEA in inert aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent, like in heptane can be used, or neat TEA. It was found that by using these more concentrated solutions, the morphology remains advantageous and a reduction in waste products are realized.

    [0057] The final solid catalyst component shall have Mg/Ti mol/mol ratio of 1 to 10, preferably 2 to 8, especially 3 to 7, Al/Ti mol/mol ratio 0,01 to 1, preferably 0,1 to 0,5 and Cl/Ti mol/mol ratio of 5 to 20, preferably 10 to 17.

    [0058] Mg component of the final catalyst preferably originates only from the solid MgCl2*mROH carrier, i.e. no additional Mg compounds are used in catalyst preparation.

    [0059] Particles of the solid catalyst component of the invention are uniform in particle size without fines or agglomerates.

    [0060] It is a further benefit of the invention that the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the polymer can be narrowed by using the catalyst of the invention or prepared by the inventive method.

    [0061] Further, the increase in molecular weight is not made at the expense of the productivity of the catalyst. The productivity remains at an acceptably high level or is even increased compared to use of a catalyst component of similar type but using a different internal organic compound and/or prepared by adding the internal organic compound during or after the treatment step with TiCl4, or using said organic compound as external additive, or using said organic compound in precipitated MgCl2 based catalysts. Thus, the performance of the catalyst prepared by the method of the present invention makes it possible to broaden the preparation window of the polyethylene such that polymerisation with both higher and lower amounts of hydrogen is possible while retaining good productivity.

    [0062] Especially an optimal combination of molar mass variability, MWD, comonomer response, comonomer composition distribution (CCD) and activity and productivity makes the present catalyst very attractive for producing polyethylene.

    [0063] The catalyst of the invention comprises, in addition to the solid catalyst component as defined above, a cocatalyst, which is also known as an activator. Cocatalysts are organometallic compounds of Group 13 metal, typically aluminum compounds. These compounds include alkyl aluminium halides, preferably alkyl aluminium chlorides, such as ethylaluminium dichloride, diethylaluminium chloride, ethylaluminium sesquichloride, dimethylaluminium chloride and the like. They also include trialkylaluminium compounds, such as trimethylaluminium, triethylaluminium, tri-isobutylaluminium, trihexylaluminium and tri-n-octylaluminium. Also other aluminium alkyl compounds, such as isoprenylaluminium, may be used. Especially preferred cocatalysts are trialkylaluminiums, of which triethylaluminium, trimethylaluminium and tri-isobutylaluminium are particularly used.

    [0064] The catalyst of the invention may also comprise an external additive, like external donor. External additives that can be used include ether compounds, typically tetrahydrofuran, siloxane or silane type of external donors and/or alkyl halides as is known from prior art.

    [0065] The catalyst of the present invention can be used for polymerising ethylene optionally with one or more comonomers. Commonly used comonomers are alpha-olefin comonomers preferably selected from C3-C20-alpha-olefins, more preferably are selected from C4-C10-alpha-olefins, such as 1-butene, isobutene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene, 4-methyl-1-pentene, 1-heptene, 1-octene, 1-nonene and 1-decene, as well as dienes, such as butadiene, 1,7-octadiene and 1,4-hexadiene, or cyclic olefins, such as norbornene, and any mixtures thereof. Most preferably, the comonomer is 1-butene and/or 1-hexene.

    [0066] The catalyst of the present invention allows for the production of a wide range of polyethylene polymers. Thus, production of high density, medium density and low density ethylene polymers is possible.

    [0067] Catalyst of the present invention can be used in any commonly used uni- and multimodal processes for producing polyethylene. Typically polyethylene polymers are produced in a multimodal process configuration. The multimodal ethylene copolymer may be produced in any suitable polymerization process known in the art comprising at least two polymerization stages. It is preferred to operate the polymerization stages in cascaded mode. The polymerizations may be operated in slurry, solution, or gas phase conditions or their combinations. Suitable processes comprising cascaded slurry and gas phase polymerization stages are disclosed, among others, in WO-A-92/12182 and WO-A-96/18662.

    [0068] In a multimodal polymerisation configuration, the polymerisation stages comprise polymerisation reactors selected from slurry and gas phase reactors. In one preferred embodiment, the multimodal polymerisation configuration comprises at least one slurry reactor, in some embodiment two slurry reactors followed by at least one gas phase reactor, preferably one gas phase reactor.

    [0069] The catalyst may be transferred into the polymerization process by any means known in the art. It is thus possible to suspend the catalyst in a diluent and maintain it as homogeneous slurry. Especially preferred is to use oil having a viscosity from 20 to 1500 mPa·s as diluent, as disclosed in WO-A-2006/063771.lt is also possible to mix the catalyst with a viscous mixture of grease and oil and feed the resultant paste into the polymerization zone. Further still, it is possible to let the catalyst settle and introduce portions of thus obtained catalyst mud into the polymerization zone in a manner disclosed, for instance, in EP-A-428054.

    [0070] The polymerization in slurry usually takes place in an inert diluent, typically a hydrocarbon diluent such as methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, isobutane, pentanes, hexanes, heptanes, octanes etc., or their mixtures. Preferably the diluent is a low-boiling hydrocarbon having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms or a mixture of such hydrocarbons. An especially preferred diluent is propane, possibly containing minor amount of methane, ethane and/or butane.

    [0071] The temperature in the slurry polymerization is typically from 40 to 115 °C, preferably from 60 to 110 °C and in particular from 70 to 100 °C. The pressure is from 1 to 150 bar, preferably from 10 to 100 bar.

    [0072] The slurry polymerization may be conducted in any known reactor used for slurry polymerization. Such reactors include a continuous stirred tank reactor and a loop reactor. It is especially preferred to conduct the polymerization in loop reactor. Hydrogen is fed, optionally, into the reactor to control the molecular weight of the polymer as known in the art. Furthermore, one or more alpha-olefin comonomers may be added into the reactor to control the density and morphology of the polymer product. The actual amount of such hydrogen and comonomer feeds depends on the desired melt index (or molecular weight) and density (or comonomer content) of the resulting polymer.

    [0073] The polymerization in gas phase may be conducted in a fluidized bed reactor, in a fast fluidized bed reactor or in a settled bed reactor or in any combination of these.

    [0074] Typically the fluidized bed or settled bed polymerization reactor is operated at a temperature within the range of from 50 to 100 °C, preferably from 65 to 90 °C. The pressure is suitably from 10 to 40 bar, preferably from 15 to 30 bar.

    [0075] Also antistatic agent(s) may be introduced into the slurry and/or gas phase reactor if needed. The process may further comprise pre- and post-reactors.

    [0076] The polymerization steps may be preceded by a pre-polymerisation step. The pre-polymerisation step may be conducted in slurry or in gas phase. Preferably pre-polymerisation is conducted in slurry, and especially in a loop reactor. The temperature in the pre-polymerisation step is typically from 0 to 90 °C, preferably from 20 to 80 °C and more preferably from 30 to 70 °C.

    [0077] The pressure is not critical and is typically from 1 to 150 bar, preferably from 10 to 100 bar.

    [0078] The polymerisation may be carried out continuously or batch wise, preferably the polymerisation is carried out continuously.

    [0079] A preferred multistage process for producing ethylene (co)polymers according to the invention comprises a slurry phase polymerisation stage and a gas phase polymerisation stage. Each stage can comprise one or more polymerisation reactors. One suitable reactor configuration comprises one to two slurry reactors, preferably loop reactors and one gas phase reactor. Such polymerisation configuration is described e.g. in patent literature, such as in WO-A-92/12182 and WO-A-96/18662 of Borealis and known as Borstar technology.

    FIGURES



    [0080] 

    Figure 1: 1H-NMR of DTHFP: a 1:1 mixture of D,L-(rac)-DTHFP and meso-DTHFP diastereomers.

    Figure 2: 1H-NMR of DTHFP: a 2:1 mol/mol mixture of D,L-(rac)-DTHFP and meso-DTHFP

    Figure 3: SEM Figure of catalyst of comparative example 1

    Figure 4: SEM Figure of catalyst of comparative example 2

    Figure 5: SEM Figure of catalyst of comparative example 4

    Figure 6: SEM Figure of catalyst of inventive example 1

    Figure 7: SEM Figure of catalyst of inventive example 2

    Figure 8: SEM Figure of catalyst of inventive example 3

    Figure 9: SEM Figure of catalyst of inventive example 4


    EXPERIMENTAL PART


    METHODS


    Melt Flow Rate



    [0081] MFR2: 190°C, 2,16 kg load
    MFR5: 190°C, 5 kg load
    The melt flow rate is measured in accordance with ISO 1133 and is indicated in g/10 min. The MFR is an indication of the flowability, and hence the processability, of the polymer. The higher the melt flow rate, the lower the viscosity of the polymer.

    Molecular weight averages, molecular weight distribution (Mn, Mw, Mz, MWD)



    [0082] Molecular weight averages (Mz, Mw and Mn), Molecular weight distribution (MWD) and its broadness, described by polydispersity index, PDI = Mw/Mn (wherein Mn is the number average molecular weight and Mw is the weight average molecular weight) were determined by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) according to ISO 16014-1:2003, ISO 16014-2:2003, ISO 16014-4:2003 and ASTM D 6474-12 using the following formulas:







    [0083] For a constant elution volume interval ΔVi, where Ai, and Mi are the chromatographic peak slice area and polyolefin molecular weight (MW), respectively associated with the elution volume, Vi, where N is equal to the number of data points obtained from the chromatogram between the integration limits.

    [0084] A high temperature GPC instrument, equipped with either infrared (IR) detector (IR4 or IR5 from PolymerChar (Valencia, Spain) or differential refractometer (RI) from Agilent Technologies, equipped with 3 x Agilent-PLgel Olexis and 1x Agilent-PLgel Olexis Guard columns was used. As the solvent and mobile phase 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) stabilized with 250 mg/L 2,6-Di tert butyl-4-methyl-phenol) was used. The chromatographic system was operated at 160 °C and at a constant flow rate of 1 mL/min. 200 µL of sample solution was injected per analysis. Data collection was performed using either Agilent Cirrus software version 3.3 or PolymerChar GPC-IR control software.

    [0085] The column set was calibrated using universal calibration (according to ISO 16014-2:2003) with 19 narrow MWD polystyrene (PS) standards in the range of 0,5 kg/mol to 11 500 kg/mol. The PS standards were dissolved at room temperature over several hours. The conversion of the polystyrene peak molecular weight to polyolefin molecular weights is accomplished by using the Mark Houwink equation and the following Mark Houwink constants:







    [0086] A third order polynomial fit was used to fit the calibration data.

    [0087] All samples were prepared in the concentration range of 0,5 -1 mg/ml and dissolved at 160 °C for 2.5 hours for PP or 3 hours for PE under continuous gentle shaking.

    Melt temperature



    [0088] Melt temperature is measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) according to ISO 11357 using Mettler TA820 Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) on 3 ± 0,5 mg samples.

    ICP Analysis (Al, Mg, Ti)



    [0089] The elemental analysis of a catalyst was performed by taking a solid sample of mass, M, cooling over dry ice. Samples were diluted up to a known volume, V, by dissolving in nitric acid (HNO3, 65 %, 5 % of V) and freshly deionised (DI) water (5 % of V). The solution was further diluted with DI water up to the final volume, V, and left to stabilize for two hours.

    [0090] The analysis was run at room temperature using a Thermo Elemental iCAP 6300 Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emmision Spectrometer (ICP-OES) which was calibrated using a blank (a solution of 5 % HNO3), and standards of 0.5 ppm, 1 ppm, 10 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 300 ppm of Al, Mg and Ti in solutions of 5 % HNO3.

    [0091] Immediately before analysis the calibration is 'resloped' using the blank and 100 ppm standard, a quality control sample (20 ppm Al, Mg and Ti in a solution of 5 % HNO3 in DI water) is run to confirm the reslope. The QC sample is also run after every 5th sample and at the end of a scheduled analysis set.

    [0092] The content of Mg was monitored using the 285.213 nm line and the content for Ti using 336.121 nm line. The content of aluminium was monitored via the 167.079 nm line, when Al concentration in ICP sample was between 0-10 ppm (calibrated only to 100 ppm) and via the 396.152 nm line for Al concentrations above 10 ppm.

    [0093] The reported values are an average of three successive aliquots taken from the same sample and are related back to the original catalyst by inputting the original mass of sample and the dilution volume into the software.

    Comonomer Content from PE (FTIR)



    [0094] Comonomer content was determined in a known manner based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) determination using Nicolet Magna 550 IR spectrometer together with Nicolet Omnic FTIR software.

    [0095] Films having a thickness of about 220 to 250 µm were compression moulded from the samples. Similar films were made from calibration samples having a known content of the comonomer. The thicknesses were measured from at least five points of the film. The films were then rubbed with sandpaper to eliminate reflections. The films were not touched by plain hand to avoid contamination. For each sample and calibration sample at least two films were prepared. The films were pressed from pellets by using a Graceby Specac film press at 150 °C using 3 + 2 minutes preheating time, 1 minute compression time and 4 to 5 minutes cooling time. For very high molecular weight samples the preheating time may be prolonged or the temperature increased.

    [0096] The comonomer content was determined from the absorbance at the wave number of approximately 1378 cm-1. The comonomer used in the calibration samples was the same as the comonomer present in the samples. The analysis was performed by using the resolution of 2 cm-1, wave number span of from 4000 to 400 cm-1 and the number of sweeps of 128. At least two spectra were run from each film.

    [0097] The comonomer content was determined from the spectrum from the wave number range of from 1430 to 1100 cm-1. The absorbance is measured as the height of the peak by selecting the so-called short or long base line or both. The short base line is drawn in about 1410 - 1320 cm-1 through the minimum points and the long base line about between 1410 and 1220 cm-1. Calibrations need to be done specifically for each base line type. Also, the comonomer content of the unknown sample needs to be within the range of the comonomer contents of the calibration samples.

    [0098] From the calibration samples a straight line is obtained as follows:

    where Ci is the comonomer content of the calibration sample i

    A1378,i is the absorbance at appr. 1378 cm-1 of sample i

    Si is the thickness of the film made of calibration sample i

    k is the slope of the calibration line (obtained by regression analysis), and

    b is the intercept of the calibration line (obtained by regression analysis).



    [0099] By using the thus obtained parameters k and b the comonomer content of the samples were obtained from

    where Cx is the comonomer content of the unknown sample

    A1378,x is the absorbance at appr. 1378 cm-1 of the unknown sample

    Sx is the thickness of the film made of the unknown sample

    k is the slope of the calibration line obtained from the calibration samples as above

    b is the intercept of the calibration line obtained from the calibration samples.



    [0100] The method gives the comonomer content in weight-% or in mol-%, depending on which was used in the calibration. If properly calibrated, the same approach may also be used to determine the number of methyl groups, i.e., CH3 per 1000 carbon atoms.

    EXAMPLES


    Raw materials



    [0101] The standard 10 and 25 wt% TEA (triethyl aluminium) solutions in heptane were prepared by dilution of 100% TEA-S from Chemtura.

    [0102] MgCl2*3EtOH carriers were received from GRACE (Table 1).

    [0103] 2,2-Di(2-tetrahydrofuryl)propane (DTHFP) was supplied by TCI EUROPE N.V. as a mixture (1:1) of diastereomers (D,L-(rac)-DTHFP and meso-DTHFP.

    [0104] TiCl4 was supplied by Aldrich (Metallic impurities <1000 ppm, Metals analysis >99.9%).
    Table 1. MgCl2*3EtOH carriers.
    CarrierGranular 20 µmSpherical 45 µm
    Mg (wt%) 9,86 9,87
    Ethanol (wt%) 59,7 59,0
    EtOH/Mg (mol/mol) 3,20 3,16
    D10 (µm) 12,1 32,1
    D50 (µm) 21,1 45,3
    D90 (µm) 31,8 63,8


    [0105] In the following examples preparation of the comparative and inventive catalysts as well use of the catalysts in the polymerisations are disclosed. Catalysts and polymer properties are disclosed in Table 2. SEM figures of Catalyst are disclosed in Figures 3 - 9

    Comparative example 1 (CE1)



    [0106] The catalyst was prepared following the preparation procedure described in EP0376936.

    A. Pre-treated support material preparation:



    [0107] In an inert atmosphere glove box (<1 ppm O2, H2O): A dry 250 mL, 4-neck round-bottom flask equipped with two rubber septa, a thermometer, and mechanical stirrer was charged with 30 mL of heptane and 5 g (20 mmol of Mg) of spherical 45 µm MgCl2*3EtOH carrier. The flask was removed from the glove-box, a nitrogen inlet and outlet were fixed. The flask was placed in a cooling bath and stirred for approximately 10 min at 250 rpm. A precooled 10 wt% solution of triethylaluminum (81.8 g, 72 mmol of Al; Al/EtOH=1.1 mol/mol) in heptane was added dropwise during 1 h time, keeping the temperature below 0°C, due to the liberation of C2H6. The obtained suspension was heated to 80°C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 30 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was allowed to settle for 5 min at 80°C, and the supernatant was removed by cannula. The obtained pre-treated support material was washed with stirring once with 50 mL of toluene at 80°C and twice with 50 mL of toluene at 50°C (addition of toluene, stirring at 250 rpm for 15 min, settling for 5 min, removal of liquid by cannula).

    B. Catalyst preparation:



    [0108] At room temperature, 100 mL of toluene was added to the pre-treated support material of step A. The mixture was stirred for approximately 30 min at 250 rpm. Neat TiCl4 (3.984 g, 21.0 mmol; Ti/Mg = 1.0 mol/mol) was added dropwise, and the temperature was maintained between 25-35°C. The obtained suspension was heated to 90°C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 60 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 90°C, and the liquid was removed by cannula. The obtained catalyst was washed with 50 mL of toluene at 90°C, with 50 mL of toluene at 50°C and with 50 mL of pentane at room temperature (addition of preheated toluene or pentane, stirring at 250 rpm for 15 min, settling for 5 min, removing of the supernatant liquid by cannula). The catalyst was dried with nitrogen flow at 60°C for 1.5 h. The yield was 2 g (70% based on Mg).

    C. Bench-scale copolymerization with 1-butene



    [0109] The catalyst (8.5 mg) was tested in copolymerization with 1-butene. Triethylaluminum (TEA) was used as a co-catalyst with an Al/Ti molar ratio of 15. The polymerization reaction was carried out in a 3 L bench-scale reactor in accordance with the following procedure:
    An empty 3L bench-scale reactor was charged with 55 mL of 1-butene at 20 °C and stirred at 200 rpm. Then 1250 mL of propane was added to the reactor as a polymerization medium, followed by the addition of hydrogen gas (0.75 bar). The reactor was heated to 85 °C, and ethylene (3.7 bar) was added batchwise. The reactor pressure was kept at 0.2 bar of overpressure and stirring speed was increased to 550 rpm. The catalyst and the co-catalyst were added together (a few seconds of pre-contact between catalyst and TEA) to the reactor with additional 100 mL of propane. The total reactor pressure was maintained at 38.3 bar by continuous ethylene feed. The polymerization was stopped after 60 min by venting off the monomers and H2. The obtained polymer was left to dry in a fume hood overnight before weighing.

    D. Polymerization results



    [0110] The results of the polymerization reaction are shown in Table 2. The activity of the catalyst was calculated on the basis of the amount of polymer produced. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The butene-co-monomer content was measured by IR. The melting temperature of copolymer was measured by DSC.

    Comparative Example 2 (CE2)



    [0111] The catalyst was prepared with 25 wt% TEA and with a lower volume of solvent used.

    A. Pre-treated support material preparation:



    [0112] In an inert atmosphere glove box (<1 ppm O2, H2O): A dry 100 mL, 4-neck round-bottom flask equipped with two rubber septa, a thermometer, and mechanical stirrer was charged with 30 mL of heptane and 5.1 g (21 mmol of Mg) of spherical 45 µm MgCl2*3EtOH carrier. The flask was removed from the glove-box, a nitrogen inlet and outlet were fixed. The flask was placed in a cooling bath and stirred for approximately 10 min at 250 rpm. A precooled 25 wt% solution of triethylaluminum (30.4 g, 67 mmol of Al; Al/EtOH=1.0 mol/mol) in heptane was added dropwise during 1 h time, keeping the temperature below 0°C due to the liberation of C2H6. The obtained suspension was heated to 80 °C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 30 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 80 °C, and the supernatant removed via cannula. The obtained pre-treated support material was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at room temperature (addition of toluene, stirring at 250 rpm for 15 min, settling for 5 min, solvent removal via cannula).

    B. Catalyst preparation:



    [0113] At room temperature, 50 mL of toluene was added to the pre-treated support material of step A. The mixture was stirred for approximately 30 min at 250 rpm. Neat TiCl4 (3.8 g, 20 mmol; Ti/Mg=1.0 mol/mol) was added dropwise, and the temperature was maintained between 25-35°C. The obtained suspension was heated to 90°C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 60 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 90°C, and the liquid was removed by cannula. The obtained catalyst was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at 90°C, and once with 50 mL of pentane at room temperature (addition of preheated toluene or pentane, stirring at 250 rpm for 15 min, settling for 5 min, removal of the liquid by cannula). The catalyst was dried with nitrogen flow at 50 °C for 1.5 h. The yield was 2.7 g or 76% based on Mg.

    C. Bench-scale copolymerization with 1-butene



    [0114] The catalyst (6.2 mg) was tested in copolymerization with 1-butene. Triethylaluminum (TEA) was used as a co-catalyst with an Al/Ti molar ratio of 15. The polymerization reaction was carried out in a 3 L bench-scale reactor in accordance with the procedure described in Comparative Example 1C.

    D. Polymerization results



    [0115] The results of the polymerization reaction are shown in Table 1. The activity of the catalyst was calculated on the basis of the amount of polymer produced. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The butene-co-monomer content was measured by IR. The melting temperature of copolymer was measured by DSC.

    Comparative Example 3 (CE3)



    [0116] C. The catalyst from Comparative Example 2 (6.2 mg) was tested in copolymerization with 1-butene with DTHFP as an external additive (DTHFP/Mg = 0,14 mol/mol, DTHFP/Ti = 0,47 mol/mol). Triethylaluminum (TEA) was used as a co-catalyst with an Al/Ti molar ratio of 15. DTHFP was premixed with TEA solution in glove-box 1 h before the polymerization. The polymerization reaction was carried out in a 3 L bench-scale reactor in accordance with the procedure described in Comparative Example 1C.

    D. Polymerization results



    [0117] The results of the polymerization reaction are shown in Table 2. The activity of the catalyst was calculated on the basis of the amount of polymer produced. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The butene-co-monomer content was measured by IR. The melting temperature of copolymer was measured by DSC.

    Comparative Example 4 (CE4)



    [0118] C. The catalyst from Comparative Example 2 (7.2 mg) was tested in copolymerization with 1-butene. Triethylaluminum (TEA) was used as a co-catalyst with an Al/Ti molar ratio of 15. The polymerization reaction was carried out in a 3 L bench-scale reactor in accordance with the following procedure:

    [0119] An empty 3L bench-scale reactor was charged with 70 mL of 1-butene at 20 °C and stirred at 200 rpm. Then, propane (1250 mL) was added to the reactor as a polymerization medium, followed by the addition of hydrogen gas (0.40 bar). The reactor was heated to 85 °C, and a batch of ethylene (3.7 bar) was added. The reactor pressure was kept at 0.2 bar of overpressure and stirring speed was increased to 550 rpm. The catalyst and the co-catalyst were added together (a few seconds of precontact between catalyst and TEA) to the reactor with additional 100 mL of propane. The total reactor pressure was maintained at 37.5 bar by continuous ethylene feed. The polymerization was stopped after 60 min by venting off the monomers and H2. The obtained polymer was left to dry in a fume hood overnight before weighing.

    D. Polymerization results



    [0120] The results of the polymerization reaction are shown in Table 2. The activity of the catalyst was calculated on the basis of the amount of polymer produced. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The butene-co-monomer content was measured by IR. The melting temperature of copolymer was measured by DSC.

    Inventive Example 1 (IE1)



    [0121] DTHFP as an internal organic compound was added just before the addition of TiCl4.

    A. Pre-treated support material preparation:



    [0122] In an inert atmosphere glove box (<1 ppm O2, H2O): A dry 100 mL, 4-neck round-bottom flask equipped with two rubber septa, a thermometer, and mechanical stirrer was charged with 30 mL of heptane and 5g (20 mmol of Mg) of spherical 45µm MgCl2*3EtOH carrier. The flask was removed from the glove-box, a nitrogen inlet and outlet were fixed. The flask was placed in a cooling bath and stirred for approximately 10 min at 250rpm. A precooled 25 wt% solution of triethylaluminum (30.4g, 67 mmol of Al; Al/EtOH = 1.1 mol/mol) in heptane was added dropwise during 1 h time, keeping the temperature below 0°C. The obtained suspension was heated to 80 °C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 30 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 80 °C, and the liquid was removed by cannula. The obtained pre-treated support material was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at room temperature (addition of toluene, stirring at 250 rpm for 15 min, settling for 5 min, removal of the liquid by cannula).

    B. Catalyst preparation:



    [0123] At room temperature, DTHFP (0.38 g, DTHFP/Mg = 0.1 mol/mol) dissolved in 50 mL of toluene was added to the pre-treated support material. The mixture was stirred for approximately 30 min at 250 rpm. Neat TiCl4 (3.8 g, 20 mmol; Ti/Mg = 1.0 mol/mol) was added dropwise, and the temperature was maintained between 25-35 °C. The obtained suspension was heated to 90 °C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 60 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 90 °C, and the liquid was removed by cannula. The obtained catalyst was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at 90 °C, and once with 50 mL of pentane at room temperature (addition of preheated toluene or pentane, stirring at 250 rpm for 15 min, settling for 5 min, removal of the liquid by cannula). The catalyst was dried with nitrogen flow at 50 °C for 1.5 h. The yield was 3.3 g or 89% based on Mg.

    C. Bench-scale copolymerization with 1-butene



    [0124] The catalyst (6.0 mg) was tested in copolymerization with 1-butene. Triethylaluminum (TEA) was used as a co-catalyst with an Al/Ti molar ratio of 15. The polymerization reaction was carried out in a 3 L bench-scale reactor in accordance with the procedure described in Comparative Example 4C.

    D. Polymerization results



    [0125] The results of the polymerization reaction are shown in Table 2. The activity of the catalyst was calculated on the basis of the amount of polymer produced. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The butene-co-monomer content was measured by IR. The melting temperature of copolymer was measured by DSC.

    Inventive Example 2 (IE2)



    [0126] DTHFP as an internal organic compound was added just before the addition of TEA. The catalyst is based on 45 µm MgCl2*3EtOH carrier.

    A. Pre-treated support material preparation:



    [0127] In an inert atmosphere glove box (<1 ppm O2, H2O): A dry 100 mL, 4-neck round-bottom flask equipped with two rubber septa, a thermometer, and mechanical stirrer was charged with 0.38 g of DTHFP (DTHFP/Mg = 0.1 mol/mol) dissolved in 30 mL of heptane and 5.1 g (21 mmol of Mg) of spherical 45 µm MgCl2*3EtOH carrier. The flask was removed from the glove-box, a nitrogen inlet and outlet were fixed. The flask was placed in a cooling bath and stirred for approximately 10 min at 250 rpm. A precooled 25 wt% solution of triethylaluminum (30.4 g, 67 mmol of Al; Al/EtOH = 1.0 mol/mol) in heptane was added dropwise during 1 h time, keeping the temperature below 0°C. The obtained suspension was heated to 80 °C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 30 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 80 °C, and the liquid was removed by cannula. The obtained pre-treated support material was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at room temperature (addition of toluene, stirring at 250 rpm for 15-120 min, settling for 5 min, removal of liquid via cannula).

    B. Catalyst preparation:



    [0128] At room temperature, 50 mL of toluene was added to the pre-treated support material. The mixture was stirred for approximately 30 min at 250 rpm. Neat TiCl4 (3.8 g, 20 mmol; Ti/Mg = 1.0 mol/mol) was added dropwise, and the temperature was maintained between 25-35 °C. The obtained suspension was heated to 90 °C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 60 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 90 °C, and the liquid was removed via cannula. The obtained catalyst was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at 90 °C, and once with 50 mL of pentane at room temperature (addition of preheated toluene or pentane, stirring at 250 rpm for 15 min, settling for 5 min, removal of liquid by cannula). The catalyst was dried with nitrogen flow at 50 °C for 1.5 h. The yield was 3.6 g (100% based on Mg.

    C. Bench-scale copolymerization with 1-butene



    [0129] The catalyst (5.7 mg) was tested in copolymerization with 1-butene. Triethylaluminum (TEA) was used as a co-catalyst with an Al/Ti molar ratio of 15. The polymerization reaction was carried out in a 3 L bench-scale reactor in accordance with the procedure described in Comparative Example 4C.

    D. Polymerization results



    [0130] The results of the polymerization reaction are shown in Table 2. The activity of the catalyst was calculated on the basis of the amount of polymer produced. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The butene-co-monomer content was measured by IR. The melting temperature of copolymer was measured by DSC.

    Inventive Example 3 (IE3)



    [0131] DTHFP as an internal organic compound was added just before the addition of TEA. The catalyst is based on 20 µm MgCl2*3EtOH carrier.

    A. Pre-treated support material preparation:



    [0132] In an inert atmosphere glove box (<1 ppm O2, H2O): A dry 100 mL, 4-neck round-bottom flask equipped with two rubber septa, a thermometer, and mechanical stirrer was charged with 0.38 g of DTHFP (DTHFP/Mg = 0.1 mol/mol) dissolved in 30 mL of heptane and 5 g (20 mmol of Mg) of granular 20 µm MgCl2*3EtOH carrier. The flask was removed from the glove-box, a nitrogen inlet and outlet were fixed. The flask was placed in a cooling bath and stirred for approximately 10 min at 250 rpm. A precooled 25 wt% solution of triethylaluminum (30.4 g, 67 mmol of Al; Al/EtOH = 1.0mol/mol) in heptane was added dropwise during 1 h time, keeping the temperature below 0°C. The obtained suspension was heated to 80 °C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 30 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 80 °C, and the liquid was removed via cannula. The obtained pre-treated support material was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at room temperature (addition of toluene, stirring at 250 rpm for 15-120 min, settling for 5 min, removal of liquid by cannula).

    B. Catalyst preparation:



    [0133] At room temperature, 50 mL of toluene was added to the pre-treated support material. The mixture was stirred for approximately 30 min at 250 rpm. Neat TiCl4 (3.8g, 20 mmol; Ti/Mg = 1.0 mol/mol) was added dropwise, and the temperature was maintained between 25-35 °C. The obtained suspension was heated to 90 °C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 60 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 90 °C, and the liquid was removedvia cannula. The obtained catalyst was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at 90 °C, and once with 50 mL of pentane at room temperature (addition of preheated toluene or pentane, stirring at 250 rpm for 15 min, settling for 5 min, removal of liquid via cannula). The catalyst was dried with nitrogen flow at 50 °C for 1.5 h. The yield was 3.4 g (94% based on Mg).

    C. Bench-scale copolymerization with 1-butene



    [0134] The catalyst (7.0mg) was tested in copolymerization with 1-butene. Triethylaluminum (TEA) was used as a co-catalyst with an Al/Ti molar ratio of 15. The polymerization reaction was carried out in a 3 L bench-scale reactor in accordance with the procedure described in Comparative Example 4C.

    D. Polymerization results



    [0135] The results of the polymerization reaction are shown in Table 2. The activity of the catalyst was calculated on the basis of the amount of polymer produced. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The butene-co-monomer content was measured by IR. The melting temperature of copolymer was measured by DSC.

    Inventive Example 4 (IE4)



    [0136] Enriched rac-DTHFP (D,L-(rac)-DTHFP/meso-DTHFP = 2/1 mol/mol) as an internal organic compound was added just before the addition of TEA. The catalyst is based on 45 µm MgCl2*3EtOH carrier.

    [0137] Anhydrous MgCl2 (0.95 g, 10 mmol) was mixed with 3.68 g of DTHFP (20 mmol; D,L-(rac)-DTHFP/meso-DTHFP = 1/1 mol/mol) at room temperature. The obtained suspension was heated to 130 °C and stirred for 3h. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered. The obtained filtrate contained a mixture of D,L-(rac)-DTHFP and meso-DTHFP (2/1 mol/mol; yield 93%) and was used as it is for catalyst synthesis.

    A. Pre-treated support material preparation:



    [0138] In an inert atmosphere glove box (<1 ppm O2, H2O): A dry 100 mL, 4-neck round-bottom flask equipped with two rubber septa, a thermometer, and mechanical stirrer was charged with 0.38 g of enriched rac-DTHFP (DTHFP/Mg = 0.1 mol/mol) dissolved in 30 mL of heptane and 5.1 g (21 mmol of Mg) of spherical 45 µm MgCl2*3EtOH carrier. The flask was removed from the glove-box, a nitrogen inlet and outlet were fixed. The flask was placed in a cooling bath and stirred for approximately 10 min at 250 rpm. A precooled 25 wt% solution of triethylaluminum (30.4 g, 67 mmol of Al; Al/EtOH = 1.0 mol/mol) in heptane was added dropwise during 1 h time, keeping the temperature below 0°C. The obtained suspension was heated to 80 °C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 30 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 80 °C, and the liquid was removed by cannula. The obtained pre-treated support material was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at room temperature (addition of toluene, stirring at 250 rpm for 15-120 min, settling for 5 min, removal of the liquid by cannula).

    B. Catalyst preparation:



    [0139] At room temperature, 50 mL of toluene was added to the pre-treated support material. The mixture was stirred for approximately 30 min at 250 rpm. Neat TiCl4 (3.8 g, 20 mmol; Ti/Mg = 1.0 mol/mol) was added dropwise, and the temperature was maintained between 25-35 °C. The obtained suspension was heated to 90 °C in 20 min and kept at this temperature for 60 min at 250 rpm. The suspension was settled for 5 min at 90 °C, and the liquid was removed by cannula. The obtained catalyst was washed twice with 50 mL of toluene at 90 °C, and once with 50 mL of pentane at room temperature (addition of preheated toluene or pentane, stirring at 250 rpm for 15 min, settling for 5 min, removal of liquid via cannula). The catalyst was dried with nitrogen flow at 50 °C for 1.5 h. The yield was 3.8 g (100% based on Mg).

    C. Bench-scale copolymerization with 1-butene



    [0140] The catalyst (7.2 mg) was tested in copolymerization with 1-butene. Triethylaluminum (TEA) was used as a co-catalyst with an Al/Ti molar ratio of 15. The polymerization reaction was carried out in a 3 L bench-scale reactor in accordance with the procedure described in Comparative Example 4C.

    D. Polymerization results



    [0141] The results of the polymerization reaction are shown in Table 2. The activity of the catalyst was calculated on the basis of the amount of polymer produced. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The butene-co-monomer content was measured by IR. The melting temperature of copolymer was measured by DSC.
    Table 2. Catalyst and polymerisation results
    ExampleCE1CE2CE3CE4IE1IE2IE3IE4
    Catalyst        
    Mg (wt%) 17,4 13,9 13,9 13,9 13,3 13,7 13,6 13,0
    Al (wt%) 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,50 0,72 0,84 0,70 0,99
    Ti (wt%) 4,02 8,24 8,24 8,24 5,11 4,36 4,19 6,19
    Cl (wt%) - 57,1 57,1 57,1 49,5 49,8 48,8 48,2
    Mg/Ti (mol/mol) 8,5 3,3 3,3 3,3 5,1 6,2 6,4 4,1
    Al/Ti (mol/mol) 0,2 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,3
    Cl/Ti (mol/mol) nd 9,4 9,4 9,4 13,1 15,4 15,7 10,5
    Morphology No broken particles Broken particles nd Broken particles No broken particles No broken particles No broken particles No broken particles
    Polymerisation * * * ** ** ** ** **
    Activity 28,7 24,5 9,2 28,0 17,2 22,3 33,1 22,9
    Polymer                
    Mw 123000 123000 121500 172000 261000 225000 213000 172000
    MWD 7,2 7,3 10,2 7,9 3,8 3,6 3,7 4,2
    C4 content 7,1 6,8 10,3 6,5 4,8 5,8 5,0 5,6
    Mp (°C) 123,9 123,6 123,3 121,7 121,6 121,2 121,0 121,5
    * Under test copolymerization conditions: T=85 °C, C2=5 mol%, H2/C2=40 mol/kmol, C4/C2=770 mol/kmol, t=1 h, Al/Ti=15mol/mol.
    ** Under test copolymerization conditions: T=85 °C, C2=5 mol%, H2/C2=20 mol/kmol, C4/C2=970 mol/kmol, t=1 h, Al/Ti=15mol/mol
    nd - not defined


    [0142] As can be seen from the results, the molecular weight of polymers produced by the inventive method is higher or at least on the same level as that in comparative examples and still the activity remains at a good level. At the same time, the MWD is narrower, the comonomer content is lower and the melting temperature is lower than in comparative examples. The morphology of the catalysts of the inventive examples is also uniform. In example CE4, the activity and Mw are on a good level, however, other properties (MWD, C4 content and Mp) are disadvantageously higher than in the inventive examples. Furthermore, the morphology of the catalyst is not at all satisfactory indicating possible difficulties in large scale production.


    Claims

    1. A method for producing solid MgCl2 supported catalyst component comprising the steps

    a) providing solid carrier particles of MgCl2*mROH adduct;

    b) pre-treating the solid carrier particles of step a) with a compound of Group 13 metal;

    c) treating the pre-treated solid carried particles of step b) with a transition metal compound of Group 4 to 6;

    d) recovering the solid catalyst component;
    wherein the solid carrier particles are contacted with an internal organic compound of formula (I) or isomers or mixtures therefrom before treating the solid carrier particles in step c)

    and
    wherein in the formula (I)

    R1 to R5 are the same or different and can be hydrogen, a linear or branched C1 to C8-alkyl group, or a C3-C8-alkylene group, or two or more of R1 to R5 can form a ring,

    the two oxygen-containing rings are individually saturated or partially unsaturated or unsaturated, and

    R in the adduct MgCl2*mROH is a linear or branched alkyl group with 1 to 12 C atoms, and m is 1 to 6.


     
    2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the solid carrier particles are contacted with the internal organic compound of formula (I) or isomers or mixtures therefrom before the pre-treating step b).
     
    3. A method according to claim 1, wherein the solid carrier particles are contacted with the internal organic compound of formula (I) or isomers or mixtures therefrom simultaneously with the pre-treating step b) or after the pre-treating step b) but before the treating step c).
     
    4. A method according to any of the preceding claims wherein in the formula (I) of the internal organic compound
    the two R1 groups are the same and are a linear C1 to C4-alkyl groups, or the two R1 groups form with the carbon atom to which they are attached a ring with 3 to 7 C-atoms, preferably cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl ring,
    R2 to R5 are the same or different and are preferably H or a C1 to C2-alkyl groups, or two or more of R2 to R5 residues can form a ring, preferably formed by R3 and R4 and/or R4 and R5 residues.
     
    5. A method according to any of the preceding claims wherein in the formula (I) of the internal organic compound
    both R1 are the same and are methyl or ethyl groups, preferably methyl groups and
    the residues R2 to R5 are the same or different and are H or a C1 to C2-alkyl groups and preferably at most two of the residues R2 to R5 are a methyl, the others are H and more preferably R2 to R5 are all H.
     
    6. A method according to any of the preceding claims wherein the internal organic compound is 2,2-di(2-tetrahydrofuryl)propane, or 2,2-di-(2-furan)-propane, preferably is 2,2-di(2-tetrahydrofuryl)propane.
     
    7. A method according to any of the preceding claims wherein the R in MgCl2*mROH adduct is a linear or branched alkyl group containing 1 to 8 C atoms, preferably 1 to 4 C atoms, and m is 1 to 4, preferably m is 2,7 to 3,3.
     
    8. A method according to any of the preceding claims wherein the Group 13 metal compound is an aluminum compound of the formula Al(alkyl)xX3-x (II), wherein each alkyl is independently a linear, branched or cyclic alkyl group of 1 to 12 C-atoms, preferably 1 to 8 C-atoms, more preferably 1 to 6 C-atoms, X is halogen, preferably chlorine and 1<x ≤3.
     
    9. A method according to any of the preceding claims wherein the Group 13 metal compound is selected from a group comprising dialkyl aluminium chlorides and trialkyl aluminium, preferably from a group comprising dimethyl aluminium chloride, diethyl aluminium chloride, diisobutyl aluminium chloride, and triethylaluminium or mixtures therefrom, most preferably the aluminium compound is a trialkyl aluminium compound, especially triethylaluminium compound.
     
    10. A method according to any of the preceding claims wherein no Mg compounds are used in catalyst preparation other than the MgCl2*mROH adduct.
     
    11. A solid MgCl2 supported catalyst component prepared by the method of any of claims 1 to 10.
     
    12. A solid MgCl2 supported catalyst component according to claim 11, wherein the final solid catalyst component has Mg/Ti mol/mol ratio of 1 to 10, preferably 2 to 8, Al/Ti mol/mol ratio of 0,01 to 1, preferably 0,1 to 0,5 and Cl/Ti mol/mol ratio of 5 to 20, preferably 10 to 17.
     
    13. A catalyst comprising the solid MgCl2 supported catalyst component of claim 11 or 12 and a cocatalyst of Group 13 metal compound and optionally an external additive.
     
    14. Use of the solid MgCl2 supported catalyst component of claim 11 or 12 in polymerising ethylene optionally with comonomers in a polymerisation process.
     
    15. A process for producing ethylene polymer in a polymerisation process comprising polymerisation of ethylene, optionally with comonomers selected from C3-C20-alphaolefins, more preferably are selected from C4-C10-alpha-olefins, in the presence of the Ziegler-Natta catalyst of claim 13 under polymerisation conditions in at least one polymerisation stage carried out in a solution, slurry or gas phase reactor or combinations thereof.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer Feststoffkatalysatorkomponente auf einer MgCl2-Auflage, das die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

    a) Bereitstellen von Feststoffträgerteilchen eines MgCl2*mROH-Adduktes;

    b) Vorbehandeln der Feststoffträgerteilchen von Schritt a) mit einer Verbindung von Gruppe 13 Metall;

    c) Behandeln der vorbehandelten Feststoffträgerteilchen von Schritt b) mit einer Übergangsmetallverbindung der Gruppe 4 bis 6;

    d) Rückgewinnen der Feststoffkatalysatorkomponente;
    wobei die Feststoffträgerteilchen vor der Behandlung der Feststoffträgerteilchen in Schritt c) mit einer internen organischen Verbindung der Formel (I) oder Isomeren oder Mischungen davon in Kontakt gebracht werden

    und
    wobei in der Formel (I)

    R1 bis R5 gleich oder verschieden sind und Wasserstoff, eine lineare oder verzweigte C1- bis C8-Alkylgruppe oder eine C3-C8-Alkylengruppe sein können oder zwei oder mehr von R1 bis R5 einen Ring bilden können,

    die zwei sauerstoffhaltigen Ringe individuell gesättigt oder teilweise ungesättigt oder ungesättigt sind, und

    R in dem Addukt MgCl2*mROH eine lineare oder verzweigte Alkylgruppe mit 1 bis 12 C-Atomen ist und m 1 bis 6 ist.


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Feststoffträgerteilchen vor dem Vorbehandlungsschritt b) mit der internen organischen Verbindung der Formel (I) oder Isomeren oder Mischungen davon in Kontakt gebracht werden.
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Feststoffträgerteilchen gleichzeitig mit dem Vorbehandlungsschritt b), oder nach dem Vorbehandlungsschritt b), aber vor dem Behandlungsschritt c) mit der internen organischen Verbindung der Formel (I) oder Isomeren oder Mischungen davon in Kontakt gebracht werden.
     
    4. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei in der Formel (I) der internen organischen Verbindung
    die beiden R1-Gruppen gleich sind und eine lineare C1- bis C4-Alkylgruppe sind oder die zwei R1-Gruppen mit dem Kohlenstoffatom, an das sie angehängt sind, einen Ring mit 3 bis 7 C-Atomen, bevorzugt einen Cyclopentyl- oder Cyclohexylring, bilden,
    R2 bis R5 gleich oder verschieden sind und bevorzugt H oder eine C1- bis C2-Alkylgruppe sind oder zwei oder mehr der R2- bis R5-Reste einen Ring, bevorzugt durch R3- und R4- und/oder R4- und R5-Reste gebildet, bilden können.
     
    5. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei in der Formel (I) der internen organischen Verbindung
    beide R1 gleich sind und Methyl- oder Ethylgruppen, bevorzugt Methylgruppen, sind und
    die Reste R2 bis R5 gleich oder verschieden sind und H oder eine C1- bis C2-Alkylgruppe sind und bevorzugt höchstens zwei der Reste R2 bis R5 Methyl sind, die anderen H sind und bevorzugter R2 bis R5 alle H sind.
     
    6. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die interne organische Verbindung 2,2-Di(2-tetrahydrofuryl)propan oder 2,2-Di(2-furan)-propan, bevorzugt 2,2-Di(2-tetrahydrofuryl)propan, ist.
     
    7. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei R in dem MgCl2*mROH-Addukt eine lineare oder verzweigte Alkylgruppe ist, die 1 bis 8 C-Atome, bevorzugt 1 bis 4 C-Atome, enthält und m 1 bis 4 ist, m bevorzugt 2,7 bis 3,3 ist.
     
    8. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Gruppe 13 Metallverbindung eine Aluminiumverbindung der Formel Al(Alkyl)xX3-x (II) ist, wobei jedes Alkyl unabhängig eine lineare, verzweigte oder cyclische Gruppe mit 1 bis 12 C-Atomen, bevorzugt 1 bis 8 C-Atomen, bevorzugter 1 bis 6 C-Atomen ist, X Halogen, bevorzugt Chlor, ist und 1 < x ≤3 ist.
     
    9. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Gruppe 13 Metallverbindung aus einer Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die Dialkylaluminiumchloride und Trialkyaluminium, bevorzugt aus einer Gruppe, umfassend Dimethylaluminiumchlorid, Diethylaluminiumchlorid, Diisobutylaluminiumchlorid und Triethylaluminium oder Mischungen davon, umfasst, wobei die Aluminiumverbindung besonders bevorzugt eine Trialkylaluminiumverbindung, insbesondere eine Triethylaluminiumverbindung, ist.
     
    10. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei bei der Katalysatorzubereitung keine anderen Mg-Verbindungen verwendet werden als das MgCl2*mROH-Addukt.
     
    11. Feststoffkatalysatorkomponente auf einer MgCl2-Auflage, zubereitet nach dem Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10.
     
    12. Feststoffkatalysatorkomponente auf einer MgCl2-Auflage nach Anspruch 11, wobei die endgültige Festoffkatalysatorkomponente ein Mg/Ti-Mol/Mol-Verhältnis von 1 bis 10, bevorzugt 2 bis 8, ein Al/Ti-Mol/Mol-Verhältnis von 0,01 bis 1, bevorzugt 0,1 bis 0,5, und ein Cl/Ti-Mol/Mol-Verhältnis von 5 bis 20, bevorzugt 10 bis 17, aufweist.
     
    13. Katalysator, umfassend die Feststoffkatalysatorkomponente auf einer MgCl2-Auflage nach Anspruch 11 oder 12 und einen Co-Katalysator aus einer Gruppe 13 Metallverbindung und wahlweise einen externen Hilfsstoff.
     
    14. Verwendung der Feststoffkatalysatorkomponente auf einer MgCl2-Auflage nach Anspruch 11 oder 12 bei der Polymerisation von Ethylen, wahlweise mit Comonomeren, in einem Polymerisationsprozess.
     
    15. Prozess zum Erzeugen eines Ethylenpolymers in einem Polymerisationsprozess, umfassend die Polymerisation von Ethylen, wahlweise mit Comonomeren, die aus C3-C20-Alphaolefinen ausgewählt sind, bevorzugter aus C4-C10-Alphaolefinen ausgewählt sind, in Gegenwart des Ziegler-Natta-Katalysators nach Anspruch 13 unter Polymerisationsbedingungen in mindestens einem Polymerisationsstadium, durchgeführt in einem Lösungs-, Aufschlämmungs- oder Gasphasenreaktor oder Kombinationen davon.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé de production d'un composant de catalyseur supporté sur MgCl2 solide comprenant les étapes suivantes

    a) la fourniture de particules de support solide d'adduit MgCl2*mROH ;

    b) le prétraitement des particules de support solide de l'étape a) avec un composé de métal du Groupe 13 ;

    c) le traitement des particules de support solide prétraitées de l'étape b) avec un composé de métal de transition des Groupes 4 à 6 ;

    d) la récupération du composant de catalyseur solide ;
    dans lequel les particules de support solide sont mises en contact avec un composé organique interne de formule (I) ou des isomères de celui-ci ou des mélanges de ceux-ci avant le traitement des particules de support solide dans l'étape c)

    et
    dans lequel dans la formule (I)

    R1 à R5 sont identiques ou différents et peuvent être un hydrogène, un groupe alkyle en C1 à C8 linéaire ou ramifié, ou un groupe alkylène en C3 à C8, ou deux ou plus de deux parmi R1 à R5 peuvent former un cycle,

    les deux cycles contenant un oxygène sont individuellement saturés ou partiellement insaturés ou insaturés, et

    R dans l'adduit MgCl2*mROH est un groupe alkyle linéaire ou ramifié contenant 1 à 12 atomes C, et m est 1 à 6.


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les particules de support solide sont mises en contact avec le composé organique interne de formule (I) ou des isomères de celui-ci ou des mélanges de ceux-ci avant l'étape b) de prétraitement.
     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les particules de support solide sont mises en contact avec le composé organique interne de formule (I) ou des isomères de celui-ci ou des mélanges de ceux-ci simultanément avec l'étape b) de prétraitement ou après l'étape b) de prétraitement mais avant l'étape c) de traitement.
     
    4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel dans la formule (I) du composé organique interne
    les deux groupes R1 sont identiques et sont un groupe alkyle linéaire en C1 à C4, ou les deux groupes R1 forment avec l'atome de carbone auquel ils sont liés un cycle contenant 3 à 7 atomes C, de préférence un cycle cyclopentyle ou cyclohexyle,
    R2 à R5 sont identiques ou différents et sont de préférence H ou un groupe alkyle en C1 à C2, ou deux ou plus de deux des résidus R2 à R5 peuvent former un cycle, de préférence formé par les résidus R3 et R4 et/ou R4 et R5.
     
    5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel dans la formule (I) du composé organique interne
    les deux R1 sont identiques et sont des groupes méthyle ou éthyle, de préférence des groupes méthyle et
    les résidus R2 à R5 sont identiques ou différents et sont H ou un groupe alkyle en C1 à C2 et de préférence au plus deux des résidus R2 à R5 sont un méthyle, les autres sont H et plus préférentiellement R2 à R5 sont tous H.
     
    6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel le composé organique interne est le 2,2-di(2-tétrahydrofuryl)propane, ou le 2,2-di-(2-furan)-propane, de préférence le 2,2-di(2-tétrahydrofuryl)propane.
     
    7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel le R dans l'adduit MgCl2*mROH est un groupe alkyle linéaire ou ramifié contenant 1 à 8 atomes C, de préférence 1 à 4 atomes C, et m est 1 à 4, de préférence m est 2,7 à 3,3.
     
    8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel le composé de métal du Groupe 13 est un composé d'aluminium de formule Al(alkyl)xX3-x (II), dans lequel chaque alkyle est indépendamment un groupe alkyle linéaire, ramifié ou cyclique de 1 à 12 atomes C, de préférence de 1 à 8 atomes C, plus préférentiellement de 1 à 6 atomes C, X est un halogène, de préférence un chlore et 1 < x ≤ 3.
     
    9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel le composé de métal du Groupe 13 est sélectionné dans un groupe comprenant les chlorures de dialkyl aluminium et un trialkyl aluminium, de préférence dans un groupe comprenant le chlorure de diméthyl aluminium, le chlorure de diéthyl aluminium, le chlorure de diisobutyl aluminium, et le triéthylaluminium ou des mélanges de ceux-ci, le plus préférentiellement le composé d'aluminium est un composé de trialkyl aluminium, en particulier un composé de triéthylaluminium.
     
    10. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel aucun composé de Mg n'est utilisé dans la préparation de catalyseur autre que l'adduit MgCl2*mROH.
     
    11. Composant de catalyseur supporté sur MgCl2 solide préparé par le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10.
     
    12. Composant de catalyseur supporté sur MgCl2 solide selon la revendication 11, dans lequel le composant de catalyseur solide final présente un rapport Mg/Ti en mole/mole de 1 à 10, de préférence de 2 à 8, un rapport Al/Ti en mole/mole de 0,01 à 1, de préférence de 0,1 à 0,5 et un rapport Cl/Ti en mole/mole de 5 à 20, de préférence de 10 à 17.
     
    13. Catalyseur comprenant le composant de catalyseur supporté sur MgCl2 solide selon la revendication 11 ou 12 et un cocatalyseur de composé de métal du Groupe 13 et facultativement un additif externe.
     
    14. Utilisation du composant de catalyseur supporté sur MgCl2 solide selon la revendication 11 ou 12 dans la polymérisation de l'éthylène facultativement avec des comonomères dans un procédé de polymérisation.
     
    15. Procédé de production d'un polymère d'éthylène dans un procédé de polymérisation comprenant la polymérisation d'éthylène, facultativement avec des comonomères sélectionnés parmi les alpha-oléfines en C3 à C20, plus préférentiellement sont sélectionnés parmi les alpha-oléfines en C4 à C10, en présence du catalyseur de Ziegler-Natta selon la revendication 13 dans des conditions de polymérisation dans au moins une étape de polymérisation réalisée dans un réacteur à solution, à suspension ou à phase gazeuse ou des combinaisons de celles-ci.
     




    Drawing





















    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description