(19)
(11)EP 3 249 197 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
25.03.2020 Bulletin 2020/13

(21)Application number: 17172523.7

(22)Date of filing:  23.05.2017
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F02C 6/08(2006.01)
F02C 7/047(2006.01)

(54)

INLINE PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE ASSEMBLY WITH INLET PRESSURE BIAS

INLINE-DRUCKREGELVENTILANORDNUNG MIT EINGANGSDRUCKVORSPANNUNG

ENSEMBLE SOUPAPE DE RÉGULATION DE PRESSION EN LIGNE AVEC POLARISATION DE PRESSION D'ENTRÉE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 23.05.2016 US 201615161404

(43)Date of publication of application:
29.11.2017 Bulletin 2017/48

(73)Proprietor: United Technologies Corporation
Farmington, CT 06032 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • GOODMAN, Robert
    West Hartford, CT Connecticut 06117 (US)
  • ZHENG, Zhijun
    Avon, CT Connecticut 06001 (US)
  • GREENBERG, Michael D.
    Bloomfield, CT Connecticut 06002 (US)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A- 4 320 872
US-A1- 2009 078 828
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND



    [0001] The present disclosure relates generally to pressure regulation systems, and more particularly to servo actuated valves used in anti-icing systems for aircraft.

    [0002] Operation of aircraft engines in adverse weather conditions or at high altitudes can sometimes lead to ice forming on the exposed surfaces of the engine nacelle inlet. The build-up of ice on a nacelle surrounding the engine limits the quantity of air being fed to the engine. This reduction in inlet airflow can result in a reduction of power output, efficiency and/or cooling capacity of the engine. Engine inlet anti-icing systems commonly employ a thermal source, such as hot air bled from the engine core, which is applied to the nacelle inlet to prevent ice build-up on the external surfaces thereof.

    [0003] Another concern with aircraft engines is the useful life of the aircraft engine and components. The build-up of ice near the inlet of the engine may lead to large pieces of ice breaking loose from the inlet and flowing into the gas turbine engine. Ice flowing into and through the engine may damage components within the engine, such as airfoils, and components attached to the nacelle, such as inlet acoustic panels. The damaged components may then require repair or replacement.

    [0004] Current anti-icing systems for simplicity include valves that do not compensate for increases in bleed air temperature with increasing bleed pressure and as a result, a delivered heat flux which is a function of flow times bleed air temperature can result in damage to the nacelle from overheating.

    [0005] US 4,320,872 discloses a prior art assembly as set forth in the preamble of claim 1.

    SUMMARY



    [0006] From a first aspect, the invention provides an assembly as recited in claim 1.

    [0007] The invention also provides a method of regulating pressure of a fluid in said assembly as recited in claim 9.

    [0008] Features of embodiments of the invention are set forth in the dependent claims.

    [0009] The present summary is provided only by way of example, and not limitation. Other aspects of the present disclosure will be appreciated in view of the entirety of the present disclosure, including the entire text, claims and accompanying figures.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0010] 

    FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a gas turbine engine.

    FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a valve assembly including a regulating valve in an open position and a pressure controller.

    FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a portion of the valve assembly of FIG. 2.

    FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of another valve assembly including a regulating valve in a closed position and a pressure controller.

    FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a regulating valve with an orifice plug in a valve element.

    FIG. 6 is a graph of valve outlet pressure as a function of valve inlet pressure.



    [0011] While the above-identified figures set forth embodiments of the present invention, other embodiments are also contemplated, as noted in the discussion. In all cases, this disclosure presents the invention by way of representation and not limitation. It should be understood that numerous other modifications and embodiments can be devised by those skilled in the art, which fall within the scope of the invention, that is defined by the appended claims. The figures may not be drawn to scale, and applications and embodiments of the present invention may include features, steps and/or components not specifically shown in the drawings.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0012] The present disclosure describes examples which provide a bias of a pressure regulation set-point of a valve such that when the pressure from the bleed air to the valve is high and associated temperature is hotter, the bias causes a reduction in a valve regulated pressure and results in maintaining an approximately fixed heat load to an inlet of an engine. A moment balance about a pivot point can be used to adjust a lever arm connected to a bellows assembly to adjust a positioning of a pintle which releases air into ambient thereby adjusting the pressure bias of an anti-icing system of the engine. The biased pressure regulator allows the set-point to be raised slightly higher when the pressure from the bleed air to the valve is low and associated temperature is lower, to ensure any ice is fully melted and to not overheat the engine inlet when both the pressure and temperature are higher.

    [0013] FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of gas turbine engine 10, in a two-spool turbofan configuration for use as a propulsion engine on an aircraft. As shown in the figure, low spool 12 includes low pressure compressor ("LPC") 14 and low pressure turbine ("LPT") 16, rotationally coupled via low pressure shaft 18. High spool 20 includes high pressure compressor ("HPC") 22 and high pressure turbine ("HPT") 24, rotationally coupled via high pressure shaft 26. High spool 20 is coaxially oriented about low spool 12, along engine centerline (or turbine axis) CL, with combustor 28 positioned in flow series between high pressure compressor 22 and high pressure turbine 24.

    [0014] Nacelle 30 is oriented about the forward end of gas turbine engine 10. Fan casing 32 extends along on the radially inner surface of nacelle 30, from propulsion fan 34 to fan exit guide vane 36. Propulsion fan 34 is rotationally coupled to low spool 12 via fan shaft 38, generating propulsive flow FP through fan duct (or bypass duct) 40. In advanced engine designs, fan drive gear system 42 couples fan shaft 38 to low spool 12 at low pressure shaft 18, providing independent fan speed control for reduced noise and improved operating efficiency.

    [0015] Nacelle 30 extends forward of the gas turbine engine 10 and defines inlet 44 for incoming fluid. Nacelle 30 includes inner barrel 46, outer barrel 48, bulkhead 50, and inlet shell 52. Inner barrel 46 defines radially outer flow surface 54 for a portion of the flowpath of gas turbine engine 10. Outer barrel 48 defines outer flow surface 56 for the external medium flowing about gas turbine engine 10. A radial separation between inner barrel 46 and outer barrel 48 defines annular chamber 58 there between. Inlet shell 52 is the leading edge for nacelle 30. Inlet shell 52 and bulkhead 50 bound annular shell cavity 60.

    [0016] Fluid pressure regulation system 62 is fluidly connected to HPC 22 and extends into annular chamber 58. Anti-icing system 64 is positioned within nacelle 30 and transfers fluid, in this example bleed air, into annular shell cavity 60. Fluid pressure regulation system 62 includes valve assembly 66 which can be made up of one or more of a variety of valves and flow regulators to control the flow of bleed air through fluid pressure regulation system 62 (as will be discussed with respect to the remaining figures). In other non-limiting embodiments, fluid pressure regulation system 62 can extend along the interior of annular chamber 58 before introducing bleed air into annular shell cavity 60.

    [0017] FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of valve assembly 100 including regulating valve 102 (shown in an open position) and pressure controller 104. Valve assembly 100 can be used as or with valve assembly 66. Pressure controller 104 includes first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106, second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108, lever arm 110, variable restriction element 112, and solenoid valve 114. First enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106 includes first extension arm 116 which is attached to first end 118 of lever arm 110. Second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108 includes second extension arm 120 which is attached to second end 122 of lever arm 110. Also attached to first end 118 of lever arm 110 in the illustrated embodiment is first spring element 124. Lever arm 110 is disposed on pivot 126 and is configured to rotate about pivot 126.

    [0018] Regulating valve 102 includes inlet 128, outlet ducting 130, regulating valve sleeve element 132, and pressure chamber 134. Inlet 128 provides an opening through which flow WI enters into regulating valve 102 from fluid regulation system 62, while outlet ducting 130 provides an opening through which flow WO exits regulating valve 102. Regulating valve 102 is configured such that as a pressure inside of pressure chamber 134 changes, regulating valve sleeve element 132 modulates, or actuates, along a linear pathway in response the change in pressure in pressure chamber 134. The positioning of regulating valve sleeve element 132 regulates an amount of flow WO exiting from outlet ducting 130 by controlling an effective area that flow WI passes through as it travels through regulating valve 102, past regulating valve sleeve element 132, and through outlet ducting 130.

    [0019] Flow WO of the fluid is transferred from regulating valve 102 to nacelle 30 of FIG. 1, which includes anti-icing system 64, of gas turbine engine 10. Thermal energy is then transferred from flow WO to nacelle 30 through anti-icing system 64 and the build-up of ice on nacelle 30, and in particular on a leading edge of inlet 44, is reduced in response to transferring thermal energy from flow WO to nacelle 30 and into annular shell cavity 60. For example, a lower pressure of flow WO exiting out of outlet ducting 130 results in less flow WO of bleed air to anti-icing system 64 and a resulting lower heat flux to the nacelle and thereby reducing metal temperature of inlet 44 of nacelle 30. In another example, a higher pressure of flow WO exiting out of outlet ducting 130 results in a higher flow WO of bleed air to anti-icing system 64 and a resulting in a higher metal temperature of inlet 44 of nacelle 30.

    [0020] First enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106 is fluidly connected to inlet 128 of regulating valve 102 by line 136. First extension arm 116 extends from first rigid endwall 138 of first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106 and connects to first end 118 of lever arm 110. First end 118 of lever arm 110 is located on an upper portion of lever arm 110 in FIG. 2. During operation of valve assembly 100, an inlet pressure from flow WI from inlet 128 flows through line 136 and into first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106. The inlet pressure from flow WI is received into first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106 and the fluid from flow WI exerts first force FF onto first rigid endwall 138 of first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106. First extension arm 116 is pivotally attached to lever arm 110 such that as first flexible compression chamber 106 compresses and expands from receiving first force FF from flow WI, first extension arm 116 moves in a substantially linear motion thereby causing lever arm 110 to actuate and rotate about pivot 126. In one non-limiting example, first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106 can be made up of one or more bellows or other expandable/contractible devices with a pressure chamber, which can also include first rigid endwall 138 attached to first extension arm 116.

    [0021] Second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108 is fluidly connected to outlet ducting 130 of regulating valve 102 by line 140. Second extension arm 120 extends from second rigid endwall 142 of second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108 and connects to second end 122 of lever arm 110. Second end 122 of lever arm 110 is located on a lower portion of lever arm 110 in FIG. 2. During operation of valve assembly 100, an outlet pressure from flow WO from outlet ducting 130 flows through line 140 and into second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108. The inlet pressure from flow WO is received into second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108 and the fluid from flow WO exerts second force FS onto second rigid endwall 142 of second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108. Second extension arm 120 is pivotally attached to lever arm 110 such that as second flexible compression chamber 108 compresses and expands from receiving second force FS from flow WO, second extension arm 120 moves in a linear motion thereby causing lever arm 110 to actuate and rotate about pivot 126. With both first force FF and second force FS being applied to first end 118 and second end 122 respectively of lever arm 110, a moment balance is applied to lever arm 110 about pivot 126 upon which lever arm 110 is attached. In one non-limiting example, second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108 can be made up of one or more bellows or other expandable/contractible devices with a pressure chamber, which can also include second rigid endwall 142 attached to second extension arm 120.

    [0022] As first force FF and second force FS are applied to lever arm 110, both first force FF and second force FS apply torque, or moment(s) of torsion, to lever arm 110 such that lever arm 110 is pushed to rotate in a clockwise direction in FIG. 2. In one non-limiting example, an increase in both first force FF and second force FS causes both first force FF and second force FS to increase the amount of torque applied to lever arm 110 by first force FF and second force FS in a clockwise direction. In another non-limiting example, a decrease in both first force FF and second force FS causes both first force FF and second force FS to decrease the amount of torque applied to lever arm 110 by first force FF and second force FS such that lever arm 110 rotates in a counter-clockwise, or anti-clockwise direction in FIG. 2.

    [0023] As shown in FIG. 2, second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108 can have a larger size and/or diameter than first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106. In other non-limiting embodiments, both of second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108 and first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106 can have varying sizes, lengths, shapes, diameters, configurations, and/or materials.

    [0024] Also connected to first end 118 of lever arm 110 is first spring element 124. First spring element 124 is attached to first end 118 of lever arm 110 on an opposite side of lever arm 110 as first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106. A spring force of first spring element 124 can be adjusted to bias lever arm 110 against the force applied to first end 118 of lever arm 110 by first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106. For example, in one non-limiting embodiment, the spring force of first spring element 124 can be threadably adjusted to a desired level for a particular operating condition of gas turbine engine 10.

    [0025] Variable restriction element 112 includes pintle 144, second spring element 146, and housing 148. Pintle 144 is pivotally attached to second end 122 of lever arm 110 opposite from second extension arm 120. As lever arm 110 rotates about pivot 126, pintle 144 moves in a linear motion within housing 148 thereby causing pintle 144 to actuate. As pintle 144 actuates, an effective vent area is varied thereby releasing adjusted amounts of fluid out of variable restriction element 112 and into an ambient environment from valve assembly 100. Second spring element 146 biases pintle 144 against housing 148 to keep pintle 144 within housing 148, and also to partially bias second end 122 of lever arm 110 against second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108. The position of pintle 144 determines the amount of fluid allowed to pass out of variable restriction element 112 and into ambient thereby setting a resultant servo pressure in pressure chamber 134 of regulating valve 102. For example, when pintle 144 is positioned to the left in FIG. 2, less venting of fluid flow from valve assembly 100 would occur thereby increasing of pressure in pressure chamber 134 and causing regulating valve sleeve element 132 to close. Alternatively, when pintle 144 is positioned to the right in FIG. 2 (as shown in FIG. 2) more venting of fluid flow from valve assembly 100 would occur thereby decreasing the pressure in pressure chamber 134 and causing regulating valve sleeve element 132 to open.

    [0026] Solenoid valve 114 includes solenoid 150, solenoid valve element 152, and third spring element 154. Solenoid valve 114 can be electrically connected by wires 158 to full authority digital engine control ("FADEC") 156 of the aircraft. Solenoid valve 114 can receive an electrical signal from FADEC 156 which controls solenoid valve 114 and a position of solenoid valve element 152. As the electrical signal is received by solenoid valve 114, solenoid 150 (e.g., electromagnetic coil) becomes energized creating a magnetic field which is applied to solenoid valve element 152 causing solenoid valve element 152 to actuate along a linear pathway and into an energized position. The electrical signal can be terminated to de-energize solenoid 150 thereby reducing the magnetic field which causes solenoid valve element 152 to actuate linearly into a de-energized position. Solenoid valve 114 can be in a default closed position, such that solenoid valve element 152 occupies a closed positioned when solenoid 150 is de-energized. Upon being energized, a magnetic field of solenoid 150 pulls solenoid valve element 152 towards third spring element 154 thereby compressing third spring element 154 thereby opening solenoid valve 114.

    [0027] In another non-limiting embodiment, solenoid valve 114 can also include a default open configuration such that solenoid valve element 152 occupies an open position when de-energized and a closed position upon receiving an electrical signal and becoming energized. In FIG. 2, solenoid valve element 152 is shown in an open position to the right of solenoid valve 114 (and to the right in FIG. 2), which can be either an energized or de-energized position. Solenoid valve 114 can receive the electrical signal from FADEC 156 and/or from other electronic devices in the aircraft such as pilot instrumentation. Solenoid valve 114 is fluidly connected to pressure chamber 134 of regulating valve 102 by line 160.

    [0028] Line 160 and line 136 are connected by line 162. Line 162 can include restriction element 164 which restricts a flow of fluid passing from line 136, through line 162, and into line 160. Restriction element 164 can include an orifice including a smaller diameter than a diameter of line 162. A size of restriction element 164 can be set to include a specific effective area which reduces the flow of fluid through line 162. In one non-limiting example, the effective area of restriction element 164 can include a diameter of .020 to .040 inches (.051 to .102 centimeters). Additionally, line 162 can include a smaller diameter than lines 160 and/or 136 to achieve a desired pressure of fluid flow restriction or allowance through line 162.

    [0029] Line 136 can include filter 166. Filter 166 is located in line 136 and can extend across at least a portion of a diameter of line 136. Filter 166 can be used to filter out particles in the fluid, or to adjust the flow of fluid reaching restriction element 164. Filter 166 can protect restriction element 164 from adverse flow conditions, pressure surges, high flow rates, or from particles striking restriction element 164. Filter 166 can be installed into line 136 so as to be replaceable or removable from line 136, but can also be permanently or semi-permanently positioned in line 136. Additionally, pitot tube 168 or another shielded air entrance device can be placed in line 136 to filter out particles in the fluid, or to adjust the flow of fluid through line 136.

    [0030] Outlet ducting 130 of regulating valve 102 can be fluidly connected to holes in annular shell cavity 60. A size of the holes in annular shell cavity 60 can be set to include a specific effective area which reduces the flow of fluid out of annular shell cavity 60. In one non-limiting example, the effective area of the holes in annular shell cavity 60 can include an effective area of 0.60 to 0.80 inches (1.524 to 2.032 centimeters).

    [0031] During operation of valve assembly 100, solenoid valve 114 effectively controls the amount of pressure received by pressure chamber 134. As solenoid valve 114 is opened, an amount of fluid allowed to pass through solenoid valve 114, past pintle 144 and into ambient, is increased. As the amount of fluid exiting valve assembly 100 increases, the resulting pressure within pressure chamber 134 decreases causing regulating valve sleeve element 132 to modulate to the right of FIG. 2 in response the decrease in pressure in pressure chamber 134. As regulating valve sleeve element 132 moves to the right of FIG. 2, an effective area of flow through regulating valve 102 is increased therefore increasing the amount of flow Wo exiting from outlet ducting 130. As solenoid valve 114 is closed, an amount of fluid allowed to pass through solenoid valve 114, past pintle 144, and into ambient is decreased. As the amount of fluid exiting valve assembly 100 decreases, the resulting pressure within pressure chamber 134 increases causing regulating valve sleeve element 132 to modulate to the left of FIG. 2 in response the increase in pressure in pressure chamber 134. As regulating valve sleeve element 132 moves to the left of FIG. 2, an effective area of flow through regulating valve 102 is decreased therefore decreasing the amount of flow Wo exiting from outlet ducting 130. Valve assembly 100 is an example of a servo actuated valve with a controller to modulate a servo pressure to modulate a regulating valve and control regulated pressure.

    [0032] FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of valve assembly 100 of FIG. 2. The resultant regulated pressure Preg of flow WO out of outlet ducting 130 can be represented by the following control equation:

    Where: Fspring is spring force of first spring element 124, L2 is length from pivot 126 to a second point of attachment on second end 122 of lever arm 110, A2 is area of second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108, L1 is length from pivot 126 to a first point of attachment on first end 118 of lever arm, P1 is inlet pressure, and A1- area of first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106. In equation (1), the term (P1A1L2) / (A2L1) is inlet pressure bias force. In the alternative, regulated pressure Preg can be represented as:

    In one non-limiting example, values for A2, A1, L1, and L2 can include A2 = 0.384 inches2 (2.477 centimeters2), A1 = 0.053 inches2 (0.342 centimeters2), L1 = 0.50 inches (1.27 centimeters), and L2 = 0.28 inches (0.71 centimeters). Control equation (1) can be used to determine how regulated pressure Preg varies with inlet pressure. As can be seen with control equation (1), the amount of bias on regulated pressure Preg can be adjusted by varying the size and/or area of first enclosed flexible pressure chamber 106 and second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108, the length and points of attachment along lever arm 110, and the spring forces of first, second, and third spring elements 124, 146, and 154.

    [0033] As Preg increases, second force FS on second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108 increases which acts to move second end 122 of lever arm 110 to the left of FIG. 2, actuating pintle 144 to the left of FIG. 2 thereby closing variable restriction member 112, increasing servo pressure within pressure chamber 134, and causing regulating valve 102 to close modulate to the left of FIG. 2. Conversely, as Preg decreases, second force FS on second enclosed flexible pressure chamber 108 decreases which acts to move second end 122 of lever arm 110 to the right of FIG. 2, actuating pintle 144 to the right of FIG. 2 thereby opening variable restriction member 112, decreasing servo pressure within pressure chamber 134, and causing regulating valve 102 to open and modulate to the right in FIG. 2.

    [0034] FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of valve assembly 200 including regulating valve 202 in a closed position and pressure controller 204. In FIG. 4, solenoid valve element 252 is shown in a closed position to left of solenoid valve 214 (left of FIG. 4), which can be either an energized or de-energized position. Whereas in FIG. 2, solenoid valve element 152 is shown in an open position to the right of solenoid valve 114 (and to the right in FIG. 2).

    [0035] In comparison to valve assembly 100 shown in FIG. 2, valve assembly 200 does not include a line between line 236 and line 260. Instead of a line directly connecting line 236 and line 260, hole 268 on first face 270 of regulating valve sleeve element 232 effectively connects line 236 and line 260 by fluidly connecting inlet 228 to pressure chamber 234 of regulating valve 202. Fluidly connecting inlet 228 and pressure chamber 234 reduces loss in pressure of WI as compared to valve assembly 100 because inlet flow WI in valve assembly 100 is required to turn from inlet 128 and into to line 136 resulting in a pressure loss of the fluid flowing into line 136. In valve assembly 200, flow WI flows directly into pressure chamber 234 without turning which provides for a decrease in loss of pressure of inlet flow WI as inlet flow WI transfers from inlet 228 to line 260. In one non-limiting example, the diameter of hole 268 can include a diameter of approximately 0.020 to 0.030 inches (0.051 to 0.0762 centimeters).

    [0036] FIG. 5 shows a cross-sectional view of regulating valve 302 with orifice plug 372 in regulating valve sleeve element 332. Orifice plug 372 is removably positioned in hole 368 in first face 370 of regulating valve sleeve element 332. Orifice plug 372 provides contamination resistance of flow WI as flow WI enters into pressure chamber 334 by forcing flow WI to turn into orifice plug 372, through orifice plug 372, and into pressure chamber 334. When orifice plug 372 is placed in hole 368, flow WI is prevented from flowing through hole 368 therefore increasing the pressure of fluid in line 236 and disconnecting pressure chamber 334 from flow WI.

    [0037] FIG. 6 shows graph 400 of valve outlet pressure as a function of valve inlet pressure of valve assemblies 100 and 200 shown in FIGS. 2 and 4 respectively. During engine operation, as the engine bleed air temperature increases, the valve inlet pressure and the valve outlet pressure increase until the valve outlet pressure achieves regulation set-point A.

    [0038] In a system without a servo actuated valve assembly, such as valve assemblies 100 or 200 for example, further increases to the valve inlet pressure result in a constant outlet pressure P1 as indicated by the zero slope of the line between set-point A and set-point B. Without a reduction in valve outlet pressure P1, the corresponding nacelle inlet temperature continues to increase as the valve inlet pressure is increased between set-point A and set-point B potentially causing damage to the nacelle of a gas turbine engine.

    [0039] In a system with a servo actuated valve assembly, such as valve assemblies 100 or 200 for example, once regulated pressure Preg reaches set-point A, further increases to the valve inlet pressure result in a reduced regulated pressure Preg as indicated by the negative slope of the line between set-point A and set-point B. With a reduction in regulated pressure Preg, causing a decrease in flow and reduced heat flux to the nacelle, the corresponding nacelle inlet temperature is maintained at a set value as the valve inlet pressure is increased between set-point A and set-point B.

    [0040] An example regulated pressure Preg value for set-point A includes a pressure of approximately 45 psi (310 kpa) and an example for set-point B includes a pressure of approximately 30 psi (207 kpa). Example ranges for the axes of graph 114 include 0-350 psi (0-2,413 kpa) along the independent (e.g. horizontal axis) and 0-60 psi (0-414 kpa) along the dependent (e.g. vertical axis) with regards to the valve outlet pressure. An example nacelle inlet temperature value at set-point A for regulated pressure Preg includes a temperature of approximately 500° F (260° C). An example range of nacelle inlet temperatures is 32° to 800° F (0° to 427° C) with regards to nacelle inlet temperature.

    [0041] Additionally, as a non-limiting example, the line segments representing valve regulated pressure Preg can be made up of one or more of varying slopes and/or curvilinear data points.

    [0042] While the invention has been described with reference to an exemplary embodiment(s), it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention without departing from the essential scope thereof. Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiment(s) disclosed, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. An assembly (66; 100; 200) comprising:

    a first enclosed flexible pressure chamber (106) with a first extension arm (116) extending from a first endwall (138) of the first enclosed flexible pressure chamber (106);

    a second enclosed flexible pressure chamber (108);

    a lever arm (110) disposed on a pivot (126), wherein a first end (118) of the lever arm (110) is attached to the first extension arm (116);

    a variable restriction element (112) connected to a second end (122) of the lever arm (110); and

    a regulating valve (102; 202; 302) with a regulating valve element (132; 232; 332); characterised in that:

    the first enclosed flexible pressure chamber (106) is fluidly connected to an inlet (128; 228; 328) of the regulating valve (102; 202; 302); in that

    the second enclosed flexible pressure chamber (120) has a second extension arm (120) extending from a second endwall (142) of the second enclosed flexible pressure chamber (108); and in that

    the second end (122) of the lever arm (110) is attached to the second extension arm (120).


     
    2. The assembly of claim 1, wherein the variable restriction element (112) comprises:
    a pintle (144).
     
    3. The assembly of claim 1 or 2, wherein the second enclosed flexible pressure chamber (108) is fluidly connected to an outlet (130) of the regulating valve (102; 202; 302).
     
    4. The assembly of any preceding claim, wherein the regulating valve (102; 202; 302) is fluidly connected to an anti-icing system (64) for a nacelle inlet (44) of an aircraft engine (10).
     
    5. The assembly of any preceding claim, wherein the variable restriction element (112) comprises a pintle (144), and further comprising:
    a solenoid valve (114; 214) fluidly connected to the pintle (144) and to a pressure chamber (134; 234; 334) of the regulating valve (102; 202; 302).
     
    6. The assembly of any of claims 1 to 4, wherein the variable restriction element (112) comprises a pintle (144), and further comprising:
    a solenoid valve (114; 214) fluidly connected to the pintle (144), to a pressure chamber (134; 234; 334) of the regulating valve (102; 202; 302), and to the inlet (128; 228; 328) of the regulating valve (102; 202; 302).
     
    7. The assembly of claim 5 or 6, wherein the solenoid valve (114; 214) is electrically connected to a full authority digital engine control (156) of an aircraft (10).
     
    8. The assembly of any preceding claim, wherein the regulating valve element (232; 332) comprises:
    a hole (268; 368) on a first face (270; 370) of the valve element (232; 332) facing an or the inlet (228; 328) of the regulating valve.
     
    9. A method of regulating pressure of a fluid in the assembly (66; 100; 200) of any preceding claim, the method comprising:

    biasing a fluid inlet pressure of the regulating valve (102; 202; 302), wherein biasing the fluid inlet pressure comprises:

    receiving fluid in the first flexible pressure chamber (106);

    exerting a first force (FF) onto the first flexible pressure chamber (106) from the fluid;

    actuating the lever arm (110);

    actuating a or the pintle (144) wherein the pintle (144) is connected to the lever arm (110);

    adjusting an amount of the fluid released into an ambient environment from the assembly (102; 202; 302);

    changing a fluid servo pressure within a pressure chamber (134; 234; 334) of the regulating valve (102; 202; 302);

    modulating the regulating valve element (132; 232; 332) of the regulating valve (102; 202; 302); and

    adjusting a fluid outlet pressure of the fluid flowing out of an outlet (130) of the regulating valve (102; 202; 302).


     
    10. The method of claim 9, wherein actuating the lever arm (110) further comprises:

    receiving the outlet pressure in a second flexible pressure chamber (108);

    exerting a second force (FS) onto the second flexible pressure chamber (108); and

    applying a moment balance to the lever arm (110) about a pivot (126) upon which the lever arm (110) is attached.


     
    11. The method of claim 9 or 10, further comprising:
    biasing the lever arm (110) by adjusting a spring force of a first spring element (124) connected to a first end (118) of the lever arm (110).
     
    12. The method of any of claims 9 to 11, further comprising:
    energizing a solenoid valve (114; 214) which actuates a solenoid valve element (152; 252) of the solenoid valve (114; 214).
     
    13. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
    controlling the solenoid valve (114; 214) with an electrical signal from a full authority digital engine control (156).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Anordnung (66; 100; 200), umfassend:

    eine erste eingeschlossene flexible Druckkammer (106) mit einem ersten Verlängerungsarm (116), der sich von einer ersten Endwand (138) der ersten eingeschlossenen flexiblen Druckkammer (106) erstreckt;

    eine zweite eingeschlossene flexible Druckkammer (108);

    einen Hebelarm (110), der an einem Drehpunkt (126) angeordnet ist, wobei ein erstes Ende (118) des Hebelarms (110) am ersten Verlängerungsarm (116) befestigt ist;

    ein variables Begrenzungselement (112), das mit einem zweiten Ende (122) des Hebelarms (110) verbunden ist; und

    ein Regelventil (102; 202; 302) mit einem Regelventilelement (132; 232; 332); dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass:

    die erste eingeschlossene flexible Druckkammer (106) fluidisch mit einem Eingang (128; 228; 328) des Regelventils (102; 202; 302) verbunden ist; dass

    die zweite eingeschlossene flexible Druckkammer (120) einen zweiten Verlängerungsarm (120) aufweist, der sich von einer zweiten Endwand (142) der zweiten eingeschlossenen flexiblen Druckkammer (108) erstreckt; und dass

    das zweite Ende (122) des Hebelarms (110) am zweiten Verlängerungsarm (120) befestigt ist.


     
    2. Anordnung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das variable Begrenzungselement (112) Folgendes umfasst:
    einen Zapfen (144).
     
    3. Anordnung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die zweite eingeschlossene flexible Druckkammer (108) fluidisch mit einem Ausgang (130) des Regelventils (102; 202; 302) verbunden ist.
     
    4. Anordnung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Regelventil (102; 202; 302) fluidisch mit einem Enteisungssystem (64) für einen Gondeleingang (44) eines Luftfahrzeugtriebwerks (10) verbunden ist.
     
    5. Anordnung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das variable Begrenzungselement (112) einen Zapfen (144) umfasst und ferner Folgendes umfasst:
    ein Magnetventil (114; 214), das fluidisch mit dem Zapfen (144) und einer Druckkammer (134; 234; 334) des Regelventils (102; 202; 302) verbunden ist.
     
    6. Anordnung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei das variable Begrenzungselement (112) einen Zapfen (144) umfasst und ferner Folgendes umfasst:
    ein Magnetventil (114; 214), das fluidisch mit dem Zapfen (144), einer Druckkammer (134; 234; 334) des Regelventils (102; 202; 302) und dem Eingang (128; 228; 328) des Regelventils (102; 202; 302) verbunden ist.
     
    7. Anordnung nach Anspruch 5 oder 6, wobei das Magnetventil (114; 214) elektrisch mit einer vollberechtigten digitalen Triebwerkssteuerung (156) eines Luftfahrzeugs (10) verbunden ist.
     
    8. Anordnung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Regelventilelement (232; 332) Folgendes umfasst:
    ein Loch (268; 368) auf einer ersten Seite (270; 370) des Ventilelements (232; 332), das einem oder dem Eingang (228; 328) des Regelventils gegenüberliegt.
     
    9. Verfahren zum Regeln des Drucks eines Fluids in der Anordnung (66; 100; 200) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:
    Vorspannen eines Fluideingangsdrucks des Regelventils (102; 202; 302), wobei das Vorspannen des Fluideingangsdrucks Folgendes umfasst:

    Empfangen von Fluid in der ersten flexiblen Druckkammer (106);

    Ausüben einer ersten Kraft (FF) auf die erste flexible Druckkammer (106) vom Fluid;

    Betätigen des Hebelarms (110);

    Betätigen eines oder des Zapfens (144), wobei der Zapfen (144) mit dem Hebelarm (110) verbunden ist;

    Einstellen einer Menge des Fluids, die in eine umgebende Umwelt von der Anordnung (102; 202; 302) freigegeben wird;

    Ändern eines Servodrucks des Fluids innerhalb einer Druckkammer (134; 234; 334) des Regelventils (102; 202; 302);

    Modulieren des Regelventilelements (132; 232; 332) des Regelventils (102; 202; 302); und

    Einstellen eines Fluidausgangsdrucks des Fluids, das aus einem Ausgang (130) des Regelventils (102; 202; 302) herausströmt.


     
    10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei das Betätigen des Hebelarms (110) ferner Folgendes umfasst:

    Empfangen des Ausgangsdrucks in einer zweiten flexiblen Druckkammer (108);

    Ausüben einer zweiten Kraft (FS) auf die zweite flexible Druckkammer (108); und

    Anwenden einer Momentbilanz auf den Hebelarm (110) um einen Drehpunkt (126), auf dem der Hebelarm (110) befestigt ist.


     
    11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9 oder 10, ferner umfassend:
    Vorspannen des Hebelarms (110) durch das Einstellen einer Federkraft eines ersten Federelements (124), das mit einem ersten Ende (118) des Hebelarms (110) verbunden ist.
     
    12. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 9 bis 11, ferner umfassend:
    Erregen eines Magnetventils (114; 214), das ein Magnetventilelement (152; 252) des Magnetventils (114; 214) betätigt.
     
    13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 12, ferner umfassend:
    Steuern des Magnetventils (114; 214) mit einem elektrischen Signal von einer vollberechtigten digitalen Triebwerkssteuerung (156).
     


    Revendications

    1. Ensemble (66 ; 100 ; 200) comprenant :

    une première chambre de pression flexible fermée (106) avec un premier bras d'extension (116) s'étendant à partir d'une première paroi d'extrémité (138) de la première chambre de pression flexible fermée (106) ;

    une seconde chambre de pression flexible fermée (108) ;

    un bras de levier (110) disposé sur un pivot (126), dans lequel une première extrémité (118) du bras de levier (110) est fixée au premier bras d'extension (116) ;

    un élément de restriction variable (112) relié à une seconde extrémité (122) du bras de levier (110) ; et

    une soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302) avec un élément de soupape de régulation (132 ; 232 ; 332) ; caractérisé en ce que :

    la première chambre de pression flexible fermée (106) est reliée de manière fluidique à une entrée (128 ; 228 ; 328) de la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302) ; en ce que

    la seconde chambre de pression flexible fermée (120) a un second bras d'extension (120) s'étendant à partir d'une seconde paroi d'extrémité (142) de la seconde chambre de pression flexible fermée (108) ; et en ce

    la seconde extrémité (122) du bras de levier (110) est fixée au second bras d'extension (120).


     
    2. Ensemble selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'élément de restriction variable (112) comprend :
    un pivot (144).
     
    3. Ensemble selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel la seconde chambre de pression flexible fermée (108) est reliée de manière fluidique à une sortie (130) de la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302).
     
    4. Ensemble selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302) est reliée de manière fluidique à un système anti-givrage (64) pour une entrée de nacelle (44) d'un moteur d'aéronef (10).
     
    5. Ensemble selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel l'élément de restriction variable (112) comprend un pivot (144), et comprenant en outre :
    une électrovanne (114 ; 214) reliée de manière fluidique au pivot (144) et à une chambre de pression (134 ; 234 ; 334) de la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302).
     
    6. Ensemble selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel l'élément de restriction variable (112) comprend un pivot (144), et comprenant en outre :
    une électrovanne (114 ; 214) reliée de manière fluidique au pivot (144), à une chambre de pression (134 ; 234 ; 334) de la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302) et à l'entrée (128 ; 228 ; 328) de la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302).
     
    7. Ensemble selon la revendication 5 ou 6, dans lequel l'électrovanne (114 ; 214) est reliée électriquement à une commande de moteur numérique à pleine autorité (156) d'un aéronef (10).
     
    8. Ensemble selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel l'élément de soupape de régulation (232 ; 332) comprend :
    un trou (268 ; 368) sur une première face (270 ; 370) de l'élément de soupape (232 ; 332) faisant face à une ou à l'entrée (228 ; 328) de la soupape de régulation.
     
    9. Procédé de régulation de la pression d'un fluide dans l'ensemble (66 ; 100 ; 200) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, le procédé comprenant :
    la polarisation d'une pression d'entrée de fluide de la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302), dans lequel la polarisation de la pression d'entrée de fluide comprend :

    la réception du fluide dans la première chambre de pression flexible (106) ;

    l'exercice d'une première force (FF) sur la première chambre de pression flexible (106) à partir du fluide ;

    l'actionnement du bras de levier (110) ;

    l'actionnement d'un ou du pivot (144) dans lequel le pivot (144) est relié au bras de levier (110) ;

    l'ajustement d'une quantité du fluide libérée dans un environnement ambiant de l'ensemble (102 ; 202 ; 302) ;

    le changement d'une pression d'asservissement de fluide dans une chambre de pression (134 ; 234 ; 334) de la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302) ;

    la modulation de l'élément de soupape de régulation (132 ; 232 ; 332) de la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302) ; et

    l'ajustement d'une pression de sortie de fluide du fluide s'écoulant d'une sortie (130) de la soupape de régulation (102 ; 202 ; 302).


     
    10. Procédé selon la revendication 9, dans lequel l'actionnement du bras de levier (110) comprend en outre :

    la réception de la pression de sortie dans une seconde chambre de pression flexible (108) ;

    l'exercice d'une seconde force (FS) sur la seconde chambre de pression flexible (108) ; et

    l'application d'un équilibre de moment au bras de levier (110) autour d'un pivot (126) sur lequel le bras de levier (110) est fixé.


     
    11. Procédé selon la revendication 9 ou 10, comprenant en outre :
    la polarisation du bras de levier (110) en ajustant une force de ressort d'un premier élément de ressort (124) relié à une première extrémité (118) du bras de levier (110).
     
    12. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 9 à 11, comprenant en outre :
    la mise sous tension d'une électrovanne (114 ; 214) qui actionne un élément d'électrovanne (152 ; 252) de l'électrovanne (114 ; 214).
     
    13. Procédé selon la revendication 12, comprenant en outre :
    la commande de l'électrovanne (114 ; 214) avec un signal électrique provenant d'une commande de moteur numérique à pleine autorité (156).
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description