(19)
(11)EP 3 250 636 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
06.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/19

(21)Application number: 15880356.9

(22)Date of filing:  27.01.2015
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C08K 5/18  (2006.01)
C08F 4/00  (2006.01)
C09D 11/38  (2014.01)
C09D 11/101  (2014.01)
C09D 11/322  (2014.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2015/012987
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/122452 (04.08.2016 Gazette  2016/31)

(54)

POLYMERIC AMINE SYNERGISTS

POLYMERE AMINSYNERGISTEN

SYNERGISTES AMINES POLYMÈRES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
06.12.2017 Bulletin 2017/49

(73)Proprietor: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
Spring TX 77389 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • ZHOU, Zhang-Lin
    San Diego, California 92127-1899 (US)
  • STRAMEL, Rodney David
    San Diego, California 92127-1899 (US)
  • LANE, Gregg A.
    San Diego, California 92127-1899 (US)

(74)Representative: Haseltine Lake Kempner LLP 
Redcliff Quay 120 Redcliff Street
Bristol BS1 6HU
Bristol BS1 6HU (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2008/061954
US-A- 4 180 644
US-A- 5 278 310
US-A1- 2011 195 198
US-B2- 8 883 873
WO-A1-2014/158288
US-A- 5 047 455
US-A1- 2011 195 198
US-B2- 8 389 769
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND



    [0001] Recently, curing of ink by radiation, and in particular ultraviolet (UV) curing, has become popular. UV curable ink can be cured after printing by application of UV light. Typically, UV curable inks include monomers that form polymers by free radical polymerization. The growing end of each polymer chain is a radical that reacts with additional monomers, transferring the radical to the end of the chain as each monomer is added. A photo initiator is used to form the first radicals to begin the polymerization process. The photo initiator is capable of absorbing UV light to generate radicals to react with the monomers.

    [0002] Two types of photo initiators can be used in UV curable compositions. Type I photo initiators are unimolecular photo initiators that undergo a hemolytic bond cleavage upon absorption of UV light, forming radicals. Type-II photo initiators are bimolecular photo initiators. These are used as a system of a photo initiator with a synergist, which can together form radicals upon exposure to UV light. Some type-II photo initiators react by hydrogen abstraction from the synergist to the photo initiator.

    [0003] US5047455 relates to thickened uncrosslinked molding compositions of long shelf life which can be cured by means of free radicals above 50 °C. US4180644 relates to aromatic amine-amide compositions which comprise a reaction product of an alkylene polyoxypropylene diamine, triamine or tetramine and an isatoic anhydride. WO 2014/158288 relates to medical adhesives with components often found in plant life, and their structural analogues to adhere to biological and synthetic surfaces. US 2011/0195198 relates to photoinitiators and radiation curable compositions containing said photoinitiatiors, food compliant radiation curable compositions and radiation curable inks and inkjet inks.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0004] The present invention is defined in and by the appended claims.

    [0005] The present disclosure is drawn to polymeric amine synergists. More specifically, the present disclosure provides polymeric amine synergists including an aminobenzene modified with a polyether chain connecting to the aminobenzene through an amide linkage. The polymeric amine synergists can be water soluble and stable in aqueous inks, such as aqueous thermal inkjet ink. The polymeric amine synergists also resist migration in the ink after curing. Thus, the polymeric amine synergists of the present disclosure overcome some of the drawbacks of other synergists. Some small molecular weight synergists, such as methyldiethanolamine, trimethylamine, and its analogs, can have unwanted odor, toxicity, and migration in cured materials.

    [0006] The inkjet printing industry uses various types of inks, such as oilbased inks, solvent-based (non-aqueous) inks, water-based (aqueous) inks, and solid inks which are melted in preparation for dispensing. Solvent-based inks are fast drying, and as a result, are widely used for industrial printing. When solvent-based inks containing binders and other ingredients are jetted onto a substrate, the solvent(s) partially or fully evaporate from the ink, leaving the binder and other ingredients such as pigment particles on the printed substrate in the form of a dry film. During the drying process, the solvents, which are often volatile organic compounds (VOC), emit vapors, and therefore, can pollute the environment. The amount of pollution produced can increase greatly with higher printing speeds or for wide format images, where large amounts of ink are deposited onto a substrate. As a result of this and other concerns, efforts related to preparing inks that are environmentally friendly have moved some research in the direction of water-based inks. However, radiation-curable (or photo-curable) water-based ink compositions are noticeably limited among available options due to their specific formulation properties. Accordingly, the development of radiation-curable water-based inks, otherwise referred to as photo curable inks, that exhibit specific desirable printing properties such as, for example, jetting properties as well as improved adhesion, would be an advancement in the field of inkjet technology.

    [0007] Accordingly, a polymeric amine synergist can include an aminobenzene modified with a polyether chain connecting to the aminobenzene through an amide linkage. As used herein, "aminobenzene" refers to the compound also referred to as aniline or phenylamine, as well as analogs of this compound with attached R-groups, such as dimethylaniline. The amino group of the aminobenze can be a primary amine, secondary amine, or tertiary amine.

    [0008] The polyether chain can be a polyglycol, paraformaldehyde, or other polyether. For example, the polyether chain can be polyethylene glycol (PEG), methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG), polybutylene glycol (PBG), or a polyglycol copolymer. In one specific example, the polyether chain can be selected from polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, and a copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol. In another specific example, the polyether chain can be derived from a portion of a commercially available polyether amine such as Jeffamine® ED-900, Jeffamine® M-1000 (both available from Huntsman Corporation), or others. Various molecular weights of polyether can be suitable. The type of polyether chain and the molecular weight of the polyether chain can in some cases affect the solubility of the final polymeric amine synergist. For example, a higher ratio of oxygen atoms to carbon atoms in the polyether chain tends to make the polymeric amine synergist more soluble. The molecular weight of the polyether chain can also affect the degree to which the polymeric amine synergist can migrate in a cured ink. Longer polyether chains can make it more difficult for the polymeric amine synergist to move within a cured ink, thus decreasing migration. Therefore, the type of polyether chain can be selected to give good water solubility and low migration of the polymeric amine synergist in cured ink. In one example, the polyether chain can be a polyglycol having at least 5 glycol monomer units.

    [0009] The polyether chain can connect to the aminobenzene through an amide linkage. As used herein, "amide linkage" refers to either an amide group or an amide group with a bridging group attached to the carbon atom of the amide group. Further, as used herein, connecting the polyether chain to the aminobenzene through an amide linkage means that the polyether chain is directly bonded to the nitrogen atom of the amide group, and the carbon atom of the amide group is either directly bonded or linked through the bridging group to a carbon atom in the aromatic ring of the aminobenzene. This amide linkage can be formed by a suitable reaction, such as a substitution reaction or a condensation reaction.

    [0010] The aminobenzene, polyether chain, and amide linkage do not necessarily make up the entire polymeric amine synergist. For example, additional groups can be attached along the polyether chain or at the opposite end of the polyether chain. In some cases, one or more additional aminobenzene moieties can be attached to the polyether chain. These additional aminobenzene moieties can connect to the polyether chain through amide linkages. In one example, an additional aminobenzene moiety can connect to an opposite end of the polyether chain through an amide linkage. In other examples, the polyether chain can have multiple branches and each branch can terminate with an aminobenzene moiety connected to the polyether chain through an amide linkage. Specific examples of such polymeric amine synergists are described in detail below.

    [0011] In some examples, the aminobenzene with the amide linkage can have a general formula according to Formula 1:



    [0012] In Formula 1, the amide linkage is illustrated as an amide group with a bridging group Y bonded to the aromatic ring of the aminobenzene. The amide linkage can be bonded to any of the available carbon atoms in the ring by replacing a hydrogen atom. The groups R1, R2, and R3 can be independently a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, or a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, or a substituted aralkyl. In one specific example, R1 to R3 can each be a hydrogen atom. The Y group can be a bond, (CH2)q, or O(CH2)q, wherein q is any integer from 1 to 100. Formula 1 illustrates only the aminobenzene with the amide linkage. A complete polymeric amine synergist can be formed by combining an aminobenzene and amide linkage as in Formula 1 with a polyether chain. The polyether chain can be bonded to the nitrogen atom in the amide linkage.

    [0013] In some examples, the polymeric amine synergist can have a general formula according one of Formulas 2-5:









    [0014] In each of Formulas 2-5, the groups R1, R2, R3, and R4 can be independently a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, or a perfluoroalkyl group. In these examples, Rd, Re, and Rf are independently a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, or a substituted aralkyl. In one specific example, R1 to R4 can each be a hydrogen atom. The numbers of monomer units m, n, and p can be independently any integer from 0 to 200, provided that the sum of m, n, and p is at least 5. The Y group can be a bond, (CH2)q, or O(CH2)q, wherein q is any integer from 1 to 100.

    [0015] As shown in Formulas 2-5, the polymeric amine synergist can include 1, 2, 3, or 4 aminobenzene moieties connected to a branching polyether chain. In other examples, the polyether chain can have more than 4 branches terminating in aminobenzene moieties.

    [0016] In one example, the polymeric amine synergist can have a general formula according to Formula 6:



    [0017] In the specific example described by Formula 6, m, n, and p can be any integer provided that the sum of m, n, and p is from 10 to 25.

    [0018] The molecular weight of the polymeric amine synergist can affect its degree of migration in cured ink. For example, a polymeric amine synergist with a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of about 500 Mw or more can have reduced migration in cured ink compared with a small molecule synergist. Migration can be further reduced by increasing the molecular weight of the polymeric amine synergist to about 1000 Mw or more. In one example, the polymeric amine synergist can have a molecular weight from about 500 Mw to about 5000 Mw. Polyethers of various molecular weights are available, allowing for the production of polymeric amine synergist with various molecular weights. In some examples, the polyether chain can be selected from PEG 550, PEG 600, and PEG 1000. In another specific example, the polyether chain can be derived from the polyethyleneoxy polypropyleneoxy chain portion of a commercially available polyether amine such as Jeffamine® ED-900, Jeffamine® M-1000 (both available from Huntsman Corporation), or others. In polymeric amine synergists having multiple aminobenzene moieties, a smaller molecular weight polyether chain can be used while still maintaining a high overall molecular weight of the polymeric amine synergist. The molecular weight of the polymeric amine synergist can also be changed by adding R groups to the aminobenzene. It is noted that when referring to "R groups" generically herein, this term is defined to include at least H and organic side chain side groups and other specific constituents described and defined elsewhere herein, e.g., R, R1,R2, R3,R4, R5,R6, Rd, Re, Rf, etc.

    [0019] The molecular weight of the polymeric amine synergist can also affect its solubility in water. In some cases, the polyether chain can be a water soluble polyether. Although the aminobenzene alone can be insoluble in water, adding the soluble polyether chain can make the entire polymeric amine synergist soluble. In such cases, the soluble polyether can have a sufficient molecular weight so that its solubility properties overcome the insolubility of the aminobenzene. In other cases, water soluble R groups can be added to the aminobenzene to increase the solubility of the polymeric amine synergist. In one example, the polymeric amine synergist can have a water solubility of at least 0.5 wt%.

    [0020] Typical aqueous ink jet inks can have a pH in the range of 7 to 12. Some commercially available synergists with ester linkages can break down in such basic conditions. The amide linkage in the polymeric amine synergists according to the present disclosure can be stable under these conditions. In some examples, the polymeric amine synergist can be stable in water up to a pH from 7 to 12. In other examples, the polymeric amine synergist can be stable in water up to a pH of 8 or higher. As used herein, "stable" refers to the ability of the polymeric amine synergist to have a shelf life of at least 1 year. Typically, aqueous ink jet inks can have a shelf life of greater than 1 year, greater than 2 years, or longer.

    [0021] A general pathway for forming a polymeric amine synergist in accordance with an example of the present disclosure is shown in Formula 7:



    [0022] In the pathway shown in Formula 7, R1 to R4 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group or a group selected from a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, - CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, - NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe or a perfluoroalkyl group. Rd, Re and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group. The numbers of monomer units m and n can be any integer from 0 to 200, provided that the sum of m and n is at least 5. The Y group can be a bond, (CH2)q, or O(CH2)q, wherein q is any integer from 1 to 100.

    [0023] According to this pathway, an aniline acid (1) is reacted with thionyl chloride to give a corresponding acid chloride (2). The acid chloride (2) is treated with a mono-substituted polyethyleneoxy polypropyleneoxy amine (3) giving the desired polymeric amine synergist. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the aniline acid (1), acid chloride (2), and the final polymeric amine synergist signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

    [0024] An alternate example of a general pathway for forming a polymeric amine synergist in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 8:



    [0025] In the pathway shown in Formula 8, R1 to R3 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group or a group selected from a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, - CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, - NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe or a perfluoroalkyl group. Rd, Re and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group. The numbers of monomer units m, n, and p can be any integer from 0 to 200, provided that the sum of m, n, and p is at least 5. The Y group can be a bond, (CH2)q, or O(CH2)q, wherein q is any integer from 1 to 100.

    [0026] According to this pathway, an aniline acid (1) is reacted with thionyl chloride to give a corresponding acid chloride (2). The acid chloride (2) is treated with a polyethyleneoxy polypropyleneoxy diamine to give the desired polymeric amine synergist having two aniline moieties. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the aniline acid (1), the acid chloride (2), and the final polymeric amine synergist signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

    [0027] A further example of a general pathway for forming a polymeric amine synergist in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 9:



    [0028] In the pathway shown in Formula 9, R1 to R4 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group or a group selected from a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, - CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, - NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe or a perfluoroalkyl group. Rd, Re and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group. The numbers of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The Y group can be a bond, (CH2)q, or O(CH2)q, wherein q is any integer from 1 to 100.

    [0029] According to this pathway, a glycerol polyethylene glycol derivative (5) is reacted with toluenesulfonyl chloride to give a corresponding tosylate (6). The tosylate (6) is treated with sodium azide to give the corresponding azide (7). Then, the azide (7) is hydrogenated to give a triamine (8). This triamine (8) reacts with an aniline acid chloride (2) to give the desired polymeric amine synergist having three aniline moieties. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the aniline acid (1), aniline acid chloride (2), and the final polymeric amine synergist signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

    [0030] Yet another example of a general pathway for forming a polymeric amine synergist in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 10:



    [0031] In the pathway shown in Formula 10, R1 to R3 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group or a group selected from a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, - CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, - NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe or a perfluoroalkyl group. Rd, Re and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group. The numbers of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The Y group can be a bond, (CH2)q, or O(CH2)q, wherein q is any integer from 1 to 100.

    [0032] According to this pathway, a pentaerythritol polyethylene glycol derivative (9) reacts with toluenesulfonyl chloride to give a corresponding tosylate (10). The tosylate (10) is treated with sodium azide to give the corresponding azide (11). This azide (11) is hydrogenated to give a tetraamine (12). The tetraamine then reacts with an aniline acid chloride (2) to give the desired polymeric amine synergist having four aniline moieties. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the aniline acid (1), aniline acid chloride (2), and the final polymeric amine synergist signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

    [0033] Formula 11 illustrates a detailed synthetic pathway for one example of a polymeric amine synergist in accordance with the present disclosure:



    [0034] According to this pathway, 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid (13) is reacted with thionyl chloride to give a corresponding acid chloride (14). This acid chloride (14) is reacted with a polyethyleneoxy polypropyleneoxy amine (15) to give the desired polymeric amine synergist (16).

    [0035] A detailed synthetic pathway for another example of a polymeric amine synergist in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 12:



    [0036] In this pathway, 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid (13) reacts with thionyl chloride to give a corresponding acid chloride (14). This acid chloride (14) is reacted with a polyethyleneoxy polypropyleneoxy diamine (17) to give the desired polymeric amine synergist (18) having two aniline moieties.

    [0037] The present disclosure also extends to photo curable inks, such as UV curable inks including LED curable inks. In some examples, a photo curable ink can include a photo reactive binder (such as a UV curable or LED curable binder), a type-II photo initiator, a polymeric amine synergist, a colorant, a co-solvent, and water. The polymeric amine synergist can be an aminobenzene modified with a polyether chain connecting to the aminobenzene through an amide linkage.

    [0038] In some cases, the photo reactive binder can include a UV or LED curable polyurethane and hydrophobic radiation-curable monomers. In one example, the photo reactive binder can include a waterdispersible (meth)acrylated polyurethane, such as NeoRad® R-441 by NeoResins (Avecia). Other examples of UV reactive binders can include Ucecoat® 7710, Ucecoat® 7655 (available from Cytec), Neorad® R-440, Neorad® R-441, Neorad® R-447, Neorad® R-448 (available from DSM NeoResins), Bayhydrol® UV 2317, Bayhydrol® UV VP LS 2348 (available from Bayer), Lux 430, Lux 399, Lux 484 (available from Alberdingk Boley), Laromer® LR 8949, Laromer® LR 8983, Laromer® PE 22WN, Laromer® PE 55WN, or Laromer® UA 9060 (available from BASF).

    [0039] The polymeric amine synergists of the present disclosure can be used together with a type-II photo initiator. The combination of type-II photo initiator with the polymeric amine synergist can interact by hydrogen abstraction. In this interaction, UV radiation causes a hydrogen radical to be abstracted from the polymeric amine synergist onto the type-II photo initiator. This creates two molecules having radicals that can initiate polymerization in the photo reactive binder.

    [0040] In some cases, the photo curable ink can include two different photo initiators, or a photo initiator and a sensitizer. Some examples of type II photo initiators can also act as sensitizers. In one example, the photo curable ink can include a polymeric photo initiator that includes a xanthone analog, such as thioxanthone, connected to a polyether chain. In two more specific examples, the xanthone analog can connect to the polyether chain through an ether linkage or an amide linkage. These types of photo initiators can act either as a type-II photo initiator or as a sensitizer. The photo curable ink can also include other polymeric or non-polymeric photo initiators. Examples of radical photo initiators include, by way of illustration and not limitation, 1-hydroxy-cyclohexylphenylketone, benzophenone, 2,4,6-trimethylbenzo-phenone, 4-methylbenzophenone, diphenyl-(2, 4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide, phenyl bis(2,4,6trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide, 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenyl-1-propanone, benzyl-dimethyl ketal, 2-methyl-l-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]-2-morpholinopropan-l-one, or combinations thereof. Non-limiting examples of additional photo initiators include alpha amino ketone UV photo initiators such as Ciba® Irgacure® 907, Ciba® Irgacure® 369, and Ciba® Irgacure® 379; bis acylphosphine oxide (BAPO) UV photo initiators such as Irgacure® 819, Darocur® 4265, and Darocur® TPO; alpha hydroxy ketone UV photo initiators such as Irgacure® 184 and Darocur® 1173; including photo initiators with or without sensitizers such as Darocur® ITX (2-isopropyl thioxanthone).

    [0041] The colorant in the photo curable ink can be a pigment, a dye, or a combination thereof. In some examples, the colorant can be present in an amount from 0.5 wt% to 10 wt% in the photo curable ink. In one example, the colorant can be present in an amount from 1 wt% to 5 wt%. In another example, the colorant can be present in an amount from 5 wt% to 10 wt%.

    [0042] In some examples, the colorant can be a dye. The dye can be nonionic, cationic, anionic, or a mixture of nonionic, cationic, and/or anionic dyes. Specific examples of dyes that can be used include, but are not limited to, Sulforhodamine B, Acid Blue 113, Acid Blue 29, Acid Red 4, Rose Bengal, Acid Yellow 17, Acid Yellow 29, Acid Yellow 42, Acridine Yellow G, Acid Yellow 23, Acid Blue 9, Nitro Blue Tetrazolium Chloride Monohydrate or Nitro BT, Rhodamine 6G, Rhodamine 123, Rhodamine B, Rhodamine B Isocyanate, Safranine O, Azure B, and Azure B Eosinate, which are available from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Company (St. Louis, Mo.). Examples of anionic, water-soluble dyes include, but are not limited to, Direct Yellow 132, Direct Blue 199, Magenta 377 (available from Ilford AG, Switzerland), alone or together with Acid Red 52. Examples of water-insoluble dyes include azo, xanthene, methine, polymethine, and anthraquinone dyes. Specific examples of water-insoluble dyes include Orasol® Blue GN, Orasol® Pink, and Orasol® Yellow dyes available from Ciba-Geigy Corp. Black dyes may include, but are not limited to, Direct Black 154, Direct Black 168, Fast Black 2, Direct Black 171, Direct Black 19, Acid Black 1, Acid Black 191, Mobay Black SP, and Acid Black 2.

    [0043] In other examples, the colorant can be a pigment. The pigment can be self-dispersed with a polymer, oligomer, or small molecule; or can be dispersed with a separate dispersant. Suitable pigments include, but are not limited to, the following pigments available from BASF: Paliogen® Orange, Heliogen® Blue L 6901F, Heliogen® Blue NBD 7010, Heliogen® Blue K 7090, Heliogen® Blue L 7101F, Paliogen® Blue L 6470, Heliogen® Green K 8683, and Heliogen® Green L 9140. The following black pigments are available from Cabot: Monarch® 1400, Monarch® 1300, Monarch® 1100, Monarch® 1000, Monarch® 900, Monarch® 880, Monarch® 800, and Monarch® 700. The following pigments are available from CIBA: Chromophtal® Yellow 3G, Chromophtal® Yellow GR, Chromophtal® Yellow 8G, Igrazin® Yellow 5GT, Igralite® Rubine 4BL, Monastral® Magenta, Monastral® Scarlet, Monastral® Violet R, Monastral® Red B, and Monastral® Violet Maroon B. The following pigments are available from Degussa: Printex® U, Printex® V, Printex® 140U, Printex® 140V, Color Black FW 200, Color Black FW 2, Color Black FW 2V, Color Black FW 1, Color Black FW 18, Color Black S 160, Color Black S 170, Special Black 6, Special Black 5, Special Black 4A, and Special Black 4. The following pigment is available from DuPont: Tipure® R-101. The following pigments are available from Heubach: Dalamar® Yellow YT-858-D and Heucophthal Blue G XBT-583D. The following pigments are available from Clariant: Permanent Yellow GR, Permanent Yellow G, Permanent Yellow DHG, Permanent Yellow NCG-71, Permanent Yellow GG, Hansa Yellow RA, Hansa Brilliant Yellow 5GX-02, Hansa Yellow-X, Novoperm® Yellow HR, Novoperm® Yellow FGL, Hansa Brilliant Yellow 10GX, Permanent Yellow G3R-01, Hostaperm® Yellow H4G, Hostaperm® Yellow H3G, Hostaperm® Orange GR, Hostaperm® Scarlet GO, and Permanent Rubine F6B. The following pigments are available from Mobay: Quindo® Magenta, Indofast® Brilliant Scarlet, Quindo® Red R6700, Quindo® Red R6713, and Indofast® Violet. The following pigments are available from Sun Chemical: L74-1357 Yellow, L75-1331 Yellow, and L75-2577 Yellow. The following pigments are available from Columbian: Raven® 7000, Raven® 5750, Raven® 5250, Raven® 5000, and Raven® 3500. The following pigment is available from Sun Chemical: LHD9303 Black. Any other pigment and/or dye can be used that is useful in modifying the color of the UV curable ink. Additionally, the colorant can include a white pigment such as titanium dioxide, or other inorganic pigments such as zinc oxide and iron oxide.

    [0044] The components of the photo curable ink can be selected to give the ink good ink jetting performance. Besides the photo curable binder, polymeric amine synergist, photo initiators, and the colorant, the photo curable ink can also include a liquid vehicle. Liquid vehicle formulations that can be used in the photo curable ink can include water and one or more co-solvents present in total at from 1 wt% to 50 wt%, depending on the jetting architecture. Further, one or more non-ionic, cationic, and/or anionic surfactant can be present, ranging from 0.01 wt% to 20 wt%. In one example, the surfactant can be present in an amount from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The liquid vehicle can also include dispersants in an amount from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The balance of the formulation can be purified water, or other vehicle components such as biocides, viscosity modifiers, materials for pH adjustment, sequestering agents, preservatives, and the like. In one example, the liquid vehicle can be predominantly water.

    [0045] Classes of co-solvents that can be used can include organic co-solvents including aliphatic alcohols, aromatic alcohols, diols, glycol ethers, polyglycol ethers, caprolactams, formamides, acetamides, and long chain alcohols. Examples of such compounds include primary aliphatic alcohols, secondary aliphatic alcohols, 1,2-alcohols, 1,3-alcohols, 1,5-alcohols, ethylene glycol alkyl ethers, propylene glycol alkyl ethers, higher homologs (C6-C12) of polyethylene glycol alkyl ethers, N-alkyl caprolactams, unsubstituted caprolactams, both substituted and unsubstituted formamides, both substituted and unsubstituted acetamides, and the like. Specific examples of solvents that can be used include, but are not limited to, 2-pyrrolidinone, N-methylpyrrolidone, 2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone, 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, tetraethylene glycol, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,5-hexanediol and 1,5-pentanediol.

    [0046] One or more surfactants can also be used, such as alkyl polyethylene oxides, alkyl phenyl polyethylene oxides, polyethylene oxide block copolymers, acetylenic polyethylene oxides, polyethylene oxide (di)esters, polyethylene oxide amines, protonated polyethylene oxide amines, protonated polyethylene oxide amides, dimethicone copolyols, substituted amine oxides, and the like. The amount of surfactant added to the formulation of this disclosure may range from 0.01 wt% to 20 wt%. Suitable surfactants can include, but are not limited to, liponic esters such as Tergitol™ 15-S-12, Tergitol™ 15-S-7 available from Dow Chemical Company, LEG-1 and LEG-7; Triton™ X-100; Triton™ X-405 available from Dow Chemical Company; LEG-1, and sodium dodecylsulfate.

    [0047] Consistent with the formulation of this disclosure, various other additives can be employed to optimize the properties of the ink composition for specific applications. Examples of these additives are those added to inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms. These additives may be biocides, fungicides, and other microbial agents, which are routinely used in ink formulations. Examples of suitable microbial agents include, but are not limited to, NUOSEPT® (Nudex, Inc.), UCARCIDE™ (Union carbide Corp.), VANCIDE® (R.T. Vanderbilt Co.), PROXEL® (ICI America), and combinations thereof.

    [0048] Sequestering agents, such as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), may be included to eliminate the deleterious effects of heavy metal impurities, and buffer solutions may be used to control the pH of the ink. From 0.01 wt% to 2 wt%, for example, can be used. Viscosity modifiers and buffers may also be present, as well as other additives to modify properties of the ink as desired. Such additives can be present at from 0.01 wt% to 20 wt%.

    [0049] Table 1 shows the composition of an example of a photo curable ink formulation (e.g. UV LED curable) in accordance with the present disclosure. The ink can be formulated by mixing these ingredients or by other formulations. The pH of the ink can then be adjusted. In one example, the ingredients can be stirred for 30 minutes, and then aqueous potassium hydroxide can be added to adjust the pH to 8.5. It is noted that though water concentrations are listed as "balance," it is understood that the balance of components could included other liquid vehicle components or minor amounts of solids often present in inkjet ink compositions.
    Table 1
    ComponentWeight Percent
    Photo reactive binder 1-20%
    Type-II Photo initiator 0.15-5%
    Co-photo initiator 0-10%
    Polymeric amine synergist 0.1-5%
    Surfactant 0-10%
    Anti-kogation agent 0.1-5%
    Pigment 0.5-10%
    Organic Co-solvent 0.1-50%
    Water remainder


    [0050] The photo curable ink can be used to print on a broad selection of substrates including untreated plastics, flexible as well as rigid, porous substrates such as paper, cardboard, foam board, textile, and others. The ink has a good adhesion on a variety of substrates. The photo curable ink also has a good viscosity, enabling good printing performances and enables the ability to formulate inks suitable for inkjet application. In some examples, the ink can be formulated for thermal inkjet printing. The photo-curable ink composition of the present disclosure enables high printing speed and is very well suited for a use in digital inkjet printing.

    [0051] The polymeric amine synergists of the present disclosure can be stable in aqueous environments at pH from 7 to 12 or higher. Thus, the photo curable ink can be formulated to have a pH from 7 to 12 or higher. In some examples, the photo curable ink can have a pH of 8 or higher. In one specific example, the photo curable ink can have a pH of 8.5.

    [0052] The polymeric amine synergist can exhibit less migration in cured ink compared with small molecule synergists. The photo curable binder in the ink can include polymers or monomers that polymerize or cross-link during the curing process. As the binder cures, the polymeric amine synergist can become locked into the cured binder due to the long polyether chain of the polymeric amine synergist. Therefore, the photo curable ink can be formulated so that there is little or no migration of the polymeric amine synergist in the ink after curing.

    [0053] The present disclosure also extends to a method of making a photo curable ink. In an example, a method can include a step of mixing a reactive binder, a photo initiator, a polymeric amine synergist including an aminobenze modified with a polyether chain connecting to the aminobenzene through an amide linkage, a colorant, and a liquid vehicle including co-solvent and water. The photo curable ink can be UV curable, and in one specific example, UV LED curable. In one example, the method can also include adjusting the pH of the ink to be from 7 to 12. In another example, the method can include adjusting the pH of the ink to be 8 or higher.

    [0054] It is to be understood that this disclosure is not limited to the particular process steps and materials disclosed herein because such process steps and materials may vary somewhat. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is used for the purpose of describing particular examples only. The terms are not intended to be limiting because the scope of the present disclosure is intended to be limited only by the appended claims and equivalents thereof.

    [0055] It is noted that, as used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

    [0056] As used herein, "UV curable" refers to compositions that can be cured by exposure to ultraviolet light from any UV source such as a mercury vapor lamp, UV LED source, or the like. Mercury vapor lamps emit high intensity light at wavelengths from 240 nm to 270 nm and 350 nm to 380 nm. "LED curable" refers to compositions that can be cured by ultraviolet light from an ultraviolet LED. Ultraviolet LEDs typically emit light at specific wavelengths. For example, ultraviolet LEDs are available at 365 nm and 395 nm wavelengths, among others. The term "photo curable" refers generally to compositions that can be cured by exposure to light from any wavelength suitable for the composition being cured. Typically, the photo curable composition will be UV curable, and in some cases UV LED curable.

    [0057] As used herein, "liquid vehicle" or "ink vehicle" refers to a liquid fluid in which colorant is placed to form an ink. A wide variety of ink vehicles may be used with the systems and methods of the present disclosure. Such ink vehicles may include a mixture of a variety of different agents, including, surfactants, solvents, co-solvents, anti-kogation agents, buffers, biocides, sequestering agents, viscosity modifiers, surface- active agents, water, etc.

    [0058] As used herein, "colorant" can include dyes and/or pigments.

    [0059] As used herein, "dye" refers to compounds or molecules that absorb electromagnetic radiation or certain wavelengths thereof. Dyes can impart a visible color to an ink if the dyes absorb wavelengths in the visible spectrum.

    [0060] As used herein, "pigment" generally includes pigment colorants, magnetic particles, aluminas, silicas, and/or other ceramics, organo-metallics or other opaque particles, whether or not such particulates impart color. Thus, though the present description primarily exemplifies the use of pigment colorants, the term "pigment" can be used more generally to describe not only pigment colorants, but other pigments such as organometallics, ferrites, ceramics, etc. In one specific example, however, the pigment is a pigment colorant.

    [0061] As used herein, "ink-jetting" or "jetting" refers to compositions that are ejected from jetting architecture, such as ink-jet architecture. Ink-jet architecture can include thermal or piezo architecture. Additionally, such architecture can be configured to print varying drop sizes such as less than 10 picoliters, less than 20 picoliters, less than 30 picoliters, less than 40 picoliters, less than 50 picoliters, etc.

    [0062] As used herein, the term "substantial" or "substantially" when used in reference to a quantity or amount of a material, or a specific characteristic thereof, refers to an amount that is sufficient to provide an effect that the material or characteristic was intended to provide. The exact degree of deviation allowable may in some cases depend on the specific context.

    [0063] As used herein, the term "about" is used to provide flexibility to a numerical range endpoint by providing that a given value may be "a little above" or "a little below" the endpoint. The degree of flexibility of this term can be dictated by the particular variable and determined based on the associated description herein.

    [0064] As used herein, a plurality of items, structural elements, compositional elements, and/or materials may be presented in a common list for convenience. However, these lists should be construed as though each member of the list is individually identified as a separate and unique member. Thus, no individual member of such list should be construed as a de facto equivalent of any other member of the same list solely based on their presentation in a common group without indications to the contrary.

    [0065] Concentrations, amounts, and other numerical data may be expressed or presented herein in a range format. It is to be understood that such a range format is used merely for convenience and brevity and thus should be interpreted flexibly to include not only the numerical values explicitly recited as the limits of the range, but also to include individual numerical values or sub-ranges encompassed within that range as if each numerical value and sub-range is explicitly recited. As an illustration, a numerical range of "about 1 wt% to about 5 wt%" should be interpreted to include not only the explicitly recited values of about 1 wt% to about 5 wt%, but also include individual values and sub-ranges within the indicated range. Thus, included in this numerical range are individual values such as 2, 3.5, and 4 and sub-ranges such as from 1-3, from 2-4, and from 3-5, etc. This same principle applies to ranges reciting only one numerical value. Furthermore, such an interpretation should apply regardless of the breadth of the range or the characteristics being described.

    EXAMPLES



    [0066] The following illustrates several examples of the present disclosure. However, it is to be understood that the following are only illustrative of the application of the principles of the present disclosure. Numerous modifications and alternative compositions, methods, and systems may be devised without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure. The appended claims are intended to cover such modifications and arrangements.

    Example 1



    [0067] Synthesis of 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid chloride: To a mixture of 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid (50 g, 0.303 mol) in 550 mL of THF was added a solution of thionyl chloride (72 g, 45 mL, 0.605 mol) in 50 mL of THF. The resulting mixture was heated to reflux for 24 hours. After cooling down to room temperature, THF and unreacted thionyl chloride were evaporated off by vacuum, giving rise to the desired 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid chloride (56 g, 100% yield). The material was used for next step reaction without further purification.

    Example 2



    [0068] Synthesis of bis-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jaffamine® ED-900: A mixture of 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid chloride (27.8 g, 0.1515 mol), Jeffamine® ED-900 (68.2 g, 0.075 mol) and triethylamine (16 g, 0.1515 mol) in 200 mL of THF and 125 ml of chloroform was refluxed for 24 hours. Then the solid was filtered off, the mother filtrate was evaporated off to give a residue. The residue was purified by column flash chromatography to give the desired bis-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jeffamine® ED-900 (70 g, 78% yield).

    Example 3



    [0069] Synthesis of mono-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jeffamine® M-1000: A mixture of 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid chloride (20 g, 0.108 mol), Jeffamine® M-1000 (108 g, 0.108 mol) and triethylamine (12 g, 0.118 mol) in 200 mL of THF and 125 mL of chloroform was refluxed for 24 hours. Then the solid was filtered off, the mother filtrate was evaporated off to give a residue. The residue was purified by column flash chromatography to give the desired mono-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jeffamine® M-1000 (65 g, 52% yield).

    Example 4



    [0070] A photo (UV LED) curable inkjet ink is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 2.
    Table 2
    ComponentWeight Percent
    UV reactive binder 15%
    Irgacure® 819 (co-photo initiator) 0.3%
    Thioxanthone derivative of PEG-600 (type-II photo initiator) 0.5%
    bis-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jaffamine® ED-900 (polymeric amine synergist) 0.5%
    LEG-1 (surfactant) 1%
    CT-211 (surfactant) 1%
    Crodafos® N3 (anti-kogation agent) 0.5%
    Pigments 2.5%
    2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone (co-solvent) 10%
    Water 69.2%

    Example 5



    [0071] A photo (UV LED) curable inkjet ink is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 3.
    Table 3
    ComponentWeight Percent
    UV reactive binder 15%
    Irgacure® 819 (co-photo initiator) 0.3%
    Thioxanthone derivative of PEG-600 (type-II photo initiator) 0.5%
    mono-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jeffamine® M-1000 (polymeric amine synergist) 0.5%
    LEG-1 (surfactant) 1%
    CT-211 (surfactant) 1%
    Crodafos® N3 (anti-kogation agent) 0.5%
    Pigments 2.5%
    2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone (co-solvent) 10%
    Water 69.2%

    Example 6



    [0072] A photo curable inkjet ink is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 4.
    Table 4
    ComponentWeight Percent
    UV reactive binder 5%
    Thioxanthone derivative of PEG-600 (type-II photo initiator) 0.25%
    bis-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jaffamine® ED-900 (polymeric amine synergist) 0.5%
    LEG-1 (surfactant) 1%
    CT-211 (surfactant) 0.5%
    Crodafos® N3 (anti-kogation agent) 0.5%
    Pigments 3%
    2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone (co-solvent) 10%
    Water 79.15%

    Example 7



    [0073] A photo curable inkjet ink is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 5.
    Table 5
    ComponentWeight Percent
    UV reactive binder 10%
    Thioxanthone derivative of PEG-600 (type-II photo initiator) 0.25%
    bis-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jaffamine® ED-900 (polymeric amine synergist) 0.5%
    LEG-1 (surfactant) 1%
    CT-211 (surfactant) 0.5%
    Crodafos® N3 (anti-kogation agent) 0.5%
    Pigments 3%
    2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone (co-solvent) 10%
    Water 74.15%

    Example 8



    [0074] A photo (UV LED) curable inkjet ink is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 6.
    Table 6
    ComponentWeight Percent
    UV reactive binder 15%
    Irgacure® 819 (co-photo initiator) 0.3%
    Thioxanthone derivative of PEG-600 (type-II photo initiator) 0.5%
    bis-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jaffamine® ED-900 (polymeric amine synergist) 1%
    LEG-1 (surfactant) 1%
    CT-211 (surfactant) 1%
    Crodafos® N3 (anti-kogation agent) 0.5%
    Pigments 2.5%
    2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone (co-solvent) 10%
    Water 68.7%

    Example 9



    [0075] A photo (UV LED) curable inkjet ink is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 7.
    Table 7
    ComponentWeight Percent
    UV reactive binder 15%
    Irgacure® 819 (co-photo initiator) 0.3%
    Thioxanthone derivative of PEG-600 (type-II photo initiator) 0.5%
    bis-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jaffamine® ED-900 (polymeric amine synergist) 3%
    LEG-1 (surfactant) 1%
    CT-211 (surfactant) 1%
    Crodafos® N3 (anti-kogation agent) 0.5%
    Pigments 2.5%
    2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone (co-solvent) 10%
    Water 66.7%

    Example 10



    [0076] A photo (UV LED) curable inkjet ink is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 8.
    Table 8
    ComponentWeight Percent
    UV reactive binder 15%
    Irgacure® 819 (co-photo initiator) 0.3%
    Thioxanthone derivative of PEG-600 (type-II photo initiator) 0.5%
    bis-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jaffamine® ED-900 (polymeric amine synergist) 5%
    LEG-1 (surfactant) 1%
    CT-211 (surfactant) 1%
    Crodafos® N3 (anti-kogation agent) 0.5%
    Pigments 2.5%
    2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone (co-solvent) 10%
    Water 64.7%

    Example 11



    [0077] A photo (UV LED) curable inkjet ink was prepared with the ingredients and proportions as in Example 4, using the following method: (1) Mix UV-curable polyurethane dispersion, 30% of the water amount and IRG819 PI dispersion at 60°C for 5 min; (2) Mix 2HE2P, 70% of the water amount, Crodafos® N3A, CT211, and LEG-1, then neutralize to pH=7.5 with KOH solution; (3) Combine the mixtures from steps (1) and (2); (4) Add thioxanthone derivative of PEG-600 and bis-(4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid) derivative of Jaffamine® ED-900, mix well until they are dissolved into the mixture; (5) Mix (4) Into 14-SE-73 pigment dispersion; and (6) Adjust to pH=8.5 using KOH solution.

    Example 12



    [0078] A print test of the ink from Example 11 was performed using the following method: (1) Ink is filled into TIJ4 pen; (2) Fixer is printed from a different pen onto two paper substrates: offset coated paper (Sterling Ultra Gloss "SUG") and whitetop coated Kraft liner RockTenn 1 ("RT1"); (3) The ink is printed onto the paper substrates; (4) The ink is immediately dried using hot air blower for 5 seconds at 375°F; and (5) The dried ink is then immediately cured at a speed of 100fpm using a 16W/cm2 LED 395nm wavelength (from Phoseon).

    Example 13



    [0079] Durability tests were performed on the printed ink from Example 12. A wet rub test was performed after a pre-defined time period after printing and curing. For SUG, the wet rub test was performed 24 hr after printing. For RT1, the test was preformed 72 hrs after printing. A Taber test tool was used with Crockmeier cloth attached to the tip. The weight load was 350 g. One cycle was performed for SUG, two cycles for RT1. Windex® solution was used during the wet rub test. The delta optical density (OD) was measured before and after the rub. The lower the ΔOD, the better the durability. A ΔOD < 0.15 is considered a very good score. An immediate dry rub test was also performed. In this test, a hand held rubbing tool was used to assess the smearing of dried and cured ink immediately after printing. The tool was fit with a rubber tip that when pushed down applies a constant pressure of 6 - 7 lb. The OD was measured before and after the rub to obtain a ΔOD or change in optical density. The lower the ΔOD, the better the durability. A ΔOD < 0.15 is considered a very good score. The results of the tests were as follows: The Example 4 black ink was printed as described above in two methods: Test 1 - with the curing step; Test 2 - without the curing step. The durability was tested on both papers, SUG and RT1, using both durability methods described above, namely, Wet Rub and Immediate Dry Rub. The results are shown in Table 9:
    Table 9
     Test 1 - with Curing ΔODTest 2 - without Curing ΔOD
    Example 4 Black Ink on MediaWet RubImmediate Dry RubWet RubImmediate Dry Rub
    SUG 0.23 0.14 1.73 0.71
    RT1 0.13 0.06 1.24 0.5


    [0080] The results show that Example 4 black ink had significantly better wet rub and immediate dry rub resistance after curing. Initial OD was 2.08 and 1.76 on SUG and RT1 respectively; therefore a ΔOD of 0.23, for example, means that after rubbing the print lost 0.23 OD units out of the initial 2.08 OD measuring, a ΔOD of 1.73 means that that ink signficantly lost 1.73 OD units out of the initial 2.08 OD measurement. The durability improvement by curing is evident in both Wet Rub and Immediate Dry Rub measurements suggesting that the thioxanthone sensitizer and polymeric amine synergist package are efficiently curing and crosslinking the ink.

    [0081] While the present technology has been described with reference to certain examples, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various modifications, changes, omissions, and substitutions can be made without departing from the spirit of the disclosure. It is intended, therefore, that the disclosure be limited only by the scope of the following claims.


    Claims

    1. A polymeric amine synergist, comprising an aminobenzene modified with a polyether chain connecting to the aminobenzene through an amide linkage;
    wherein the amino group of the aminobenzene is a secondary or tertiary amine; and
    wherein the polyether chain is a polyglycol having at least 5 glycol monomer units.
     
    2. The polymeric amine synergist of claim 1, further comprising an additional aminobenzene moiety connecting to an opposite end of the polyether chain through an amide linkage.
     
    3. The polymeric amine synergist of claim 1, wherein the aminobenzene with the amide linkage has the general formula:

    wherein R1 is independently selected from the group consisting of an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, - CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, and a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, and a substituted aralkyl;

    wherein R2 to R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, - CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, and a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, and a substituted aralkyl; and

    wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of a bond, (CH2)q, and O(CH2)q, wherein q is any integer from 1 to 100.


     
    4. The polymeric amine synergist of claim 1, wherein the polyether chain is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, and a copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol.
     
    5. The polymeric amine synergist of claim 1, having a general formula selected from the group consisting of:







    wherein R1 is independently selected from the group consisting of an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, - CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, and a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, and a substituted aralkyl;

    wherein R2 to R4 are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, and a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, and a substituted aralkyl;

    wherein m, n, and p are independently any integer from 0 to 200, provided that the sum of m, n, and p is at least 5; and

    wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of a bond, (CH2)q, and O(CH2)q, wherein q is any integer from 1 to 100.


     
    6. The polymeric amine synergist of claim 1, wherein the polymeric amine synergist has a molecular weight from about 500 to about 5000
     
    7. The polymeric amine synergist of claim 1, having the formula

    wherein m, n, and p are independently any integer provided that the sum of m, n, and p is from 10 to 25.
     
    8. The polymeric amine synergist of claim 1, wherein the polymeric amine synergist has a shelf-life of at least 1 year in water at a pH from 7 to 12.
     
    9. The polymeric amine synergist of claim 1, wherein the polymeric amine synergist has a water solubility of at least 0.5 wt%.
     
    10. A photo curable ink, comprising:

    a photo reactive binder;

    the polymeric amine synergist of claim 1;

    a type-II photo initiator;

    a colorant; and

    a liquid vehicle including co-solvent and water.


     
    11. The photo curable ink of claim 10, wherein the photo curable ink has a pH from 7 to 12 and the polymeric amine synergist has a shelf-life of at least 1 year in the photo curable ink.
     
    12. The photo curable ink of claim 10, wherein the type-II photo initiator is a polymeric photo initiator and wherein the photo curable ink further comprises a co-photo initiator.
     
    13. A method of making a photo curable ink, comprising mixing a photo reactive binder, a polymeric amine synergist comprising an aminobenzene modified with a polyether chain connecting to the aminobenzene through an amide linkage, a type-II photo initiator, a colorant, and a liquid vehicle including co-solvent and water.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Polymerer Aminsynergist, der ein Aminobenzol umfasst, das mit einer Polyetherkette modifiziert ist, die über eine Amidbindung mit dem Aminobenzol verbunden ist;
    wobei die Aminogruppe des Aminobenzols ein sekundäres oder tertiäres Amin ist; und wobei die Polyetherkette ein Polyglykol mit wenigstens 5 Glykolmonomereinheiten ist.
     
    2. Polymerer Aminsynergist nach Anspruch 1, der ferner einen zusätzlichen Aminobenzolanteil umfasst, der über eine Amidbindung mit einem gegenüberliegenden Ende der Polyetherkette verbunden ist.
     
    3. Polymerer Aminsynergist nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Aminobenzol mit der Amidbindung die folgende allgemeine Formel aufweist:

    wobei R1 unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus einem unsubstituierten Alkyl, einem substituierten Alkyl, einem unsubstituierten Alkenyl, einem substituierten Alkenyl, einem unsubstituierten Aryl, einem substituierten Aryl, einem unsubstituierten Aralkyl, einem substituierten Aralkyl, einem Halogenatom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, und einer Perfluoralkylgruppe besteht, wobei Rd, Re und Rf unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus einem Wasserstoffatom, einem unsubstituierten Alkyl, einem substituierten Alkyl, einem unsubstituierten Alkenyl, einem substituierten Alkenyl, einem unsubstituierten Aryl, einem substituierten Aryl, einem unsubstituierten Aralkyl und einem substituierten Aralkyl besteht;

    wobei R2 bis R3 unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus einem unsubstituierten Alkyl, einem substituierten Alkyl, einem unsubstituierten Alkenyl, einem substituierten Alkenyl, einem unsubstituierten Aryl, einem substituierten Aryl, einem unsubstituierten Aralkyl, einem substituierten Aralkyl, einem Halogenatom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, und einer Perfluoralkylgruppe besteht, wobei Rd, Re und Rf unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus einem Wasserstoffatom, einem unsubstituierten Alkyl, einem substituierten Alkyl, einem unsubstituierten Alkenyl, einem substituierten Alkenyl, einem unsubstituierten Aryl, einem substituierten Aryl, einem unsubstituierten Aralkyl und einem substituierten Aralkyl besteht; und

    wobei Y aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus einer Bindung, (CH2)q und O(CH2)q, besteht, wobei q eine beliebige ganze Zahl von 1 bis 100 ist.


     
    4. Polymerer Aminsynergist nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Polyetherkette aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Polyethylenglykol, Polypropylenglykol und einem Copolymer aus Polyethylenglykol und Polypropylenglykol besteht.
     
    5. Polymerer Aminsynergist nach Anspruch 1 mit einer allgemeinen Formel, die aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Folgendem besteht:







    wobei R1 unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus einem unsubstituierten Alkyl, einem substituierten Alkyl, einem unsubstituierten Alkenyl, einem substituierten Alkenyl, einem unsubstituierten Aryl, einem substituierten Aryl, einem unsubstituierten Aralkyl, einem substituierten Aralkyl, einem Halogenatom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, und einer Perfluoralkylgruppe besteht, wobei Rd, Re und Rf unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus einem Wasserstoffatom, einem unsubstituierten Alkyl, einem substituierten Alkyl, einem unsubstituierten Alkenyl, einem substituierten Alkenyl, einem unsubstituierten Aryl, einem substituierten Aryl, einem unsubstituierten Aralkyl und einem substituierten Aralkyl besteht;

    wobei R2 bis R4 unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus einem Wasserstoffatom, einem unsubstituierten Alkyl, einem substituierten Alkyl, einem unsubstituierten Alkenyl, einem substituierten Alkenyl, einem unsubstituierten Aryl, einem substituierten Aryl, einem unsubstituierten Aralkyl, einem substituierten Aralkyl, einem Halogenatom, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, - NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, und einer Perfluoralkylgruppe besteht, wobei Rd, Re und Rf unabhängig aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus einem Wasserstoffatom, einem unsubstituierten Alkyl, einem substituierten Alkyl, einem unsubstituierten Alkenyl, einem substituierten Alkenyl, einem unsubstituierten Aryl, einem substituierten Aryl, einem unsubstituierten Aralkyl und einem substituierten Aralkyl besteht;

    wobei m, n und p unabhängig voneinander eine beliebige ganze Zahl von 0 bis 200 sind, vorausgesetzt, dass die Summe von m, n und p wenigstens 5 beträgt; und

    wobei Y aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus einer Bindung, (CH2)q und O(CH2)q, besteht, wobei q eine beliebige ganze Zahl von 1 bis 100 ist.


     
    6. Polymerer Aminsynergist nach Anspruch 1, wobei der polymere Aminsynergist eine Molekularmasse von etwa 500 bis etwa 5000 aufweist
     
    7. Polymerer Aminsynergist nach Anspruch 1, mit der Formel

    wobei m, n und p unabhängig voneinander eine beliebige ganze Zahl sind, vorausgesetzt, dass die Summe von m, n und p von 10 bis 25 beträgt.
     
    8. Polymerer Aminsynergist nach Anspruch 1, wobei der polymere Aminsynergist eine Haltbarkeit von wenigstens 1 Jahr in Wasser bei einem pH-Wert von 7 bis 12 aufweist.
     
    9. Polymerer Aminsynergist nach Anspruch 1, wobei der polymere Aminsynergist eine Wasserlöslichkeit von wenigstens 0,5 Gew.-% aufweist.
     
    10. Fotohärtbare Tinte, die Folgendes umfasst:

    ein fotoreaktives Bindemittel;

    den polymeren Aminsynergist nach Anspruch 1;

    einen Typ-II-Fotoinitiator;

    ein Färbemittel; und

    eine flüssige Trägersubstanz, die ein Co-Lösungsmittel und Wasser beinhaltet.


     
    11. Fotohärtbare Tinte nach Anspruch 10, wobei die fotohärtbare Tinte einen pH-Wert von 7 bis 12 aufweist und der polymere Aminsynergist in der fotohärtbaren Tinte eine Haltbarkeit von wenigstens 1 Jahr aufweist.
     
    12. Fotohärtbare Tinte nach Anspruch 10, wobei der Typ-II-Fotoinitiator ein polymerer Photoinitiator ist und wobei die fotohärtbare Tinte ferner einen Co- Fotoinitiator umfasst.
     
    13. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer fotohärtbaren Tinte, das ein Mischen eines fotoreaktiven Bindemittels, eines polymeren Aminsynergisten, der ein mit einer Polyetherkette modifiziertes Aminobenzol umfasst, das mit dem Aminobenzol über eine Amidbindung verbunden ist, eines Typ-II-Fotoinitiators, eines Färbemittels und einer flüssigen Trägersubstanz, die ein Co-Lösungsmittel und Wasser beinhaltet, umfasst.
     


    Revendications

    1. Synergiste d'amine polymère, comprenant un aminobenzène modifié avec une chaîne polyéther se reliant à l'aminobenzène par une liaison amide ;
    le groupe amino de l'aminobenzène étant une amine secondaire ou tertiaire ; et
    la chaîne polyéther étant un polyglycol ayant au moins 5 unités monomères glycol.
     
    2. Synergiste d'amine polymère selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une fraction d'aminobenzène supplémentaire se reliant à une extrémité opposée de la chaîne polyéther par une liaison amide.
     
    3. Synergiste d'amine polymère selon la revendication 1, l'aminobenzène avec la liaison amide ayant la formule générale :

    R1 étant indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par un alkyle non substitué, un alkyle substitué, un alcényle non substitué, un alcényle substitué, un aryle non substitué, un aryle substitué, un aralkyle non substitué, un aralkyle substitué, un atome d'halogène, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, et un groupe perfluoroalkyle, Rd, Re et Rf étant indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par un atome d'hydrogène, un alkyle non substitué, un alkyle substitué, un alcényle non substitué, un alcényle substitué, un aryle non substitué, un aryle substitué, un aralkyle non substitué et un aralkyle substitué ;

    R2 à R3 étant indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par un alkyle non substitué, un alkyle substitué, un alcényle non substitué, un alcényle substitué, un aryle non substitué, un aryle substitué, un aralkyle non substitué, un aralkyle substitué, un atome d'halogène, -NO2, -ORd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe et un groupe perfluoroalkyle, Rd, Re et Rf étant indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par un atome d'hydrogène, un alkyle non substitué, un alkyle substitué, un alcényle non substitué, un alcényle substitué, un aryle non substitué, un aryle substitué, un aralkyle non substitué et un aralkyle substitué ; et

    Y étant choisi dans le groupe constitué par une liaison, (CH2)q et O(CH2)q, q étant un quelconque entier de 1 à 100.


     
    4. Synergiste d'amine polymère selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la chaîne polyéther est choisie dans le groupe constitué par le polyéthylène glycol, le polypropylène glycol et un copolymère de polyéthylène glycol et de polypropylène glycol.
     
    5. Synergiste d'amine polymère selon la revendication 1, ayant une formule générale choisie dans le groupe constitué par :







    R1 étant indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par un alkyle non substitué, un alkyle substitué, un alcényle non substitué, un alcényle substitué, un aryle non substitué, un aryle substitué, un aralkyle non substitué, un aralkyle substitué, un atome d'halogène, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, -NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, -SO2NRdRe, et un groupe perfluoroalkyle, Rd, Re et Rf étant indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par un atome d'hydrogène, un alkyle non substitué, un alkyle substitué, un alcényle non substitué, un alcényle substitué, un aryle non substitué, un aryle substitué, un aralkyle non substitué et un aralkyle substitué ;

    R2 à R4 étant indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par un atome d'hydrogène, un alkyle non substitué, un alkyle substitué, un alcényle non substitué, un alcényle substitué, un aryle non substitué, un aryle substitué, un aralkyle non substitué, un aralkyle substitué, un atome d'halogène, -NO2, -O-Rd, -CO-Rd, -CO-O-Rd, -O-CO-Rd, -CO-NRdRe, - NRdRe, -NRd-CO-Re, -NRd-CO-O-Re, -NRd-CO-NReRf, -SRd, -SO-Rd, -SO2-Rd, -SO2-O-Rd, - SO2NRdRe, et un groupe perfluoroalkyle, Rd, Re et Rf étant choisis indépendamment dans le groupe constitué par un atome d'hydrogène, un alkyle non substitué, un alkyle substitué, un alcényle non substitué, un alcényle substitué, un aryle non substitué, un aryle substitué, un aralkyle non substitué et un aralkyle substitué ;

    m, n et p étant indépendamment un quelconque entier de 0 à 200, à condition que la somme de m, n et p soit au moins 5 ; et

    Y étant choisi dans le groupe constitué par une liaison, (CH2)q et O(CH2)q, q étant un quelconque entier de 1 à 100.


     
    6. Synergiste d'amine polymère selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le synergiste d'amine polymère a un poids moléculaire d'environ 500 à environ 5000.
     
    7. Synergiste d'amine polymère selon la revendication 1, ayant la formule

    m, n et p étant indépendamment un quelconque entier à condition que la somme de m, n et p soit de 10 à 25.
     
    8. Synergiste d'amine polymère selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le synergiste d'amine polymère a une durée de conservation d'au moins 1 an dans l'eau à un pH de 7 à 12.
     
    9. Synergiste d'amine polymère selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le synergiste d'amine polymère a une solubilité dans l'eau d'au moins 0,5 % en poids.
     
    10. Encre photodurcissable, comprenant :

    un liant photo réactif ;

    le synergiste d'amine polymère selon la revendication 1 ;

    un photo-initiateur de type II ;

    un colorant ; et

    un véhicule liquide comportant du co-solvant et de l'eau.


     
    11. Encre photodurcissable selon la revendication 10, dans laquelle l'encre photodurcissable a un pH de 7 à 12 et le synergiste d'amine polymère a une durée de conservation d'au moins 1 an dans l'encre photodurcissable.
     
    12. Encre photodurcissable selon la revendication 10, dans laquelle le photo-initiateur de type II est un photo-initiateur polymère et dans lequel l'encre photodurcissable comprend en outre un co-photo-initiateur.
     
    13. Procédé de fabrication d'une encre photodurcissable, comprenant le mélange d'un liant photoréactif, d'un synergiste d'amine polymère comprenant un aminobenzène modifié avec une chaîne polyéther se reliant à l'aminobenzène par une liaison amide, un photo-initiateur de type II, un colorant, et un véhicule liquide comportant du co-solvant et de l'eau.
     




    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description