(19)
(11)EP 3 264 311 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.01.2021 Bulletin 2021/02

(21)Application number: 16176714.0

(22)Date of filing:  28.06.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
G06F 21/55(2013.01)
H04L 9/00(2006.01)

(54)

A PROTECTION METHOD AND DEVICE AGAINST A SIDE-CHANNEL ANALYSIS

SCHUTZVERFAHREN UND VORRICHTUNG GEGEN EINE SEITENKANALANALYSE

PROCÉDÉ ET DISPOSITIF DE PROTECTION CONTRE UNE ANALYSE DE CANAUX AUXILIAIRES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
03.01.2018 Bulletin 2018/01

(73)Proprietor: ESHARD
33650 Martillac (FR)

(72)Inventor:
  • GAGNEROT, Georges
    13011 Marseille (FR)

(74)Representative: de Roquemaurel, Bruno et al
OMNIPAT 24 Place des Martyrs de la Résistance
13100 Aix en Provence
13100 Aix en Provence (FR)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2007 076 890
  
  • JUDE ANGELO AMBROSE ET AL: "RIJID", DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE : DAC; [DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE : DAC; ISSN 0738-100X], ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY ; INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS, US, 4 June 2007 (2007-06-04), pages 489-492, XP058262750, ISSN: 0738-100X, DOI: 10.1145/1278480.1278606 ISBN: 978-1-58113-461-2
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates to a method and device for protecting a circuit or a program against side channel analyses aiming to discover the value of a secret data handled by the circuit or program, and in particular a secret key used by an encryption or decryption algorithm to transform a message.

[0002] The present invention relates in particular to smart card integrated circuits or to hardware cryptographic components integrated onto mother boards of computers and other electronic and IT equipment (USB drives, TV decoders, game consoles, etc.) implementing a cryptographic algorithm such as AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). The present invention also relates to a program implementing such an algorithm, provided for being executed in a secure or non-secured environment.

BACKGROUND



[0003] Circuits such as implementing cryptographic algorithms can comprise a central processing unit (CPU), and possibly a circuit dedicated to cryptographic computing, for example a cryptographic coprocessor. These circuits may comprise thousands of logic gates that switch differently according to the operations executed. These switching operations create short variations in current consumption, for example of a few nanoseconds, and those variations can be measured. In particular, CMOS-type integrated circuits comprise logic gates that only consume current when they switch, i.e. when a logic node changes its state to 1 or to 0. Therefore, the current consumption depends on the data handled by the central processing unit and on its various peripherals: memory, data flowing on the data or address bus, cryptographic coprocessor, etc.

[0004] Furthermore, some software programs using encryption or obfuscation techniques, such as the White-Box Cryptography technique, may integrate secret data in such a way that it is very difficult to determine them by reverse engineering. Certain software programs may also receive a secret data from outside through a secure communication channel.

[0005] Such circuits may be subjected to so-called side channel analysis attacks based on observing their current consumption, or their magnetic or electromagnetic radiation. Such attacks aim to discover secret data, in particular encryption keys. Current side channel attacks implement statistical analysis methods such as SPA ("Single Power Analysis"), DPA ("Differential Power Analysis"), CPA ("Correlation Power Analysis") or EMA ("ElectroMagnetic Analysis"). The SPA analysis (ref. [1]) normally only requires the acquisition of a single current consumption trace. It aims to obtain information about the activity of the integrated circuit by observing the part of the consumption trace corresponding to a cryptographic computation, since the current trace varies according to the operations executed and the data handled.

[0006] Software may also undergo such side channel attacks when executed by a circuit.

[0007] DPA (ref. [2]) and CPA analyses enable the key of an encryption algorithm to be found by acquiring numerous circuit consumption traces and by statistically analyzing these traces to find the target information. They are based on the premise that the consumption of a CMOS-type integrated circuit varies when a bit changes from 0 to 1 in a register or on a bus, and does not vary when a bit remains equal to 0, remains equal to 1 or changes from 1 to 0 (discharge of a stray capacitance of a MOS transistor). Alternatively, it can be considered that the consumption of a CMOS-type integrated circuit varies when a bit changes from 0 to 1 or changes from 1 to 0 and does not vary when a bit remains equal to 0 or remains equal to 1. This second hypothesis enables the conventional "Hamming distance" or "Hamming weight" functions to be used in order to develop a consumption model that does not require knowledge of the structure of the integrated circuit in order to be applicable. The DPA analysis involves amplifying this consumption difference thanks to statistical processing on numerous consumption traces, aiming to highlight a measurement difference between two families of consumption traces distinguished according to formulated hypotheses.

[0008] The CPA analysis (ref. [3]) is based on a linear current consumption model and involves computing a correlation coefficient between, firstly, the consumption points measured that form the captured consumption traces and, secondly, an estimated consumption value, computed from the linear consumption model and a hypothesis on the data to be discovered that is handled by the microcircuit and on the value of the encryption key.

[0009] The electromagnetic analysis (EMA) is based on the principle that an integrated circuit may send information in the form of near or far field electromagnetic radiation. Given that transistors and the wires connecting them emit electromagnetic signals when their state changes, these signals can be treated like the current consumption variation signals by an analysis such as one or other of the SPA, DPA and CPA analyses. An example of application of this analysis was made by Jean-Jacques Quisquater in 2001 (ref [4]).

[0010] Other side channel analyses exist, such as "Template analysis" (ref. [5]) and "Mutual Information Analysis" (MIA) (ref. [6]). All of the above-mentioned analyses are based on a time alignment of all the analyzed traces. In other words, all the measurements performed at a given time, for example from the time the execution of a command is activated by the circuit, must correspond to the same data handled by the algorithm.

[0011] The patent application N° FR16 51443 filed by the Applicant on February 22, 2016 discloses a method for analyzing traces representative of the activity of a circuit when the latter executes an operation successively on different input data. This method comprises extracting a part of each trace, and generating a histogram from each extracted trace part, by counting an occurrence number of each possible value appearing in each of the extracted parts of these traces. Partial results of the operation are then computed by applying the operation to each input data and to each possible value of a part of a secret key involved in the operation. Then, the method identifies for each possible part value of the secret key, all the input data which provide the same partial result. For each possible part value of the secret key, the occurrence numbers in the histograms, corresponding to the identified input data and the part value of the secret key are then added. The part of the secret key can be determined by subjecting the added occurrence numbers to a statistical analysis. The statistical analysis assumes that if a value related to the secret key has leaked in the extracted parts of the traces, it can be highlighted by the added occurrence numbers.

[0012] The patent application US2007/076890 discloses a countermeasure against DPA comprising sensing the current at the power supply input of the circuit to flatten the total current consumption of the circuit. However, this countermeasure does not resist to the above analysis disclosed by the Applicant.

[0013] J.A. Ambrose, R.G. Ragel, S. Parameswaran: "RIJID: Random Code Injection to Mask Power Analysis based Side Channel Attacks" discloses the insertion of random instructions into a program as a countermeasure to side channel attacks, and suffers from the same drawback.

[0014] It may be desirable to protect an integrated circuit against one or more of these side channel analyses. It may be desirable in particular to protect such a circuit against analyses exploiting power consumption traces or electromagnetic traces.

SUMMARY



[0015] A method is described for executing an operation by a circuit. The method may include executing a first operation to process an input data, the circuit generating during the execution of the first operation a first signal. According to the invention, the method comprises executing a second operation receiving the input data and configured to add to the first signal, between first and second instants during the execution of the first operation, a continuous second signal, the combination of the first and second signal forming a resultant signal in which the second signal is indistinctly measurable with the first signal from outside of the circuit, the second signal and the resultant signal varying as a function of the input data.

[0016] According to an embodiment, the second signal has a constant value depending on the value of the input data between the first and second instants.

[0017] According to an embodiment, the second signal varies between the first and second instants according to a profile depending on the value of the input data.

[0018] According to an embodiment, the first and second signals are either power consumption of the circuit or electromagnetic radiation of the circuit.

[0019] According to an embodiment, the second operation comprises controlling a variable resistor, using the input data between the first and second instants to generate the second signal in the form of an additional power consumption of the circuit, the first signal being the power consumption of the circuit.

[0020] According to an embodiment, the second operation comprises: generating a sequence of random numbers using as a seed the input data; and controlling the variable resistor using the random numbers of the sequence of random numbers at a clock rate, between the first and second instants.

[0021] According to an embodiment, the second operation comprises: dividing the input data into words; and controlling a plurality of variable resistors, each of the words being used to control a respective one of the variable resistors, between the first and second instants, to generate the second signal in the form of an additional power consumption in the circuit, the first signal being the power consumption of the circuit.

[0022] According to an embodiment, the second operation comprises: for each word of the input data, generating one sequence of random numbers depending only on the word; and controlling each of the variable resistors with the random numbers of a respective one of the random number sequences at a clock rate between the first and second instants.

[0023] According to an embodiment, the second operation comprises: a processing loop processing the input data between the first and second instants, or a third operation transforming the input data and a fourth operation which is identical or similar to the first operation and which processes a transformed data received from the third operation between the first and second instants.

[0024] According to an embodiment, the second operation comprises controlling a variable capacitor, using the input data between the first and second instants to generate the second signal in the form of an additional electromagnetic radiation of the circuit, the first signal being an electromagnetic radiation of the circuit.

[0025] Embodiments may also relate to a circuit comprising a first circuit part implementing a first operation and a second circuit part implementing a second operation, the circuit being configured to implement the method as above-defined.

[0026] According to an embodiment, the first and second circuit parts are interleaved or nested in one another.

[0027] According to an embodiment, the circuit comprises: a coprocessor, the coprocessor comprising the first and second circuit parts, or a processor the processor comprising the first and second circuit parts.

[0028] Embodiments may also relate to a device comprising a circuit as above-defined, arranged on a medium.

[0029] Embodiments may also relate to a computer program product loadable into an internal memory of a computer and comprising code portions which when executed by a computer configure the computer to carry out the steps of the method as above-defined.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0030] The method and/or device may be better understood with reference to the following drawings and description. Non-limiting and non-exhaustive descriptions are described with the following drawings. In the figures, like referenced signs may refer to like parts throughout the different figures unless otherwise specified.

Figure 1 schematically represents a conventional architecture of a secure circuit;

Figure 2 represents a circuit protected according to one embodiment,

Figure 3 represents power consumption traces, modified according to one embodiment;

Figures 4 to 7 represent protected circuits according to various embodiments,

Figure 8 represents power consumption traces, modified according to another embodiment;

Figures 9 and 10 represent circuits protected according to other embodiments.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0031] Figure 1 represents, as an example, a secure integrated circuit CT, for example arranged on a portable medium HD such as a plastic card or any other medium, or in a terminal such as a mobile terminal. The integrated circuit comprises a microprocessor PRC, an input/output circuit IOC, memories M1, M2, M3 coupled to the microprocessor by a data and address bus and, optionally, a cryptographic computation coprocessor CP1 or arithmetic accelerator, and a random number generator RGN. The memories can comprise a volatile memory M1, for example a RAM-type ("Random Access Memory") memory containing volatile application data, a non-volatile memory M2, for example an EEPROM or Flash memory, containing non-volatile data and application programs, and possibly a read-only memory M3 (or ROM memory) containing the operating system of the microprocessor. The operating system can be also stored in the non-volatile memory.

[0032] The communication interface circuit IOC may be of contact type, for example according to the ISO/IEC 7816 standard, of contactless type with inductive coupling, for example according to the ISO/IEC 14443A/B or ISO/IEC 13693 standard, of contactless type by electrical coupling (UHF interface circuit), or of both contact and contactless type. The interface circuit IOC may also be coupled through a specific interface, to another circuit such as an NFC controller, or a main circuit of a terminal such as a mobile terminal or a connected object.

[0033] In some embodiments, the integrated circuit CT may be configured to execute operations such as encrypting, decrypting or signing messages that are sent to it, by means of a cryptographic function. This cryptographic function may be executed by the processor PRC of the circuit CT or partially or totally carried out by the processor PRC to the coprocessor CP1.

[0034] It is proposed here to protect an operation e.g. in a cryptographic algorithm, implemented in a circuit such as the circuit CT, against side channel analyses based on measurement of a primary signal emitted by the circuit, such power consumption of the circuit or electromagnetic radiation emitted by the signal. This object is reached by generating an additional signal (additional power consumption or electromagnetic radiation) varying as a function of an input data of the operation to be protected, during the execution of the operation. The additional signal can be independent from the value of the input data or not. Each time a same input data is input to the circuit, the additional signal associated with the input data is generated. Thus when the additional signal is absent, the signal measurable from outside of the circuit corresponds to the primary signal, and when the additional signal is present, the measurable signal corresponds to a resultant signal formed by a combination of the primary signal and the additional signal. In addition, the additional signal is generated so as to be indistinctly measurable with the primary signal in the signal measurable from outside of the circuit. The resultant signal also varies as a function of the input data.

[0035] In contrast with the random noise signal added according to known protection methods, the additional signal generated and added according to the present protection method is deterministic. Thus it cannot be removed by statistical analyses of the signal emitted by the circuit when the latter executes a same operation applied to the same or different input data several times. For the same reason, such an additional signal cannot be removed as noise by the above-mentioned method analyzing traces measured from a circuit by computing and analyzing histograms produced from extracted trace parts. In fact, an additional signal depending on the input data shifts the obtained histograms according to the input data, and consequently removes the ability to distinguish a correct value using some statistical functions.

[0036] Figure 2 represents a circuit CT1, such as the circuit CT, comprising a circuit part CTP implementing an operation OPR to be protected, the operation OPR receiving an input data IND. According to one embodiment, the circuit CT1 comprises a circuit part PTC1 to which the input data IND is applied and generating a constant additional signal which appears to be added to a measurable signal generated by the circuit CT1 when the latter executes the operation OPR. The additional signal is linked to the value of the input data IND but it is physically independent from it, such that the value of the input data cannot be deduced from the additional signal. The additional signal can be set to a value between 1% and 33% of the maximum amplitude of the primary signal emitted by the circuit and measured from outside of the latter. According to one embodiment, the additional signal is set to a value between 1% and 10% of the maximum amplitude of the signal emitted by the circuit and measured from outside of the latter.

[0037] In the example of Figure 2, the circuit part PTC1 comprises a controlled resistor VR having a resistance value controlled by a control signal generated from the input data IND. The resistor VR can be connected between a voltage source and a ground of the circuit CT1. Thus the circuit part PTC1 generates constant additional power consumption depending on the value of the input data IND, this additional power consumption being added to the power consumption of the circuit CT1.

[0038] Figure 3 represents examples of power consumption traces PT1, PT2 acquired between instants t1 and t2, when the operation OPR is processing first and second distinct input data, respectively, without the circuit part PTC1 or when the latter is kept inactive. The power trace PT1 is acquired when the circuit CT1 processes an input data IND1 and the power trace PT2 is acquired when the circuit CT1 processes an input data IND2. The instants t1 and t2 are determined from the activation of the operation OPR to process the data IND1 or IND2. When the operation OPR processes the input data IND1, the circuit part PTC1 introduces in the power consumption of the circuit CT1 a constant additional consumption DP1. Thus the circuit CT1 produces a power trace PM1 corresponding to the power trace PT1 shifted from the latter by an offset value corresponding to the additional power consumption DP1. When the input data IND2 is processed by the operation OPR, the circuit part PTC1 introduces in the power consumption of the circuit CT1 additional constant power consumption DP2 different from the additional power consumption DP1. Thus the circuit CT1 produces a power trace PM2 corresponding to the power trace PT2 but shifted from the latter by an offset value corresponding to the additional power consumption DP2.

[0039] The control signal applied to the resistor VR can be directly the input data IND or a value resulting from a transformation of the value of the input data IND. According to an example, the command applied to the resistor VR can be IND / 0xFF (=IND / 255), if the input data IND is encoded on one byte. If the input data IND is encoded on two bytes, the control signal applied to the resistor VR can be IND/0xFFFF. The additional power consumption introduced by the resistor VR can be set to a value between 1% and a maximum value which can be set between 10% and 33% of the power consumption of the circuit
Thanks to the link between a power offset applied by the resistor VR and the input data, and to the fact that the respective contributions of the resistor VR and the execution of the operation OPR in the power consumption of the circuit, are not distinguishable or separately measurable, a statistical analysis of consumption power traces obtained with different input data cannot remove the power offsets. This protection method can be proved to be effective against the majority of the above-described side channel analyses. The operation OPR can be implemented by hardware e.g. a specific circuit such as the coprocessor CP1, the circuit part PTC1 being part of this specific circuit. The operation OPR can also be implemented by software executed by the processor PRC or the coprocessor CP1. In this case, the circuit part PTC1 can be a part of the processor PRC or the coprocessor. It should be noted that any other controlled component having power consumption depending on a value of a control signal can be used as an alternative of the variable resistor VR.

[0040] Figure 4 represents a circuit CT2 comprising the circuit part CTP implementing the operation OPR to be protected, and a protection circuit part PTC2. According to one embodiment, the circuit part PTC2 comprises several variable resistors VR, which are identical or different, and connected in parallel as in Figure 4, or in series. Each variable resistor VR of the circuit part PTC2 is controlled using a part of the input data IND applied to the operation OPR. For example, the input data IND is encoded on several bytes, each byte of the data IND being used to control a respective variable resistor VR. In this way, it is possible to adapt the offset values DP1, DP2 that can be applied to the power consumption traces of the circuit CT2, in particular to obtain a wider range of power offset values.

[0041] Another example of circuit CT3 comprising the circuit part CTP performing the operation OPR, is illustrated in Figure 5. The circuit CT3 comprises a circuit part PTC3 configured to emit electromagnetic radiations depending on the value of the input data IND. The circuit part PTC3 comprises the variable resistor VR controlled by means of the input data IND and a component such as an inductance CL, for example a coil, forming a RL circuit with the resistor VR and an active shield AS. The RL circuit (VR- CL-AS) can be connected between a power source and a ground of the circuit. The active shield AS covers at least a part of the circuit CT3 including the circuit part CTP. The ground can be a ground plane also covering at least a part of the circuit CT3. The circuit part PTC3 is controlled to generate electromagnetic radiations as long as the circuit part CTP processes the input data IND. The resistor VR generates in the circuit CT3 constant additional power consumption depending on the value of the input data IND.

[0042] Figure 6 represents a circuit CT4 comprising the circuit part CTP implementing the operation OPR to be protected, and a protection circuit part PTC4. According to one embodiment, the circuit part PTC4 comprises a variable capacitor VC controlled by means of the input data IND, and connected between a source voltage of the circuit CT4 and a circuit comprising an odd number of inverters 11, 12, 13 interconnected to form a ring oscillator. The circuit part PTC4 further comprises a capacitor C1 connected between a junction node between the inverters 12 and 13 and a ground of the circuit CT4. The ring oscillator of the circuit PTC4 produces a signal having a Dirac spectrum, which radiates an electromagnetic white noise having a magnitude depending on the value of the controlled capacitor VC.

[0043] Figure 7 represents a circuit CT5 comprising the circuit part CTP implementing the operation OPR to be protected and a protection circuit part PTC5. According to one embodiment, the circuit part PTC5 comprises a variable resistor VR controlled by an output of a pseudorandom number generator circuit PRNG receiving as a seed the input data IND of the operation OPR. The circuit PRNG is configured to generate a random number that depends only on the value of the data applied to its input. The circuit PRNG is clocked by a clock signal CK and its output is fed back to its input to generate at each clock cycle a new random number using as a seed a random number generated at the previous clock cycle. Thus the circuit PRNG generates at the rate of the clock signal CK a sequence of random numbers, which is always the same for a given input data IND. In this way, the variable resistor VR produces in the consumption power trace of the circuit CT5 a power offset that varies at each cycle of the clock signal CK, but the profile of the power offsets thus produced only depends on the value of the input data IND. Here again, the random numbers of the sequence produced by the circuit PRNG can undergo a transformation (such as RND / 0xFF, RND being a random number of the sequence) before being applied to the command input of the variable resistor VR.

[0044] Figure 8 represents the power consumption traces PT1, PT2 acquired between instants t1 and t2, when the input data IND1 and IND2 are processed by the operation OPR, respectively. Figure 8 also represents an example of two power offset profiles PP1, PP2 produced by the resistor VR under control of the circuit PRNG receiving respectively the input data IND1 and IND2. The power offset profiles PP1, PP2 show that the resistor VR generates power consumption that stay constant during a clock period TCK of the clock signal CK and that can change at each clock cycle. The shape of each of the power offset profiles PP1, PP2 only depends on the input data IND1, IND2 which is simultaneously applied to the operation OPR and to the input of the circuit PRNG. When another input data is applied to the operation OPR, this input data is at the same time applied to the input of the circuit PRNG which generates a sequence of random numbers specific to the input data, each random number of this sequence being used to control the variable resistor VR.

[0045] Thanks to the variation of the power offset during the processing of an input data IND by the operation OPR, the power offset having a profile only linked to the input data IND currently processed by the operation, the protection method can be proved to be effective against all of the above-described side channel analyses. The clock signal CK is not necessarily the same or synchronized with a clock signal clocking the processing performed by the operation OPR.

[0046] The embodiments of Figures 4 and 7 can be combined, the circuit CT5 comprising one circuit part PTC5 per word in the input data IND. Thus each word of the input data IND is used as a seed which is introduced in a pseudo random number generator generating a random number sequence controlling a respective variable resistor.

[0047] Figure 9 represents a circuit CT6 comprising the circuit part CTP implementing the operation OPR to be protected. According to another embodiment, the circuit CT6 comprises another circuit part PTC6 performing another operation FCT1 also receiving the same input data IND at the same time as the operation OPR. The circuit part PTC6 is configured to produce continuously an additional signal such as additional power consumption and/or additional electromagnetic radiations, varying during instants t1 and t2 according to a profile only depending to the input data IND, this additional signal being added to the signal (i.e. power consumption and/or electromagnetic radiations) of the circuit CT6 performing the operation OPR. According to an example, the circuit part PTC6 comprises a processing loop performing the operation FCT1 applied first to the input data IND and then to an output data provided by the operation FCT1, the processing loop being activated during the instants t1 and t2.

[0048] Figure 10 illustrates another example of a circuit CT7 comprising the circuit part CTP implementing the operation OPR. The circuit CT7 comprises a circuit part PTC7 implementing a first operation TCF transforming the input data IND and an operation OPR1 applied to a transformed data IND' provided by the first operation TCF. The operation OPR1 can be the same as or similar to the operation OPR implemented by the circuit part CTP, such that the operation OPR1 implemented in the circuit part PTC7 can produce a same signal (power consumption and/or electromagnetic radiation) as the circuit CT7 when the latter executes the operation OPR on the same input data IND'. In this way, the circuit part PTC7 generates both additional power consumption and additional electromagnetic radiation, as a function of the input data IND, with amplitudes of a same magnitude order as the circuit part CTP when the latter performs the operation OPR.

[0049] The operations OPR and OPR1 can be implemented respectively by the processor PRC and the coprocessor CP1 of the circuit CT, or by two parts of the coprocessor CP1, or by two cores, the processor PRC being in one embodiment a multicore processor. Hence, the two operations OPR, OPR1 implemented in the circuit parts CTP and PTC7 can be executed strictly at the same time. The circuit parts PTC7 and CTP can be physically entangled with one another or nested in one another such that it is not possible to measure separately their electromagnetic radiations.

[0050] The methods disclosed herein may be implemented by software programs executable by a computer system. Further, implementations may include distributed and/or parallel processing, especially for processing in parallel two operations receiving the same input data to produce indistinctly measurable signals, such as a power consumption variation signal or an electromagnetic radiation signal.

[0051] The illustrations described herein are intended to provide a general understanding of the structure of various embodiments. These illustrations are not intended to serve as a complete description of all of the elements and features of apparatus, processors and systems that utilizes the structures or methods described therein. Many other embodiments or combinations thereof may be apparent to those of ordinary skills in the art upon reviewing the disclosure by combining the disclosed embodiments. Other embodiments may be utilized and derived from the disclosure, such that structural and logical substitutions and changes may be made without departing from the scope of the disclosure.

[0052] Further, the disclosure and the illustrations are to be considered as illustrative rather than restrictive. The scope of protection is defined by the claims.

References cited



[0053] 
  1. [1] P. C. Kocher, "Timing attacks on implementations of Diffie-Hellman, RSA, DSS, and other systems" In Neal Koblitz, editor, Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO '96, volume 1109 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 104-113. Springer, 1996.
  2. [2] P. C. Kocher, J. Jaffe, and B. Jun, "Differential Power Analysis" In M. J. Wiener, editor, Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO '99, volume 1666 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 388-397. Springer, 1999.
  3. [3] E. Brier, C. Clavier, and F. Olivier, "Correlation Power Analysis with a Leakage Model" In M. Joye and J-J. Quisquater, editors, Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems - CHES 2004, volume 3156 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 16-29. Springer, 2004.
  4. [4] J.-J. Quisquater, "ElectroMagnetic Analysis (EMA): Measures and Counter-measures for Smart Cards", Smart Card Programming and Security, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, vol. 2140, 2001, p. 200-210
  5. [5] S. Chari, J. R. Rao, and P. Rohatgi, "Template Attacks", Kaliski Jr., B.S., Koç, Ç.K., Paar, C. (eds.) CHES 2002. LNCS, vol. 2523, pp. 172-186. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)
  6. [6] B. Gierlichs, L. Batina, P. Tuyls, and B. Preneel, "Mutual Information Analysis", CHES 2008, volume 5154 of LNCS, pages 426-442, Springer, 2008



Claims

1. A method for executing an operation by a circuit (CT1), the method comprising executing a first operation (OPR) to process an input data (IND), the circuit generating during the execution of the first operation a first signal (PT1, PT2),
characterized in that it comprises executing a second operation receiving the input data and configured to add to the first signal, between first and second instants (t1, t2) during the execution of the first operation, a continuous second signal (DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2), the combination of the first and second signal forming a resultant signal in which the second signal is indistinctly measurable with the first signal from outside of the circuit, the second signal and the resultant signal varying as a function of the input data.
 
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the second signal (DP1, DP2) has a constant value depending on the value of the input data (IND) between the first and second instants (t1, t2).
 
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the second signal (PP1, PP2) varies between the first and second instants (t1; t2) according to a profile depending on the value of the input data (IND).
 
4. The method of one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the first and second signals (PT1, PT2, DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) are either power consumption of the circuit (CT1-CT5) or electromagnetic radiation of the circuit.
 
5. The method of one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the second operation comprises controlling a variable resistor (VR), using the input data (IND) between the first and second instants (t1, t2) to generate the second signal (DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) in the form of an additional power consumption of the circuit (CT1-CT5), the first signal (PT1, PT2) being the power consumption of the circuit.
 
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the second operation comprises:

generating a sequence of random numbers using as a seed the input data (IND); and

controlling the variable resistor (VR) using the random numbers of the sequence of random numbers at a clock (CK) rate, between the first and second instants (t1, t2).


 
7. The method of one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the second operation comprises:

dividing the input data (IND) into words; and

controlling a plurality of variable resistors (VR), each of the words being used to control a respective one of the variable resistors, between the first and second instants (t1, t2), to generate the second signal (DP1, DP2) in the form of an additional power consumption in the circuit (CT2), the first signal being the power consumption of the circuit.


 
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the second operation comprises:

for each word of the input data (IND), generating one sequence of random numbers depending only on the word; and

controlling each of the variable resistors (VR) with the random numbers of a respective one of the random number sequences at a clock (CK) rate between the first and second instants (t1, t2).


 
9. The method of one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the second operation (FCT1) comprises:

a processing loop processing the input data (IND) between the first and second instants (t1, t2), or

a third operation (TCF) transforming the input data and a fourth operation (OPR1) which is identical or similar to the first operation (OPR) and which processes a transformed data received from the third operation between the first and second instants.


 
10. The method of one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the second operation comprises controlling a variable capacitor (CR), using the input data (IND) between the first and second instants (t1, t2) to generate the second signal (DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) in the form of an additional electromagnetic radiation of the circuit (CT4), the first signal (PT1, PT2) being an electromagnetic radiation of the circuit.
 
11. A circuit (CT1) comprising a first circuit part (CTP) implementing a first operation (OPR) and a second circuit part (PTC1-PTC5) implementing a second operation, the circuit being configured to implement the method according to one of claims 1 to 10.
 
12. The circuit of claim 11, wherein the first and second circuit parts (CTP, PTC1-PTC5) are interleaved or nested in one another.
 
13. The circuit of claim 11 or 12, comprising:

a coprocessor (CP2), the coprocessor comprising the first and second circuit parts (CTP, PTC1-PTC5), or

a processor (PRC) the processor comprising the first and second circuit parts.


 
14. A device comprising a circuit according to one of claims 11 to 13, arranged on a medium (HD).
 
15. A computer program product loadable into an internal memory of a computer and comprising code portions which when executed by a computer configure the computer to carry out the steps of the method according to one of claims 1 to 10.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zum Ausführen eines Vorgangs durch eine Schaltung (CT1), wobei das Verfahren ein Ausführen eines ersten Vorgangs (operation - OPR) umfasst, um Eingabedaten (input data - IND) zu verarbeiten, wobei die Schaltung während der Ausführung des ersten Vorgangs ein erstes Signal (PT1, PT2) erzeugt,
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es ein Ausführen eines zweiten Vorgangs umfasst, der die Eingabedaten empfängt und konfiguriert ist, um dem ersten Signal zwischen einem ersten und einem zweiten Zeitpunkt (t1, t2) während der Ausführung des ersten Vorgangs ein fortlaufendes zweites Signal (DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) hinzuzufügen, wobei die Kombination des ersten und des zweiten Signals ein resultierendes Signal ausbildet, in dem das zweite Signal mit dem ersten Signal von außerhalb der Schaltung undeutlich messbar ist, wobei das zweite Signal und das resultierende Signal in Abhängigkeit von den Eingabedaten variieren.
 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das zweite Signal (DP1, DP2) einen konstanten Wert aufweist, der von dem Wert der Eingabedaten (IND) zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Zeitpunkt (t1, t2) abhängt.
 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das zweite Signal (PP1, PP2) zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Zeitpunkt (t1, t2) gemäß einem Profil, das von dem Wert der Eingabedaten (IND) abhängt, variiert.
 
4. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei das erste und das zweite Signal (PT1, PT2, DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) entweder ein Leistungsverbrauch der Schaltung (CT1-CT5) oder eine elektromagnetische Strahlung der Schaltung sind.
 
5. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei der zweite Vorgang ein Steuern eines Regelwiderstands (variable resistor - VR) unter Verwendung der Eingabedaten (IND) zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Zeitpunkt (t1, t2) umfasst, um das zweite Signal (DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) in Form eines zusätzlichen Leistungsverbrauchs der Schaltung (CT1-CT5) zu erzeugen, wobei das erste Signal (PT1, PT2) der Leistungsverbrauch der Schaltung ist.
 
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, wobei der zweite Vorgang Folgendes umfasst:

Erzeugen einer Folge von Zufallszahlen unter Verwendung der Eingabedaten (IND) als einen Startwert; und

Steuern des Regelwiderstands (VR) unter Verwendung der Zufallszahlen der Folge von Zufallszahlen mit einer Taktrate (clock rate - CK) zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Zeitpunkt (t1, t2).


 
7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 bis 4, wobei der zweite Vorgang Folgendes umfasst:

Einteilen der Eingabedaten (IND) in Wörter; und

Steuern mehrerer Regelwiderstände (VR), wobei jedes der Wörter verwendet wird, um einen jeweiligen der Regelwiderstände zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Zeitpunkt (t1, t2) zu steuern, um das zweite Signal (DP1, DP2) in Form eines zusätzlichen Leistungsverbrauchs in der Schaltung (CT2) zu erzeugen, wobei das erste Signal der Leistungsverbrauch der Schaltung ist.


 
8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei der zweite Vorgang Folgendes umfasst:

für jedes Wort der Eingabedaten (IND), Erzeugen einer Folge von Zufallszahlen, die nur von dem Wort abhängt; und

Steuern jedes der Regelwiderstände (VR) mit den Zufallszahlen einer der jeweiligen Zufallszahlenfolgen mit einer Taktrate (CK) zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Zeitpunkt (t1, t2).


 
9. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei der zweite Vorgang (FCT1) Folgendes umfasst:

eine Verarbeitungsschleife, die die Eingabedaten (IND) zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Zeitpunkt (t1, t2) verarbeitet, oder

einen dritten Vorgang (TCF), der die Eingabedaten transformiert, und einen vierten Vorgang (OPR1), der identisch mit oder ähnlich dem ersten Vorgang (OPR) ist und der transformierte Daten verarbeitet, die von dem dritten Vorgang zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Zeitpunkt empfangen werden.


 
10. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei der zweite Vorgang ein Steuern eines veränderbaren Kondensators (variable capacitor - CR) unter Verwendung der Eingabedaten (IND) zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Zeitpunkt (t1, t2) umfasst, um das zweite Signal (DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) in Form einer zusätzlichen elektromagnetischen Strahlung der Schaltung (CT4) zu erzeugen, wobei das erste Signal (PT1, PT2) eine elektromagnetische Strahlung der Schaltung ist.
 
11. Schaltung (CT1), umfassend ein erstes Schaltungsteil (CTP), das einen ersten Vorgang (OPR) implementiert, und ein zweites Schaltungsteil (PTC1-PTC5), das einen zweiten Vorgang implementiert, wobei die Schaltung konfiguriert ist, um das Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10 zu implementieren.
 
12. Schaltung nach Anspruch 11, wobei das erste und das zweite Schaltungsteil (CTP, PTC1-PTC5) ineinander verzahnt oder verschachtelt sind.
 
13. Schaltung nach Anspruch 11 oder 12, Folgendes umfassend:

einen Coprozessor (CP2), wobei der Coprozessor das erste und das zweite Schaltungsteil (CTP, PTC1-PTC5) umfasst, oder

einen Prozessor (PRC), wobei der Prozessor das erste und das zweite Schaltungsteil umfasst.


 
14. Vorrichtung, umfassend eine Schaltung nach einem der Ansprüche 11 bis 13, die auf einem Medium (HD) angeordnet ist.
 
15. Computerprogrammprodukt, das in einen internen Speicher eines Computers ladbar ist und Codeabschnitte umfasst, die, wenn sie durch einen Computer ausgeführt werden, den Computer konfigurieren, um die Schritte des Verfahrens nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10 durchzuführen.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé destiné à exécuter une opération par un circuit (CT1), le procédé comprenant l'exécution d'une première opération (OPR) pour traiter une donnée d'entrée (IND), le circuit générant un premier signal (PT1, PT2) pendant l'exécution de la première opération,
caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend l'exécution d'une seconde opération recevant les données d'entrée et configurée pour ajouter au premier signal, entre des premier et second instants (t1, t2) lors de l'exécution de la première opération, un second signal continu (DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2), la combinaison du premier et du second signal formant un signal résultant dans lequel le second signal est indistinctement mesurable avec le premier signal provenant de l'extérieur du circuit, le second et le signal résultant variant en fonction des données d'entrée.
 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le second signal (DP1, DP2) présente une valeur constante en fonction de la valeur des données d'entrée (IND) entre les premier et second instants (t1, t2).
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le second signal (PP1, PP2) varie entre les premier et second instants (t1 ; t2) selon un profil dépendant de la valeur des données d'entrée (IND).
 
4. Procédé selon l'une des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel les premier et second signaux (PT1, PT2, DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) sont soit la consommation d'énergie du circuit (CT1-CT5), soit le rayonnement électromagnétique du circuit.
 
5. Procédé selon l'une des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel la deuxième opération comprend la commande d'une résistance variable (VR), à l'aide des données d'entrée (IND) entre les premier et second instants (t1, t2) pour générer le second signal (DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) sous la forme d'une consommation électrique supplémentaire du circuit (CT1-CT5), le premier signal (PT1, PT2) étant la consommation électrique du circuit.
 
6. Procédé selon la revendication 5, dans lequel la deuxième opération comprend :

la génération d'une séquence de nombres aléatoires à l'aide des données d'entrée (IND) en tant que graine ; et

la commande de la résistance variable (VR) à l'aide des nombres aléatoires de la séquence de nombres aléatoires à une fréquence d'horloge (CK), entre les premier et second instants (t1, t2).


 
7. Procédé selon l'une des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel la deuxième opération comprend :

la division des données d'entrée (IND) en mots ; et

la commande d'une pluralité de résistances variables (VR), chacun des mots étant utilisé pour commander l'une respective des résistances variables, entre les premier et second instants (t1, t2), pour générer le second signal (DP1, DP2) sous la forme d'une consommation d'énergie supplémentaire dans le circuit (CT2), le premier signal étant la consommation d'énergie du circuit.


 
8. Procédé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel la deuxième opération comprend :

pour chaque mot des données d'entrée (IND), la génération d'une séquence de nombres aléatoires dépendant uniquement du mot ; et

la commande de chacune des résistances variables (VR) avec les nombres aléatoires de l'une respective des séquences de nombres aléatoires à une fréquence d'horloge (CK) entre les premier et second instants (t1, t2).


 
9. Procédé selon l'une des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel la deuxième opération (FCT1) comprend :

une boucle de traitement traitant les données d'entrée (IND) entre les premier et second instants (t1, t2), ou

une troisième opération (TCF) transformant les données d'entrée et une quatrième opération (OPR1) qui est identique ou similaire à la première opération (OPR) et qui traite une donnée transformée reçue de la troisième opération entre les premier et second instants.


 
10. Procédé selon l'une des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel la deuxième opération comprend la commande d'un condensateur variable (CR), à l'aide des données d'entrée (IND) entre les premier et second instants (t1, t2) pour générer le second signal (DP1, DP2, PP1, PP2) sous la forme d'un rayonnement électromagnétique supplémentaire du circuit (CT4), le premier signal (PT1, PT2) étant un rayonnement électromagnétique du circuit.
 
11. Circuit (CT1) comprenant une première partie de circuit (CTP) mettant en œuvre une première opération (OPR) et une seconde partie de circuit (PTC1-PTC5) mettant en œuvre une deuxième opération, le circuit étant configuré pour mettre en œuvre le procédé selon l'une des revendications 1 à 10.
 
12. Circuit selon la revendication 11, dans lequel les première et seconde parties de circuit (CTP, PTC1-PTC5) sont entrelacées ou imbriquées l'une dans l'autre.
 
13. Circuit selon la revendication 11 ou 12, comprenant :

un coprocesseur (CP2), le coprocesseur comprenant les première et seconde parties de circuit (CTP, PTC1-PTC5), ou

un processeur (PRC), le processeur comprenant les première et seconde parties de circuit.


 
14. Dispositif comprenant un circuit selon l'une des revendications 11 à 13, disposé sur un support (HD).
 
15. Produit de programme informatique chargeable dans une mémoire interne d'un ordinateur et comprenant des parties de code qui, lorsqu'elles sont exécutées par un ordinateur, configurent l'ordinateur pour exécuter les étapes du procédé selon l'une des revendications 1 à 10.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description