(19)
(11)EP 3 265 483 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
11.12.2019 Bulletin 2019/50

(21)Application number: 16712738.0

(22)Date of filing:  04.03.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C07K 14/755(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2016/054647
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/142288 (15.09.2016 Gazette  2016/37)

(54)

MODIFIED VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR HAVING IMPROVED HALF-LIFE

MODIFIZIERTER VON-WILLEBRAND-FAKTOR MIT VERBESSERTER HALBWERTZEIT

FACTEUR DE VON WILLEBRAND MODIFIÉ PRÉSENTANT UNE DEMI-VIE AMÉLIORÉE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 06.03.2015 EP 15158065

(43)Date of publication of application:
10.01.2018 Bulletin 2018/02

(73)Proprietor: CSL Behring Lengnau AG
2543 Lengnau BE (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • MOSES, Michael
    61279 Graevenwiesbach (DE)
  • SCHULTE, Stefan
    35043 Marburg (DE)
  • DICKNEITE, Gerhard
    35043 Marburg (DE)
  • KALINA, Uwe
    35041 Marburg (DE)
  • PESTEL, Sabine
    35041 Marburg (DE)
  • WEIMER, Thomas
    35075 Gladenbach (DE)

(74)Representative: Ludwig, Holger et al
CSL Behring GmbH Emil-von-Behring-Straße 76
35041 Marburg
35041 Marburg (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2013/167303
  
  • IDINATH BADIROU ET AL: "In Vivo Analysis of the Role of O-Glycosylations of Von Willebrand Factor", PLOS ONE, vol. 7, no. 5, 17 May 2012 (2012-05-17), page e37508, XP055202888, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037508
  • DATABASE UniProt [Online] 26 November 2014 (2014-11-26), "SubName: Full=von Willebrand factor {ECO:0000313|EMBL:KFV73032.1}; Flags: Fragment;", XP002742402, retrieved from EBI accession no. UNIPROT:A0A093H1R9 Database accession no. A0A093H1R9
  • K. CANIS ET AL: "The plasma von Willebrand factor O -glycome comprises a surprising variety of structures including ABH antigens and disialosyl motifs", JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, vol. 8, no. 1, 1 January 2010 (2010-01-01) , pages 137-145, XP055202964, ISSN: 1538-7933, DOI: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2009.03665.x
  • C. CASARI ET AL: "Clearance of von Willebrand factor", JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, vol. 11, 30 June 2013 (2013-06-30), pages 202-211, XP055202972, ISSN: 1538-7933, DOI: 10.1111/jth.12226
  • DATABASE UniProt [Online] 5 July 2004 (2004-07-05), "SubName: Full=von Willebrand Factor like 1 {ECO:0000313|EMBL:BAD05118.1}; Flags: Fragment;", XP002742403, retrieved from EBI accession no. UNIPROT:Q769I3 Database accession no. Q769I3
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to products and methods for improving treatment of blood coagulation disorders.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] There are various bleeding disorders caused by deficiencies of blood coagulation factors. The most common disorders are hemophilia A and B, resulting from deficiencies of blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and IX, respectively. Another known bleeding disorder is von Willebrand's disease (VWD).

[0003] In plasma FVIII exists mostly as a noncovalent complex with von Willebrand factor (VWF), and its coagulant function is to accelerate factor IXa dependent conversion of factor X to Xa.

[0004] Classic hemophilia or hemophilia A is an inherited bleeding disorder. It results from a chromosome X-linked deficiency of blood coagulation FVIII, and affects almost exclusively males with an incidence of between one and two individuals per 10,000. The X-chromosome defect is transmitted by female carriers who are not themselves hemophiliacs. The clinical manifestation of hemophilia A is an increased bleeding tendency.

[0005] In severe hemophilia A patients undergoing prophylactic treatment FVIII has to be administered intravenously (i.v.) about 3 times per week due to the short plasma half-life of FVIII of about 12 to 14 hours. Each i.v. administration is cumbersome, associated with pain and entails the risk of an infection especially as this is mostly done at home by the patients themselves or by the parents of children being diagnosed for hemophilia A.

[0006] It would thus be highly desirable to increase the half-life of FVIII so that pharmaceutical compositions containing FVIII which have to be administered less frequently.

[0007] Several attempts have been made to prolong the half-life of non-activated FVIII either by reducing its interaction with cellular receptors (WO 03/093313 A2, WO 02/060951 A2), by covalently attaching polymers to FVIII (WO 94/15625, WO 97/11957 and US 4970300), by encapsulation of FVIII (WO 99/55306), by introduction of novel metal binding sites (WO 97/03193), by covalently attaching the A2 domain to the A3 domain either by peptidic (WO 97/40145 and WO 03/087355) or disulfide linkage (WO 02/103024A2) or by covalently attaching the A1 domain to the A2 domain (WO2006/108590).

[0008] Another approach to enhance the functional half-life of FVIII or VWF is by PEGylation of FVIII (WO 2007/126808, WO 2006/053299, WO 2004/075923) or by PEGylation of VWF (WO 2006/071801) which pegylated VWF by having an increased half-life would indirectly also enhance the half-life of FVIII present in plasma. Also fusion proteins of FVIII have been described (WO 2004/101740, WO2008/077616 and WO 2009/156137).

[0009] VWF, which is missing, functionally defect or only available in reduced quantity in different forms of von Willebrand disease (VWD), is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein present in the plasma of mammals, which has multiple physiological functions. During primary hemostasis VWF acts as a mediator between specific receptors on the platelet surface and components of the extracellular matrix such as collagen. Moreover, VWF serves as a carrier and stabilizing protein for procoagulant FVIII. VWF is synthesized in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes as a 2813 amino acid precursor molecule. The amino acid sequence and the cDNA sequence of wild-type VWF are disclosed in Collins et al. 1987, Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:4393-4397. The precursor polypeptide, pre-pro-VWF, consists of a 22-residue signal peptide, a 741-residue pro-peptide and the 2050-residue polypeptide found in mature plasma VWF (Fischer et al., FEBS Lett. 351: 345-348, 1994). After cleavage of the signal peptide in the endoplasmatic reticulum a C-terminal disulfide bridge is formed between two monomers of VWF. During further transport through the secretory pathway 13 N-linked and 10 O-linked carbohydrate side chains are added (Canis et al. (2010) Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 8: 137-145; Canis et al. (2012) The Biochemical Journal, 447: 217-228). More important, VWF dimers are multimerized via N-terminal disulfide bridges and the propeptide of 741 amino acids length is cleaved off by the enzyme PACE/furin in the late Golgi apparatus. The propeptide as well as the high-molecular-weight multimers of VWF (VWF-HMWM) are stored in the Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells or in the α-granules of platelets.

[0010] Once secreted into plasma the protease ADAMTS13 cleaves VWF within the A1 domain of VWF. Plasma VWF therefore consists of a whole range of multimers ranging from single dimers of 500 kDa to multimers consisting of up to more than 20 dimers of a molecular weight of over 10,000 kDa. The VWF-HMWM hereby having the strongest hemostatic activity, which can be measured in ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo). The higher the ratio of VWF:RCo/VWF antigen, the higher the relative amount of high molecular weight multimers.

[0011] Defects in VWF are causal to von Willebrand disease (VWD), which is characterized by a more or less pronounced bleeding phenotype. VWD type 3 is the most severe form in which VWF is completely missing, VWD type 1 relates to a quantitative loss of VWF and its phenotype can be very mild. VWD type 2 relates to qualitative defects of VWF and can be as severe as VWD type 3. VWD type 2 has many sub forms some of them being associated with the loss or the decrease of high molecular weight multimers. Von VWD type 2a is characterized by a loss of both intermediate and large multimers. VWD type 2B is characterized by a loss of highest-molecular-weight multimers.

[0012] VWD is the most frequent inherited bleeding disorder in humans and can be treated by replacement therapy with concentrates containing VWF of plasmatic or recombinant origin.

[0013] In plasma FVIII binds with high affinity to VWF, which protects it from premature catabolism and thus, plays in addition to its role in primary hemostasis a crucial role to regulate plasma levels of FVIII and as a consequence is also a central factor to control secondary hemostasis. The half-life of non-activated FVIII bound to VWF is about 12 to 14 hours in plasma. In von Willebrand disease type 3, where no or almost no VWF is present, the half-life of FVIII is only about 6 hours, leading to symptoms of mild to moderate hemophilia A in such patients due to decreased concentrations of FVIII. The stabilizing effect of VWF on FVIII has also been used to aid recombinant expression of FVIII in CHO cells (Kaufman et al. 1989, Mol Cell Biol).

[0014] According to Badirou et al. (2012), "In vivo analysis of the role of O-Glycosylations of von Willebrand Factor", PLoS ONE, 7(5): e37508, certain murine VWF variants are shown having nine glycosylation sites mutated. These mutant VWF constructs were analysed with regard to the impact of the lost O-glycosylation. Inter alia, a T2298A murine VWF mutant has been shown. There is, however, no teaching in this reference to use these mutants in a treatment of a blood coagulation disorder instead of using wild type VWF. No improvements on in vivo clearance when compared to native plasma-derived VWF was shown or suggested for said VWF variants. However, for some of the VWF variants disclosed in Badirou et al., a reduction in the half-life was observed.

[0015] WO 2013/167303 A1 relates to an attempt of reducing clearance of VWF seeking for a concomitant increase in FVIII half-life. This reference suggests to use a composition comprising an isolated sugar having an accessible sugar residue derived from ABO(H) blood group antigen in order to reduce the in vivo clearance of VWF.

[0016] There is a need for products and methods for increasing the half-life of VWF, FVIII or both factors.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0017] In a separate invention, it had been found that VWF monomers strongly bind to calcium-type lectin domain family 10 member A (CLEC10A), a receptor protein present on macrophages. In particular, it could be shown that CLEC10A plays a crucial role in VWF clearance. In the present invention, it was further found that the O-linked glycan site 2298 present on VWF interacts with CLEC10A. The present invention therefore provides modified VWF molecules as defined according to claim 1 lacking the O-linked glycosylation at position 2298 to prolong the half-life of the VWF molecules in vivo.

[0018] The present invention therefore relates to the subject matter defined in items [1] to [18]:
  1. [1] A human von Willebrand factor (VWF) molecule capable of binding to Factor VIII, comprising a C1 domain which lacks an O-glycosylation site at amino acid position 2298 for use in the treatment of a blood coagulation disorder, wherein said blood coagulation disorder is hemophilia A or von Willebrand disease and the VWF molecule having a reduced in vivo clearance when compared to native plasma-derived VWF. Preferably the VWF molecule is not murine.
  2. [2] The VWF molecule for use of item [1], wherein the O-glycosylation site at position 2298 present in native VWF has been inactivated by deleting or substituting one or more amino acids at positions 2292 to 2303 of the VWF amino acid sequence.
  3. [3] The VWF molecule for use of item [2], wherein threonine at position 2298 has been deleted or substituted with an amino acid other than threonine and serine.
  4. [4] The VWF molecule for use of item [3], wherein said amino acid other than threonine and serine is selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine.
  5. [5] The VWF molecule for use of any one of the preceding items, comprising an amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO:10 or 11.
  6. [6] The VWF molecule for use of item [2], wherein proline at one of the positions 2295, 2297 and 2302 has been deleted or substituted with a different amino acid.
  7. [7] Further disclosed herein is a VWF C1 domain comprising the O-glycosylation site at amino acid position 2298, linked to a half-life extending moiety, preferably fused to human albumin.
  8. [8] The VWF molecule for use of any one of items [1] - [6], which is capable of increasing the half-life of Factor VIII co-administered with said VWF molecule, as compared to the half-life of the Factor VIII co-administered with native plasma-derived VWF.
  9. [9] The VWF molecule for use according to any one of items [1] to [6] or of item [8], wherein said treatment further comprises administering a Factor VIII molecule.
  10. [10] The VWF molecule for use according to item [9], wherein said VWF molecule and said Factor VIII molecule are administered separately.
  11. [11] A pharmaceutical composition comprising the VWF molecule of any one of items [1] to [6] or item [8].
  12. [12] A pharmaceutical kit comprising (i) the VWF molecule of any one of items [1] to [6] or item [8] and (ii) a Factor VIII molecule.
  13. [13] The pharmaceutical kit of item [12], wherein said VWF molecule and said Factor VIII molecule are contained in separate compositions.
  14. [14] A pharmaceutical kit comprising (i) the VWF molecule of any one of items [1] to [6] or item [8] and (ii) a Factor VIII molecule, for simultaneous, separate or sequential use in the treatment of a blood coagulation disorder.
  15. [15] The VWF molecule for use of any one of items [1] to [6] or item [8], wherein the half-life of Factor VIII is increased in vivo.
  16. [16] The VWF molecule for use as defined in any one of items [1] to [6] or item [8], wherein the half-life of Factor VIII is prolonged in a therapeutic treatment.
  17. [17] A method of increasing the half-life Factor VIII in vivo is disclosed herein, comprising administering to a subject an effective amount of the VWF molecule of any one of items [1] to [6].
  18. [18] A method of treating a blood coagulation disorder is disclosed herein, comprising administering to a patient in need thereof an effective amount of the VWF molecule of any one of items [1] to [6].

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0019] 

Figure 1: Domain structures, functional binding sites and glycan positions of the mature VWF monomer
The protein structure of the VWF monomer reveals areas of internal homology termed A, C and D domains. VWF interacts with a large number of ligands with a range of biological functions. Each mature VWF monomer contains 13 N-linked (upward arrows) and 10 O-linked (downward arrows) glycosylation sites distributed as shown. The sequence number of the amino acid involved in a glycosidic bond is given. The revised annotation of the VWF mature subunit structure was adapted and modified from Zhou et al. (2012) Blood 120(2): 449-458.

Figure 2: Predominant O-glycans detected in eluate fractions after incubating tryptic VWF fragments with soluble CLEC10A
(NeuGc = N-glycolylneuraminic acid; GlcNAc = N-acetylglucosamine; Gal = galactose; GalNAc = N-acetylgalactosamine)
Core 2 glycan (A), core 1 glycan carrying one NeuGc residue (B) and core 2 glycan elongated with the disaccharide GlcNAcβ1,3Gal (C) were identified as predominant O-glycan structures present in eluate fractions. After incubation of tryptic VWF fragments with soluble CLEC10A, washing and elution of bound VWF peptides, MALDI-TOF-MS analyses of free glycans revealed a significant enrichment of glycan structure A (concentration factor of > 40), B (factor 9) and C (factor 7), when compared with the starting material prior to incubation with CLEC10A. The three displayed O-glycans represented approximately 80% of all O-glycan structures detected (40% related to structure B whereas A and C accounted for 20% each).


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0020] In a first aspect, the present invention pertains to a modified von Willebrand factor (VWF) molecule capable of binding to Factor VIII, comprising a C1 domain which lacks an O-glycosylation site at amino acid position 2298 as further defined according to claim 1.

VWF



[0021] The term "von Willebrand factor" (VWF) as used herein includes naturally occurring (native) VWF, but also variants thereof, e.g. fragments, fusion proteins or conjugates, or sequence variants where one or more residues have been inserted, deleted or substituted, retaining the biological activity of naturally occurring VWF. The biological activity is retained in the sense of the invention if the VWF variant retains at least 10%, preferably at least 25%, more preferably at least 50%, most preferably at least 75% of at least one of the biological activities of wild-type VWF. The biological activity of wild-type VWF and variants thereof can be determined by the artisan using methods for ristocetin co-factor activity (Federici A B et al. 2004. Haematologica 89:77-85), binding of VWF to GP Ibα of the platelet glycoprotein complex Ib-V-IX (Sucker et al. 2006. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 12:305-310), or a collagen binding assay (Kallas & Talpsep. 2001. Annals of Hematology 80:466-471)), or a Factor VIII binding assay (Veyradier et al. (2011) Haemophilia, vol. 17, pp 944-951).

[0022] The gene encoding human native VWF is transcribed into a 9 kb mRNA which is translated into a pre-propolypeptide of 2813 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 310,000 Da. The pre-propolypeptide contains a 22 amino acids signal peptide, a 741 amino acid propolypeptide (amino acids 23-763 of SEQ ID NO:2) and the mature subunit (amino acids 764-2813 of SEQ ID NO:2). Cleavage of the 741 amino acids propolypeptide from the N-terminus results in mature VWF consisting of 2050 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of the human native VWF pre-propolypeptide is shown in SEQ ID NO:2. Unless indicated otherwise, the amino acid numbering of VWF residues in this application refers to SEQ ID NO:2, even if the VWF molecule does not comprise all residues of SEQ ID NO:2. The term "VWF" as used herein refers to the mature form of VWF unless indicated otherwise.

[0023] The propolypeptide of native VWF comprises multiple domains. Different domain annotations can be found in the literature (see, e.g. Zhou et al. (2012) Blood 120(2): 449-458). The following domain annotation of native pre-propolypeptide of VWF is applied in this application (see also Figure 1):
D1-D2-D'-D3-A1-A2-A3-D4-C1-C2-C3-C4-C5-C6-CK

[0024] With reference to SEQ ID NO:2, the D' domain consists of amino acids 764-865; the D3 domain consists of amino acids 866-1242; and the C1 domain consists of amino acids 2255 - 2328.

[0025] A "modified" VWF molecule has an amino acid sequence that differs from the amino acid sequence of mature human native VWF (amino acids 764-2813 of the amino acid shown in SEQ ID NO:2.

[0026] The modified VWF molecule of the present invention comprises a C1 domain of VWF lacking an O-glycosylation site at amino acid position 2298. The amino acid sequence of the C1 domain comprised in the modified VWF molecule of the invention has a sequence identity to amino acids 2255 - 2328 of SEQ ID NO:2 of at least 80%, preferably of at least 85%, more preferably of at least 90%, most preferably of at least 95%.

[0027] In preferred embodiments, one, two or three (but not more) amino acids that are present in amino acids 2255 - 2328 of SEQ ID NO:2 are deleted and/or substituted in the C1 domain comprised in the modified VWF molecule of the present invention.

[0028] In a first embodiment, the modified VWF molecule of the present invention comprises amino acids 2255 - 2328 of SEQ ID NO:2 except for three amino acids, wherein each of said three amino acids has been deleted or substituted with an amino acid not present at the respective position within SEQ ID NO:2. That is, the amino acid sequence of the C1 domain of the modified VWF molecule of the invention differs from the amino acid sequence of the C1 domain of SEQ ID NO:2 in three (and not more) amino acids.

[0029] In a second embodiment, the modified VWF molecule of the present invention comprises amino acids 2255 - 2328 of SEQ ID NO:2 except for two amino acids, wherein each of said two amino acids has been deleted or substituted with an amino acid not present at the respective position within SEQ ID NO:2. That is, the amino acid sequence of the C1 domain of the modified VWF molecule of the invention differs from the amino acid sequence of the C1 domain of SEQ ID NO:2 in two (and not more) amino acids.

[0030] In a third embodiment, the modified VWF molecule of the present invention comprises amino acids 2255 - 2333 of SEQ ID NO:2 except for one amino acid, wherein said one amino acid has been deleted or substituted with an amino acid not present at the respective position within SEQ ID NO:2. That is, the amino acid sequence of the C1 domain of the modified VWF molecule of the invention differs from the amino acid sequence of the C1 domain of SEQ ID NO:2 in one (and not more) amino acid.

[0031] The O-glycosylation site at position 2298 of the VWF amino acid sequence is inactivated by deleting the threonine at position 2298 or by substituting it with a different amino acid, preferably with an amino acid other than threonine and serine.

[0032] Accordingly, the invention provides in a further embodiment a modified VWF molecule comprising the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10. In preferred aspects, the VWF molecule of the present invention comprises
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is absent;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is glycine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is alanine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is arginine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is asparagine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is aspartic acid;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is cysteine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is glutamic acid;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is glutamine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is histidine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is isoleucine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is leucine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is lysine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is methionine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is phenylalanine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is proline;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is tryptophan;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is tyrosine; or
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:10 wherein Xaa is valine.


[0033] Typically, the modified VWF molecule of the present invention further comprises a D'D3 domain. Preferably, the modified VWF molecule comprises amino acids 764 to 1242 of SEQ ID NO:2, or an amino acid sequence that has a sequence identity of at least 90%, preferably of at least 95%, more preferably of at least 98% to an amino acid sequence consisting of amino acids 764 to 1242 of SEQ ID NO:2.

[0034] In a further embodiment, the modified VWF molecule of the present invention comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO:11. In preferred aspects, the VWF molecule of the present invention comprises or consists of
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is absent;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is glycine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is alanine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is arginine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is asparagine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is aspartic acid;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is cysteine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is glutamic acid;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is glutamine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is histidine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is isoleucine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is leucine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is lysine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is methionine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is phenylalanine;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is proline;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is tryptophan;
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is tyrosine; or
  • the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:11 wherein Xaa is valine.


[0035] Alternatively, the O-glycosylation site at position 2298 is inactivated by deleting or substituting one or more amino acids that are involved in the recognition of the glycosylation site by the glycosyltransferases. The putative glycosylation motif comprises amino acids 2292-2303 of VWF. In one embodiment, at least one proline at positions 2295, 2297 and/or 2302 is deleted or substituted with a different amino acid. Alternatively at least one threonine at positions 2292, 2293 and/or 2303 is deleted or substituted with a different amino acid.

[0036] The modified VWF molecule of the present invention is capable of binding to a Factor VIII molecule, and/or it comprises a D' domain and a D3 domain (e.g. the D' domain and the D3 domain of SEQ ID NO:3). Preferably, the modified VWF molecule is capable of binding to the mature form of the human native Factor VIII. In another embodiment, the modified VWF molecule is capable of binding to the single-chain Factor VIII molecule consisting of the amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO:12.

[0037] Binding of VWF to Factor VIII can be determined by using a commercially distributed ready-to-use ELISA kit (Asserachrom VWF:FVIIIB, Diagnostica Stago, Asnieres, France) based on the method description reported earlier (Veyradier et al. (2011) Haemophilia, vol. 17, pp 944-951). Samples are diluted with ready-to-use dilution buffers respectively defined by the supplier of the test kit. VWF present in the samples to be tested is captured by a rabbit anti-human VWF polyclonal antibody pre-coated on microtiter plates. Subsequently, endogenous FVIII potentially attendant is dissociated from VWF and eliminated. After adding recombinant FVIII that interacted with the captured VWF, a mouse monoclonal anti-human FVIII antibody coupled with peroxidase binds to attached FVIII and the subsequent substrate reaction stopped with 1 M sulfuric acid after a reaction time of 5 min is photometrically quantified at 450 nm. The test results are calculated by using the test kit related standard.

[0038] Alternatively, a flow cytometry/equilibrium binding assay can be utilized, for example, as described by Bendetowicz et al. (1998) Blood, vol 92, No 2: pp 529-538.

Factor VIII



[0039] The terms "Factor VIII" and "FVIII" are used synonymously herein. "FVIII" includes natural allelic variations of FVIII that may exist and occur from one individual to another. FVIII may be plasma-derived or recombinantly produced, using well known methods of production and purification. The degree and location of glycosylation, tyrosine sulfation and other post-translation modifications may vary, depending on the chosen host cell and its growth conditions.

[0040] The term FVIII includes FVIII analogues. The term "FVIII analogue" as used herein refers to a FVIII molecule (full-length or B-domain-truncated/deleted) wherein one or more amino acids have been substituted or deleted compared to the wild type amino acid sequence of FVIII (i.e. the sequence defined by UniProt identifier P00451) or, for B-domain truncated/deleted FVIII molecules, the corresponding part of that amino acid sequence. FVIII analogues do not occur in nature but are obtained by human manipulation. The Factor VIII molecules used according to the present invention may also be B-domain-truncated/deleted FVIII molecules wherein the remaining domains correspond to the sequences as set forth in amino acid numbers 1-740 and 1649-2332 of the FVIII wild type amino acid sequence. Other forms of B-domain deleted FVIII molecules have additionally a partial deletion in their a3 domain, which leads to single-chain FVIII molecules.

[0041] It follows that these FVIII molecules are recombinant molecules produced in transformed host cells, preferably of mammalian origin. However, the remaining domains in a B-domain deleted FVIII, (i.e. the three A- domains, the two C-domains and the a1, a2 and a3 regions) may differ slightly e.g. about 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% or 5% from the respective wild type amino acid sequence (amino acids 1-740 and 1649-2332).

[0042] The FVIII molecules used in accordance with the present invention may be two-chain FVIII molecules or single-chain FVIII molecules. The FVIII molecules included in the composition of the present invention may also be biologically active fragments of FVIII, i.e., FVIII wherein domain(s) other than the B-domain has/have been deleted or truncated, but wherein the FVIII molecule in the deleted/truncated form retains its ability to support the formation of a blood clot. FVIII activity can be assessed in vitro using techniques well known in the art. A preferred test for determining FVIII activity according to this invention is the chromogenic substrate assay or the one stage assay (see infra). Amino acid modifications (substitutions, deletions, etc.) may be introduced in the remaining domains, e.g., in order to modify the binding capacity of Factor VIII with various other components such as e.g. VWF), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LPR), various receptors, other coagulation factors, cell surfaces, etc. or in order to introduce and/or abolish glycosylation sites, etc. Other mutations that do not abolish FVIII activity may also be accommodated in a FVIII molecule/analogue for use in a composition of the present invention.

[0043] FVIII analogues also include FVIII molecules, in which one or more of the amino acid residues of the parent polypeptide have been deleted or substituted with other amino acid residues, and/or wherein additional amino acid residues have been added to the parent FVIII polypeptide.

[0044] Furthermore, the Factor VIII molecules/analogues may comprise other modifications in e.g. the truncated B-domain and/or in one or more of the other domains of the molecules ("FVIII derivatives"). These other modifications may be in the form of various molecules conjugated to the Factor VIII molecule, such as e.g. polymeric compounds, peptidic compounds, fatty acid derived compounds, etc.

[0045] The term FVIII includes glycopegylated FVIII. In the present context, the term "glycopegylated FVIII" is intended to designate a Factor VIII molecule (including full length FVIII and B-domain truncated/deleted FVIII) wherein one or more PEG group(s) has/have been attached to the FVIII polypeptide via the polysaccharide sidechain(s) (glycan(s)) of the polypeptide.

[0046] The term FVIII includes FVIII molecules having protective groups or half-life extending moieties. The terms "protective groups"/"half-life extending moieties" is herein understood to refer to one or more chemical groups attached to one or more amino acid site chain functionalities such as -SH, -OH, -COOH, -CONH2, -NH2, or one or more N- and/or O-glycan structures and that can increase in vivo circulatory half-life of a number of therapeutic proteins/peptides when conjugated to these proteins/peptides. Examples of protective groups/half-life extending moieties include: Biocompatible fatty acids and derivatives thereof, Hydroxy Alkyl Starch (HAS) e.g. Hydroxy Ethyl Starch (HES), Poly (Glyx-Sery)n (Homo Amino acid Polymer (HAP)), Hyaluronic acid (HA), Heparosan polymers (HEP), Phosphorylcholine-based polymers (PC polymer), Fleximer® polymers (Mersana Therapeutics, MA, USA), Dextran, Poly-sialic acids (PSA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), an Fc domain, Transferrin, Albumin, Elastin like peptides, XTEN® polymers (Amunix, CA, USA), Albumin binding peptides, a von Willebrand factor fragment (vWF fragment), a Carboxyl Terminal Peptide (CTP peptide, Prolor Biotech, IL), and any combination thereof (see, for example, McCormick, C.L., A.B. Lowe, and N. Ayres, Water-Soluble Polymers, in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. 2002, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). The manner of derivatization is not critical and can be elucidated from the above.

[0047] The FVIII molecules which can be used in accordance with this invention include fusion proteins comprising a FVIII amino acid sequence fused to a heterologous amino acid sequence, preferably a half-life extending amino acid sequence. Preferred fusion proteins are Fc fusion proteins and albumin fusion proteins. The term "Fc fusion protein" is herein meant to encompass FVIII fused to an Fc domain that can be derived from any antibody isotype. An IgG Fc domain will often be preferred due to the relatively long circulatory half-life of IgG antibodies. The Fc domain may furthermore be modified in order to modulate certain effector functions such as e.g. complement binding and/or binding to certain Fc receptors. Fusion of FVIII with an Fc domain, which has the capacity to bind to FcRn receptors, will generally result in a prolonged circulatory half-life of the fusion protein compared to the half-life of the wild type FVIII. It follows that a FVIII molecule for use in the present invention may also be a derivative of a FVIII analogue, such as, for example, a fusion protein of an FVIII analogue, a PEGylated or glycoPEGylated FVIII analogue, or a FVIII analogue conjugated to a heparosan polymer. The term "albumin fusion protein" is herein meant to encompass FVIII fused to an albumin amino acid sequence or a fragment or derivative thereof. The heterologous amino acid sequence may be fused to the N- or C-terminus of FVIII, or it may be inserted internally within the FVIII amino acid sequence. The heterologous amino acid sequence may be any "half life extending polypeptide" described in WO 2008/077616 A1, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0048] Examples of FVIII molecules for use in compositions of the present invention comprise for instance the FVIII molecules described in WO 2010/045568, WO 2009/062100, WO 2010/014708, WO 2008/082669, WO 2007/126808, US 2010/0173831, US 2010/0173830, US 2010/0168391, US 2010/0113365, US 2010/0113364, WO 2003/031464, WO 2009/108806, WO 2010/102886, WO 2010/115866, WO 2011/101242, WO 2011/101284, WO 2011/101277, WO 2011/131510, WO 2012/007324, WO 2011/101267, WO 2013/083858, and WO 2004/067566.

[0049] Examples of FVIII molecules, which can be used in a composition of the present invention include the active ingredient of Advate®, Helixate®, Kogenate®, Xyntha® as well as the FVIII molecule described in WO 2008/135501, WO 2009/007451 and the construct designated "dBN(64-53)" of WO 2004/067566 (SEQ ID NO:12).

Treatment of Coagulation Disorder



[0050] The modified VWF molecules of the invention are useful for treating the coagulation disorders hemophilia A and von Willebrand disease.

[0051] The term "hemophilia A" refers to a deficiency in functional coagulation FVIII, which is usually inherited.

[0052] The term "von Willebrand disease" (VWD) refers to a coagulation abnormality associated with a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of VWF.

[0053] Treatment of a disease encompasses the treatment of patients already diagnosed as having any form of the disease at any clinical stage or manifestation; the delay of the onset or evolution or aggravation or deterioration of the symptoms or signs of the disease; and/or preventing and/or reducing the severity of the disease.

[0054] A "subject" or "patient" to whom a modified VWF molecule of the invention is administered can be a mammal, such as a non-primate (e.g., cow, pig, horse, cat, dog, rat, etc.) or a primate (e.g., monkey or human). In certain aspects, the human is a pediatric patient. In other aspects, the human is an adult patient.

[0055] Compositions comprising a modified VWF molecule of the invention and, optionally one or more additional therapeutic agents, such as the second therapeutic agents described below, are described herein. The compositions typically are supplied as part of a sterile, pharmaceutical composition that includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This composition can be in any suitable form (depending upon the desired method of administering it to a patient).

[0056] The modified VWF molecules of the invention can be administered to a patient by a variety of routes such as orally, transdermally, subcutaneously, intranasally, intravenously, intramuscularly, intrathecally, topically or locally. The most suitable route for administration in any given case will depend on the particular molecule to be administered, the subject, and the nature and severity of the disease and the physical condition of the subject. Typically, a modified VWF molecule of the invention will be administered intravenously.

[0057] In typical embodiments, a modified VWF molecule of the invention is present in a pharmaceutical composition at a concentration sufficient to permit intravenous administration at 0.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg. In some embodiments, the concentration of modified VWF molecule suitable for use in the compositions and methods described herein includes, but is not limited to, 0.5 mg/kg, 0.75 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 4 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, 7 mg/kg, 8 mg/kg, 9 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 11 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg, 13 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, 16 mg/kg, 17 mg/kg, 18 mg/kg, 19 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, or a concentration ranging between any of the foregoing values, e.g., 1 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg to 18 mg/kg.

[0058] The effective dose of a modified VWF molecule of the invention can range from about 0.001 to about 750 mg/kg per single (e.g., bolus) administration, multiple administrations or continuous administration, or to achieve a serum concentration of 0.01-5000 µg/ml serum concentration per single (e.g., bolus) administration, multiple administrations or continuous administration, or any effective range or value therein depending on the condition being treated, the route of administration and the age, weight and condition of the subject. In certain embodiments, each dose can range from about 0.5 mg to about 50 mg per kilogram of body weight or from about 3 mg to about 30 mg per kilogram body weight. The modified VWF molecule can be formulated as an aqueous solution.

[0059] Pharmaceutical compositions can be conveniently presented in unit dose forms containing a predetermined amount of a modified VWF molecule of the invention per dose. Such a unit can contain 0.5 mg to 5 g, for example, but without limitation, 1 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg, 1000 mg, or any range between any two of the foregoing values, for example 10 mg to 1000 mg, 20 mg to 50 mg, or 30 mg to 300 mg. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers can take a wide variety of forms depending, e.g., on the condition to be treated or route of administration.

[0060] Determination of the effective dosage, total number of doses, and length of treatment with a modified VWF molecule of the invention is well within the capabilities of those skilled in the art, and can be determined using a standard dose escalation study.

[0061] Therapeutic formulations of the modified VWF molecules of the invention suitable in the methods described herein can be prepared for storage as lyophilized formulations or aqueous solutions by mixing the modified VWF molecule having the desired degree of purity with optional pharmaceutically-acceptable carriers, excipients or stabilizers typically employed in the art (all of which are referred to herein as "carriers"), i.e., buffering agents, stabilizing agents, preservatives, isotonifiers, non- ionic detergents, antioxidants, and other miscellaneous additives. See, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 16th edition (Osol, ed. 1980). Such additives must be nontoxic to the recipients at the dosages and concentrations employed.

[0062] Buffering agents help to maintain the pH in the range which approximates physiological conditions. They can present at concentration ranging from about 2 mM to about 50 mM. Suitable buffering agents include both organic and inorganic acids and salts thereof such as citrate buffers (e.g., monosodium citrate-disodium citrate mixture, citric acid-trisodium citrate mixture, citric acid-monosodium citrate mixture, etc.), succinate buffers (e.g., succinic acid-monosodium succinate mixture, succinic acid-sodium hydroxide mixture, succinic acid-disodium succinate mixture, etc.), tartrate buffers (e.g., tartaric acid-sodium tartrate mixture, tartaric acid-potassium tartrate mixture, tartaric acid-sodium hydroxide mixture, etc.), fumarate buffers (e.g., fumaric acid-monosodium fumarate mixture, fumaric acid-disodium fumarate mixture, monosodium fumarate-disodium fumarate mixture, etc.), gluconate buffers (e.g., gluconic acid-sodium glyconate mixture, gluconic acid-sodium hydroxide mixture, gluconic acid-potassium glyuconate mixture, etc.), oxalate buffer (e.g., oxalic acid-sodium oxalate mixture, oxalic acid-sodium hydroxide mixture, oxalic acid-potassium oxalate mixture, etc), lactate buffers (e.g., lactic acid-sodium lactate mixture, lactic acid-sodium hydroxide mixture, lactic acid-potassium lactate mixture, etc.) and acetate buffers (e.g., acetic acid-sodium acetate mixture, acetic acid-sodium hydroxide mixture, etc.). Additionally, phosphate buffers, histidine buffers and trimethylamine salts such as Tris can be used.

[0063] Preservatives can be added to retard microbial growth, and can be added in amounts ranging from 0.2%- 1% (w/v). Suitable preservatives include phenol, benzyl alcohol, meta- cresol, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, octadecyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, benzalconium halides (e.g., chloride, bromide, and iodide), hexamethonium chloride, and alkyl parabens such as methyl or propyl paraben, catechol, resorcinol, cyclohexanol, and 3-pentanol. Isotonicifiers sometimes known as "stabilizers" can be added to ensure isotonicity of liquid compositions and include polyhydric sugar alcohols, preferably trihydric or higher sugar alcohols, such as glycerin, erythritol, arabitol, xylitol, sorbitol and mannitol. Stabilizers refer to a broad category of excipients which can range in function from a bulking agent to an additive which solubilizes the therapeutic agent or helps to prevent denaturation or adherence to the container wall. Typical stabilizers can be polyhydric sugar alcohols (enumerated above); amino acids such as arginine, lysine, glycine, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, alanine, ornithine, L-leucine, 2-phenylalanine, glutamic acid, threonine, etc., organic sugars or sugar alcohols, such as lactose, trehalose, stachyose, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, ribitol, myoinisitol, galactitol, glycerol and the like, including cyclitols such as inositol; polyethylene glycol; amino acid polymers; sulfur containing reducing agents, such as urea, glutathione, thioctic acid, sodium thioglycolate, thioglycerol, α-monothioglycerol and sodium thio sulfate; low molecular weight polypeptides (e.g., peptides of 10 residues or fewer); proteins such as human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, gelatin or immunoglobulins; hydrophylic polymers, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone monosaccharides, such as xylose, mannose, fructose, glucose; disaccharides such as lactose, maltose, sucrose and trisaccacharides such as raffinose; and polysaccharides such as dextran. Stabilizers can be present in the range from 0.1 to 10,000 weights per part of weight active protein.

[0064] Non-ionic surfactants or detergents (also known as "wetting agents") can be added to help solubilize the therapeutic agent as well as to protect the therapeutic protein against agitation-induced aggregation, which also permits the formulation to be exposed to shear surface stressed without causing denaturation of the protein. Suitable non-ionic surfactants include polysorbates (20, 80, etc.), polyoxamers (184, 188 etc.), Pluronic polyols, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monoethers (TWEEN®-20, TWEEN®-80, etc.). Non-ionic surfactants can be present in a range of about 0.05 mg/ml to about 1.0 mg/ml, or in a range of about 0.07 mg/ml to about 0.2 mg/ml.

[0065] Additional miscellaneous excipients include bulking agents (e.g., starch), chelating agents (e.g., EDTA), antioxidants (e.g., ascorbic acid, methionine, vitamin E), and cosolvents.

[0066] The formulation herein can also contain a second therapeutic agent in addition to a modified VWF molecule of the invention. Examples of suitable second therapeutic agents are provided below.

[0067] The dosing schedule can vary from once a month to daily depending on a number of clinical factors, including the type of disease, severity of disease, and the patient's sensitivity to the modified VWF molecule of the invention. In specific embodiments, a modified VWF molecule of the invention is administered daily, twice weekly, three times a week, every 5 days, every 10 days, every two weeks, every three weeks, every four weeks or once a month, or in any range between any two of the foregoing values, for example from every four weeks to every month, from every 10 days to every two weeks, or from two to three times a week, etc.

[0068] The dosage of a modified VWF molecule of the invention to be administered will vary according to the particular modified VWF molecule, the subject, and the nature and severity of the disease, the physical condition of the subject, the therapeutic regimen (e.g., whether a second therapeutic agent is used), and the selected route of administration; the appropriate dosage can be readily determined by a person skilled in the art.

[0069] It will be recognized by one of skill in the art that the optimal quantity and spacing of individual dosages of a modified VWF molecule of the invention will be determined by the nature and extent of the condition being treated, the form, route and site of administration, and the age and condition of the particular subject being treated, and that a physician will ultimately determine appropriate dosages to be used. This dosage can be repeated as often as appropriate. If side effects develop the amount and/or frequency of the dosage can be altered or reduced, in accordance with normal clinical practice.

Combination Therapy



[0070] Preferably, the patient being treated with the modified VWF molecule of the invention is also treated with a conventional therapy of coagulation disorders. For example, a patient suffering from hemophilia is typically also being treated with blood coagulation factor VIII (Factor VIII).

[0071] The concentration of Factor VIII in the composition used according to the present invention is typically in the range of 10-10,000 IU/mL. In different embodiments, the concentration of FVIII molecules in the compositions of the invention is in the range of 10-8,000 IU/mL, or 10-5,000 IU/mL, or 20-3,000 IU/mL, or 50-1,500 IU/mL, or 3,000 IU/mL, or 2,500 IU/mL, or 2,000 IU/mL, or 1,500 IU/mL, or 1,200 IU/mL, 1,000 IU/mL, or 800 IU/mL, or 600 IU/mL, or 500 IU/mL, or 400 IU/mL, or 300 IU/mL, or 250 IU/mL, or 200 IU/mL, or 150 IU/mL, or 100 IU/mL.

[0072] "International Unit," or "IU," is a unit of measurement of the blood coagulation activity (potency) of FVIII as measured by a FVIII activity assay such as a one stage clotting assay or a chromogenic substrate FVIII activity assay using a standard calibrated against an international standard preparation calibrated in "IU". One stage clotting assays are known to the art, such as that described in N Lee, Martin L, et al., An Effect of Predilution on Potency Assays of FVIII Concentrates, Thrombosis Research (Pergamon Press Ltd.) 30, 511 519 (1983). Principle of the one stage assay: The test is executed as a modified version of the activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT)-assay: Incubation of plasma with phospholipids and a surface activator leads to the activation of factors of the intrinsic coagulation system. Addition of calcium ions triggers the coagulation cascade. The time to formation of a measurable fibrin clot is determined. The assay is executed in the presence of Factor VIII deficient plasma. The coagulation capability of the deficient plasma is restored by Coagulation Factor VIII included in the sample to be tested. The shortening of coagulation time is proportional to the amount of Factor VIII present in the sample. The activity of Coagulation Factor VIII is quantified by direct comparison to a standard preparation with a known activity of Factor VIII in International Units.

[0073] Another standard assay is a chromogenic substrate assay. Chromogenic substrate assays may be purchased commercially, such as the coamatic FVIII test kit (Chromogenix-Instrumentation Laboratory SpA V. le Monza 338 - 20128 Milano, Italy). Principle of the chromogenic assay: In the presence of calcium and phospholipid, Factor X is activated by Factor IXa to Factor Xa. This reaction is stimulated by Factor VIIIa as cofactor. FVIIIa is formed by low amounts of thrombin in the reaction mixture from FVIII in the sample to be measured. When using the optimum concentrations of Ca2+, phospholipid and Factor IXa and an excess quantity of Factor X, activation of Factor X is proportional to the potency of Factor VIII. Activated Factor X releases the chromophore pNA from the chromogenic substrate S-2765. The release of pNA, measured at 405 nm, is therefore proportional to the amount of FXa formed, and, therefore, also to the Factor VIII activity of the sample.

[0074] In one embodiment, the treatment comprises administering the modified VWF molecule of the invention and Factor VIII to a patient suffering from hemophilia, preferably hemophilia A.

[0075] In another embodiment, the treatment comprises administering the modified VWF molecule of the invention and a compound capable of binding to CLEC10A to a patient suffering from VWD or hemophilia, preferably hemophilia A.

[0076] In yet another embodiment, the treatment comprises administering the modified VWF molecule of the invention, a Factor VIII molecule, and a compound capable of binding to CLEC10A to a patient suffering from hemophilia, preferably hemophilia A.

[0077] In a particular embodiment, the modified VWF molecule of the invention and the second therapeutic agent (e.g. Factor VIII and/or a compound capable of binding to CLEC10A) are administered simultaneously. In another embodiment, the modified VWF molecule of the invention and the second therapeutic agent (e.g. Factor VIII and/or a compound capable of binding to CLEC10A) are administered separately. The time between the administration of the modified VWF molecule of the invention and the second therapeutic agent (e.g. Factor VIII and/or a compound capable of binding to CLEC10A) is not particularly limited. It is preferred that the modified VWF molecule of the invention is administered prior to the compound capable of binding to CLEC10A.

CLEC10A



[0078] CLEC10A, also known as macrophage Gal-type lectin, is a human type II transmembrane receptor protein of the CLEC family. Further synonyms are C-type lectin superfamily member 14, Macrophage lectin 2, and CD301. CLEC10A is closely related to the hepatic ASGPR proteins but is expressed by intermediate monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. As used herein, the term "CLEC10A" refers to a human protein having or consisting of the amino acid sequence as shown in the UniProt database under one of the identifiers Q8IUN9-1, Q8IUN9-2, and Q8IUN9-3. Most preferably, the CLEC10A comprises or consists of the amino acid sequence as shown in the UniProt database under one of the identifiers Q8IUN9-1.

Compound Capable of Binding to CLEC10A



[0079] The type or class of the compound capable of binding to CLEC10A (hereinafter referred to as "the compound") is not particularly limited. Preferably, however, the compound is a peptide or polypeptide, most preferably the compound is an antibody or a fragment thereof.

[0080] The term "antibody", as used herein, refers to an immunoglobulin molecule that binds to, or is immunologically reactive with, a particular antigen, and includes polyclonal, monoclonal, genetically engineered and otherwise modified forms of antibodies, including but not limited to chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies, human antibodies, heteroconjugate antibodies (e.g., bispecific antibodies, diabodies, triabodies, and tetrabodies), single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) and antigen binding fragments of antibodies, including e.g., Fab', F(ab')2, Fab, Fv, rlgG, and scFv fragments. Moreover, unless otherwise indicated, the term "monoclonal antibody" (mAb) is meant to include both intact molecules, as well as, antibody fragments (such as, for example, Fab and F(ab')2 fragments) which are capable of binding to a protein. Fab and F(ab')2 fragments lack the Fc fragment of intact antibody, clear more rapidly from the circulation of the animal or plant, and may have less non-specific tissue binding than an intact antibody (Wahl et al, 1983, J. Nucl. Med. 24:316).

[0081] The antibody used in the invention is capable of binding to at least one variant of CLEC10A. In other embodiments, the antibody is capable of binding to the extracellular domain of CLEC10A, e.g. to an epitope within amino acids 61 - 316 of the amino acid sequence of CLEC10A. Preferably, the antibody binds to the lectin binding site of CLEC10A.

[0082] It is also preferred that the antibody specifically binds to CLEC10A. In one embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to CLEC10A, but is not capable of binding to all of the following receptors: ASGPR1, CLEC10A, COLEC12, CLEC4F, CLEC4M, SCARA5 and MMR. In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to CLEC10A, but is not capable of binding to ASGPR1 (UniProt identifier: P07306). In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to CLEC10A, but is not capable of binding to COLEC12 (UniProt identifier: Q5KU26). In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to CLEC10A, but is not capable of binding to CLEC4F (UniProt identifier: Q8N1N0). In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to CLEC10A, but is not capable of binding to CLEC4M (UniProt identifier: Q9H2X3). In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to CLEC10A, but is not capable of binding to SCARA5 (UniProt identifier: Q6ZMJ2). In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to CLEC10A, but is not capable of binding to MMR (UniProt identifier: P22897). In yet another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to CLEC10A, but is not capable of binding to any one of the following receptors: ASGPR1, CLEC10A, COLEC12, CLEC4F, CLEC4M, SCARA5 and MMR.

[0083] In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to at least one murine ortholog of CLEC10A. In that embodiment, the antibody may be capable of binding to MGL1, to MGL2, or to both MGL1 and MGL2. The antibody may be capable of binding to a protein having or consisting of the amino acid sequence defined in UniProt identifier No. P49300. The antibody may be capable of binding to a protein having or consisting of the amino acid sequence defined in UniProt identifier No. F8WHB7. The antibody may be capable of binding to a protein having or consisting of the amino acid sequence defined in UniProt identifier No. Q8JZN1

[0084] In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to the rat ortholog of CLEC10A. In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to the rabbit ortholog of CLEC10A. In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of binding to the macaca fascicularis ortholog and/or to the macaca mulatta ortholog of CLEC10A.

[0085] The dissociation constant KD for the complex formed by CLEC10A and antibody is preferably less than 100 nM, more preferably less than 10 nM, most preferably less than 5 nM. Typically the KD ranges from about 10 pM to about 100 nM, or from about 100 pM to about 10 nM, or from about 500 pM to about 5 nM.

[0086] Preferably, the antibody used in this invention is a monoclonal antibody. The term "monoclonal antibody" as used herein is not limited to antibodies produced through hybridoma technology. The term "monoclonal antibody" refers to an antibody that is derived from a single clone, including any eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or phage clone, and not the method by which it is produced. Monoclonal antibodies can be prepared using a wide variety of techniques known in the art including the use of hybridoma, recombinant, and phage display technologies, or a combination thereof. (Harlow and Lane, "Antibodies, A Laboratory Manual" CSH Press 1988, Cold Spring Harbor N.Y.).

[0087] In other embodiments, including in vivo use of the anti-CLEC10A antibodies in humans, chimeric, primatized, humanized, or human antibodies can be used. In a preferred embodiment, the antibody is a human antibody or a humanized antibody, more preferably a monoclonal human antibody or a monoclonal humanized antibody.

[0088] The term "chimeric" antibody as used herein refers to an antibody having variable sequences derived from a non-human immunoglobulins, such as rat or mouse antibody, and human immunoglobulins constant regions, typically chosen from a human immunoglobulin template. Methods for producing chimeric antibodies are known in the art. See, e.g., Morrison, 1985, Science 229 (4719): 1202-7; Oi et al, 1986, BioTechniques 4:214-221; Gillies et al., 1985, J. Immunol. Methods 125: 191-202; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,807,715; 4,816,567; and 4,816397, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

[0089] "Humanized" forms of non-human (e.g., murine) antibodies are chimeric immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin chains or fragments thereof (such as Fv, Fab, Fab', F(ab')2 or other target-binding subsequences of antibodies) which contain minimal sequences derived from non-human immunoglobulin. In general, the humanized antibody will comprise substantially all of at least one, and typically two, variable domains, in which all or substantially all of the CDR regions correspond to those of a non-human immunoglobulin and all or substantially all of the FR regions are those of a human immunoglobulin consensus sequence. The humanized antibody can also comprise at least a portion of an immunoglobulin constant region (Fc), typically that of a human immunoglobulin template chosen. Humanization is a technique for making a chimeric antibody in which one or more amino acids or portions of the human variable domain have been substituted by the corresponding sequence from a non-human species. Humanized antibodies are antibody molecules generated in a non-human species that bind the desired antigen having one or more complementarity determining regions (CDRs) from the non-human species and framework (FR) regions from a human immunoglobulin molecule. Often, framework residues in the human framework regions will be substituted with the corresponding residue from the CDR donor antibody to alter, preferably improve, antigen binding. These framework substitutions are identified by methods well known in the art, e.g., by modeling of the interactions of the CDR and framework residues to identify framework residues important for antigen binding and sequence comparison to identify unusual framework residues at particular positions. See, e.g., Riechmann et al., 1988, Nature 332:323-7 and Queen et al, U.S. Patent Nos: 5,530,101; 5,585,089; 5,693,761; 5,693,762; and 6,180,370 (each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Antibodies can be humanized using a variety of techniques known in the art including, for example, CDR-grafting (EP239400; PCT publication WO 91/09967; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,225,539; 5,530,101 and 5,585,089), veneering or resurfacing (EP592106; EP519596; Padlan, 1991, Mol. Immunol, 28:489-498; Studnicka et al, 1994, Prot. Eng. 7:805-814; Roguska et al, 1994, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91:969-973, and chain shuffling (U.S. Patent No. 5,565,332), all of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0090] In some embodiments, humanized antibodies are prepared as described in Queen et al, U.S. Patent Nos: 5,530,101; 5,585,089; 5,693,761; 5,693,762; and 6,180,370 (each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0091] In some embodiments, the anti-CLEC10A antibodies are human antibodies. Completely "human" anti-CLEC10A antibodies can be desirable for therapeutic treatment of human patients. As used herein, "human antibodies" include antibodies having the amino acid sequence of a human immunoglobulin and include antibodies isolated from human immunoglobulin libraries or from animals transgenic for one or more human immunoglobulin and that do not express endogenous immunoglobulins. Human antibodies can be made by a variety of methods known in the art including phage display methods described above using antibody libraries derived from human immunoglobulin sequences. See U.S. Patent Nos. 4,444,887 and 4,716,111; and PCT publications WO 98/46645; WO 98/50433; WO 98/24893; WO 98/16654; WO 96/34096; WO 96/33735; and WO 91/10741, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Human antibodies can also be produced using transgenic mice which are incapable of expressing functional endogenous immunoglobulins, but which can express human immunoglobulin genes. See, e.g., PCT publications WO 98/24893; WO 92/01047; WO 96/34096; WO 96/33735; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,413,923; 5,625,126; 5,633,425; 5,569,825; 5,661,016; 5,545,806; 5,814,318; 5,885,793; 5,916,771; and 5,939,598, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties. Completely human antibodies that recognize a selected epitope can be generated using a technique referred to as "guided selection." In this approach a selected non-human monoclonal antibody, e.g., a mouse antibody, is used to guide the selection of a completely human antibody recognizing the same epitope (Jespers et al, 1988, Biotechnology 12:899-903).

[0092] In some embodiments, the anti-CLEC10A antibodies are primatized antibodies. The term "primatized antibody" refers to an antibody comprising monkey variable regions and human constant regions. Methods for producing primatized antibodies are known in the art. See e.g., U.S. Patent Nos. 5,658,570; 5,681,722; and 5,693,780, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

[0093] In some embodiments, the anti-CLEC10A antibodies are derivatized antibodies. For example, but not by way of limitation, the derivatized antibodies that have been modified, e.g., by glycosylation, acetylation, pegylation, phosphorylation, amidation, derivatization by known protecting/blocking groups, proteolytic cleavage, linkage to a cellular ligand or other protein (see infra for a discussion of antibody conjugates), etc. Any of numerous chemical modifications may be carried out by known techniques, including, but not limited to, specific chemical cleavage, acetylation, formylation, metabolic synthesis of tunicamycin, etc. Additionally, the derivative may contain one or more non-classical amino acids.

[0094] In some embodiments, the anti-CLEC10A antibodies or fragments thereof can be antibodies or antibody fragments whose sequence has been modified to reduce at least one constant region-mediated biological effector function relative to the corresponding wild type sequence. To modify an anti-CLEC10A antibody such that it exhibits reduced binding to the Fc receptor, the immunoglobulin constant region segment of the antibody can be mutated at particular regions necessary for Fc receptor (FcR) interactions (See e.g., Canfield and Morrison, 1991, J. Exp. Med. 173 : 1483- 1491; and Lund et al, 1991, J. Immunol. 147:2657-2662). Reduction in FcR binding ability of the antibody can also reduce other effector functions which rely on FcR interactions, such as opsonization and phagocytosis and antigen-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

[0095] In yet other aspects, the anti-CLEC10A antibodies or fragments thereof can be antibodies or antibody fragments that have been modified to increase or reduce their binding affinities to the fetal Fc receptor, FcRn. To alter the binding affinity to FcRn, the immunoglobulin constant region segment of the antibody can be mutated at particular regions necessary for FcRn interactions (See e.g., WO 2005/123780). Increasing the binding affinity to FcRn should increase the antibody's serum half-life, and reducing the binding affinity to FcRn should conversely reduce the antibody's serum half-life. In particular embodiments, the anti-CLEC10A antibody is of the IgG class in which at least one of amino acid residues 250, 314, and 428 of the heavy chain constant region is substituted with an amino acid residue different from that present in the unmodified antibody. The antibodies of IgG class include antibodies of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4. The substitution can be made at position 250, 314, or 428 alone, or in any combinations thereof, such as at positions 250 and 428, or at positions 250 and 314, or at positions 314 and 428, or at positions 250, 314, and 428, with positions 250 and 428 as a preferred combination. For each position, the substituting amino acid can be any amino acid residue different from that present in that position of the unmodified antibody. For position 250, the substituting amino acid residue can be any amino acid residue other than threonine, including, but not limited to, alanine, cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, leucine, methionine, asparagine, proline, glutamine, arginine, serine, valine, tryptophan, or tyrosine. For position 314, the substituting amino acid residue can be any amino acid residue other than leucine, including, but not limited to, alanine, cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, asparagine, proline, glutamine, arginine, serine, threonine, valine, tryptophan, or tyrosine. For position 428, the substituting amino acid residues can be any amino acid residue other than methionine, including, but not limited to, alanine, cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, leucine, asparagine, proline, glutamine, arginine, serine, threonine, valine, tryptophan, or tyrosine. Specific combinations of suitable amino acid substitutions are identified in Table 1 of WO 2005/123780, which table is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. See also, Hinton et al, US Patent Nos. 7,217,797, 7,361,740, 7,365,168, and 7,217,798, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

[0096] In yet other aspects, an anti-CLEC10A antibody has one or more amino acids inserted into one or more of its hypervariable region, for example as described in US 2007/0280931.

Antibody Conjugates



[0097] In some embodiments, the anti-CLEC10A antibodies are antibody conjugates that are modified, e.g., by the covalent attachment of any type of molecule to the antibody, such that covalent attachment does not interfere with binding to CLEC10A. Techniques for conjugating effector moieties to antibodies are well known in the art (See, e.g., Hellstrom et ah, Controlled Drag Delivery, 2nd Ed., at pp. 623-53 (Robinson et ah, eds., 1987)); Thorpe et ah, 1982, Immunol. Rev. 62: 119-58 and Dubowchik eï α/., 1999, Pharmacology and Therapeutics 83:67-123).

[0098] In one example, the antibody or fragment thereof is fused via a covalent bond (e.g., a peptide bond), at optionally the N-terminus or the C-terminus, to an amino acid sequence of another protein (or portion thereof; preferably at least a 10, 20 or 50 amino acid portion of the protein). Preferably the antibody, or fragment thereof, is linked to the other protein at the N- terminus of the constant domain of the antibody. Recombinant DNA procedures can be used to create such fusions, for example as described in WO 86/01533 and EP0392745. In another example the effector molecule can increase half-life in vivo. Examples of suitable effector molecules of this type include polymers, albumin, albumin binding proteins or albumin binding compounds such as those described in WO 2005/117984.

[0099] In some embodiments, anti-CLEC10A antibodies can be attached to poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) moieties. For example, if the antibody is an antibody fragment, the PEG moieties can be attached through any available amino acid side-chain or terminal amino acid functional group located in the antibody fragment, for example any free amino, imino, thiol, hydroxyl or carboxyl group. Such amino acids can occur naturally in the antibody fragment or can be engineered into the fragment using recombinant DNA methods. See for example U.S. Patent No. 5,219,996. Multiple sites can be used to attach two or more PEG molecules. Preferably PEG moieties are covalently linked through a thiol group of at least one cysteine residue located in the antibody fragment. Where a thiol group is used as the point of attachment, appropriately activated effector moieties, for example thiol selective derivatives such as maleimides and cysteine derivatives, can be used.

[0100] In another example, an anti-CLEC10A antibody conjugate is a modified Fab' fragment which is PEGylated, i.e., has PEG (poly(ethyleneglycol)) covalently attached thereto, e.g., according to the method disclosed in EP0948544. See also Poly(ethyleneglycol) Chemistry, Biotechnical and Biomedical Applications, (J. Milton Harris (ed.), Plenum Press, New York, 1992); Poly(ethyleneglycol) Chemistry and Biological Applications, (J. Milton Harris and S. Zalipsky, eds., American Chemical Society, Washington D. C, 1997); and Bioconjugation Protein Coupling Techniques for the Biomedical Sciences, (M. Aslam and A. Dent, eds., Grove Publishers, New York, 1998); and Chapman, 2002, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 54:531-545.

[0101] Another embodiment that can be used to block the CLEC10A receptor is a VWF-C1 domain comprising the O-glycosylation site at position 2298, linked to a half-life extending moiety such as fused to albumin, preferably via a linker. A preferred embodiment is the fusion protein with the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 9.

Kits



[0102] Another aspect of the present invention is a pharmaceutical kit comprising (i) a modified VWF molecule as defined hereinabove and (ii) a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of Factor VIII, a compound (preferably an antibody) capable of binding to CLEC10A, and combinations thereof. Preferably, the modified VWF molecule and the polypeptide are contained in separate compositions.

[0103] Another aspect of the present invention is a pharmaceutical kit comprising (i) a modified VWF molecule as defined hereinabove and (ii) a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of Factor VIII, a compound (preferably an antibody) capable of binding to CLEC10A, and combinations thereof, for simultaneous, separate or sequential use in the treatment of a blood coagulation disorder.

[0104] Another aspect of the invention is the use of a modified VWF molecule as defined hereinabove for increasing the half-life or reducing the clearance of Factor VIII.

[0105] The term "half-life" refers to the time it takes to eliminate half of the protein from the circulation in vivo. The area under the curve (AUC) can be determined to assess clearance effects. A reduction in clearance leads to higher AUC values, and to an increase in half-life.

[0106] Yet another aspect of the invention is the use of a compound (preferably an antibody) as defined hereinabove for increasing the half-life of Factor VIII, preferably in a therapeutic treatment.

[0107] The invention further relates to a method of increasing the half-life or reducing the clearance of Factor VIII in vivo, comprising administering to a subject an effective amount of a modified VWF molecule as defined hereinabove.

[0108] A further aspect of this invention is a method of treating a blood coagulation disorder, comprising administering to a patient in need thereof an effective amount of a modified VWF molecule as defined hereinabove.

[0109] A further aspect is the use of a modified VWF molecule as defined hereinabove for reducing the frequency of administration of FVIII in a treatment of hemophilia A. The frequency of intravenous or subcutaneous administration of FVIII may be reduced to twice per week. Alternatively, the frequency of intravenous or subcutaneous administration of FVIII may be reduced to once per week.

[0110] A further aspect is the use of a modified VWF molecule as defined hereinabove for reducing the frequency of administration of VWF in a treatment of VWD. The frequency of intravenous or subcutaneous administration of VWF may be reduced to twice per week. Alternatively, the frequency of intravenous or subcutaneous administration of VWF may be reduced to once per week. That is, the modified VWF molecule of the invention is administered once or twice per week.

[0111] Another aspect is the use of a modified VWF molecule as defined hereinabove for reducing the dose FVIII to be administered in a treatment of hemophilia A.

[0112] Another aspect is the use of a modified VWF molecule as defined hereinabove for reducing the dose VWF to be administered in a treatment of VWD.

[0113] The following table summarizes the nucleotide and amino acid sequences shown in the sequence listing:
SEQ ID NO:Remark
1 DNA sequence encoding the prepropeptide of human native VWF
2 Amino acid sequence of the prepropeptide of human native VWF
3 Primer
4 Primer
5 Primer
6 Primer
7 Primer
8 Primer
9 Amino acid sequence of a C1 domain of human VWF, fused to human albumin via a Gly-Ser linker
10 C1 domain of a modified VWF having a mutation of T2298
11 Mature form of modified VWF having a mutation of T2298
12 Single chain Factor VIII molecule

EXAMPLES


Example 1: Specific Glycosylation Structures Present on VWF were Identified to Interact with CLEC10A, as well as O-linked Glycan Site 2298 Present on VWF



[0114] In order to identify the binding site on human VWF for CLEC10A, tryptic fragments of VWF were incubated with soluble CLEC10A. After washing, bound protein fragments were eluted at pH 11 and by using a solution containing 100 mM GalNAc, respectively. The elution conditions were chosen based on preliminary SPR experiments which indicated that all components bound to CLEC10A are completely eluted under the defined conditions. Subsequently, the respective eluate fractions were subjected to MS analysis.
Free N- and O-glycans were permethylated and characterized by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. The resulting data demonstrated that CLEC10A differed significantly in their recognition of N- and O-glycans. In comparison to the VWF fragments used as starting material (glycan analysis observed the presence of 18% non-sialylated O-glycans), both eluate fractions revealed a strong enrichment of non-sialylated O-glycans whereas sialylated O-glycans containing one or more NeuAc residues were extremely decreased as well as N-glycans regardless of their sialylation status. The different elution conditions (alkaline versus GalNAc) resulted in only slightly different glycan patterns. Three predominant O-glycosylation structures could be identified in the eluate fractions, which represented approximately 80% of all O-glycan structures detected. The respective structures are given in Figure 2. The enrichment of core 2 glycan (concentration factor of more than 40), core 1 glycan carrying one NeuGc residue (concentration factor of approximately 9) and core 2 glycan elongated with the disaccharide GlcNAcβ1,3Gal (concentration factor of approximately 7) were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. The concentration factor mentioned in brackets quantitatively describes the enrichment of the respective glycan, when compared with the starting material prior to incubation with CLEC10A.

[0115] In addition to the investigation described before, analysis was performed by nano liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS/MS after deglycosylation of VWF fragments. The resulting peptide pattern detected in each of the two different eluate fractions was comparable, and therefore was independent of the elution condition applied. As a result, VWF peptides containing threonine 2298 were clearly identified after elution. The involvement of other glycosylated VWF fragments in CLEC10A-binding could be excluded, based on the analytical data obtained. Thus, it is most likely that O-linked glycan site T2298 contained a glycan structure that was not sialylated, and therefore interacted with CLEC10A. Furthermore, this glycosylation site present on VWF was exclusively identified as being a predominant interaction partner of CLEC10A, and therefore was solely found to be responsible for receptor interaction. All other VWF glycan sites appeared to be not involved in CLEC10A-binding.

[0116] In summary, after elution of tryptic-digested VWF fragments from soluble CLEC10A, MS analyses demonstrated that non-sialylated O-glycans were found to bind to CLEC10A whereas sialylated O-glycans as well as N-glycans regardless of their sialylation status did not interact with CLEC10A significantly. Three predominant O-glycosylation structures (Core 2 glycan, core 1 glycan carrying one NeuGc residue and core 2 glycan elongated with the disaccharide GlcNAcβ1,3Gal) present on VWF were identified as being responsible for the interaction. Due to the fact that an extremely high concentration factor was detected for core 2 glycan in comparison to both other structures, this glycan present on VWF seemed to have a strong affinity to CLEC10A. In addition, only VWF peptides containing O-linked glycan site 2298 were identified to bind to CLEC10A, and therefore contained a glycan structure that was not sialylated. Ultimately, these results were surprising and indicated that the glycan site T2298 was solely responsible for VWF-CLEC10A interaction. Moreover, the observed glycosylation patterns appeared to be only present at T2298. Based on these results and the observation that CLEC10A mediated VWF clearance, it can be suggested that the clearance of natively glycosylated VWF by CLEC10A was only affected by the O-linked glycosylation site 2298. Consequently, with the aim to prevent CLEC10A-binding, a decreased clearance of VWF mutants can be assumed after manipulating the respective O-glycosylation site and/or the respective carbohydrate structures identified to be present at this glycan site.

Methods


1) Reduction and Carboxymethylation of VWF



[0117] A volume of 30 mL of VWF solution that had been purified according to the method described in the previous section was further dialyzed overnight against 1 L of reduction buffer (50 mM Tris, 100 mM NaCl, pH 8.5) at +4°C. This procedure was repeated again, except that the second dialysis was performed for 4 hours at RT. Subsequently, the solution was adjusted to 15 mM DTT by adding a stock solution of 1 M DTT under gentle stirring (IKA, Staufen, Germany). Reduction of VWF was carried out by incubation for 60 min at +37°C. VWF was then alkylated with 40 mM iodoacetamide by adding a 1 M stock solution and the solution was incubated for 60 minutes at RT.

2) Enzymatic Digestion of Monomeric VWF Purified from Human Plasma



[0118] After reduction and alkylation based on the method described before, 60 mL of monomeric VWF (protein concentration of 1 mg/mL) was dialyzed overnight at +4°C via Membra-Cel MD25-14 dialysis tubing (Serva, Heidelberg, Germany) against 20 L of 50 mM NH4HCO3 (pH 7.8). The dialyzing step was repeated 2 times. Immobilized trypsin resin (Promega, Mannheim, Germany) was washed with 50 mM NH4HCO3 (pH 7.8) and added to the protein solution, resulting in a concentration of 1 mL trypsin resin per 8 mg protein. Subsequently, the suspension was incubated on a rotating mixer (Glaswarenfabrik Karl Hecht, Sondheim, Germany) at +37°C for 24 hours. After the reaction, immobilized trypsin was separated by centrifugation (Multifuge 3SR, Heraeus, Osterode, Germany) at 2,000 x g at +20°C for 15 minutes. After an additional filtration step (pore size of 0.45 µm, Sterivex-HV, Millipore, Cork, Ireland), the reaction mixture was transferred to Centricon Plus-70 devices (Merck Millipore, Darmstadt, Germany) and centrifugation (Multifuge 3SR, Heraeus, Osterode, Germany) was performed at 3,000 x g at RT for 15 minutes. A successful cleavage reaction was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE (data not shown). The depletion of trypsin was confirmed by applying a chromogenic substrate (data not shown). The tryptic fragments (protein concentration of approximately 0.5 mg/mL) were concentrated in a SpeedVac vacuum concentrator system (Thermo Scientific, Langenselbold, Germany) to a final concentration of approximately 40 mg/mL. Ultimately, the peptide profile of the concentrated VWF fragments was investigated by MS analysis and compared with the profile obtained for the intermediate fraction prior to the first centrifugation step, thereby providing evidence that both samples had the same composition of VWF fragments.

3) Identification of Tryptic VWF Fragments Interacting with CLEC10A



[0119] To identify which of the glycan chains present on VWF were involved in interacting with CLEC10A, tryptic VWF fragments were incubated with soluble CLEC10A (R&D Systems, Wiesbaden, Germany). 1 mg of lyophilized receptor protein was dissolved in 2 mL of reaction buffer containing 10 mM HEPES, 150 mM NaCl and 5 mM CaCl2 at pH 7.4. 20 mL of concentrated VWF fragments after trypsin digestion with a protein content of 0.5 mg/mL were adjusted to the same buffer conditions by adding a 20-times concentrated buffer stock solution, and then mixed with the solution containing the receptor protein. Incubation was carried out overnight at +37°C under gentle mixing (Glaswarenfabrik Karl Hecht, Sondheim, Germany). Afterwards, unbound VWF fragments were separated by centrifugation (Amicon Ultra-15 centrifugal filter units, NMWL 10 kDa, Merck Millipore, Darmstadt, Germany) at 3,000 x g (Multifuge 3SR, Heraeus, Osterode, Germany) and discarded. Centrifugation was performed at RT until a remaining volume of 0.5 mL was reached. The concentrated reaction mixture containing the receptor protein interacting with VWF fragments was then washed with reaction buffer and concentrated again. After repeating this washing step of the concentrated solution 2 times, the reaction mixture was divided into two equal portions, which were then treated with two different elution buffers. On the one hand, bound protein fragments were eluted at pH 11 (100 mM glycine/NaOH buffer, pH 11.0), on the other, by using a solution containing GalNAc (100 mM GalNAc, pH 4.3). The respective elution buffer was added to the washed and concentrated solution and incubation was carried out overnight at RT under gentle mixing. After separation by centrifugation, the resulting filtrate containing the eluted VWF fragments was collected and analyzed by MS.

4) Analysis of Tryptic VWF Fragments Interacting with Clearance Receptor



[0120] Isolated tryptic fragments were deglycosylated by PNGase F treatment and β-elimination, and then analyzed by applying nano liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS/MS. In addition, the free N- and O-glycans were permethylated and characterized by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Analysis was performed based on published methods (Canis et al. (2010) Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 8: 137-145; Canis et al. (2012) The Biochemical Journal, 447: 217-228).

Example 2: Generation of an Expression Vector for VWF Mutant T2298



[0121] An expression plasmid containing a full length VWF cDNA sequence in its multiple cloning site had been generated previously. The VWF cDNA sequence contained in this vector is displayed as SEQ ID NO:1, its corresponding protein sequence as SEQ ID NO:2.

[0122] For generating such expression vectors , the VWF cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primer set VWF+ and VWF- (SEQ ID NO. 3 and 4) under standard conditions known to those skilled in the art (and as described e.g. in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Ausubel FM et al. (eds.) John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; http://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/) from a plasmid containing VWF cDNA (as obtainable commercially, e.g. pMT2-VWF from ATCC, No. 67122). The resulting PCR fragment was digested by restriction endonuclease EcoRI and ligated into expression vector pIRESneo3 (BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) which had been linearized by EcoRI. The resulting expression plasmid with correct orientation of the insert contained a wild-type cDNA of VWF downstream of the CMV promoter.

[0123] In order to introduce mutations into the VWF sequence site directed mutagenesis (QuickChange XL Site Directed Mutagenesis Kit, Stratagene, La Jolla, CA, USA) was applied on the above described plasmid according to the following protocol as suggested by the kit manufacturer. Per mutagenesis reaction 5µl of 10x reaction buffer, 1µl of plasmid DNA (50ng), 1µl (10pmol/µl) each of the respective two mutagenesis oligonucleotides We4781 and We4782 (SEQ ID NO. 5 and 6), 1µl dNTP Mix, 3µl Quick-Solution, 1µl Turbo Polymerase (2,5U/µl) and 37µl H2O were mixed and subjected to a polymerase chain reaction with an initial denaturation for 2 min at 95°C, 18 cycles of a) denaturation for 50 sec. at 95°C, b) annealing for 50 sec at 60°C and c) elongation for 17 min at 68°C, followed by a single terminal elongation phase of 7 min at 68°C. Subsequently 1 µl of Dpnl enzyme from the kit was added and the reaction incubated for another 60 min at 37°C. After that 3µl of the mutagenesis reaction were transformed into E.coli. Clones were isolated, plasmid DNA extracted and the mutation in the VWF sequence was verified by DNA sequencing.

[0124] Using the protocols and plasmid described above and by applying molecular biology techniques known to those skilled in the art (and as described e.g. in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, ibid) other constructs can be made by the artisan for mutation of other amino acid residues.

Example 3: Generation of an Expression Vector for an Albumin Fused VWF Fragment Containing the T2298 Residue



[0125] In order to generate an expression vector for a VWF fragment containing amino acid residues 2276 to 2326 fused to human albumin, the coding sequences for the VWF fragment including an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal 28 amino acid glycin/serine linker are manufactured by gene synthesis (Eurofins MWG Synthesis, Ebersberg, Germany) with an Nhel restriction site at the 5'-end and a BamH1 site at the 3'-end. This fragment is excised from the cloning vector provided by Nhel and BamH1 digestion, purified and cloned into Nhel/BamH1 digested expression vector pIRESneo3 (ibid).

[0126] The albumin coding sequence is amplified by PCR. For that 1µl of wild-type albumin cDNA containing plasmid DNA (50ng), 5µl of 10x reaction buffer, 1µl (10pmol/µl) each of the respective two PCR primers HA+ and HA- (SEQ ID NO:7 and 8), 1µl dNTP Mix, 1µl Turbo Polymerase (2,5U/µl) and 40µl H2O are mixed and subjected to a polymerase chain reaction with an initial denaturation for 2 min at 95°C, 25 cycles of a) denaturation for 20 sec. at 95°C, b) annealing for 20 sec at 61°C and c) elongation for 7 min at 68°C, followed by a single terminal elongation phase of 7 min at 68°C. The fragment is purified, digested with BamH1 and Notl and ligated into the BamH1 and Notl sites of above described vector containing the VWF fragment. The ligation mix is transformed into E.coli. Clones are isolated, plasmid DNA is extracted and the sequence verified by DNA sequencing. The amino acid sequence of the expressed construct is shown in SEQ ID NO:9.

Example 4: Transfection of Plasmids and Expression of VWF Mutants in CHO Cells



[0127] Expression plasmids were grown up in E.coli TOP10 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and purified using standard protocols (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). CHO K1 cells were transfected with expression plasmids using the Lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Invitrogen). Single clones were isolated and grown up in serum-free medium (CD-CHO, Life Technologies) in the presence of 750 µg/ml Geniticin. Clones were spread through T-flasks into shake flasks and bioreactors from which supernatants were harvested for purification of the respective recombinant VWF protein.

Example 5: Quantitation of VWF Antigen



[0128] VWF antigen in culture supernatant was determined by an ELISA whose performance is known to those skilled in the art. Briefly, microplates were incubated with 100 µL per well of the capture antibody (rabbit anti human vWF-IgG, Dako A0082 [Dako, Hamburg, Germany], diluted 1:2000 in buffer A [Sigma C3041, Sigma-Aldrich, Munich, Germany]) overnight at ambient temperature. After washing plates three times with buffer B (Sigma P3563), each well was incubated with 200 µL buffer C (Sigma P3688) for 1.5 hours at ambient temperature (blocking). After another three wash steps with buffer B, serial dilutions of the test sample in buffer B as well as serial dilutions of standard human plasma (ORKL21; 20 - 0.2 mU/mL; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Marburg, Germany) in buffer B (volumes per well: 100 µL) were incubated for 1.5 hours at ambient temperature. After three wash steps with buffer B, 100 µL of a 1:16000 dilution in buffer B of the detection antibody (rabbit anti human vWF-IgG, Dako P0226, peroxidase labelled) were added to each well and incubated for 1 hour at ambient temperature. After three wash steps with buffer B, 100 µL of substrate solution (OUVF, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) were added per well and incubated for 30 minutes at ambient temperature in the dark. Addition of 100 µL undiluted stop dilution (OSFA, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) prepared the samples for reading in a suitable microplate reader at 450 nm wavelength. Concentrations of the test samples were then calculated using the standard curve with standard human plasma as reference.

Example 6: Pharmacokinetic Analysis of the VWF T2298Q Mutant



[0129] VWF-T2298Q from Example 4 and recombinant VWF (wild type) are administered intravenously to a total of 4 CD rats each. The dose is 100 U (VWF:Ag)/kg body weight, at an injection volume of 4 mL/kg.

[0130] Blood samples are drawn retroorbitally at appropriate intervals starting at 5 minutes after application of the test substances, using an alternating sampling scheme, resulting in samples from 2 animals / timepoint (t=0, 5, 30, 90 min, 4h, 1d for subset Nr. 1 and 0, 15 min, 1, 2, 8 h and 2 d for subset Nr. 2). The scheme is designed to minimize potential effects of blood sampling on the plasma concentration to be quantified. Blood is processed to plasma and stored deep frozen until analysis. The VWF:Ag level in plasma is subsequently quantified by an ELISA as described in example 5. The mean plasma concentration is used for calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters.

SEQUENCE LISTING



[0131] 

<110> CSL Behring Recombinant Facility AG

<120> Modified von Willebrand Factor having improved half-life

<130> A241

<150> EP2015158065.1
<151> 2015-03-06

<160> 12

<170> PatentIn version 3.5

<210> 1
<211> 8442
<212> DNA
<213> Homo sapiens

<220>
<221> CDS
<222> (1)..(8442)

<400> 1

























<210> 2
<211> 2813
<212> PRT
<213> Homo sapiens

<400> 2























<210> 3
<211> 30
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> PCR primer VWF+

<400> 3
ttcgaattcc cgcagccctc atttgcaggg   30

<210> 4
<211> 31
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> PCR primer VWF-

<400> 4
tccgaattcc ggcagcagca ggcacccatg c   31

<210> 5
<211> 30
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> PCR primer VWFT2298Q+

<400> 5
gcagccctgc ccccaggcca aagctcccac   30

<210> 6
<211> 30
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> PCR primer VWFT2298Q-

<400> 6
gtgggagctt tggcctgggg gcagggctgc   30

<210> 7
<211> 28
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> PCR primer HA+

<400> 7
ggatccgatg cacacaagag tgaggttg   28

<210> 8
<211> 31
<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> PCR primer HA-

<400> 8
gcggccgcct ataagcctaa ggcagcttga c   31

<210> 9
<211> 686
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Signal peptide (1-22); VWF fragment aa 2276 to 2326 (23 - 73); glycin/serin linker (74 - 101); albumin (102 - 686)

<400> 9





<210> 10
<211> 74
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> C1 domain of modified VWF having a mutation at T2298

<220>
<221> MISC_FEATURE
<222> (44)..(44)
<223> Xaa is absent or an amino acid other than threonine and serine

<400> 10

<210> 11
<211> 2050
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Mature form of modified VWF having a mutation of T2298

<220>
<221> MISC_FEATURE
<222> (1535)..(1535)
<223> Xaa is absent or an amino acid other than threonine and serine

<400> 11



















<210> 12
<211> 1444
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> single chain FVIII

<400> 12
















Claims

1. A human von Willebrand factor (VWF) molecule capable of binding to Factor VIII comprising a C1 domain which lacks an O-glycosylation site at amino acid position 2298 for use in the treatment of a blood coagulation disorder, wherein said blood coagulation disorder is hemophilia A or von Willebrand disease and the VWF molecule having a reduced in vivo clearance when compared to native plasma-derived VWF.
 
2. The VWF molecule for use of claim 1, wherein the O-glycosylation site at position 2298 present in native VWF has been inactivated by deleting or substituting one or more amino acids at positions 2292 to 2303 of the VWF amino acid sequence.
 
3. The VWF molecule for use of claim 2, wherein threonine at position 2298 has been deleted or substituted with an amino acid other than threonine and serine.
 
4. The VWF molecule for use of claim 3, wherein said amino acid other than threonine and serine is selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine.
 
5. The VWF molecule for use of any one of the preceding claims, comprising an amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO:10.
 
6. The VWF molecule for use of any one of the preceding claims, comprising an amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO:11.
 
7. The VWF molecule for use of claim 2, wherein a proline at position 2295, 2297, or 2302 has been deleted or substituted with a different amino acid.
 
8. The VWF molecule for use of any one of the preceding claims, which is capable of increasing the half-life of Factor VIII co-administered with said VWF molecule, as compared to the half-life of the Factor VIII co-administered with native plasma-derived VWF.
 
9. The VWF molecule for use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said treatment further comprises administering a Factor VIII molecule.
 
10. The VWF molecule for use according to claim 9, wherein said VWF molecule and said Factor VIII molecule are administered separately.
 
11. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the VWF molecule of any one of claims 1 to 8.
 
12. A pharmaceutical kit comprising (i) the VWF molecule of any one of claims 1 to 8 and (ii) a Factor VIII molecule.
 
13. The pharmaceutical kit of claim 12, wherein said VWF molecule and said Factor VIII molecule are contained in separate compositions.
 
14. A pharmaceutical kit comprising (i) the VWF molecule of any one of claims 1 to 8 and (ii) a Factor VIII molecule, for simultaneous, separate or sequential use in the treatment of a blood coagulation disorder.
 
15. The VWF molecule for use of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the half-life of Factor VIII is increased in vivo.
 


Ansprüche

1. Menschliches von-Willebrand-Faktor(VWF)-Molekül mit der Fähigkeit zur Bindung an Faktor VIII, umfassend eine C1-Domäne, der eine O-Glykosylierungsstelle an Aminosäureposition 2298 fehlt, zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer Blutgerinnungsstörung, wobei es sich bei der Blutgerinnungsstörung um Hämophilie A oder von-Willebrand-Krankheit handelt und das VWF-Molekül eine reduzierte In-vivo-Clearance im Vergleich zu nativem aus Plasma gewonnenem VWF aufweist.
 
2. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die in nativem VWF vorliegende O-Glykosylierungsstelle an Position 2298 durch Deletion oder Substitution einer oder mehrerer Aminosäuren an Position 2292 bis 2303 der VWF-Aminosäuresequenz inaktiviert wurde.
 
3. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 2, wobei Threonin an Position 2298 deletiert oder durch eine andere Aminosäure als Threonin und Serin substituiert wurde.
 
4. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 3, wobei die andere Aminosäure als Threonin und Serin ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Glycin, Alanin, Arginin, Asparagin, Asparaginsäure, Cystein, Glutaminsäure, Glutamin, Histidin, Isoleucin, Leucin, Lysin, Methionin, Phenylalanin, Prolin, Tryptophan, Tyrosin und Valin.
 
5. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, umfassend eine Aminosäuresequenz gemäß in SEQ ID NO:10.
 
6. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, umfassend eine Aminosäuresequenz gemäß in SEQ ID NO:11.
 
7. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 2, wobei ein Prolin an Position 2295, 2297 oder 2302 deletiert oder durch eine andere Aminosäure substituiert wurde.
 
8. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, das die Halbwertszeit von mit dem VWF-Molekül gemeinsam verabreichtem Faktor VIII im Vergleich zur Halbwertszeit des mit nativem aus Plasma gewonnenem VWF gemeinsam verabreichten Faktors VIII erhöhen kann.
 
9. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung gemäß einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Behandlung ferner Verabreichen eines Faktor-VIII-Moleküls umfasst.
 
10. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 9, wobei das VWF-Molekül und das Faktor-VIII-Molekül getrennt verabreicht werden.
 
11. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend das VWF-Molekül nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8.
 
12. Pharmazeutisches Kit, umfassend (i) das VWF-Molekül nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 und (ii) ein Faktor-VIII-Molekül.
 
13. Pharmazeutisches Kit nach Anspruch 12, wobei das VWF-Molekül und das Faktor-VIII-Molekül in getrennten Zusammensetzungen enthalten sind.
 
14. Pharmazeutisches Kit, umfassend (i) das VWF-Molekül nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 und (ii) ein Faktor-VIII-Molekül, zur gleichzeitigen, getrennten oder nacheinander erfolgenden Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer Blutgerinnungsstörung.
 
15. VWF-Molekül zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, wobei die Halbwertszeit von Faktor VIII in vivo erhöht wird.
 


Revendications

1. Molécule de facteur de von Willebrand (VWF) humain capable de se lier au facteur VIII comprenant un domaine C1 qui ne comporte pas un site de O-glycosylation à la position d'acide aminé 2298 pour utilisation dans le traitement d'un trouble de la coagulation sanguine, ledit trouble de la coagulation sanguine étant l'hémophilie A ou la maladie de von Willebrand et la molécule de VWF ayant une clairance in vivo réduite par rapport à VWF natif dérivé de plasma.
 
2. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle le site de O-glycosylation à la position 2298 présent dans VWF natif a été inactivé par délétion ou substitution d'un ou plusieurs acides aminés aux positions 2292 à 2303 de la séquence d'acides aminés de VWF.
 
3. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon la revendication 2, dans laquelle la thréonine à la position 2298 a été délétée ou substituée par un acide aminé autre que la thréonine et la sérine.
 
4. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon la revendication 3, dans laquelle ledit acide aminé autre que la thréonine et la sérine est choisi dans le groupe constitué des glycine, alanine, arginine, asparagine, acide aspartique, cystéine, acide glutamique, glutamine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, méthionine, phénylalanine, proline, tryptophane, tyrosine et valine.
 
5. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant une séquence d'acides aminés telle que décrite dans SEQ ID NO: 10.
 
6. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant une séquence d'acides aminés telle que décrite dans SEQ ID NO: 11.
 
7. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon la revendication 2, dans laquelle une proline à la position 2295, 2297 ou 2302 a été délétée ou substituée par un acide aminé différent.
 
8. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, qui est capable d'augmenter la demi-vie du facteur VIII coadministré avec ladite molécule de VWF, par rapport à la demi-vie du facteur VIII coadministré avec VWF natif dérivé de plasma.
 
9. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, ledit traitement comprenant en outre l'administration d'une molécule de facteur VIII.
 
10. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon la revendication 9, ladite molécule de VWF et ladite molécule de facteur VIII étant administrées séparément.
 
11. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant la molécule de VWF selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8.
 
12. Trousse pharmaceutique comprenant (i) la molécule de VWF selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 et (ii) une molécule de facteur VIII.
 
13. Trousse pharmaceutique selon la revendication 12, dans laquelle ladite molécule de VWF et ladite molécule de facteur VIII sont contenues dans des compositions séparées.
 
14. Trousse pharmaceutique comprenant (i) la molécule de VWF selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 et (ii) une molécule de facteur VIII, pour utilisation simultanée, séparée ou séquentielle dans le traitement d'un trouble de la coagulation sanguine.
 
15. Molécule de VWF pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, la demi-vie du facteur VIII étant augmentée in vivo.
 




Drawing











Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description