(19)
(11)EP 3 288 053 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/37

(21)Application number: 16725877.1

(22)Date of filing:  14.04.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01H 9/00(2006.01)
H01F 29/04(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/ES2016/070261
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/170211 (27.10.2016 Gazette  2016/43)

(54)

ON-LOAD TAP CHANGER DEVICE

LASTSTUFENSCHALTERVORRICHTUNG

DISPOSITIF CHANGEUR DE PRISES ÉLECTRIQUES EN CHARGE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 21.04.2015 EP 15382194

(43)Date of publication of application:
28.02.2018 Bulletin 2018/09

(73)Proprietor: Ormazabal Corporate Technology, A.I.E.
48340 Amorebieta-Etxano (Vizcaya) (ES)

(72)Inventors:
  • LARRIETA ZUBIA, Javier
    48340 Amorebieta-Etxano (Bizkaia) (ES)
  • ARANAGA LOPEZ, Severo
    48340 Amorebieta-Etxano (Bizkaia) (ES)
  • DEL RÍO ETAYO, Luis
    48340 Amorebieta-Etxano (Bizkaia) (ES)
  • ALCORTA GOYENECHEA, Jon
    48340 Amorebieta-Etxano (Bizkaia) (ES)

(74)Representative: Herrero & Asociados, S.L. 
Cedaceros, 1
28014 Madrid
28014 Madrid (ES)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2012/175141
DE-B3-102012 107 080
US-A- 5 056 377
BG-B1- 62 108
US-A- 1 863 392
US-A- 5 834 717
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Object of the Invention



    [0001] The present invention relates to the field of electric energy distribution and transformation, and more specifically to a "three-phase" or "single-phase" on-load tap changer device, applied in high-voltage electrical equipment, which allows selecting the number of turns of a primary winding to thus obtain the regulation of voltage in the secondary winding of the high-voltage electrical equipment. The object of the invention is to provide a compact tap changer device having reduced volume and weight which allows automatic voltage control.

    Background of the Invention



    [0002] Keeping the output voltage of high-voltage electrical equipment, such as transformers, for example, within allowed or desired ranges depending on load circumstances has conventionally been done by means of changing the transformation ratio of said electrical equipment, such that the ratio between the voltages of the primary winding and of the secondary winding of said electrical equipment changes accordingly. To that end, the high-voltage electrical equipment is provided with a device called a tap changer, which can consist of an off-load or on-load tap changer, i.e., the changeover of taps can be done with the electrical equipment de-energized or energized. The tap changer device increases or reduces the number of turns of the primary winding, thereby changing the transformation ratio, or in other words changing the voltage in the secondary winding.

    [0003] Use of the on-load tap changer device is common in electrical equipment, such as power transformers, for example, the service of which cannot be interrupted without seriously jeopardizing operation of the distribution system and with the subsequent nuisance for users of the distribution grid.

    [0004] There are tap changer devices today, such as the one mentioned in patent document WO2013156268A1, for example, which discloses an on-load tap changer comprising switching means (vacuum interrupters) and tap selector means driven by a motor. These means are mounted vertically on a support plate, each of them on each side of the support plate, such that transmission of the action of the motor to said means is carried out by intermediate elements, such as a camshaft, a threaded spindle, sliding carriages, etc. These intermediate elements are mechanically linked with the switching means and tap selector means by means of linear motion, i.e., said elements transform rotational movement of the motor into linear movement to actuate the switching means and tap selector means.

    [0005] The need for using all these intermediate elements involves the drawback of the volume the tap changer device adopts, and ultimately an increase in the dimensions of the transformer where the tap changer device is installed, which involves use of a larger volume of dielectric fluid, the increase in total weight of the transformer, the need for using an oil leakage sump having a larger dielectric fluid collecting capacity, etc. The dimensions of the transformer are also increased due to the design of the tap changer device, since this device comprises all the means and elements mounted on a vertically arranged longitudinal plate. Furthermore, given that the tap changer device is installed below the upper cover of the transformer, the height of the latter is increased, the transformer cavity where the tap changer device is mounted having to be filled with dielectric fluid.

    [0006] On the other hand, in this solution of the state of the art the switching means are arranged linearly behind one another and vertically, the switching of which involves vibrations that are not compensated, thereby impairing the mechanical capabilities of the solution. Another example of a solution with the switching means arranged vertically is disclosed in US2014159847A1.

    [0007] Some solutions with the switching means arranged equidistantly from one another at 120° on a horizontal plane are known. For example, solutions of this type are mentioned in patent documents JPS6091608 and JPS6047405. The solutions of patent documents JPS5687307 and JPS5681915, where the objective is to minimize the volume of the solution with the arrangement of the switching means, can also be mentioned. However all these tubular solutions, conceived for power transformers, have a vertical arrangement which does not allow the efficient integration thereof in distribution transformers.

    [0008] In order to check the position in which the tap changer device is located, i.e., in order to verify if the tap changer device is connected with the suitable tap, an inspection window means is conventionally provided. This inspection window means is usually arranged on the upper cover of the high-voltage electrical equipment, being a peep hole, for example, made in said cover, which means that the peep hole must assure tightness of the high-voltage electrical equipment since the latter contains a dielectric fluid. On the other hand, since said peep hole is located on the upper cover of the equipment, sometimes due to the height of the electrical equipment or the arrangement of the low- and high-voltage bushings, it is not possible to look through said peep hole without the aid of some means, such as a ladder, for example, allowing the operator to verify the position of the tap changer device.

    [0009] Verification of the position in which the tap changer device is located is necessary, for example, when commissioning the high-voltage electrical equipment, or for example in the event of any malfunction in the control panel of the installation making said verification impossible. In this sense, the solution appearing in technical paper SO1-01 of CIRED of May 2014 ("Regulacijski Distributivni Transformator", by Sanela Carevic, Mario Bakaric, Branimir Cucic and Martina Mikulic) can be mentioned as an example, since the solution considered therein comprises a peep hole on the upper cover of the high-voltage electrical equipment, the view of which is hindered by the low- and high-voltage bushings of the cover of the transformer.

    [0010] In order for tap changer devices to be efficient and cost-effective, there must be a minimal number of switching means, as well as a minimal number of taps, and there must be a maximal number of transformation ratios obtained, without this entailing a significant variation in the constructive arrangement of the transformer.

    [0011] On the other hand, cold startup of the high-voltage electrical equipment, such as transformers, for example, involves a particularly serious problem in extreme climates in which the dielectric fluid may even solidify, impeding the correct switching of the on-load tap changer device and putting the integrity of the high-voltage electrical equipment at risk. Auxiliary means outside the high-voltage electrical equipment are normally used in these cases so that the dielectric fluid reaches a minimum operating temperature necessary for correct operation of the on-load tap changer device.

    [0012] Patent document US 1 863 392 discloses a device according to the preamble of claim 1, including a shaft, two parallel spaced conductive plates supported on said shaft, means for rotating said plates alternately about said shaft, a movable contact secured to each plate, fixed contacts supported in the paths of said movable contacts, and a fixed contact supported in contact with each of said plates.

    Description of the Invention



    [0013] The present invention solves the drawbacks mentioned above by providing a "single-phase" on-load tap changer device according to claim 1, and envisaged for being used in high-voltage electrical equipment, such as a distribution transformer, for example, being a compact tap changer device having reduced volume and weight which allows automatic voltage control. Further advantageous features of the device are defined in the dependent claims.

    [0014] The tap changer device of the present invention is installed inside the transformer tank, immersed in the same dielectric fluid contained in the tank, with the feature that the tap changer device comprises a planar and compact configuration making it possible to be installed both horizontally (below the upper cover of the transformer) and vertically (on one side of the transformer) without changing the constructive arrangement of the transformer, thereby obtaining a transformer with an on-load tap changer having reduced dimensions and weight with respect to the state of the art, reducing the amount of dielectric fluid used, as well as the height of the transformer compared to transformers with an on-load tap changer of the state of the art.

    [0015] According to the planar and compact configuration of the tap changer device object of the invention, it has been envisaged that the device comprises a first plate and a second plate, both of insulating material, the first plate being attached to the second plate by at least one clamping means which can comprise a screw and a spacer sleeve. Therefore, according to an example outside of the scope of the present invention relating to a "three-phase" tap changer device, in the space comprised between the first plate and the second plate the following is comprised installed:
    • at least one switching means per phase, such as a vacuum interrupter, for example, provided with a moving contact and a fixed contact,
    • at least one tap per phase, associated with at least one connection point of the primary winding of the distribution transformer,
    • one tap selecting means per phase, provided with at least one electrical contact,
    • at least one protection element per phase, of the type generally used as voltage peak suppressors, such as a varistor, for example.


    [0016] The tap changer device of the present example likewise comprises an actuation element which is also mounted between the mentioned first plate and second plate, such that said actuation element is mechanically linked, as a single part, directly and simultaneously with the switching means and with the tap selecting means, no intermediate element therefore being needed to transmit the action of a motor or an operator in the case of manual operation.

    [0017] The actuation element is secured to a shaft and comprises an inner contour provided with protuberances, such that the rotation of said shaft makes the inner contour act on the switching means, causing the opening - closing of the latter. It has been envisaged that the switching means can comprise a guide element installed around same, assuring a straight and level travel of the moving contact of the switching means. For the purpose of obtaining a planar and compact tap changer device, it has also been envisaged that the switching means are mounted equidistantly from one another on the horizontal plane, for example at 120° from one another, and furthermore by means of this arrangement of the switching means vibrations or movements caused during the switching of the latter are compensated, increasing mechanical reliability and service life thereof.

    [0018] In turn, the actuation element comprises an outer contour provided with teeth, said actuation element being able to consist, for example, of a gearwheel, such that the rotation of the mentioned shaft makes the actuation element rotate and makes its cogged outer contour act on the tap selecting means, causing the rotation of the latter.

    [0019] The electrical contacts of the tap selecting means rotate integrally with the latter, causing the connection - disconnection between these electrical contacts and the taps, which involves the changeover between said taps. The actuation of the switching means and the actuation of the tap selecting means are intrinsically coordinated, such that the changeover between taps is performed with at least one switching means open.

    [0020] On the other hand, the tap changer device of the present example comprises an inspection window means which allows viewing its position, i.e., to which tap the device is connected. The difference with respect to the state of the art lies in the fact that said inspection window means is not located on the upper cover of the high-voltage electrical equipment, but is arranged in the actual tap changer device, so there is no chance of having tightness issues and costs for adapting high-voltage electrical equipment to the considered solution are reduced. The sight glass means of the tap changer device likewise allows verifying the position of the latter without the operator having to use any other means, such as a ladder, for example. Likewise, the view of the tap is not hindered by the low- and high-voltage bushings of the cover of the transformer.

    [0021] Another objective of this example is to obtain the largest possible number of transformation ratios without varying the constructive arrangement of the transformer, assuring the planar and compact configuration of the tap changer device, using the minimal number of switching means and the minimal number of taps.

    [0022] This on-load tap changer device further comprises one current-limiting element per phase for the case of an inter-turn short-circuit in the changeover of taps, such as a resistor or a reactor, for example. These current-limiting elements can also be used for limiting the magnetizing current of the high-voltage electrical equipment that is generated when said equipment is energized (several times above the nominal value) by means of insertion of the current-limiting elements during excitation of high-voltage electrical equipment, since the electrodynamic and thermal stresses generated by this magnetizing current can compromise the service life of said high-voltage electrical equipment. Furthermore, magnetizing currents can bring about errors in the actuation of fuses and/or protection relays (which disconnect the transformer), and problems with wave quality.

    [0023] Therefore, those cases proposing nocturnal disconnection of high-voltage electrical equipment, i.e., solar farms, or disconnection when no energy is being generated, i.e., wind farms, to prevent no-load losses of the mentioned high-voltage electrical equipment, the tap changer device would not only regulate voltage of the grid but it could be used as a device for limiting the magnetizing current of the high-voltage electrical equipment by performing the changeover of taps in the position that involves maximum impedance of the circuit at startup. In the startup position, by means of coordination with the sensor system of the high-voltage electrical equipment, a prior check of the temperature of the dielectric fluid is performed to verify that its temperature is suitable for assuring correct switching of the on-load tap changer device. Otherwise, the startup position is maintained and current-limiting devices, sized for continuous operation, act favoring heating of the dielectric fluid until reaching a minimum operating temperature assuring correct operation of the on-load tap changer device, preventing use of external auxiliary means.

    [0024] According to an embodiment of the invention, a "single-phase" on-load tap changer device is described, which is structurally simpler with respect to the "three-phase" case and wherein by means of a single actuation element it is possible to perform the functions of the selecting means existing for the "three-phase" case but which for the "single-phase" case are not necessary. This second case of the "single-phase" tap changer device will be explained in more detail later. A final aspect of the invention relates to high-voltage electrical equipment, such as a distribution transformer, for example, which comprises the tap changer device described above, further comprising a primary winding provided with at least one connection point associated with at least one tap of the tap changer device. The number of turns of the primary winding is variable, such that automatically regulating voltage in a secondary winding of the same high-voltage electrical equipment is allowed.

    Description of the Drawings



    [0025] 

    Figure 1 shows a perspective view of a "three-phase" tap changer device according to an example outside of the scope of the present invention.

    Figure 2 shows a plan view of the first insulating plate of the "three-phase" tap changer device, where taps and protection elements are mounted.

    Figure 3 shows a plan view of the second insulating plate of the "three-phase" tap changer device, where the switching means are mounted.

    Figure 4 shows a plan view of the actuation element and the tap selecting means on the first insulating plate of the "three-phase" tap changer device.

    Figure 5 shows an elevational view of high-voltage electrical equipment with the "three-phase" tap changer device installed therein.

    Figures 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 6e show five single-line diagrams of a "three-phase" or "single-phase" tap changer device comprising a "resistor" as the current-limiting element, showing the sequence of operations for performing the changeover from one tap to another.

    Figures 7a, 7b, 7c show three single-line diagrams of a "three-phase" or "single-phase" tap changer device comprising a "reactor" as the current-limiting element, showing the sequence of operations for performing the changeover from one tap to another.

    Figure 8 shows a perspective view of a "single-phase" tap changer device according to the present invention.

    Figure 9 shows a plan view of the first insulating plate of the "single-phase" tap changer device, where taps and protection elements are mounted.

    Figure 10 shows a plan view of the second insulating plate of the "single-phase" tap changer device, where the switching means are mounted.

    Figure 11 shows a plan view of the actuation element on the first insulating plate according to a first preferred embodiment of the "single-phase" tap changer device.

    Figure 12 shows a plan view of the actuation element on the first insulating plate according to a second preferred embodiment of the "single-phase" tap changer device.

    Figure 13 shows an elevational view of high-voltage electrical equipment with the "single-phase" tap changer device installed therein.


    Preferred Embodiment of the Invention



    [0026] A preferred embodiment is described below in relation to the drawings mentioned above, without this limiting or reducing the scope of protection of the present invention.

    [0027] Figures 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d and 6e show single-line diagrams of the "three-phase" or "single-phase" tap changer device (1, 40) comprising a "resistor" as the current-limiting element (18). This "resistor" is installed in series with at least one switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), such as a vacuum interrupter, for example. The tap changer device (1, 40) further comprises at least one protection element (17) per phase, such as a varistor, for example, installed in parallel to the switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7).

    [0028] Figures 7a, 7b and 7c show single-line diagrams of the "three-phase" or "single-phase" tap changer device (1, 40) comprising a "reactor" as the current-limiting element (18). This "reactor" (18) is installed in series with at least one switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), such as a vacuum interrupter, for example. The tap changer device (1, 40) further comprises at least one protection element (17) per phase, such as a varistor, for example, installed in parallel to the switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7).

    [0029] The "three-phase" tap changer device (1) depicted in Figures 1-4 can be used both with "resistors", and with "reactors". It can be seen in Figure 2 that the "three-phase" tap changer device (1) comprises at least one tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) per phase, mounted on a first insulating plate (20), the mentioned at least one protection element (17) being mounted on the same plate (20). An actuation element (16) and at least one selecting means (13) for selecting said at least one tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) are also mounted on this first plate (20), as shown in Figure 4.

    [0030] In Figure 3 it can be seen that the "three-phase" tap changer device (1) also comprises a second insulating plate (21) where the switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) are mounted. The taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), at least one protection element (17) and the switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), as well as the actuation element (16) and at least one selecting means (13), are therefore mounted between both plates (20, 21). Both plates (20, 21) are attached to one another by at least one clamping means (22) comprising a screw (23) and a spacer sleeve (24), as can be seen in Figure 1. The arrangement of the actuation element (16) and of at least one selecting means (13) allows said actuation element (16) to act, as a single part, directly and simultaneously on the switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and on at least one selecting means (13).

    [0031] Figure 4 shows that the actuation element (16) is secured to a shaft (37) and further comprises an inner contour provided with protuberances (39), such that the rotation of the shaft (37) makes the inner contour act on the switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), causing the opening - closing of the latter. In turn, given that the actuation element (16) comprises an outer contour provided with teeth (19), shown in Figure 4, the rotation of the shaft (37) makes said outer contour act on the selecting means (13) causing the rotation of the latter.

    [0032] Therefore, the actuation of the switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and the actuation of the selecting means (13) are intrinsically coordinated, such that the changeover between taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) is performed with at least one switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) open. The selecting means (13) comprises at least one electrical contact (14, 15) rotating integrally with said means (13), causing the connection - disconnection between these contacts (14, 15) and the taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), which involves the changeover between taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12). As shown in Figures 1 and 5, the actuation element (16) can be moved or its shaft (37) can rotate due to the action of a motor (35), which can be powered by any low-voltage power source, or it can rotate manually due to the action of an operator.

    [0033] As shown in Figure 5, the tap changer device (1) comprises an inspection window means (34) which allows verifying to which tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) the device (1) is connected. It has likewise been envisaged that the switching means (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) comprising a fixed contact (36) and a moving contact (25) can comprise a guide element (38) installed around same, assuring a straight and level travel of the moving contact (25), regardless of whether the arrangement thereof in high-voltage electrical equipment is vertical or horizontal, as shown in Figure 3.

    [0034] Figure 5 shows the "three-phase" tap changer device (1) installed in high-voltage electrical equipment (26), such as a high-voltage/low-voltage distribution transformer, for example, where the electrical equipment (26) comprises a primary winding (27) provided with at least one connection point (29, 30, 31, 32, 33) associated with at least one tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), the number of turns in the primary winding (27) being variable, such that automatically regulating voltage in the secondary winding (28) of the electrical equipment (26) is allowed. The "three-phase" tap changer device (1) is likewise in an arrangement such that it is not affected by current-limiting elements (18), since the tap changer device (1) and the current-limiting element (18) are far enough away from one another in independent locations within the high-voltage electrical equipment (26).

    [0035] Figures 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d and 6e depict the sequence of operations carried out for performing the changeover from tap (10) to tap (11) for the case in which a "resistor" is used as the current-limiting element (18), for the purpose of increasing voltage in the secondary winding (28) of the high-voltage electrical equipment (26). Starting from tap (10), where switching means (2) is closed and switching means (3) is open, see Figure 6a, electrical contact (15) is connected to tap (11), Figure 6b, and then switching means (3) is closed, see Figure 6c. In this position, the short-circuit current (ic) that is generated is limited by the "resistor" (18). In a following step, shown in Figure 6d, the switching means (2) opens its contacts and the electrical contact (14) is then connected to tap (11). In the following operation, illustrated in Figure 6e, the contacts of switching means (2) are closed and the contacts of switching means (3) are open to prevent Joule effect losses due to the circulation of current through the current-limiting element (18), i.e., the "resistor" in this case.

    [0036] Figures 7a, 7b and 7c depict the sequence of operations carried out for performing the changeover from tap (10) to tap (11) for the case in which a "reactor" is used as the current-limiting element (18), for the purpose of increasing voltage in the secondary winding (28) of the high-voltage electrical equipment (26). Starting from tap (10), where switching means (2, 3) are closed, see Figure 7a, switching means (3) opens its contacts, as shown in Figure 7b, and electrical contact (15) is then connected to tap (11). In a final step, depicted in Figure 7c, switching means (3) closes its contacts, the short-circuit current (ic) being limited by the current-limiting element (18), i.e., the "reactor" in this case, which in turn allows obtaining an intermediate tap as the "reactor" is in a state of permanence until the following changeover of the tap, keeping losses in high-voltage electrical equipment (26) within an admissible range according to the laws in force.

    [0037] The difference between using "resistors" and using "reactors" as current-limiting elements (18) is that while "n" voltages are obtained in the first case in the secondary winding (28) of the electrical equipment (26), "2n-1" voltages are obtained in the second case in the secondary winding (28) of the electrical equipment (26).

    [0038] According to an embodiment of the invention shown in Figures 8 to 13, a "single-phase" instead of a "three-phase" on-load tap changer device is described below. Therefore, said "single-phase" tap changer device comprises: at least one switching means (2, 3); at least one tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12); at least one protection element (17); and at least one current-limiting element (18).

    [0039] In addition, the "single-phase" tap changer device comprises a first plate (20) of insulating material and a second plate (21) also of insulating material; an actuation element (48) preferably having rotational movement, mounted between both plates (20, 21), wherein said actuation element (48) in turn comprises at least one electrical contact (49, 50); the actuation element (48) being mechanically linked, as a single part, directly with the switching means (2, 3) and electrically linked with at least one tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) through at least one electrical contact (49, 50).

    [0040] Therefore, a simpler structure of the tap changer device is obtained in this single-phase configuration in that that the three selecting means (13) seen in Figure 4 for the "three-phase" case are not required, and where, in the single-phase configuration, by means of a single actuation element (48), shown in Figures 8, 11 and 12, it is possible to perform the functions of said selecting means (13) existing in the "three-phase".

    [0041] Preferably, as shown in Figure 8, the at least one protection element (17) is mounted between the first plate (20) and the second plate (21). It should be highlighted at this point that said protection element (17) comprises at least one varistor, while the current-limiting element (18) comprises a "resistor" or a "reactor".

    [0042] As shown in Figure 11, the actuation element (48) is secured to a shaft (55) and comprises an inner contour provided with protuberances (56), such that the rotation of the shaft (55) makes the inner contour act on the switching means (2, 3) causing the opening - closing of the latter.

    [0043] On the other hand, in the view shown in Figure 12 it can be observed that the actuation element (48) comprises an inner contour provided with protuberances (56), and an outer contour provided with teeth (59), the outer contour being mechanically linked with a transmission shaft (60), such that that the rotation of the transmission shaft (60) makes the inner contour act on the switching means (2, 3) causing the opening - closing of the latter.

    [0044] Similarly to the "three-phase" case, the switching means (2, 3) comprises a moving contact (25) and a fixed contact (36), wherein said switching means (2, 3) further comprises a guide element (38) installed around same, shown in Figure 10, and assuring a straight and level travel of the moving contact (25) of the switching means (2, 3).

    [0045] In relation to the electrical contacts (49, 50) of the actuation element (48), depicted in Figures 8 and 11, it has been envisaged that said contacts are mounted integrally to the actuation element (48), causing the connection - disconnection between these electrical contacts (49, 50) and the taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), which involves the changeover between said taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12).

    [0046] Therefore, the actuation of the switching means (2, 3) and the actuation of the actuation element (48) are intrinsically coordinated, such that the changeover between taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) is performed with at least one switching means (2, 3) open.

    [0047] In Figures 9 and 10 it can be seen that the taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) are installed on the first plate (20) of insulating material, whereas at least one switching means (2, 3) is installed on the second plate (21) also of insulating material, the taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), the switching means (2, 3) and the actuation element (48) thereby being mounted between both plates (20, 21).

    [0048] As regards the attachment between plates (20, 21), in a similar way as for the "three-phase" case, it has been envisaged that the first plate (20) is attached to the second plate (21) by means of at least one clamping means (22) comprising a screw (23) and a spacer sleeve (24).

    [0049] Likewise, the "single-phase" tap changer device (40) comprises an inspection window (34), shown in Figures 8 and 13, which allows viewing the position of the "single-phase" tap changer device (40).

    [0050] On the other hand, Figure 13 depicts high-voltage electrical equipment (65) comprising a "single-phase" on-load tap changer device (40), and additionally comprising a primary winding (27) provided with at least one connection point (29, 30, 31, 32, 33) associated with at least one tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), the number of turns in the primary winding (27) being variable, such that automatically regulating voltage in the secondary winding (28) of the electrical equipment (65) is allowed.

    [0051] It should be indicated at this point that the "single-phase" tap changer device (40) can be housed inside the electrical equipment (65) horizontally, below the upper cover of the electrical equipment (65), or vertically, on one side of said electrical equipment (65).

    [0052] Also similarly to the "three-phase" case, the "single-phase" tap changer device (40) comprises a startup position in coordination with the sensor system of the high-voltage electrical equipment (65), wherein a prior check of the temperature of the dielectric fluid is performed to verify that its temperature is suitable for correct operation of the "single-phase" on-load tap changer device (40).

    [0053] Finally, the possibility of the "single-phase" tap changer device (40) being used in high-voltage "single-phase" or "three-phase" electrical equipment (26, 65) has been contemplated, normally using three "single-phase" tap changer devices (40) in the "three-phase" case.


    Claims

    1. "Single-phase" tap changer device (40) comprising:

    at least one switching means (2, 3),

    at least one tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12),

    at least one current-limiting element (18),

    a first plate (20) of insulating material and a second plate (21) also of insulating material; an actuation element (48) mounted between both plates (20, 21), wherein said actuation element (48) in turn comprises at least one electrical contact (49, 50), said actuation element (48) being electrically linked with at least one tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) through at least one electrical contact (49, 50),; characterized in that the device (1) further comprises at least one protection element (17), and the actuation element (48) is mechanically linked, as a single part, directly with the switching means (2, 3), wherein the at least one switching means (2, 3) are installed on the second plate (21) and the taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) are installed on the first plate (20), the taps (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), the switching means (2, 3) and the actuation element (48) thereby being mounted between both plates (20, 21).


     
    2. "Single-phase" tap changer device (40) according to claim 1, characterized in that the actuation element (48) comprises a rotational movement.
     
    3. "Single-phase" tap changer device (40) according to claim 2, characterized in that the actuation element (48) is secured to a shaft (55), and in that it comprises an inner contour provided with protuberances (56), such that the rotation of the shaft (55) makes the inner contour act on the switching means (2, 3) causing the opening - closing of the latter.
     
    4. "Single-phase" tap changer device (40) according to claim 2, characterized in that the actuation element (48) comprises an inner contour provided with protuberances (56), and an outer contour provided with teeth (59), the outer contour being mechanically linked with a transmission shaft (60), such that that the rotation of the transmission shaft (60) makes the inner contour act on the switching means (2, 3) causing the opening - closing of the latter.
     
    5. "Single-phase" tap changer device (40) according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the switching means (2, 3) comprises a moving contact (25) and a fixed contact (36), and wherein said switching means (2, 3) further comprises a guide element (38) installed around same, assuring a straight and level travel of the moving contact (25) of the switching means (2, 3).
     
    6. "Single-phase" tap changer device (40) according to claim 1, characterized in that the protection element (17) comprises at least one varistor and the current-limiting element (18) comprises a "resistor" or a "reactor".
     
    7. "Single-phase" tap changer device (40) according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises an inspection window means (34) which allows viewing the position of the "single-phase" tap changer device (40).
     
    8. High-voltage electrical equipment (65), comprising a "single-phase" on-load tap changer device (40) described in any of claims 1 - 7, characterized in that said electrical equipment (65) additionally comprises a primary winding (27) provided with at least one connection point (29, 30, 31, 32, 33) associated with at least one tap (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), the number of turns in the primary winding (27) being variable, such that automatically regulating voltage in the secondary winding (28) of the electrical equipment (65) is allowed.
     
    9. High-voltage electrical equipment (65) according to claim 8, characterized in that the "single-phase" tap changer device (40) can be housed inside the electrical equipment (65) horizontally, below the upper cover of the electrical equipment (65), or vertically, on one side of said electrical equipment (65).
     
    10. High-voltage electrical equipment (65) according to claim 9, characterized in that the "single-phase" tap changer device (40) comprises a startup position in coordination with the sensor system of the high-voltage electrical equipment (65), wherein a prior check of the temperature of the dielectric fluid is performed to verify that its temperature is suitable for correct operation of the "single-phase" on-load tap changer device (40).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40), mit:

    mindestens einer Schalteinrichtung (2, 3),

    mindestens einer Verzweigung (8, 9, 10, 11, 12),

    mindestens einem Strombegrenzungselement (18),

    einer ersten Platte (20) aus Isolationsmaterial und einer zweiten Platte (21) ebenfalls aus Isolationsmaterial;

    einem Aktuatorelement (48), das zwischen beiden Platten (20, 21) montiert ist, wobei das Aktuatorelement (48) mindestens einen elektrischen Kontakt (49, 50) aufweist, und wobei das Aktuatorelement (48) mit mindestens einer Verzweigung (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) durch mindestens einen elektrischen Kontakt (49, 50) elektrisch verbunden ist,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass

    die Vorrichtung (1) ferner mindestens ein Schutzelement (17) aufweist, und das Aktuatorelement (48) als ein einziges Teil mechanisch direkt mit der Schalteinrichtung (2, 3) verbunden ist, wobei die mindestens eine Schalteinrichtung (2, 3) auf der zweiten Platte (21) montiert ist, und die Verzweigungen (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) auf der ersten Platte (20) montiert sind, wodurch die Verzweigungen (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), die Schalteinrichtung (2, 3) und das Aktuatorelement (48) zwischen beiden Platten (20, 21) montiert sind.


     
    2. "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Aktuatorelement (48) eine Drehbewegung ermöglicht.
     
    3. "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Aktuatorelement (48) an einer Welle (55) befestigt ist und eine Innenkontur aufweist, die mit Vorsprüngen (56) derart versehen ist, dass die Drehung der Welle (55) so wirkt, dass die Innenkontur auf die Schalteinrichtung (2, 3) einwirkt, um das Öffnen-Schließen derselben zu bewirken.
     
    4. "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Aktuatorelement (48) eine Innenkontur, die mit Vorsprüngen (56) versehen ist, und eine Außenkontur aufweist, die mit Zähnen (59) versehen ist, wobei die Außenkontur mechanisch mit einer Getriebewelle (60) derart verbunden ist, dass die Drehung der Getriebewelle (60) bewirkt, dass die Innenkontur auf die Schalteinrichtung (2, 3) einwirkt, um das Öffnen-Schließen derselben zu bewirken.
     
    5. "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) nach Anspruch 3 oder 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Schalteinrichtung (2, 3) einen beweglichen Kontakt (25) und einen festen Kontakt (36) aufweist, und wobei die Schalteinrichtung (2, 3) ferner ein um sie herum montiertes Führungselement (38) aufweist, wodurch eine geradlinige und ebene Bewegung des beweglichen Kontakts (25) der Schalteinrichtung (2, 3) gewährleistet ist.
     
    6. "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Schutzelement (17) mindestens einen Varistor und das Strombegrenzungselement (18) einen "Widerstand" oder einen "Reaktor" aufweist.
     
    7. "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie eine Inspektionsfenstereinrichtung (34) aufweist, die die visuelle Inspektion der Stellung der "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) ermöglicht.
     
    8. Elektrische Hochspannungseinrichtung (65) mit einer "Einphasen-" Lastverzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 - 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die elektrische Einrichtung (65) ferner eine Primärwicklung (27), die mit mindestens einem Verbindungspunkt (29, 30, 31, 32, 33) versehen ist, der mit mindestens einer Verzweigung (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) verbunden ist, aufweist, wobei die Anzahl der Windungen in der Primärwicklung (27) variabel ist derart, dass ein automatisches Regeln der Spannung in der Sekundärwicklung (28) der elektrischen Einrichtung (65) möglich ist.
     
    9. Elektrische Hochspannungseinrichtung (65) nach Anspruch 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) im Inneren der elektrischen Einrichtung (65) horizontal unter der oberen Abdeckung der elektrischen Einrichtung (65) oder vertikal auf einer Seite der elektrischen Einrichtung (65) unterbringbar ist.
     
    10. Elektrische Hochspannungseinrichtung (65) nach Anspruch 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die "Einphasen-" Verzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) eine Anlaufstellung koordiniert zu einem Sensorsystem der elektrischen Hochspannungseinrichtung (65) hat, wobei eine vorhergehende Prüfung der Temperatur eines dielektrischen Fluids ausgeführt wird, um zu verifizieren, dass die Temperatur für einen korrekten Betrieb der "Einphasen-" Lastverzweigungsumschaltvorrichtung (40) geeignet ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40) comprenant :

    au moins un moyen de commutation (2, 3),

    au moins une prise (8, 9, 10, 11, 12),

    au moins un élément de limitation de courant (18),

    une première plaque (20) de matériau isolant et une seconde plaque (21) également de matériau isolant ; un élément d'actionnement (48) monté entre les deux plaques (20, 21), dans lequel ledit élément d'actionnement (48) comprend quant à lui au moins un contact électrique (49, 50), ledit élément d'actionnement (48) étant électriquement lié à au moins une prise (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) par l'intermédiaire d'au moins un contact électrique (49, 50) ; caractérisé en ce que le dispositif (1) comprend en outre au moins un élément de protection (17), et l'élément d'actionnement (48) est mécaniquement lié, en tant que pièce unique, directement au moyen de commutation (2, 3), dans lequel l'au moins un moyen de commutation (2, 3) est installé sur la seconde plaque (21) et les prises (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) sont installées sur la première plaque (20), les prises (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), le moyen de commutation (2, 3) et l'élément d'actionnement (48) étant ainsi montés entre les deux plaques (20, 21).


     
    2. Dispositif changeur de prise « monophasé » (40) selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que l'élément d'actionnement (48) comprend un déplacement rotatif.
     
    3. Dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40) selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que l'élément d'actionnement (48) est fixé à un arbre (55), et en ce qu'il comprend un contour intérieur pourvu de protubérances (56), de telle sorte que la rotation de l'arbre (55) amène le contour intérieur à agir sur le moyen de commutation (2, 3) entraînant l'ouverture-fermeture de ce dernier.
     
    4. Dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40) selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que l'élément d'actionnement (48) comprend un contour intérieur pourvu de protubérances (56), et un contour extérieur pourvu de dents (59), le contour extérieur étant mécaniquement lié à un arbre de transmission (60), de telle sorte que la rotation de l'arbre de transmission (60) amène le contour intérieur à agir sur le moyen de commutation (2, 3) entraînant l'ouverture-fermeture de ce dernier.
     
    5. Dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40) selon la revendication 3 ou 4, caractérisé en ce que le moyen de commutation (2, 3) comprend un contact mobile (25) et un contact fixe (36), et dans lequel ledit moyen de commutation (2, 3) comprend en outre un élément de guidage (38) installé autour de celui-ci, assurant un déplacement droit et de niveau du contact mobile (25) du moyen de commutation (2, 3).
     
    6. Dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40) selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que l'élément de protection (17) comprend au moins une varistance et l'élément de limitation de courant (18) comprend une « résistance » ou un « réacteur ».
     
    7. Dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40) selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend un moyen de fenêtre d'inspection (34) qui permet de voir la position du dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40).
     
    8. Équipement électrique haute-tension (65), comprenant un dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40) en charge décrit dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, caractérisé en ce que ledit équipement électrique (65) comprend en plus un enroulement primaire (27) pourvu d'au moins un point de connexion (29, 30, 31, 32, 33) associé à au moins une prise (8, 9, 10, 11, 12), le nombre de tours dans l'enroulement primaire (27) étant variable, de telle sorte que la régulation automatique de la tension dans l'enroulement secondaire (28) de l'équipement électrique (65) est autorisée.
     
    9. Équipement électrique haute-tension (65) selon la revendication 8, caractérisé en ce que le dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40) peut être logé à l'intérieur de l'équipement électrique (65) horizontalement, sous le couvercle supérieur de l'équipement électrique (65), ou verticalement, sur un côté dudit équipement électrique (65).
     
    10. Équipement électrique haute-tension (65) selon la revendication 9, caractérisé en ce que le dispositif changeur de prises « monophasé » (40) comprend une position de démarrage en coordination avec le système capteur de l'équipement électrique haute-tension (65), dans lequel une vérification antérieure de la température du fluide diélectrique est effectuée pour vérifier que sa température est appropriée pour un fonctionnement correct du dispositif changeur de prises en charge « monophasé » (40).
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description