TECHNICAL FIELD
[0001] The invention pertains to the field of power system relay protection, in particular relates to a method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage and the corresponding relay protection apparatus or monitoring apparatus.
BACKGROUND
[0002] At present, the widely applied open-phase protection for circuit breakers on site is generally composed of three-phase inconsistent contact, phase current, zero-sequence current and negative-sequence current criteria. Under the working condition of operation under light load, owing to the small phase current, the negative-sequence current is quite small when the circuit breaker is in an open phase, it is difficult for the negative-sequence current to exceed its preset value, and the open-phase protection for the circuit breaker can't activate. The circuit breaker at the generator side is generally three-phase linked, not provided with three-phase inconsistent contact and unable to employ the traditional open-phase protection. The open-phase accidents caused by the breakage of tie bar in one phase of the circuit breaker at the generator side have occurred many times on site. Owing to the lack of open-phase protection, the power unit has to endure the negative-sequence current for a long time which threatens the safety of the generator. Thus, an open-phase protection independent from three-phase inconsistent contact is needed. In consideration of the above shortcomings existing in the traditional open-phase protection for circuit breakers, it is necessary to undertake research into a method and apparatus for identifying the open phase of circuit breaker independent from current magnitude and three-phase inconsistent contact.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0003] The main goal of the invention is to provide a method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage, independent from current magnitude, to solve the problem of failure in identifying by current criteria previously when the circuit breaker has an open phase under light load, and moreover, since three-phase inconsistent contact is not needed for circuit breaker, it also solves the problem of identifying the open phase of three-phase linked circuit breakers.
[0004] The invention utilizes the technical solution that: the theoretical analysis indicates that when a circuit breaker has an open phase, a certain vector difference will be produced between the voltages at two sides of the port, and therefore an open phase can be determined by identifying the vector difference between the voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker. A protection apparatus measures three-phase voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker; and respectively calculates the vector difference and the effective value of the voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker, when the phase voltages at two sides are both greater than 80% to 90% of the rated voltage, and the voltage vector difference at two sides of a certain one-phase or two-phase circuit breaker is greater than the set voltage, it is determined that the circuit breaker has an open phase, and it actuates an alarming or tripping operation after a short time delay t.
[0005] The invention also provides an open-phase protection apparatus for circuit breaker on the basis of voltage, comprising a sampling module, a Fourier calculation module, a compensating module and an identifying and actuating module, wherein:
The sampling module is used for the open-phase protection apparatus to sample the voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker;
The Fourier calculation module is used for calculating the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave vectors of the phase voltages at two sides and the fundamental wave amplitudes according to the results of the sampling module;
The compensating module is used for compensating the transmission error between TVs at two sides according to the results of the Fourier calculation module, so that the voltage vector difference of TVs at two sides of the port is 0 in case of normal operation;
The identifying and actuating module is used for identifying when the vector difference of voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker exceeds the upper limit of the preset range according to the results of the calculation module and the compensating module, and giving an alarming signal or tripping signal and outputting the contact state of tripping relay after a time delay.
[0006] Further, in the Fourier calculation module, the Fourier algorithm is employed for all the fundamental wave amplitudes of three-phase voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker.
[0007] The computation formulas for the fundamental wave amplitudes of the TV phase voltages at two sides are as follows:
[0008] Wherein, N is the times of sampling of the protection apparatus in each power frequency cycle, U
_{ϕRe} and U
_{ϕIm} are the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave of phase voltage, respectively, and U
_{ϕ.AM} is the fundamental wave amplitude of phase voltage.
[0009] Further, in the compensating module, two compensation coefficients are introduced for compensating the transmission error between TVs at two sides of the circuit breaker.
[0010] Vector difference of voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker:
[0011] Wherein,
U̇_{ϕM} and
U̇_{ϕN} are the phase voltage vectors at M and N sides,
U̇_{ϕM}=
U_{ϕM.Re}-
jU_{ϕM.Im},
U̇_{ϕN}=
U_{ϕN.Re}-
jU_{ϕN.Im},
k_{ϕ1} and
k_{ϕ2} are the compensating coefficients used for compensating the transmission error between TVs at two sides, so that the voltage vector difference of TVs at two sides of the port is 0 in case of normal operation;
[0013] When the circuit breaker has an open phase, the voltage difference of TVs at two sides of the port of the fault phase will have a certain value, and the above features form the criteria for open phase of a switch.
[0014] Further, in the identifying and actuating module, if any one of criteria in Formula (1)∼Formula (3) is satisfied, an open phase can be identified, and the protection apparatus actuates an alarming or tripping operation after a short time delay t.
[0015] Criterion for an open phase in Phase A of the circuit breaker:
[0016] Wherein, U
_{a.AM} and U
_{A.AM} are the voltage amplitudes in Phase A at M side and N side, respectively, U
_{ϕN} is the rated phase voltage, |Δ
U̇_{A}| is the amplitude of voltage vector difference in Phase A at two sides, ΔU
_{set} is the set value of voltage difference at two sides, η is generally valued as 80-90, and min represents taking the minimum value of the two values.
[0017] Criterion for an open phase in Phase B of the circuit breaker:
[0018] Criterion for an open phase in Phase C of the circuit breaker:
[0019] Further: The set value of vector difference ΔU
_{set} can be valued within the range of 0.1∼10.0V.
[0020] Further: The protection apparatus actuates an alarming or tripping operation after a short time delay t, and the set value of time delay can be valued within the range of 0.1∼10s.
[0021] The invention has the advantages that it is unnecessary to identify the current magnitude, and it solves the problem of failure in identifying an open phase by the traditional negative-sequence current criteria when the circuit breaker has an open phase under light load; since it is unnecessary to identify the three-phase inconsistent contact, it is also suitable for three-phase linked circuit breakers, whereas the previous principle of open-phase protection can't identify the open phase of three-phase linked circuit breakers.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0022]
FIG. 1 shows the diagram of measuring the three-phase voltages at two sides of the port when the circuit breaker has an open phase according to the invention, in which, G is a generator, T is a transformer connected to the generator, L is the line, B is a three-phase circuit breaker, m and n are the ports of the circuit breaker, TV_{M} is the voltage mutual inductor at M side of the circuit breaker, TV_{N} is the voltage mutual inductor at N side of the circuit breaker, U_{a}, U_{b} and U_{c} are the three-phase voltages at M side, and U_{A}, U_{B} and U_{C} are the three-phase voltages at N side.
FIG. 2 is the structural diagram of the apparatus provided by the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
[0023] The technical solution of the invention will be described below in details in conjunction with the drawings.
[0024] In FIG. 1, three-phase voltages at two sides are measured at the TVs at two sides of the port of the circuit breaker, and the fundamental wave amplitudes of voltages at two sides are calculated using the full cycle Fourier algorithm.
[0025] The computation formulas for the fundamental wave amplitudes of the TV phase voltages at two sides are as follows:
[0026] Wherein, N is the times of sampling of the protection apparatus in each power frequency cycle,
U_{Φ.Re} and
U_{Φ.Im} are the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave of phase voltage, respectively, and
U_{Φ.AM} is the fundamental wave amplitude of phase voltage.
[0027] Vector difference of voltages at two sides of the port of the switch:
[0028] Wherein, (
U̇_{ϕM} and
U̇_{ϕN} are the phase voltage vectors at M and N sides,
U̇_{ϕM}=
U_{ϕM.Re}-
jU_{ϕM.Im},
U̇_{ϕN}=U
_{ϕN.Re}-
jU_{ϕN.Im},
k_{Φ1} and
k_{Φ2} the compensating coefficients used for compensating the transmission error between TVs at two sides, so that the voltage vector difference of TVs at two sides of the port is 0 in case of normal operation.
[0030] When the circuit breaker has an open phase, the voltage difference of TVs at two sides of the port of the fault phase will have a certain value, and the above features form the criteria for open phase of the switch.
[0031] Criterion for an open phase in Phase A of the circuit breaker:
[0032] Wherein,
U_{Φ.AM} and
U_{A.AM} are the voltage amplitudes in Phase A at M side and N side, respectively,
U_{ΦN} is the rated phase voltage, lΔ
U̇_{A}l is the amplitude of voltage vector difference in Phase A at two sides,
ΔU_{set} is the set value of voltage difference, generally ranging between 0.1∼10V, η is generally valued as 80-90, and min represents taking the minimum value of the two values.
[0033] Criterion for an open phase in Phase B of the circuit breaker:
[0034] Criterion for an open phase in Phase C of the circuit breaker:
[0035] If any one condition of Formula (6)∼Formula (8) is satisfied, the protection apparatus actuates an alarming or tripping operation after a short time delay t, and the set value of time delay is generally valued within the range of 0.1∼10s.
[0036] In addition, the invention also provides an open-phase protection apparatus for circuit breaker on the basis of voltage, as shown in FIG. 2, comprising a sampling module, a Fourier calculation module, a compensating module and an identifying and actuating module, wherein:
The sampling module is used for the open-phase protection apparatus to sample the voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker;
The Fourier calculation module is used for calculating the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave vectors of the phase voltages at two sides and the fundamental wave amplitudes according to the results of the sampling module;
The compensating module is used for compensating the transmission error between TVs at two sides according to the results of the Fourier calculation module, so that the voltage vector difference of TVs at two sides of the port is 0 in case of normal operation;
The identifying and actuating module is used for identifying when the vector difference of voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker exceeds the upper limit of the preset range according to the results of the calculation module and the compensating module, and giving an alarming signal or tripping signal and outputting the contact state of tripping relay after a time delay.
[0037] The above embodiments are intended to explain the technical concept of the invention only, and by no means limit the scope of the invention, and any modification on the basis of the technical solution in accordance with the invention are all within the scope of the invention.
1. A method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage, characterized in that: a protection apparatus measures three-phase voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker; respectively calculates the vector difference and the effective value of the fundamental waves of voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker; when the phase voltages at two sides are both greater than the set threshold value, and the voltage vector difference at two sides of a certain one-phase or two-phase circuit breaker is greater than the set voltage, it is determined that the circuit breaker has an open phase; and actuates an alarming or tripping operation after a short time delay t.
2. The method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 1, characterized in that the set threshold value is 80%-90% of the rated voltage.
3. The method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 1, characterized in that the values of three-phase voltages at two sides are taken from the three-phase voltage mutual inductors at two sides of the circuit breaker.
4. The method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 1,
characterized in that if any one of criteria in the following Formula (1)∼Formula (3) is satisfied, an open phase can be identified, and the protection apparatus actuates an alarming or tripping operation after a short time delay t;
Criterion for an open phase in Phase A of the circuit breaker:
Criterion for an open phase in Phase B of the circuit breaker:
Criterion for an open phase in Phase C of the circuit breaker:
Wherein,
U_{a.Am} and
U_{A.AM} are the voltage amplitudes in Phase A at M side and N side, respectively,
U_{b.Am} and
U_{B.AM} are the voltage amplitudes in Phase B at M side and N side, respectively,
U_{c.AM} and
U_{C.AM} are the voltage amplitudes in Phase C at M side and N side, respectively, |Δ
U̇_{A}| is the amplitude of voltage vector difference in Phase A at two sides, |Δ
U̇_{B}| is the amplitude of voltage vector difference in Phase B at two sides, |Δ
U̇_{C}| is the amplitude of voltage vector difference in Phase c at two sides,
U_{ΦN} is the rated phase voltage, Δ
U_{set} is the set value of voltage difference at two sides, η is the scale factor, and min represents taking the minimum value of the two values.
5. The method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 1,
characterized in that the fundamental wave amplitudes of the three-phase voltages at two sides are all calculated using the full cycle Fourier algorithm,
The computation formulas for the fundamental wave amplitudes of the TV phase voltages at two sides are as follows:
Wherein, k is the serial number of sampling, N is the times of sampling of the protection apparatus in each power frequency cycles,
Φ is the phase of the three-phase voltages,
U_{Φ.Re} and
U_{Φ.lm} are the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave of phase voltage, respectively, and U
_{Φ.Am} is the fundamental wave amplitude of phase voltage.
6. The method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 1,
characterized in that two compensation coefficients are introduced for compensating the transmission error of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides of the circuit breaker,
Vector difference of voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker:
Wherein,
_{U̇}_{ϕM} and
U̇_{ϕN} are the phase voltage vectors at M and N sides,
U̇_{ϕM} =
U_{ϕM.Re} -
jU_{ϕM.Im},
U̇_{ϕN} =
U_{ϕN.Re} -
jU_{ϕN.Im},
k_{Φ1} and
k_{Φ2} are the compensating coefficients used for compensating the transmission error of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides, so that the voltage vector difference of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides of the port is 0 in case of normal operation,
U_{ΦN.Re} and
U_{ΦM.1m} are the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave of phase voltage at M side, and
U_{ΦN}._{Re} and
U_{ΦM.1m} are the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave of phase voltage at N side;
The full cycle Fourier algorithm of cosine models is employed, and the adjustment coefficient is calculated on the basis of the voltage waveform under normal conditions on condition that the phasor difference of two sides is 0:
When the circuit breaker has an open phase, the voltage difference of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides of the port of the fault phase will be greater than the set threshold value, and the above features form the criteria for open phase of the switch.
7. The method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 4, characterized in that the set value of vector difference ΔU_{set} is valued within the range of 0.1∼10.0V.
8. The method for identifying an open phase of a circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 1, characterized in that the protection apparatus actuates an alarming or tripping operation after a short time delay t, and the set value of time delay is valued within the range of 0.1∼10s.
9. An open-phase protection apparatus for circuit breaker on the basis of voltage,
characterized in that it comprises a sampling module, a Fourier calculation module, a compensating module and an identifying and actuating module, wherein:
the sampling module is used for the open-phase protection apparatus to sample the voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker;
the Fourier calculation module is used for calculating the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave vectors of the phase voltages at two sides and the fundamental wave amplitudes according to the results of the sampling module;
the compensating module is used for compensating the transmission error of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides according to the results of the Fourier calculation module, so that the voltage vector difference of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides of the port is 0 in case of normal operation;
the identifying and actuating module is used for identifying when the vector difference of voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker exceeds the upper limit of the preset range according to the results of the calculation module and the compensating module, and giving an alarming signal or tripping signal and outputting the contact state of tripping relay after a time delay.
10. The open-phase protection apparatus for circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 9, characterized in that the values of three-phase voltages at two sides are taken from the three-phase voltage mutual inductors at two sides of the circuit breaker.
11. The open-phase protection apparatus for circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 9,
characterized in that:
If any one of criteria in the following Formula (1)∼Formula (3) is satisfied, an open phase can be identified, and the protection apparatus actuates an alarming or tripping operation after a short time delay t;
Criterion for an open phase in Phase A of the circuit breaker:
Criterion for an open phase in Phase B of the circuit breaker:
Criterion for an open phase in Phase C of the circuit breaker:
Wherein, U_{a.AM} and U_{A.AM} are the voltage amplitudes in Phase A at M side and N side, respectively, U_{b.AM} and U_{B.AM} are the voltage amplitudes in Phase B at M side and N side, respectively, U_{c.AM} and U_{c.AM} are the voltage amplitudes in Phase C at M side and N side, respectively, |ΔU̇_{A}| is the amplitude of voltage vector difference in Phase A at two sides, |ΔU̇_{B}| is the amplitude of voltage vector difference in Phase B at two sides, |ΔU̇_{C}| is the amplitude of voltage vector difference in Phase C at two sides, U_{ΦN} is the rated phase voltage, ΔU_{set} is the set value of voltage difference at two sides, η is the scale factor, and min represents taking the minimum value of the two values.
12. The open-phase protection apparatus for circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 9,
characterized in that:
The fundamental wave amplitudes of the three-phase voltages at two sides are all calculated using the full cycle Fourier algorithm,
The computation formulas for the fundamental wave amplitudes of the TV phase voltages at two sides are as follows:
Wherein, k is the serial number of sampling, N is the times of sampling of the protection apparatus in each power frequency cycle, Φ is the phase of the three-phase voltages, U_{ø}.re and U_{ø.Im} are the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave of phase voltage, respectively, and U_{ø.AM} is the fundamental wave amplitude of phase voltage.
13. The open-phase protection apparatus for circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 9,
characterized in that:
Two compensation coefficients are introduced for compensating the transmission error of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides of the circuit breaker,
Vector difference of voltages at two sides of the circuit breaker:
Wherein, U̇_{ϕM} and U̇_{ϕN} are the phase voltage vectors at M and N sides, U̇_{ϕM}=U_{ϕM.Re}-jU_{ϕM.Im}, U̇_{ϕN} =U_{ϕN.Re}-jU_{ϕN.Im}, k_{ϕ1} and k_{ϕ2} are the compensating coefficients used for compensating the transmission error of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides, so that the voltage vector difference of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides of the port is 0 in case of normal operation, U_{ϕN.Re} and U_{ϕM.Im} are the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave of phase voltage at M side, and U_{ϕN.Re} and U_{ϕN.Im} are the real part and the imaginary part of the fundamental wave of phase voltage at N side;
The full cycle Fourier algorithm of cosine models is employed, and the adjustment coefficient is calculated on the basis of the voltage waveform under normal conditions on condition that the phasor difference of two sides is 0:
When the circuit breaker has an open phase, the voltage difference of the voltage mutual inductors at two sides of the port of the fault phase will be greater than the set threshold value, and the above features form the criteria for open phase of the switch.
14. The open-phase protection apparatus for circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 11, characterized in that the set value of vector difference ΔU_{set} can be valued within the range of 0.1∼10.0V.
15. The open-phase protection apparatus for circuit breaker on the basis of voltage according to claim 9, characterized in that: the protection apparatus actuates an alarming or tripping operation after a short time delay t, and the set value of time delay is valued within the range of 0.1∼10s.