(19)
(11)EP 3 297 359 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.12.2020 Bulletin 2020/50

(21)Application number: 16793036.1

(22)Date of filing:  13.05.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H04W 74/00(2009.01)
H04W 84/12(2009.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/KR2016/005097
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/182390 (17.11.2016 Gazette  2016/46)

(54)

METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING OR RECEIVING FRAME IN WIRELESS LAN SYSTEM AND APPARATUS THEREFOR

VERFAHREN ZUM SENDEN ODER EMPFANGEN EINES RAHMENS IN EINEM WLAN-SYSTEM UND VORRICHTUNG DAFÜR

PROCÉDÉ D'ENVOI OU DE RÉCEPTION DE TRAME DANS UN SYSTÈME LAN SANS FIL, ET APPAREIL ASSOCIÉ


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 13.05.2015 US 201562160614 P
20.05.2015 US 201562163984 P
24.11.2015 US 201562259078 P
08.01.2016 US 201662276246 P
12.02.2016 US 201662294310 P
21.02.2016 US 201662297938 P
02.03.2016 US 201662302202 P
06.03.2016 US 201662304304 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
21.03.2018 Bulletin 2018/12

(73)Proprietor: LG Electronics Inc.
Yeongdeungpo-gu Seoul 07336 (KR)

(72)Inventors:
  • KIM, Jeongki
    Seoul 06772 (KR)
  • RYU, Kiseon
    Seoul 06772 (KR)
  • CHOI, Jinsoo
    Seoul 06772 (KR)
  • CHO, Hangyu
    Seoul 06772 (KR)

(74)Representative: Frenkel, Matthias Alexander 
Wuesthoff & Wuesthoff Patentanwälte PartG mbB Schweigerstrasse 2
81541 München
81541 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2015/064943
US-A1- 2015 009 894
US-A1- 2015 055 546
WO-A1-2016/172620
US-A1- 2015 023 337
  
  • YOUNG HOON KWON (NEWRACOM): "SIG structure for UL PPDU ; 11-15-0574-00-00ax-sig-structure-for-ul-pp du", IEEE DRAFT; 11-15-0574-00-00AX-SIG-STRUCTURE-FOR-UL-PP DU, IEEE-SA MENTOR, PISCATAWAY, NJ USA, vol. 802.11ax, 11 May 2015 (2015-05-11), pages 1-17, XP068094427, [retrieved on 2015-05-11]
  • SUDHEER GRANDHI (INTERDIGITAL): "Considerations for early NAV indication ; 11-12-0615-00-00ah-considerations-for-earl y-nav-indication", IEEE SA MENTOR; 11-12-0615-00-00AH-CONSIDERATIONS-FOR-EARL Y-NAV-INDICATION, IEEE-SA MENTOR, PISCATAWAY, NJ USA, vol. 802.11ah, 11 May 2012 (2012-05-11), pages 1-9, XP068039105, [retrieved on 2012-05-11]
  • JOHN SON (WILUS INSTITUTE): "Design Principles for HE Preamble ; 11-15-0621-01-00ax-design-principles-for-h e-preamble", IEEE DRAFT; 11-15-0621-01-00AX-DESIGN-PRINCIPLES-FOR-H E-PREAMBLE, IEEE-SA MENTOR, PISCATAWAY, NJ USA, vol. 802.11ax, no. 1, 12 May 2015 (2015-05-12), pages 1-13, XP068094496, [retrieved on 2015-05-12]
  • ASTERJADHI, ALFRED ET AL.: 'LB 200 Comment Resolution for TXOP Sharing' IEEE P802.11 27 April 2014, XP068069241
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

[Technical Field]



[0001] The present invention relates to a method of transmitting or receiving frames in a wireless LAN system and, more particularly, to a method of transmitting and receiving frames for management of a transmission opportunity (TXOP) or network allocation vector (NAV) and an apparatus therefor.

[Background Art]



[0002] Standards for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technology have been developed as Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards. IEEE 802.11a and b use an unlicensed band at 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz. IEEE 802.11b provides a transmission rate of 11 Mbps and IEEE 802.11a provides a transmission rate of 54 Mbps. IEEE 802.11g provides a transmission rate of 54 Mbps by applying Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) at 2.4 GHz. IEEE 802.11n provides a transmission rate of 300 Mbps for four spatial streams by applying Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)-OFDM. IEEE 802.11n supports a channel bandwidth of up to 40 MHz and, in this case, provides a transmission rate of 600 Mbps.

[0003] The above-described WLAN standards have evolved into IEEE 802.11ac that uses a bandwidth of up to 160 MHz and supports a transmission rate of up to 1 Gbits/s for 8 spatial streams and IEEE 802.11ax standards are under discussion.

[0004] Patent application WO 2016/172620 A1, which represents prior art under Article 54(3) EPC, describes that, in wireless communications, an access point may send a trigger frame to multiple stations, wherein the trigger frame's payload may include a first content and a second content, wherein the first content is associated with a legacy signal field of an uplink frame, and the second content is associated with a non-legacy signal field of the uplink frame, in response to the trigger frame. One or more stations may generate the uplink frame(s) based on the trigger frame and transmit the uplink frame(s) to the access point. The uplink frame(s) may include a legacy signal field and a non-legacy signal field, wherein the legacy field may include a length of the uplink frame(s) that is based on the first content, and the non-legacy signal field may include a remaining transmission opportunity (TXOP) duration that is generated based on the second content.

[0005] Young Hoon Kwon (NEWRACOM): "SIG structure for UL PPDU", IEEE draft, vol. 802.11ax, 11 May 2015, XP068094427, outlines analysis for UL transmission (SU and MU) and SIG field structures. In the document, HE-SIG-B is described to be required if PSDU does not occupy entire transmission bandwidth to indicate allocated resource, however, the HE-SIG-B is not required if PSDU occupies the entire transmission bandwidth.

[Disclosure]


[Technical Problem]



[0006] An object of the present invention devised to solve the problem lies in a method of efficiently signaling a TXOP duration by a TXOP holder/responder STA through frame transmission in a wireless LAN system supporting an HE PPDU and a method of accurately managing a NAV by a third party STA that receives signaling of the TXOP duration through a corresponding frame.

[0007] The present invention is not limited to the above technical problems and other technical objects may be inferred from embodiments of the present invention.

[Technical Solution]



[0008] The scope of the present invention is defined in the appended claims. In an aspect of the present disclosure, a method of transmitting a frame by a station (STA) in a wireless LAN system supporting an HE PPDU (high efficiency physical layer protocol data unit) includes: setting a first duration field included in an HE-SIG A field; and transmitting a frame including the HE-SIG A field and a MAC header, wherein in setting of the first duration field included in the HE-SIG A field, the first duration field is set to indicate a TXOP (transmission opportunity) value using a smaller number of bits than a second duration field included in the MAC header, and wherein a granularity of a time unit used for indicating the TXOP value in the first duration field is set to be different from a granularity of a time unit used in the second duration field.

[0009] In another aspect of the present disclosure, a station transmitting a frame in a wireless LAN system supporting an HE PPDU includes: a processor for setting a first duration field included in an HE-SIG A field; and a transmitter for transmitting a frame including the HE-SIG A field and a MAC header, wherein in setting of the first duration field included in the HE-SIG A field, the first duration field is set to indicate a TXOP value using a smaller number of bits than a second duration field included in the MAC header, and wherein a granularity of a time unit used for indicating the TXOP value in the first duration field is set to be different from a granularity of a time unit used in the second duration field.

[0010] In another aspect of the present disclosure, a method of managing a network allocation vector (NAV) by a station (STA) in a wireless LAN system supporting an HE PPDU includes: receiving a frame including an HE-SIG A field and a MAC header; and performing NAV management based on one of a first duration field included in the HE-SIG A field and a second duration field included in the MAC header, wherein the first duration field is set to indicate a TXOP value using a smaller number of bits than the second duration field included in the MAC header, and wherein a granularity of a time unit used for indicating the TXOP value in the first duration field is set to be different from a granularity of a time unit used in the second duration field.

[0011] The granularity of the time unit used in the first duration field may vary depending on the TXOP value to be indicated through the first duration field.

[0012] The first duration field may include at least one bit indicating the granularity determined according to the TXOP value. The remaining bits of the first duration field may indicate how many number of time units based on the indicated granularity are included in the TXOP value.

[0013] The first duration field may be set to 5, 6 or 7 bits and the most significant bit (MSB) of the first duration field may be used to indicate the granularity of a time unit. The first duration field may be set to 5 bits and the granularity indicated by the MSB may be one of 32 µs and 512 µs, the first duration field may be set to 6 bits and the granularity indicated by the MSB may be one of 16 µs and 256 µs, or the first duration field may be set to 7 bits and the granularity indicated by the MSB may be one of 8 µs and 128 µs.

[0014] Both the TXOP value indicated by the first duration field and a TXOP value indicated by the second duration field may be set for transmission of the same frame, and the TXOP value indicated by the first duration field may greater than or equals to the TXOP value indicated by the second duration field.

[0015] The STA performing NAV management may set, update or reset a time where channel access is restricted in order to protect a TXOP of a transmitter of the frame or a receiver of the frame when the STA is not designated as the receiver of the frame.

[0016] The STA performing NAV management may perform NAV management on the basis of the second duration field when the MAC header has been successfully decoded and perform NAV management on the basis of the first duration field when decoding of the MAC header has been failed.

[Advantageous Effects]



[0017] According to an embodiment of the present invention, a TXOP duration is set in an HE-SIG A field and thus even third party STAs that do not decode a MAC header can accurately protect a TXOP of a TXOP holder/responder. Furthermore, it is possible to minimize signaling overhead of the HE-SIG A field by using multiple granularities of time units for a TXOP duration field set in the HE-SIG A field.

[0018] Other technical effects in addition to the above-described effects may be inferred from embodiments of the present invention.

[Description of Drawings]



[0019] 

FIG. 1 illustrates an example of a configuration of a wireless LAN system.

FIG. 2 illustrates another example of a configuration of a wireless LAN system.

FIG. 3 illustrates a general link setup procedure.

FIG. 4 illustrates a backoff procedure.

FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram of a hidden node and an exposed node.

FIG. 6 is an explanatory diagram of RTS and CTS.

FIGS.7 to 9 are explanatory diagrams of operation of an STA that has received TIM.

FIG. 10 is an explanatory diagram of an exemplary frame structure used in an IEEE 802.11 system.

FIG. 11 illustrates a contention free (CF)-END frame.

FIG. 12 illustrates an example of an HE PPDU.

FIG. 13 illustrates another example of the HE PPDU.

FIG. 14 illustrates another example of the HE PPDU.

FIG. 15 illustrates another example of the HE PPDU.

FIG. 16 illustrates another example of the HE PPDU.

FIGS. 17 and 18 illustrating an HE-SIG B padding method.

FIG. 19 is an explanatory diagram of uplink multi-user transmission according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 20 illustrates a trigger frame format according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 21 illustrates an example of NAV setting.

FIG. 22 illustrates an example of TXOP truncation.

FIG. 23 illustrates TXOP duration setting of multiple granularities according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 24 illustrates allocation of a UL OFDMA BA frame in MCSO according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 25 illustrates a method of setting a TXOP duration value according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 26 illustrates a frame transmission and NAV management method according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 27 illustrates an apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.


[Mode for Invention]



[0020] Reference will now be made in detail to the exemplary embodiments of the present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. The detailed description, which will be given below with reference to the accompanying drawings, is intended to explain exemplary embodiments of the present invention, rather than to show the only embodiments that can be implemented according to the present invention.

[0021] The following detailed description includes specific details in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. However, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced without such specific details. In some instances, known structures and devices are omitted or are shown in block diagram form, focusing on important features of the structures and devices, so as not to obscure the concept of the present invention.

[0022] As described before, the following description is given of a method and apparatus for increasing a spatial reuse rate in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) system. To do so, a WLAN system to which the present invention is applied will first be described in detail.

[0023] FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating an exemplary configuration of a WLAN system.

[0024] As illustrated in FIG. 1, the WLAN system includes at least one Basic Service Set (BSS). The BSS is a set of STAs that are able to communicate with each other by successfully performing synchronization.

[0025] An STA is a logical entity including a physical layer interface between a Media Access Control (MAC) layer and a wireless medium. The STA may include an AP and a non-AP STA. Among STAs, a portable terminal manipulated by a user is the non-AP STA. If a terminal is simply called an STA, the STA refers to the non-AP STA. The non-AP STA may also be referred to as a terminal, a Wireless Transmit/Receive Unit (WTRU), a User Equipment (UE), a Mobile Station (MS), a mobile terminal, or a mobile subscriber unit.

[0026] The AP is an entity that provides access to a Distribution System (DS) to an associated STA through a wireless medium. The AP may also be referred to as a centralized controller, a Base Station (BS), a Node-B, a Base Transceiver System (BTS), or a site controller.

[0027] The BSS may be divided into an infrastructure BSS and an Independent BSS (IBSS).

[0028] The BSS illustrated in FIG. 1 is the IBSS. The IBSS refers to a BSS that does not include an AP. Since the IBSS does not include the AP, the IBSS is not allowed to access to the DS and thus forms a self-contained network.

[0029] FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating another exemplary configuration of a WLAN system.

[0030] BSSs illustrated in FIG. 2 are infrastructure BSSs. Each infrastructure BSS includes one or more STAs and one or more APs. In the infrastructure BSS, communication between non-AP STAs is basically conducted via an AP. However, if a direct link is established between the non-AP STAs, direct communication between the non-AP STAs may be performed.

[0031] As illustrated in FIG. 2, the multiple infrastructure BSSs may be interconnected via a DS. The BSSs interconnected via the DS are called an Extended Service Set (ESS). STAs included in the ESS may communicate with each other and a non-AP STA within the same ESS may move from one BSS to another BSS while seamlessly performing communication.

[0032] The DS is a mechanism that connects a plurality of APs to one another. The DS is not necessarily a network. As long as it provides a distribution service, the DS is not limited to any specific form. For example, the DS may be a wireless network such as a mesh network or may be a physical structure that connects APs to one another.

Layer Architecture



[0033] An operation of an STA in a WLAN system may be described from the perspective of a layer architecture. A processor may implement the layer architecture in terms of device configuration. The STA may have a plurality of layers. For example, the 802.11 standards mainly deal with a MAC sublayer and a PHY layer on a Data Link Layer (DLL). The PHY layer may include a Physical Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP) entity, a Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) entity, and the like. Each of the MAC sublayer and the PHY layer conceptually includes management entities called MAC sublayer Management Entity (MLME) and Physical Layer Management Entity (PLME). These entities provide layer management service interfaces through which a layer management function is executed.

[0034] To provide a correct MAC operation, a Station Management Entity (SME) resides in each STA. The SME is a layer independent entity which may be perceived as being present in a separate management plane or as being off to the side. While specific functions of the SME are not described in detail herein, the SME may be responsible for collecting layer-dependent states from various Layer Management Entities (LMEs) and setting layer-specific parameters to similar values. The SME may execute these functions and implement a standard management protocol on behalf of general system management entities.

[0035] The above-described entities interact with one another in various manners. For example, the entities may interact with one another by exchanging GET/SET primitives between them. A primitive refers to a set of elements or parameters related to a specific purpose. An XX-GET.request primitive is used to request a predetermined MIB attribute value (management information-based attribute information). An XX-GET.confirm primitive is used to return an appropriate MIB attribute information value when the Status field indicates "Success" and to return an error indication in the Status field when the Status field does not indicate "Success". An XX-SET.request primitive is used to request setting of an indicated MIB attribute to a predetermined value. When the MIB attribute indicates a specific operation, the MIB attribute requests the specific operation to be performed. An XX-SET.confirm primitive is used to confirm that the indicated MIB attribute has been set to a requested value when the Status field indicates "Success" and to return an error condition in the Status field when the Status field does not indicate "Success". When the MIB attribute indicates a specific operation, it confirms that the operation has been performed.

[0036] Also, the MLME and the SME may exchange various MLME_GET/SET primitives through an MLME Service Access Point (MLME_SAP). In addition, various PLME_GET/SET primitives may be exchanged between the PLME and the SME through a PLME_SAP, and exchanged between the MLME and the PLME through an MLME-PLME_SAP.

Link Setup Process



[0037] FIG. 3 is a flowchart explaining a general link setup process according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

[0038] In order to allow an STA to establish link setup on the network as well as to transmit/receive data over the network, the STA must perform such link setup through processes of network discovery, authentication, and association, and must establish association and perform security authentication. The link setup process may also be referred to as a session initiation process or a session setup process. In addition, an association step is a generic term for discovery, authentication, association, and security setup steps of the link setup process.

[0039] Link setup process is described referring to FIG. 3.

[0040] In step S510, STA may perform the network discovery action. The network discovery action may include the STA scanning action. That is, STA must search for an available network so as to access the network. The STA must identify a compatible network before participating in a wireless network. Here, the process for identifying the network contained in a specific region is referred to as a scanning process.

[0041] The scanning scheme is classified into active scanning and passive scanning.

[0042] FIG. 3 is a flowchart illustrating a network discovery action including an active scanning process. In the case of the active scanning, an STA configured to perform scanning transmits a probe request frame and waits for a response to the probe request frame, such that the STA can move between channels and at the same time can determine which Access Point (AP) is present in a peripheral region. A responder transmits a probe response frame, acting as a response to the probe request frame, to the STA having transmitted the probe request frame. In this case, the responder may be an STA that has finally transmitted a beacon frame in a BSS of the scanned channel. In BSS, since the AP transmits the beacon frame, the AP operates as a responder. In IBSS, since STAs of the IBSS sequentially transmit the beacon frame, the responder is not constant. For example, the STA, that has transmitted the probe request frame at Channel #1 and has received the probe response frame at Channel #1, stores BSS-associated information contained in the received probe response frame, and moves to the next channel (for example, Channel #2), such that the STA may perform scanning using the same method (i.e., probe request/response transmission/reception at Channel #2).

[0043] Although not shown in FIG. 3, the scanning action may also be carried out using passive scanning. AN STA configured to perform scanning in the passive scanning mode waits for a beacon frame while simultaneously moving from one channel to another channel. The beacon frame is one of management frames in IEEE 802.11, indicates the presence of a wireless network, enables the STA performing scanning to search for the wireless network, and is periodically transmitted in a manner that the STA can participate in the wireless network. In BSS, the AP is configured to periodically transmit the beacon frame. In IBSS, STAs of the IBSS are configured to sequentially transmit the beacon frame. If each STA for scanning receives the beacon frame, the STA stores BSS information contained in the beacon frame, and moves to another channel and records beacon frame information at each channel. The STA having received the beacon frame stores BSS-associated information contained in the received beacon frame, moves to the next channel, and thus performs scanning using the same method.

[0044] In comparison between the active scanning and the passive scanning, the active scanning is more advantageous than the passive scanning in terms of delay and power consumption.

[0045] After the STA discovers the network, the STA may perform the authentication process in step S520. The authentication process may be referred to as a first authentication process in such a manner that the authentication process can be clearly distinguished from the security setup process of step S540.

[0046] The authentication process may include transmitting an authentication request frame to an AP by the STA, and transmitting an authentication response frame to the STA by the AP in response to the authentication request frame. The authentication frame used for authentication request/response may correspond to a management frame.

[0047] The authentication frame may include an authentication algorithm number, an authentication transaction sequence number, a state code, a challenge text, a Robust Security Network (RSN), a Finite Cyclic Group (FCG), etc. The above-mentioned information contained in the authentication frame may correspond to some parts of information capable of being contained in the authentication request/response frame, may be replaced with other information, or may include additional information.

[0048] The STA may transmit the authentication request frame to the AP. The AP may decide whether to authenticate the corresponding STA on the basis of information contained in the received authentication request frame. The AP may provide the authentication result to the STA through the authentication response frame.

[0049] After the STA has been successfully authenticated, the association process may be carried out in step S530. The association process may involve transmitting an association request frame to the AP by the STA, and transmitting an association response frame to the STA by the AP in response to the association request frame.

[0050] For example, the association request frame may include information associated with various capabilities, a beacon listen interval, a Service Set Identifier (SSID), supported rates, supported channels, RSN, mobility domain, supported operating classes, a TIM (Traffic Indication Map) broadcast request, interworking service capability, etc.

[0051] For example, the association response frame may include information associated with various capabilities, a state code, an Association ID (AID), supported rates, an Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) parameter set, a Received Channel Power Indicator (RCPI), a Received Signal to Noise Indicator (RSNI), mobility domain, a timeout interval (association comeback time), an overlapping BSS scan parameter, a TIM broadcast response, a Quality of Service (QoS) map, etc.

[0052] The above-mentioned information may correspond to some parts of information capable of being contained in the association request/response frame, may be replaced with other information, or may include additional information.

[0053] After the STA has been successfully associated with the network, a security setup process may be carried out in step S540. The security setup process of Step S540 may be referred to as an authentication process based on Robust Security Network Association (RSNA) request/response. The authentication process of step S520 may be referred to as a first authentication process, and the security setup process of Step S540 may also be simply referred to as an authentication process.

[0054] For example, the security setup process of Step S540 may include a private key setup process through 4-way handshaking based on an Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) frame. In addition, the security setup process may also be carried out according to other security schemes not defined in IEEE 802.11 standards.

Medium Access Mechanism



[0055] In the IEEE 802.11 - based WLAN system, a basic access mechanism of Medium Access Control (MAC) is a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) mechanism. The CSMA/CA mechanism is referred to as a Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) of IEEE 802.11 MAC, and basically includes a "Listen Before Talk" access mechanism. In accordance with the above-mentioned access mechanism, the AP and/or STA may perform Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) for sensing an RF channel or medium during a predetermined time interval [for example, DCF Inter-Frame Space (DIFS)], prior to data transmission. If it is determined that the medium is in the idle state, frame transmission through the corresponding medium begins. On the other hand, if it is determined that the medium is in the occupied state, the corresponding AP and/or STA does not start its own transmission, establishes a delay time (for example, a random backoff period) for medium access, and attempts to start frame transmission after waiting for a predetermined time. Through application of a random backoff period, it is expected that multiple STAs will attempt to start frame transmission after waiting for different times, resulting in minimum collision.

[0056] In addition, IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol provides a Hybrid Coordination Function (HCF). HCF is based on DCF and Point Coordination Function (PCF). PCF refers to the polling-based synchronous access scheme in which periodic polling is executed in a manner that all reception (Rx) APs and/or STAs can receive the data frame. In addition, HCF includes Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) and HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA). EDCA is achieved when the access scheme provided from a provider to a plurality of users is contention-based. HCCA is achieved by the contention-free-based channel access scheme based on the polling mechanism. In addition, HCF includes a medium access mechanism for improving Quality of Service (QoS) of WLAN, and may transmit QoS data in both a Contention Period (CP) and a Contention Free Period (CFP).

[0057] FIG. 4 is a conceptual diagram illustrating a backoff process.

[0058] Operations based on a random backoff period will hereinafter be described with reference to FIG. 4. If the occupy- or busy- state medium is shifted to an idle state, several STAs may attempt to transmit data (or frame). As a method for implementing a minimum number of collisions, each STA selects a random backoff count, waits for a slot time corresponding to the selected backoff count, and then attempts to start data transmission. The random backoff count has a value of a Packet Number (PN), and may be set to one of 0 to CW values. In this case, CW refers to a Contention Window parameter value. Although an initial value of the CW parameter is denoted by CWmin, the initial value may be doubled in case of a transmission failure (for example, in the case in which ACK of the transmission frame is not received). If the CW parameter value is denoted by CWmax, CWmax is maintained until data transmission is successful, and at the same time it is possible to attempt to start data transmission. If data transmission was successful, the CW parameter value is reset to CWmin. Preferably, CW, CWmin, and CWmax are set to 2n-1 (where n=0, 1,2, ...).

[0059] If the random backoff process starts operation, the STA continuously monitors the medium while counting down the backoff slot in response to the decided backoff count value. If the medium is monitored as the occupied state, the countdown stops and waits for a predetermined time. If the medium is in the idle state, the remaining countdown restarts.

[0060] As shown in the example of FIG. 4, if a packet to be transmitted to MAC of STA3 arrives at the STA3, the STA3 determines whether the medium is in the idle state during the DIFS, and may directly start frame transmission. In the meantime, the remaining STAs monitor whether the medium is in the busy state, and wait for a predetermined time. During the predetermined time, data to be transmitted may occur in each of STA1, STA2, and STA5. If the medium is in the idle state, each STA waits for the DIFS time and then performs countdown of the backoff slot in response to a random backoff count value selected by each STA. The example of FIG. 4 shows that STA2 selects the lowest backoff count value and STA1 selects the highest backoff count value. That is, after STA2 finishes backoff counting, the residual backoff time of STA5 at a frame transmission start time is shorter than the residual backoff time of STA1. Each of STA1 and STA5 temporarily stops countdown while STA2 occupies the medium, and waits for a predetermined time. If occupying of the STA2 is finished and the medium re-enters the idle state, each of STA1 and STA5 waits for a predetermined time DIFS, and restarts backoff counting. That is, after the remaining backoff slot as long as the residual backoff time is counted down, frame transmission may start operation. Since the residual backoff time of STA5 is shorter than that of STA1, STA5 starts frame transmission. Meanwhile, data to be transmitted may occur in STA4 while STA2 occupies the medium. In this case, if the medium is in the idle state, STA4 waits for the DIFS time, performs countdown in response to the random backoff count value selected by the STA4, and then starts frame transmission. FIG. 4 exemplarily shows the case in which the residual backoff time of STA5 is identical to the random backoff count value of STA4 by chance. In this case, an unexpected collision may occur between STA4 and STA5. If the collision occurs between STA4 and STA5, each of STA4 and STA5 does not receive ACK, resulting in the occurrence of a failure in data transmission. In this case, each of STA4 and STA5 increases the CW value two times, and STA4 or STA5 may select a random backoff count value and then perform countdown. Meanwhile, STA1 waits for a predetermined time while the medium is in the occupied state due to transmission of STA4 and STA5. In this case, if the medium is in the idle state, STA1 waits for the DIFS time, and then starts frame transmission after lapse of the residual backoff time.

STA Sensing Operation



[0061] As described above, the CSMA/CA mechanism includes not only a physical carrier sensing mechanism in which the AP and/or STA can directly sense the medium, but also a virtual carrier sensing mechanism. The virtual carrier sensing mechanism can solve some problems (such as a hidden node problem) encountered in the medium access. For the virtual carrier sensing, MAC of the WLAN system can utilize a Network Allocation Vector (NAV). In more detail, by means of the NAV value, the AP and/or STA, each of which currently uses the medium or has authority to use the medium, may inform another AP and/or another STA for the remaining time in which the medium is available. Accordingly, the NAV value may correspond to a reserved time in which the medium will be used by the AP and/or STA configured to transmit the corresponding frame. AN STA having received the NAV value may prohibit medium access (or channel access) during the corresponding reserved time. For example, NAV may be set according to the value of a 'duration' field of the MAC header of the frame.

[0062] The robust collision detect mechanism has been proposed to reduce the probability of such collision, and as such a detailed description thereof will hereinafter be described with reference to FIGS. 7 and 8. Although an actual carrier sensing range is different from a transmission range, it is assumed that the actual carrier sensing range is identical to the transmission range for convenience of description and better understanding of the present invention.

[0063] FIG. 5 is a conceptual diagram illustrating a hidden node and an exposed node.

[0064] FIG. 5(a) exemplarily shows the hidden node. In FIG. 5(a), STA A communicates with STA B, and STA C has information to be transmitted. In FIG. 5(a), STA C may determine that the medium is in the idle state when performing carrier sensing before transmitting data to STA B, under the condition that STA A transmits information to STA B. Since transmission of STA A (i.e., occupied medium) may not be detected at the location of STA C, it is determined that the medium is in the idle state. In this case, STA B simultaneously receives information of STA A and information of STA C, resulting in the occurrence of collision. Here, STA A may be considered as a hidden node of STA C.

[0065] FIG. 5(b) exemplarily shows an exposed node. In FIG. 5(b), under the condition that STA B transmits data to STA A, STA C has information to be transmitted to STA D. If STA C performs carrier sensing, it is determined that the medium is occupied due to transmission of STA B. Therefore, although STA C has information to be transmitted to STA D, the medium-occupied state is sensed, such that the STA C must wait for a predetermined time (i.e., standby mode) until the medium is in the idle state. However, since STA A is actually located out of the transmission range of STA C, transmission from STA C may not collide with transmission from STA B from the viewpoint of STA A, such that STA C unnecessarily enters the standby mode until STA B stops transmission. Here, STA C is referred to as an exposed node of STA B.

[0066] FIG. 6 is a conceptual diagram illustrating Request To Send (RTS) and Clear To Send (CTS).

[0067] In order to efficiently utilize the collision avoidance mechanism under the above-mentioned situation of FIG. 5, it is possible to use a short signaling packet such as RTS and CTS. RTS/CTS between two STAs may be overheard by peripheral STA(s), such that the peripheral STA(s) may consider whether information is communicated between the two STAs. For example, if STA to be used for data transmission transmits the RTS frame to the STA having received data, the STA having received data transmits the CTS frame to peripheral STAs, and may inform the peripheral STAs that the STA is going to receive data.

[0068] FIG. 6(a) exemplarily shows the method for solving problems of the hidden node. In FIG. 6(a), it is assumed that each of STA A and STA C is ready to transmit data to STA B. If STA A transmits RTS to STA B, STA B transmits CTS to each of STA A and STA C located in the vicinity of the STA B. As a result, STA C must wait for a predetermined time until STA A and STA B stop data transmission, such that collision is prevented from occurring.

[0069] FIG. 6(b) exemplarily shows the method for solving problems of the exposed node. STA C performs overhearing of RTS/CTS transmission between STA A and STA B, such that STA C may determine no collision although it transmits data to another STA (for example, STA D). That is, STA B transmits an RTS to all peripheral STAs, and only STA A having data to be actually transmitted can transmit a CTS. STA C receives only the RTS and does not receive the CTS of STA A, such that it can be recognized that STA A is located outside of the carrier sensing range of STA C.

Power Management



[0070] As described above, the WLAN system has to perform channel sensing before STA performs data transmission/reception. The operation of always sensing the channel causes persistent power consumption of the STA. There is not much difference in power consumption between the Reception (Rx) state and the Transmission (Tx) state. Continuous maintenance of the Rx state may cause large load to a power-limited STA (i.e., STA operated by a battery). Therefore, if STA maintains the Rx standby mode so as to persistently sense the channel, power is inefficiently consumed without special advantages in terms of WLAN throughput. In order to solve the above-mentioned problem, the WLAN system supports a Power Management (PM) mode of the STA.

[0071] The PM mode of the STA is classified into an active mode and a Power Save (PS) mode. The STA is basically operated in the active mode. The STA operating in the active mode maintains an awake state. If the STA is in the awake state, the STA may normally operate such that it can perform frame transmission/reception, channel scanning, or the like. On the other hand, STA operating in the PS mode is configured to switch from the doze state to the awake state or vice versa. STA operating in the sleep state is operated with minimum power, and the STA does not perform frame transmission/reception and channel scanning.

[0072] The amount of power consumption is reduced in proportion to a specific time in which the STA stays in the sleep state, such that the STA operation time is increased in response to the reduced power consumption. However, it is impossible to transmit or receive the frame in the sleep state, such that the STA cannot mandatorily operate for a long period of time. If there is a frame to be transmitted to the AP, the STA operating in the sleep state is switched to the awake state, such that it can transmit/receive the frame in the awake state. On the other hand, if the AP has a frame to be transmitted to the STA, the sleep-state STA is unable to receive the frame and cannot recognize the presence of a frame to be received. Accordingly, STA may need to switch to the awake state according to a specific period in order to recognize the presence or absence of a frame to be transmitted to the STA (or in order to receive a signal indicating the presence of the frame on the assumption that the presence of the frame to be transmitted to the STA is decided).

[0073] The AP may transmit a beacon frame to STAs in a BSS at predetermined intervals. The beacon frame may include a traffic indication map (TIM) information element. The TIM information element may include information indicating that the AP has buffered traffic for STAs associated therewith and will transmit frames. TIM elements include a TIM used to indicate a unitcast frame and a delivery traffic indication map (DTIM) used to indicate a multicast or broadcast frame.

[0074] FIGS. 7 to 9 are conceptual diagrams illustrating detailed operations of the STA having received a Traffic Indication Map (TIM).

[0075] Referring to FIG. 7, STA is switched from the sleep state to the awake state so as to receive the beacon frame including a TIM from the AP. STA interprets the received TIM element such that it can recognize the presence or absence of buffered traffic to be transmitted to the STA. After STA contends with other STAs to access the medium for PS-Poll frame transmission, the STA may transmit the PS-Poll frame for requesting data frame transmission to the AP. The AP having received the PS-Poll frame transmitted by the STA may transmit the frame to the STA. STA may receive a data frame and then transmit an ACK frame to the AP in response to the received data frame. Thereafter, the STA may reenter the sleep state.

[0076] As can be seen from FIG. 7, the AP may operate according to the immediate response scheme, such that the AP receives the PS-Poll frame from the STA and transmits the data frame after lapse of a predetermined time [for example, Short Inter-Frame Space (SIFS)]. In contrast, the AP having received the PS-Poll frame does not prepare a data frame to be transmitted to the STA during the SIFS time, such that the AP may operate according to the deferred response scheme, and as such a detailed description thereof will hereinafter be described with reference to FIG. 8.

[0077] The STA operations of FIG. 8 in which the STA is switched from the sleep state to the awake state, receives a TIM from the AP, and transmits the PS-Poll frame to the AP through contention are identical to those of FIG. 7. If the AP having received the PS-Poll frame does not prepare a data frame during the SIFS time, the AP may transmit the ACK frame to the STA instead of transmitting the data frame. If the data frame is prepared after transmission of the ACK frame, the AP may transmit the data frame to the STA after completion of such contending. STA may transmit the ACK frame indicating successful reception of a data frame to the AP, and may be shifted to the sleep state.

[0078] FIG. 9 shows the exemplary case in which AP transmits DTIM. STAs may be switched from the sleep state to the awake state so as to receive the beacon frame including a DTIM element from the AP. STAs may recognize that multicast/broadcast frame(s) will be transmitted through the received DTIM. After transmission of the beacon frame including the DTIM, AP may directly transmit data (i.e., multicast/broadcast frame) without transmitting/receiving the PS-Poll frame. While STAs continuously maintains the awake state after reception of the beacon frame including the DTIM, the STAs may receive data, and then switch to the sleep state after completion of data reception.

Frame structure



[0079] FIG. 10 is an explanatory diagram of an exemplary frame structure used in an IEEE 802.11 system.

[0080] A PPDU (Physical Layer Protocol Data Unit) frame format may include an STF (Short Training Field), an LTF (Long Training Field), a SIG (SIGNAL) field and a data field. The most basic (e.g., non-HT (High Throughput)) PPDU frame format may include only an L-STF (Legacy-STF), an L-LTF (Legacy-LTF), a SIG field and a data field.

[0081] The STF is a signal for signal detection, AGC (Automatic Gain Control), diversity selection, accurate time synchronization, etc., and the LTF is a signal for channel estimation, frequency error estimation, etc. The STF and LTF may be collectively called a PLCP preamble. The PLCP preamble may be regarded as a signal for OFDM physical layer synchronization and channel estimation.

[0082] The SIG field may include a RATE field and a LENGTH field. The RATE field may include information about modulation and coding rates of data. The LENGTH field may include information about the length of data. In addition, the SIG field may include a parity bit, a SIG TAIL bit, etc.

[0083] The data field may include a SERVICE field, a PSDU (Physical layer Service Data Unit) and a PPDU TAIL bit. The data field may also include padding bits as necessary. Some bits of the SERVICE field may be used for synchronization of a descrambler at a receiving end. The PSDU corresponds to an MPDU (MAC Protocol Data Unit) defined in the MAC layer and may include data generated/used in a higher layer. The PPDU TAIL bit may be used to return an encoder to state 0. The padding bits may be used to adjust the length of the data field to a predetermined unit.

[0084] The MPDU is defined depending on various MAC frame formats, and a basic MAC frame includes a MAC header, a frame body and an FCS (Frame Check Sequence). The MAC frame may be composed of the MPDU and transmitted/received through PSDU of a data part of the PPDU frame format.

[0085] The MAC header includes a frame control field, a duration/ID field, an address field, etc. The frame control field may include control information necessary for frame transmission/reception. The duration/ID field may be set to a time to transmit a relevant a relevant frame.

[0086] The duration/ID field included in the MAC header may be set to a 16-bit length (e.g., B0 to B15). Content included in the duration/ID field may depend on frame type and sub-type, whether transmission is performed for a CFP (contention free period), QoS capability of a transmission STA and the like. (i) In a control frame corresponding to a sub-type of PS-Poll, the duration/ID field may include the AID of the transmission STA (e.g., through 14 LSBs) and 2 MSBs may be set to 1. (ii) In frames transmitted by a PC (point coordinator) or a non-QoS STA for a CFP, the duration/ID field may be set to a fixed value (e.g., 32768). (iii) In other frames transmitted by a non-QoS STA or control frames transmitted by a QoS STA, the duration/ID field may include a duration value defined per frame type. In a data frame or a management frame transmitted by a QoS STA, the duration/ID field may include a duration value defined per frame type. For example, B15 = 0 of the duration/ID field indicates that the duration/ID field is used to indicate a TXOP duration, and B0 to B14 may be used to indicate an actual TXOP duration. The actual TXOP duration indicated by B0 to B14 may be one of 0 to 32767 and the unit thereof may be microseconds (µs). However, when the duration/ID field indicates a fixed TXOP duration value (e.g., 32768), B15 can be set to 1 and B0 to B14 can be set to 0. When B14=1 and B15=1, the duration/ID field is used to indicate an AID, and B0 to B13 indicate one AID of 1 to 2007. Refer to the IEEE 802.11 standard document for details of Sequence Control, QoS Control, and HT Control subfields of the MAC header.

[0087] The frame control field of the MAC header may include Protocol Version, Type, Subtype, To DS, From DS, More Fragment, Retry, Power Management, More Data, Protected Frame and Order subfields. Refer to the IEEE 802.11 standard document for contents of the subfields of the frame control field.

[0088] FIG. 11 illustrates a CF (contention free)-END frame.

[0089] It is assumed that the CF-END frame is transmitted by a non-DMG (directional multi-gigabit, 11ad) STA for convenience of description. The CF-END frame may be transmitted to truncate a TXOP duration. Accordingly, a duration field is set to 0 in the CF-END frame. An RA (Receiver Address) field may be set to a broadcast group address. A BSSID field may be set to an STA address included in a relevant AP. However, in the case of a CF-END frame in a non-HT or non-HT duplicate format, which is transmitted from a VHT STA to a VHT AP, an Individual/Group bit of the BSSID field may be set to 1.

Example of HE PPDU structure



[0090] A description will be given of examples of an HE PPDU (High Efficiency Physical layer Protocol Data Unit) format in a wireless LAN system supporting 11ax.

[0091] FIG. 12 illustrates an example of the HE PPDU. Referring to FIG. 12, an HE-SIG A (or HE-SIG1) field follows an L-Part (e.g., L-STF, L-LTF, L-SIG) and is duplicated every 20 MHz like the L-Part. The HE-SIG A field includes common control information (e.g., BW, GI length, BSS index, CRC, Tail, etc.) for STAs. The HE-SIG A field includes information for decoding the HE PPDU and thus information included in the HE-SIG A field may depend on the format of the HE PPDU (e.g., SU PPDU, MU PPDU, trigger-based PPDU or the like). For example, in the HE SU PPDU format, the HE-SIG A field may include at least one of a DL/UL indicator, HE PPDU format indicator, BSS color, TXOP duration, BW (bandwidth), MCS, CP + LTF length, coding information, the number of streams, STBC (e.g., whether STBC is used), transmission beamforming (TxBF) information, CRC and Tail. In the case of the HE SU PPDU format, the HE-SIG B field may be omitted. In the HE MU PPDU format, the HE-SIG A field may include at least one of a DL/UL indicator, BSS color, TXOP duration, BW, MCS information of a SIG B field, the number of symbols of the SIG B field, the number of HE LTF symbols, indicator indicating whether full band MU-MIMO is used, CP + LTF length, transmission beamforming (TxBF) information, CRC and Tail. In the HE trigger-based PPDU format, an HE-SIG A field may include at least one of a format indicator (e.g., indicating the SU PPDU or trigger-based PPDU), BSS color, TXOP duration, BW, CRC and Tail.

[0092] FIG. 13 illustrates another example of the HE PPDU. Referring to FIG. 13, the HE-SIG A may include user allocation information, for example, at least one of an STA ID such as a PAID or a GID, allocated resource information and the number of streams (Nsts), in addition to the common control information. Referring to FIG. 13, the HE-SIG B (or HE-SIG2) may be transmitted for each OFDMA allocation. In the case of MU-MIMO, the HE-SIG B is identified by an STA through SDM. The HE-SIG B may include additional user allocation information, for example, an MCS, coding information, STBC (Space Time Block Code) information and transmission beamforming (TXBF) information.

[0093] FIG. 14 illustrates another example of the HE PPDU. The HE-SIG B is transmitted following the HE-SIG A. The HE-SIG B may be transmitted through the full band on the basis of numerology of the HE-SIG A. The HE-SIG B may include user allocation information, for example, STA AID, resource allocation information (e.g., allocation size), MCS, the number of streams (Nsts), coding, STBC and transmission beamforming (TXBF) information.

[0094] FIG. 15 illustrates another example of the HE PPDU. The HE-SIG B may be duplicated per predetermined unit channel. Referring to FIG. 15, the HE-SIG B may be duplicated per 20 MHz. For example, the HE-SIG B can be transmitted in such a manner that the same information is duplicated per 20 MHz in 80MHz bandwidth.

[0095] An STA/AP which has received the HE-SIG B duplicated every 20 MHz may accumulate the received HE-SIG B per 20 MHz channel to improve reliability of HE-SIG B reception.

[0096] Since the same signal (e.g., HE-SIG B) is duplicated and transmitted per channel, the gain of accumulated signals is proportional to the number of channels over which the signal is duplicated and transmitted to improve reception performance. In theory, a duplicated and transmitted signal can have a gain corresponding to 3 dB X (the number of channels) compared to the signal before duplication. Accordingly, the duplicated and transmitted HE-SIG B may be transmitted with an increased MCS level depending on the number of channels through which the HE-SIG B is duplicated and transmitted. For example, if MCSO is used for the HE-SIG B transmitted without being duplicated, MCS1 can be used for the HE-SIG B duplicated and transmitted. Since the HE-SIG B can be transmitted with a higher MCS level as the number of channels for duplication increases, HE-SIG B overhead per unit channel can be reduced.

[0097] FIG. 16 illustrates another example of the HE PPDU. Referring to FIG. 16, the HE-SIG B may include independent information per 20 MHz channel. The HE-SIG B may be transmitted in a 1x symbol structure like the Legacy part (e.g., L-STF, L-LTF, L-SIG) and HE-SIG A. Meanwhile, a length of "L-STF+L-LTF+L-SIG+HE-SIGA+HE-SIGB" needs to be identical in all channels in a wide bandwidth. The HE-SIG B transmitted per 20 MHz channel may include allocation information about the corresponding band, for example, allocation information per user using the corresponding band, user ID, etc. However, the information of the HE-SIG B may vary between bands because the respective bands support different numbers of users and use different resource block configurations. Accordingly, the length of the HE-SIG B may be different for respective channels.

[0098] FIG. 17 illustrates an HE-SIG B padding method by which lengths before HE-STF (e.g., lengths to the HE-SIG B) become identical for respective channels. For example, the HE-SIG B may be duplicated by a padding length to align HE-SIG B lengths. As illustrated in FIG. 18, the HE-SIG B corresponding to a necessary padding length may be padded to the HE-SIG B from the start (or end) of the HE-SIG B.

[0099] According to an example, one HE-SIG B field can be transmitted when the bandwidth does not exceed 20 MHz. When the bandwidth exceeds 20 MHz, 20 MHz channels may respectively transmit one of a first type HE-SIG B (referred to hereinafter as HE-SIG B [1]) and a second type HE-SIG B (referred to hereinafter as HE-SIG B [2]). For example, HE-SIG B [1] and HE-SIG B [2] may be alternately transmitted. An odd-numbered 20 MHz channel may deliver HE-SIG B [1] and an even-numbered 20 MHz channel may deliver HE-SIG B [2]. More specifically, in the case of a 40 MHz bandwidth, HE-SIG B [1] is transmitted over the first 20 MHz channel and HE-SIG B [2] is transmitted over the second 20 MHz channel. In the case of an 80 MHz bandwidth, HE-SIG B [1] is transmitted over the first 20 MHz channel, HE-SIG B [2] is transmitted over the second 20 MHz channel, the same HE-SIG B [1] is duplicated and transmitted over the third 20 MHz channel and the same HE-SIG B [2] is duplicated and transmitted over the fourth 20 MHz channel. The HE-SIG B is transmitted in a similar manner in the case of a 160 MHz bandwidth.

[0100] As described above, the HE-SIG B can be duplicated and transmitted as the bandwidth increases. Here, a duplicated HE-SIG B may be frequency-hopped by 20 MHz from a 20 MHz channel over which an HE-SIG B of the same type is transmitted and transmitted.

[0101] HE-SIG B [1] and HE-SIG B [2] may have different content. However, HE-SIG-Bs [1] have the same content. Similarly, HE-SIG Bs [2] have the same content.

[0102] According to an embodiment, HE-SIG B [1] may be configured to include resource allocation information about only odd-numbered 20 MHz channels and HE-SIG B [2] may be configured to include resource allocation information about only even-numbered 20 MHz channels. According to another embodiment of the present invention, HE-SIG B [1] may include resource allocation information about at least part of even-numbered 20 MHz channels or HE-SIG B [2] may include resource allocation information about at least part of odd-numbered 20 MHz channels.

[0103] The HE-SIG B may include a common field and a user-specific field. The common field may precede the user-specific field. The common field and the user-specific field may be distinguished in a unit of bit(s) instead of a unit of OFDM symbol(s).

[0104] The common field of the HE-SIG B includes information for all STAs designated to receive PPDUs in a corresponding bandwidth. The common field may include resource unit (RU) allocation information. All the HE-SIG Bs [1] may have the same content and All the HE-SIG Bs [2] may have the same content. For example, when four 20 MHz channels constituting 80 MHz are classified as [LL, LR, RL, RR], the common field of HE-SIG B [1] may include a common block for LL and RL and the common field of HE-SIG B [2] may include a common block for LR and RR.

[0105] The user-specific field of the HE-SIG B may include a plurality of user fields. Each user field may include information specific to an individual STA designated to receive PPDUs. For example, the user field may include at least one of an STA ID, MCS per STA, the number of streams (Nsts), coding (e.g., indication of use of LDPC), DCM indicator and transmission beamforming information. However, the information of the user field is not limited thereto.

UL MU transmission



[0106] FIG. 19 is an explanatory diagram of an uplink multi-user transmission situation according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0107] As described above, an 802.11ax system may employ UL MU transmission. UL MU transmission may be started when an AP transmits a trigger frame to a plurality of STAs (e.g., STA1 to STA4), as illustrated in FIG. 19. The trigger frame may include UL MU allocation information. The UL MU allocation information may include at least one of resource position and size, STA IDs or reception STA addresses, MCS and MU type (MIMO, OFDMA, etc.). Specifically, the trigger frame may include at least one of (i) a UL MU frame duration, (ii) the number of allocations (N) and (iii) information per allocation. The information per allocation may include information per user (Per user Info). The information per allocation may include at least one of an AID (AIDs corresponding to the number of STAs are added in the case of MU), power adjustment information, resource (or tone) allocation information (e.g., bitmap), MCS, the number of streams (Nsts), STBC, coding and transmission beamforming information.

[0108] As illustrated in FIG. 19, the AP may acquire TXOP to transmit the trigger frame through a contention procedure to access media. Accordingly, the STAs may transmit UL data frames in a format indicated by the AP after SIFS of the trigger frame. It is assumed that the AP according to an embodiment of the present invention sends an acknowledgement response to the UL data frames through a block ACK (BA) frame.

[0109] FIG. 20 illustrates a trigger frame format according to an embodiment.

[0110] Referring to FIG. 20, the trigger frame may include at least one of a frame control field, a duration field, an RA (recipient STA address) field, a TA (transmitting STA address) field, a common information field, one or more Per User Info fields and FCS (Frame Check Sum). The RA field indicates the address or ID of a recipient STA and may be omitted according to embodiments. The TA field indicates the address of a transmitting STA.

[0111] The common information field may include at least one of a length subfield, a cascade indication subfield, an HE-SIG A information subfield, a CP/LTF type subfield, a trigger type subfield and a trigger-dependent common information subfield. The length subfield indicates the L-SIG length of a UL MU PPDU. The cascade indication indicates whether there is transmission of a subsequent trigger frame following the current trigger frame. The HE-SIG A information subfield indicates content to be included in the HE-SIG A of the UL MU PPDU. The CP/LTF type subfield indicates a CP and HE LTF type included in the UL MU PPDU. The trigger type subfield indicates the type of the trigger frame. The trigger frame may include common information specific to the type and information per user (Per User Info) specific to the type. For example, the trigger type may be set to one of a basic trigger type (e.g., type 0), beamforming report poll trigger type (e.g., type 1), MU-BAR (Multi-user Block Ack Request) type (e.g., type 2) and MU-RTS (multi-user ready to send) type (e.g., type 3). However the trigger type is not limited thereto. When the trigger type is MU-BAR, the trigger-dependent common information subfield may include a GCR (Groupcast with Retries) indicator and a GCR address.

[0112] The Per User Info field may include at least one of a user ID subfield, an RU allocation subfield, a coding type subfield, an MCS subfield, a DCM (dual sub-carrier modulation) subfield, an SS (spatial stream) allocation subfield and a trigger dependent Per User Info subfield. The user ID subfield indicates the AID of an STA which will use a corresponding resource unit to transmit MPDU of the UL MU PPDU. The RU allocation subfield indicates a resource unit used for the STA to transmit the UL MU PPDU. The coding type subfield indicates the coding type of the UL MU PPDU transmitted by the STA. The MCS subfield indicates the MCS of the UL MU PPDU transmitted by the STA. The DCM subfield indicates information about double carrier modulation of the UL MU PPDU transmitted by the STA. The SS allocation subfield indicates information about spatial streams of the UL MU PPDU transmitted by the STA. In the case of MU-BAR trigger type, the trigger-dependent Per User Info subfield may include BAR control and BAR information.

NAV (Network Allocation Vector)



[0113] A NAV may be understood as a timer for protecting TXOP of a transmitting STA (e.g., TXOP holder). An STA may not perform channel access during a period in which a NAV configured in the STA is valid so as to protect TXOP of other STAs.

[0114] A current non-DMG STA supports one NAV. An STA which has received a valid frame can update the NAV through the duration field of the PSDU (e.g., the duration field of the MAC header). When the RA field of the received frame corresponds to the MAC address of the STA, however, the STA does not update the NAV. When a duration indicated by the duration field of the received frame is greater than the current NAV value of the STA, the STA updates the NAV through the duration of the received frame.

[0115] FIG. 21 illustrates an example of NAV setting.

[0116] Referring to FIG. 21, a source STA transmits an RTS frame and a destination STA transmits CTS frame. As described above, the destination STA designated as a recipient through the RTS frame does not set a NAV. Some of other STAs may receive the RTS frame and set NAVs and others may receive the CTS frame and set NAVs.

[0117] If the CTS frame (e.g., PHY-RXSTART.indication primitive) is not received within a predetermined period from a timing when the RTS frame is received (e.g., PHY-RXEND.indication primitive for which MAC corresponds to the RTS frame is received), STAs which have set or updated NAVs through the RTS frame can reset the NAVs (e.g., 0). The predetermined period may be (2aSIFSTime + CTS_Time + aRxPHYStartDelay + 2aSlotTime). The CTS_Time may be calculated on the basis of the CTS frame length indicated by the RTS frame and a data rate.

[0118] Although FIG. 21 illustrates setting or update of a NAV through the RTS frame or CTS frame for convenience, NAV setting/resetting/update may be performed on the basis of duration fields of various frames, for example, non-HT PPDU, HT PPDU, VHT PPDU and HE PPDU (e.g., the duration field of the MAC header of the MAC frame). For example, if the RA field of the received MAC frame does not correspond to the address of an STA (e.g., MAC address), the STA may set/reset/update the NAV.

TXOP (Transmission Opportunity) truncation



[0119] FIG. 22 illustrates an example of TXOP truncation.

[0120] A TXOP holder STA may indicate to truncate TXOP by transmitting a CF-END frame. AN STA can reset the NAV (e.g., set the NAV to 0) upon reception of a CF-END frame or CF-END+CF-ACK frame.

[0121] When an STA that has acquired channel access through EDCA empties a transmission queue thereof, the STA can transmit a CF-END frame. The STA can explicitly indicate completion of TXOP thereof through transmission of the CF-END frame. The CF-END frame may be transmitted by a TXOP holder. A non-AP STA that is not a TXOP holder cannot transmit the CF-END frame. A STA which has received the CF-END frame resets the NAV at a time when a PPDU included in the CF-END frame is ended.

[0122] Referring to FIG. 22, an STA that has accessed a medium transmits a sequence (e.g., RTS/CTS) for NAV setting.

[0123] After SIFS, a TXOP holder (or TXOP initiator) and a TXOP responder transmit and receive PPDUs (e.g., initiator sequence). The TXOP holder truncates a TXOP by transmitting a CF-END frame when there is no data to be transmitted within the TXOP.

[0124] STAs which have received the CF-END frame reset NAVS thereof and can start contending for medium access without delay.

[0125] As described above, a TXOP duration is set through the duration field of the MAC header in the current wireless LAN system. That is, a TXOP holder (e.g., Tx STA) and a TXOP responder (e.g., Rx STA) include whole TXOP information necessary for transmission and reception of frames in duration fields of frames transmitted and received therebetween and transmit the frames. Third party STAs other than the TXOP holder and the TXOP responder check the duration fields of frames exchanged between the TXOP holder and the TXOP responder and sets/updates NAVs to defer use of channels until NAV periods.

[0126] In an 11ax system supporting the HE PPDU, the third party STAs cannot decode an MPDU included in a UL MU PPDU even when they receive the UL MU PPDU if the UL MU PPDU does not include the HE-SIG B. If the third party STAs cannot decode the MPDU, the third party STAs cannot acquire TXOP duration information (e.g., duration field) included in the MAC header of the MPDU. Accordingly, it is difficult to correctly perform NAV setting/update.

[0127] Even when an HE PPDU frame including the HE-SIG B is received, if the HE-SIG B structure is encoded per STA and is designed such that a STA can read only HE-SIG B content allocated to that STA, the third party STAs cannot decode a MAC frame (e.g., an MPDU in the HE PPDU corresponding to other STAS) transmitted and received by other STAs. Accordingly, the third party STAs cannot acquire TXOP information in this case.

TXOP duration indication through HE-SIG A



[0128] To solve the aforementioned problem, a method through which an STA includes TXOP duration information in the HE-SIG A and transmits the HE-SIG A is proposed. As described above, 15 bits (e.g., B0 to B14) of the duration field of the MAC header may indicate duration information of up to 32.7 ms (0 to 32767 us). When the 15-bit duration information included in the duration field of the MAC header is included in the HE-SIG A and transmitted, an 11ax third party STA can correctly set/update a NAV. However, HE-SIG A signaling overhead excessively increases. While 15 bits in an MPDU for payload transmission can be regarded as a relatively small size in the MAC layer, the HE-SIG A for common control information transmission in the physical layer is a compactly designed field, and thus an increase of 15 bits in the HE-SIG A corresponds to relatively large signaling overhead.

[0129] Accordingly, an embodiment of the present invention proposes an efficient TXOP duration indication method for minimizing HE-SIG A overhead. In addition, an embodiment of the present invention proposes frame transmission and reception operations based on a TXOP duration newly defined in the HE-SIG A. Hereinafter, the duration field included in the MAC header may be referred to as a MAC duration for convenience.

[0130] While it is assumed that TXOP duration information is included in the HE SIG A and transmitted in the following description, the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto and the TXOP duration information may be transmitted through other parts (e.g., L-SIG, HE-SIG B, HE-SIG C, ..., and part of A-MPDU or MPDU). For example, when a TXOP duration is transmitted through the HE-SIG B, the TXOP duration can be transmitted through common information (e.g., common part) of the HE-SIG B or a SIG B contents part (e.g., Per user Info) transmitted at the first (or end) part of the HE-SIG B.

[0131] A description will be given of a TXOP duration structure in an HE SIG field and examples indicating the TXOP duration. A value set to the NAV of a third party STA can be interpreted as a TXOP duration for a TXOP holder/responder. For example, a duration field value is a TXOP for frame transmission and reception in view of the TXOP holder/responder. However, the duration field value refers to a NAV value in view of the third party STA. Accordingly, a NAV setting/update operation of the third party STA may be referred to as a TXOP setting/update operation because the NAV setting/update operation sets a NAV corresponding to a TXOP for the TXOP holder/responder. Furthermore, the term "TXOP duration" may be simply referred to as "duration" or "TXOP". The TXOP duration maybe used to indicate a field (e.g., the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A) in a frame or to indicate an actual TXOP duration value.

[0132] Indices assigned to examples described below are for convenience of description and thus examples having different indices may be combined to embody one invention or respective examples may embody respective inventions.

Example 1



[0133] The TXOP duration may be set to 2N-1 (or 2N). It is assumed that the TXOP duration is set to 2N-1 for convenience. The value N can be transmitted in the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A.

[0134] For example, when N is 4 bits, N has a value in the range of 0 to 15. Accordingly, the TXOP duration indicated through N having a size of 4 bits may have a value in the range of 0 to 32,767 µs. When the TXOP duration is set to indicate a maximum of 5 ms, only N = 0 to 13 may be used to indicate the TXOP duration and N = 14 and N = 15 may be used for other purposes.

[0135] This example is one of methods for indicating the TXOP duration through X 2Y-1 (e.g., X=1), X and/or Y may be changed in various manners. In addition, values X and Y may be transmitted through the HE-SIG A field.

Example 2



[0136] According to an embodiment of the present invention, the TXOP duration may be set to XY-1 (or XY). It is assumed that the TXOP duration is set to XY-1. AN STA can transmit values X and Y through the TXOP duration field (e.g., in the HE-SIG A).

[0137] If the TXOP duration field transmitted in the HE-SIG A is K bits, n bits (first n bits) of the K bits may indicate the value X and m bits thereof (e.g., m bits at the end) may indicate the value Y. The n bits may be n MSBs or n LSBs and the m bits may be m LSBs or m MSBs. The values K, m and n can be set in various manners.
  1. (i) For example, it is assumed that K=6, n=3 and m=3. When X∈{2∼9} and Y∈{0∼7}, the TXOP duration may have a value in the range of 0 to 4,782,968 µs.
  2. (ii) In another example, it is assumed that K=5, n=2 and m=3. When X∈{2∼5} and Y∈{0∼7}, the TXOP duration may have a value in the range of 0 to 78,124 µs. If X∈{2, 3, 5, 6} and Y∈{0∼7}, the TXOP duration may have a value in the range of 0 to 78,124 µs.
  3. (iii) In another example, it is assumed that K=4, n=1 and m=3. When X∈{2, 3} (or X∈{5, 6}) and Y∈{0∼7}, the TXOP duration may have a value in the range of 0 to 279,963 µs.


[0138] If a maximum of P ms (e.g., 5 ms) is indicated through the TXOP duration field (e.g., in the HE-SIG A), an (X, Y) combination that minimizes XY-1, from among (X, Y) combinations satisfying XY-1≥ P ms (e.g., 5ms), may be used to indicate a maximum TXOP duration value and other (X, Y) combinations may not be used.

[0139] This example is one of methods of indicating the TXOP duration through Z XY-1 and thus X, Y and/or Z may be changed in various manners.

Example 3



[0140] According to an embodiment of the present invention, the TXOP duration may be set to X 2Y-1 (or X 2Y). Values X and Y can be transmitted through the TXOP duration field.

[0141] If the TXOP duration field transmitted in the HE-SIG A is K bits, n bits (first n bits) of the K bits may indicate the value X and m bits thereof (e.g., m bits at the end) may indicate the value Y. The n bits may be n MSBs or n LSBs and the m bits may be m LSBs or m MSBs. The values K, m and n can be set in various manners.

[0142] For example, it is assumed that K=6, n=3 and m=3. When X∈{1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60} and Y ∈{0∼7}, the TXOP duration may have a value in the range of 0 to 7,680 µs.

[0143] If a maximum of P ms (e.g., 5 ms) is indicated through the TXOP duration field (e.g., in the HE-SIG A), an (X, Y) combination that minimizes X 2Y-1, from among (X, Y) combinations satisfying X 2Y-1≥ P ms (e.g., 5ms), may be used to indicate a maximum TXOP duration value and other (X, Y) combinations may not be used.

[0144] This example is one of methods of indicating the TXOP duration through X ZY-1 and thus X, Y and/or Z may be changed in various manners.

Example 4



[0145] According to an embodiment, the TXOP duration may be set in other units instead of 1 microsecond (µs) (e.g., larger units or the unit of a symbol). For example, larger units such as 4 µs, 8 µs, 10 µs, 16 µs, 32 µs, 50 µs, 64 µs, 100 µs, 128 µs, 256 µs, 500 µs, 512 µs, 1024 µs,... can be used. In this case, the TXOP duration value may be determined as "unit (e.g., 64 µs) * value of TXOP duration field". For example, in the case of 32 µs, TXOP Duration (1) = 32 µs, TXOP Duration (2) = 64 µs, TXOP Duration (3) = 96 µs, ....

[0146] Meanwhile, it is desirable that the TXOP duration have a maximum value of 8 ms. Accordingly, in a case where a single unit is used, the following TXOP duration field options may be considered.
  • Option 1: A unit of 32 µs is used an 8-bit TXOP duration field is defined. Here, the maximum TXOP duration value can be 8,192 µs.
  • Option 2: A unit of 64 µs is used and a 7-bit TXOP duration field is defined. Here, the maximum TXOP duration value can be 8,192 µs.


[0147] If the TXOP field is set to more than 8 bits (e.g., 9 to 11 bits), the following TXOP duration field structures may be used.
  • Option 1-1: 16 µs unit, ∼32ms, 11 bits
  • Option 1-2: 16 µs unit, ∼16ms, 10 bits
  • Optionl-3: 16 µs unit, ∼8ms, 9 bits
  • Option 2-1: 32 µs unit, ∼32ms, 10 bits
  • Option 2-2: 32 µs unit, ∼16ms, 9 bits
  • Option 3-1: 64 µs unit, ∼16ms, 9 bits


[0148] In addition, a combination of one or more units (e.g., (16 µs, 512 µs) or (8 µs, 128 µs), etc.) may be used. Or, 1x symbol or 4x symbol unit may be used instead of µs, or the TXOP duration may be indicated by N 1x symbols or N 4x symbols (N being a natural number).

[0149] Table 1 illustrates a TXOP duration indicated by 4x symbols.
[Table 1]
TXOP duration fieldActual value (units: 4x symbol)
0 0
1 1 4x symbol (i.e., 16 µs)
2 2 4x symbols (i.e., 32 µs)
3 3 4x symbols (i.e., 48 µs)
4 4 4x symbols (i.e., 64 µs)
5 5 4x symbols (i.e., 80 µs)
... ...


[0150] The TXOP duration may be indicated by a combination of one of examples 1/2/3 and example 4.

Example 5



[0151] According to an embodiment, the TXOP duration field may have a predefined value. A table in which values (e.g., a TXOP duration index) set to the TXOP duration field and actual TXOP duration values are mapped may be predefined. Table 2 illustrates TXOP duration indices.
[Table 2]
TXOP duration fieldActual value (units: µs)
0 A
1 B
2 C
3 D
4 E
5 F
... ...


[0152] According to an embodiment, part of the range of the TXOP duration may be represented/configured as a first function form and another part of the range may be represented/configured as a second function form. For example, TXOP duration values may be set such that TXOP duration values increase in an exponential function to a specific value and TXOP duration values following the specific value increase in a uniform distribution function.

[0153] Table 3 illustrates a case in which the TXOP duration field is set to 4 bits. Referring to Table 3, the TXOP duration exponentially increases in the range of 32 µs to 512 µs (or 1,024 µs) and increases by 512 µs (approximately 0.5 ms) after 512 µs (or 1,024 µs).
[Table 3]
TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us)
0 0
1 32
2 64
3 128
4 256
5 512
6 1024
7 1536
8 2048
9 2560
10 3072
11 3584
12 4096
13 4608
14 5120
15 5632


[0154] Table 4 illustrates a case in which the TXOP duration field is set to 5 bits. Referring to Table 4, the TXOP duration exponentially increases in the range of 32 µs to 256 µs (or 512 µs) and increases by 256 µs (approximately 0.25 ms) after 256 µs (or 512 µs).
[Table 4]
TXOP Duration fieldActualvalue (unit: us)
0 0
1 32
2 64
3 128
4 256
5 512
6 768
7 1024
8 1280
9 1536
10 1792
11 2048
12 2304
13 2560
14 2816
15 3072
16 3382
17 3584
18 3840
19 4096
20 4352
21 4608
22 4864
23 5120
24 5376
25 5632
26 5888
27 Reserved
28 Reserved
29 Reserved
30 Reserved
31 Reserved


[0155] The following table 5 shows various examples of TXOP values indicated by indices of a 4-bit TXOP duration field. Cases A to H of Table 5 can represent different examples.
[Table 5]
TXOP indexValue (us)
case Acase Bcase Ccase Dcase Ecase Fcase Gcase H
0 (b0000) 0 16 0 32 0 0 0 0
1 (b0001) 16 32 32 64 8 16 8 16
2 (b0010) 32 48 64 96 16 32 16 32
3 (b0011) 48 64 96 128 32 64 32 64
4 (b0100) 64 80 128 160 64 128 64 128
5 (b0101) 80 96 160 192 128 256 128 256
6 (b0110) 96 112 192 224 256 512 256 512
7 (b0111) 112 128 224 256 512 1024 512 1024
8 (b1000) 512 512 512 512 1024 1536 1024 2048
9 (b1001) 1024 1024 1024 1024 1536 2048 2048 3072
10 (b1010) 1536 1536 1536 1536 2048 2560 3072 4096
11 (b1011) 2048 2048 2048 2048 2560 3072 4096 5120
12 (b1100) 2560 2560 2560 2560 3072 3584 5120 6144
13 (b1101) 3072 3072 3072 3072 3584 4096 6144 7168
14 (b1110) 3584 3584 3584 3584 4096 4608 7168 8192
15 (b1111) 4096 4096 4096 4096 4608 5120 8192 9216
  1. (i) In case A, the TXOP duration value is determined as (16 µs (the value of the remaining 3 bits)) when the MSB of the indices is 0. The TXOP duration value is determined as (512 µs (the value of the remaining 3 bits)+1) when the MSB of the indices is 1.
  2. (ii) In case B, the TXOP duration value is determined as (16 µs (the value of the remaining 3 bits)+1) when the MSB of the indices is 0. The TXOP duration value is determined as (512 µs (the value of the remaining 3 bits)+1) when the MSB of the indices is 1.
  3. (iii) In case C, the TXOP duration value is determined as (32 µs (the value of the remaining 3 bits)) when the MSB of the indices is 0. The TXOP duration value is determined as (512 µs (the value of the remaining 3 bits)+1) when the MSB of the indices is 1.
  4. (iv) In case D, the TXOP duration value is determined as (32 µs (the value of the remaining 3 bits)+1) when the MSB of the indices is 0. The TXOP duration value is determined as (512 µs (the value of the remaining 3 bits)+1) when the MSB of the indices is 1.
  5. (v) In cases E to H, the TXOP duration value can be understood as in (i) to (iv). For example, the MSB of the indices can be understood as a scaling factor, granularity or duration unit of the TXOP duration (refer to embodiments which will be described below).

Example 6



[0156] According to an embodiment, the TXOP duration can be set through an X-bit scaling factor and a Y-bit duration value. For example, the TXOP duration can be set on the basis of Scaling factor (X bits) Duration (Y bits). Specifically, TXOP duration = Scaling factor (X bits) Duration (Y bits). Otherwise, TXOP duration = Scaling factor (X bits) Duration (Y bits) + a, a being a predetermined constant (e.g., a=1).

[0157] The size of the TXOP duration field can be set to X + Y bits.

[0158] For example, the unit of the duration value can be set to one of 1 µs, 4 µs and 16 µs according to the scaling factor. The length of the Y bits can be set to various values.

[0159] Scaling factor index 0 of the X bits can indicate actual scaling factor = 0. Case A and case B of Table 6 show examples of a 2-bit scaling factor.
[Table 6]
Scaling factor fieldValue
Case ACase B
0 0 0
1 4 1
2 16 10
3 32 100


[0160] Table 7 shows examples of a 3-bit scaling factor.
[Table 7]
Scaling factor fieldValue
0 0
1 1
2 4
3 16
4 32
5 64
6 128
7 256


[0161] The duration value may be represented in the form of 2Y.

[0162] Table 8 illustrates a scaling factor set to 1 bit. Referring to Table 8, scaling factor = 0 can indicate 16 µs and scaling factor = 1 can indicate 512 µs. For example, the TXOP duration can be set to 16 Duration (µs) when scaling factor = 0 and set to 512 Duration (µs) when scaling factor = 1. The unit of Duration is assumed to be 1 µs for convenience.
[Table 8]
Scaling factor fieldValue (us)
0 16
1 512


[0163] Table 9 shows examples of a 5-bit TXOP duration field. In Table 9, it is assumed that the scaling factor is set to the MSB as in Table 8. Accordingly, the remaining 4 bits other than the MSB used as the scaling factor in the 5-bit TXOP Duration field are used as a duration field value, and thus the 4-bit duration field value can be one of 0 to 15.

[0164] Case A of Table 9 shows an example in which the actual TXOP duration value is set to (Scaling factor value Duration field value) (e.g., a value of 4 bits other than the MSB).

[0165] Case B of Table 9 shows an example in which the actual TXOP duration value is set to (Scaling factor value (Duration field value +1)).

[0166] In Case C of Table 9, the actual TXOP duration value is set to (Scaling factor value (16 µs) Duration field value) when scaling factor = 0 (e.g., the unit of the scaling factor value is 16 µs) and set to (Scaling factor value (512 µs) (Duration field value + 1)) when scaling factor = 1 (e.g., the unit of the scaling factor value is 512 µs).
[Table 9]
TXOP Duration field (MSB: Scaling factor)Actual value (unit: us)
Case ACase BCase C
0 0 16 0
1 16 32 16
2 32 48 32
3 48 64 48
4 64 80 64
5 80 96 80
6 96 112 96
7 112 128 112
8 128 144 128
9 144 160 144
10 160 176 160
11 176 192 176
12 192 208 192
13 208 224 208
14 224 240 224
15 240 256 240
16 0 512 512
17 512 1024 1024
18 1024 1536 1536
19 1536 2048 2048
20 2048 2560 2560
21 2560 3072 3072
22 3072 3584 3584
23 3584 4096 4096
24 4096 4608 4608
25 4608 5120 5120
26 5120 5632 5632
27 5632 6144 6144
28 6144 6656 6656
29 6656 7168 7168
30 7168 7680 7680
31 7680 8192 8192


[0167] Table 10 shows other examples of the 1-bit scaling factor. Referring to Table 10, scaling factor = 0 can indicate 32 µs and scaling factor = 1 can indicate 512 µs.
[Table 10]
Scaling factor fieldValue (us)
0 32
1 512


[0168] Table 11 shows other examples of the 5-bit TXOP duration field. In Table 11, it is assumed that the scaling factor is set to the MSB as in Table 9. Accordingly, the remaining 4 bits other than the MSB used as the scaling factor in the 5-bit TXOP Duration field are used as a duration field value, and thus the 4-bit duration field value can be one of 0 to 15. Referring to Table 11, the actual TXOP duration value can be set to 32 Duration (µs) when scaling factor = 0 and set to 512 (Duration + 1) (µs) when scaling factor = 1. The unit of Duration is assumed to be 1 µs for convenience.
[Table 11]
TXOP Duration field (MSB: Scaling factor)Actual value (unit: us)
0 0
1 32
2 64
3 96
4 128
5 160
6 192
7 224
8 256
9 288
10 320
11 352
12 384
13 416
14 448
15 480
16 512
17 1024
18 1536
19 2048
20 2560
21 3072
22 3584
23 4096
24 4608
25 5120
26 5632
27 6144
28 6656
29 7168
30 7680
31 8192


[0169] Table 12 shows other examples of the 1-bit scaling factor. Referring to FIG. 12, scaling factor = 0 can indicate 32 µs and scaling factor = 1 can indicate 1,024 µs.
[Table 12]
Scaling factor fieldValue (us)
0 32
1 1024


[0170] Table 13 shows other examples of the 5-bit TXOP duration field. In Table 13, it is assumed that the scaling factor as in Table 12 is set to the MSB. Accordingly, the remaining 4 bits other than the MSB used as the scaling factor in the 5-bit TXOP Duration field are used as a duration field value, and thus the 4-bit duration field value can be one of 0 to 15. Referring to Table 13, the actual TXOP duration value can be set to 32 Duration (µs) when scaling factor = 0 and set to 1,024 (Duration + 1) (µs) when scaling factor = 1. The unit of Duration is assumed to be 1 µs for convenience.
[Table 13]
TXOP Duration field (MSB: Seating factor)Actual value (unit: us)
0 32
1 64
2 96
3 128
4 100
5 192
6 224
7 256
8 288
9 320
10 352
11 384
12 416
13 448
14 480
15 512
16 1024
17 2048
18 3072
19 4096
20 5120
21 6144
22 7169
23 8192
24 9216
25 10240
26 11264
27 12288
28 13312
29 14336
30 15360
31 16384


[0171] Table 14 shows examples of a 6-bit TXOP duration field. In Table 14, it is assumed that a 1-bit scaling factor is set to the MSB as in Table 8. Accordingly, the remaining 5 bits other than the MSB used as the scaling factor in the 6-bit TXOP Duration field are used as a duration field value, and thus the 5-bit duration field value can be one of 0 to 31. Referring to Table 14, the actual TXOP duration value can be set to 16 Duration (µs) when scaling factor = 0 and set to 512 (Duration + 1) (µs) when scaling factor = 1. The unit of Duration is assumed to be 1 µs for convenience.
[Table 14]
TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us) TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us)
0 0   32 512
1 16   33 1024
2 32   34 1536
3 48   35 2048
4 64   36 2560
5 80   37 3072
6 96   38 3584
7 112   39 40%
8 128   40 4608
9 144   41 5120
10 160   42 5632
11 176   43 6144
12 192   44 6656
13 208   45 7168
14 224   46 7680
15 240   47 8192
16 256   48 8704
17 272   49 9216
18 288   50 9728
19 304   51 10240
20 320   52 10752
21 336   53 11264
22 352   54 11776
23 368   55 12288
24 384   56 12800
25 400   57 13312
26 416   58 13824
27 432   59 14336
28 448   60 14848
29 464   61 15360
30 480   62 15872
31 496   63 16384


[0172] Table 15 shows other examples of the 6-bit TXOP duration field. In Table 15, it is assumed that the 1-bit scaling factor is set to the MSB as in Table 8. Accordingly, the remaining 5 bits other than the MSB used as the scaling factor in the 6-bit TXOP Duration field are used as a duration field value, and thus the 5-bit duration field value can be one of 0 to 31. Referring to Table 15, the actual TXOP duration value can be set to 16 ∗ (Duration + 1) (µs) when scaling factor = 0 and set to 512 ∗ (Duration + 1) (µs) when scaling factor = 1. The unit of Duration is assumed to be 1 µs for convenience.
[Table 15]
TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us) TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us)
0 16   32 512
1 32   33 1024
2 48   34 1536
3 64   35 2048
4 80   36 2560
5 96   37 3072
6 112   38 3584
7 128   39 4096
8 144   40 4608
9 160   41 5120
10 176   42 5632
11 192   43 6144
12 208   44 6656
13 224   45 7168
14 240   46 7680
15 256   47 8192
16 272   48 8704
17 288   49 9216
18 304   50 9728
19 320   51 10240
20 336   52 10752
21 352   53 11264
22 368   54 11776
23 384   55 12288
24 400   56 12800
25 416   57 13312
26 432   58 13824
27 448   59 14336
28 464   60 14848
29 480   61 15360
30 496   62 15872
31 512   63 16384


[0173] Table 16 shows other examples of the 6-bit TXOP duration field. In Table 16, it is assumed that the 1-bit scaling factor is set to the MSB as in Table 10. Accordingly, the remaining 5 bits other than the MSB used as the scaling factor in the 6-bit TXOP Duration field are used as a duration field value, and thus the 5-bit duration field value can be one of 0 to 31. Referring to Table 16, the actual TXOP duration value can be set to 32 ∗ Duration (µs) when scaling factor = 0 and set to 512 ∗ (Duration + 2) (µs) when scaling factor = 1. The unit of Duration is assumed to be 1 µs for convenience.
[Table 16]
TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us) TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us)
0 0   32 1024
1 32   33 1536
2 64   34 2048
3 96   35 2560
4 128   36 3072
5 160   37 3584
6 192   38 4096
7 224   39 4608
8 256   40 5120
9 288   41 5632
10 320   42 6144
11 352   43 6656
12 384   44 7168
13 416   45 7680
14 448   46 8192
15 480   47 8704
16 512   48 9216
17 544   49 9728
18 576   50 10240
19 608   51 10752
20 640   52 11264
21 672   53 11776
22 704   54 12288
23 736   55 12800
24 768   56 13312
25 800   57 13824
26 832   58 14336
27 864   59 14848
28 896   60 15360
29 928   61 15872
30 960   62 16384
31 992   63 16896


[0174] Table 17 shows other examples of the 6-bit TXOP duration field. In Table 17, it is assumed that the 1-bit scaling factor is set to the MSB as in Table 12. Accordingly, the remaining 5 bits other than the MSB used as the scaling factor in the 6-bit TXOP Duration field are used as a duration field value, and thus the 5-bit duration field value can be one of 0 to 31. Referring to Table 17, the actual TXOP duration value can be set to 32 ∗ Duration (µs) when scaling factor = 0 and set to 1,024 ∗ (Duration + 1) (µs) when scaling factor = 1. The unit of Duration is assumed to be 1 µs for convenience.
[Table 17]
TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us) TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us)
0 0   32 1024
1 32   33 2048
2 64   34 3072
3 96   35 4096
4 128   36 5120
5 160   37 6144
6 192   38 7168
7 224   39 8192
8 256   40 9216
9 288   41 10240
10 320   42 11264
11 352   43 12288
12 384   44 13312
11 416   45 14336
14 448   46 15360
15 480   47 16384
16 512   48 17408
17 544   49 18432
18 576   50 19456
19 608   51 20480
20 640   52 21504
21 672   53 22528
22 704   54 23552
23 736   55 24576
24 769   56 25600
25 800   57 26624
26 832   58 27648
27 864   59 28672
28 896   60 29696
29 928   61 30720
30 960   62 31744
31 992   63 32768


[0175] Table 18 shows other examples of the 6-bit TXOP duration field. Referring to Table 18, the actual TXOP duration value increases in units of 32 µs until 512 µs and increases in units of 512 µs after 512 µs.
[Table 18]
TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us) TXOP Duration fieldActual value (unit: us)
0 0   32 8704
1 32   33 9216
2 64   34 9728
3 96   35 10240
4 128   36 10752
5 160   37 11264
6 192   38 11776
7 224   39 12288
8 256   40 12800
9 288   41 13312
10 320   42 13824
11 352   43 14336
12 384   44 14848
13 416   45 15360
14 448   46 15872
15 480   47 16384
16 512   48 16896
17 1024   49 17408
18 1536   50 17920
19 2048   51 18432
20 2560   52 18944
21 3072   53 19456
22 3584   54 19968
23 4096   55 20480
24 4608   56 20992
25 5120   57 21504
26 5632   58 22016
27 6144   59 22528
28 6656   60 23040
29 7168   61 23552
30 7680   62 24064
31 8192   63 24576

Example 7



[0176] According to an embodiment, the TXOP duration may be indicated through X-bit scaling factor, Y-bit duration value and Z-bit duration unit information. The TXOP duration may be "Scaling factor (X bits) ∗ (Duration (Y bits) µs ∗ Duration unit (Z bits) µs)." The size of the TXOP duration field may be set to (X + Y + Z) bits.

[0177] The Z-bit duration unit represents the unit of transmitted duration information. For example, when the Z bit is 1 bit, 0 can indicate the unit of 4 µs and 1 can indicate the unit of 16 µs. However, the present invention is not limited thereto.

Example 8



[0178] When the TXOP duration field is included in the HE-SIG A of the HE PPDU, the length of the TXOP duration, granularity and the like indicated by the TXOP duration field need to be defined. For example, (1) size, (2) maximum value and (3) granularity need to be determined in consideration of the capacity of the HE-SIG A and the granularity of the TXOP duration. The granularity may be represented as a scaling (or scaling factor) or a TXOP duration unit.

(1) Size of TXOP duration field



[0179] As to the capacity of the HE-SIG A, 13 remaining bits (e.g., bits that are available since they are not defined for other purposes) in the case of the HE SU PPDU format, 14 remaining bits are present in the case of the HE MU PPDU, and more than 14 remaining bits are present in the case of the HE trigger-based PPDU.

[0180] As fields, sizes of which are not currently determined in the HE-SIG A field, for example, BW (2 bits or more), spatial reuse and TXOP duration fields may be exemplified in the HE-MU PPDU format.

[0181] As other HE-SIG A fields under discussion, there are a 1-bit reserved field similarly to the legacy system and 1-bit STBC in the case of the HE MU PPDU format.

[0182] Accordingly, the length of the TXOP duration field can be limited to a specific size (e.g., 5 to 7 bits) in consideration of other fields of the HE-SIG A.

[0183] Furthermore, considering such size restriction, it is desirable that the TXOP duration field have a larger granularity than the MAC duration. That is, the TXOP duration field can have a larger granularity than the MAC duration although it is set to be smaller than the MAC duration.

(2) Maximum value of TXOP duration



[0184] As described above, the MAC duration field (e.g., 15 bits, unit of 1 µs) can cover up to approximately 32 ms. Although a TXOP limit is approximately 4 ms in a default EDCA parameter set, an AP can set an EDCA parameter set through a beacon.

[0185] The AP may set the TXOP duration to be longer than 4 ms by the TXOP duration field (e.g., 8 or 16 ms). Particularly, the AP needs to set a long TXOP duration in an MU TXOP procedure or cascade structure.

[0186] In LAA (Licensed Assisted Access) for using unlicensed bands in a cellular system (e.g., 3GPP), a maximum TXOP is defined as 8 ms and Wi-Fi requires a very long TXOP (e.g., up to 10 ms) for sounding packets. According to European LBT (Listen Before Talk) requirements, a maximum channel occupation time can be 10 ms. According to LTE-U that is an LTE system operating in unlicensed bands, a maximum on-state duration is 20 ms.

[0187] Considering such design elements, it is desirable that a maximum TXOP duration size that can be indicated by the HE-SIG A field be 8 ms (or 16 ms), for example.

(3) Granularity of TXOP duration



[0188] When one relatively small granularity (e.g., 1 µs, 16 µs or the like) is used, the TXOP duration field requires a lot of bits (e.g., 8 to 15 bits). Table 19 illustrates the number of bits of the TXOP duration and maximum TXOP duration values, which are required when a single granularity is used.
[Table 19]
 granularity (us)max TXOP duration (ms)number of bits
Case 1 1 32 15
Case 2 16 14
Case 3 8 13
Case 4 16 32 11
Case 5 16 10
Case 6 8 9
Case 7 32 32 10
Case 8 16 9
Case 9 8 8


[0189] Conversely, when only one relatively large granularity is used, an over-protection problem is frequently generated in STAs (e.g., third party STAs) and thus channel use efficiency may decrease (e.g., a NAV is set to an unnecessarily large TXOP duration value).

[0190] FIG. 23 illustrates setting of a TXOP duration with a small granularity and setting of a TXOP duration with a large granularity. FIG. 23(a) shows TXOP duration setting for DL transmission and illustrates a case in which STAs transmit UL MU BA in response to a DL MU PPDU transmitted from an AP. FIG. 23(b) shows TXOP duration setting for UL transmission and illustrates a case in which STAs transmit UL MU frames on the basis of a trigger frame transmitted from an AP and the AP transmits DL MU BA. Referring to FIG. 23(a) and 23(b), the size of an error between a MAC duration and a TXOP duration set by the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A is relatively small when the small granularity is used and relatively large when the large granularity is used. In this way, use of a large granularity may cause over-protection beyond actually required TXOP.

[0191] Meanwhile, from among relatively small packets (e.g., ACK, BA, MU BA, etc.), ACK or BA is positioned in the last frame of a TXOP. Durations of ACK, BA and/or MU BA depend on their data rates. For example, the duration of UL MU BA is 422.4 µs at a low data rate (e.g., MCSO, 26 tones) (refer to FIG. 24).

[0192] FIG. 24 illustrates allocation of a UL OFDMA BA frame in MCSO.

[0193] The preamble of the UL OFDMA BA frame has a duration of 48 µs and includes a legacy preamble and an HE preamble. The legacy preamble is 20 µs and may include L-STF (8 µs), L-LTF (8 µs) and L-SIG (4 µs). The HE preamble is 28 µs and may include RL (repetition legacy)-SIG (4 µs), HE-SIG A (8 µs), HE-STF (8 µs) and HE-LTF (8 µs).

[0194] The MAC frame of compressed BA may be set to 39 octets, that is, 312 bits. Specifically, the MAC frame of compressed BA corresponds to service field (2 octets) + MPDU delimiter (4 octets) + MAC header (16 octets) + BA control (2 octets) + BA information (10 octets) + FCS (4 octets) + tail (1 octet) = 39 octets. The symbol length thereof is 12.8 + 1.6 CP = 14.4 µs. Accordingly, the MAC frame of compressed BA becomes 374.4 µs when MCSO and 26 tones are used.

[0195] Accordingly, when MCSO and 26 tones are used, the duration of UL MU BA is set to 422.4 µs corresponding to the sum of 48 µs for the preamble and 374.4 µs for the MAC frame.

[0196] It may be more efficient to use a small granularity (e.g., less than 32 µs) for at least part of ACK, BA and/or MU BA to solve over-protection by third party STAs.

[0197] Accordingly, the TXOP duration needs to support small packets having a small granularity (e.g., 16 or 32 µs). As a method for supporting such small-capacity packets, a method of using multiple granularities (e.g., small and large granularities) for TXOP may be considered.

[0198] According to an embodiment of the present invention, multiple units (e.g., multi-granularity) can be used for the TXOP duration. Although the number of multiple units may be 2 (or 4), the number of multiple units is not limited thereto. If the number of units is 2, respective units may be referred to as a small unit and a large unit for convenience. The actual sizes of the small unit and the large unit may depend on the size of the TXOP duration field (e.g., 5, 6 or 7 bits). For example, the small unit can be used to indicate a duration of less than 512 µs and the large unit can be used to indicate a duration in the range of 512 µs to the maximum TXOP duration value (e.g., approximately 8 ms). For example, the small unit can be used for the above-described UL MU BA (e.g., having a duration of approximately 400 µs) of the lowest data rate.

[0199] Table 20 illustrates a small unit and a large unit depending on a TXOP duration field size.
[Table 20]
 TXOP duration Field size (bits)Max value of TXOP duration (us)Small unit (us)Large unit (us)
Option 1-1 5 8192 16 512
Option 1-2 32
Option 2-1 6 8192 (or 8448) 16 256
Option 2-2 16384 512
Option 3-0 7 8192 (or 8576) 8 128
Option 3-1 8832 4/8/16 256
Option 3-2 8704 8
Option 3-3 12616 16

(i) Example of option 1-1 of Table 20: 5-bit field size, 2 units (16 us and 512 us)



[0200] Table 21 illustrates TXOP duration values depending on TXOP duration field values (e.g., TXOP indices) in a case in which the TXOP duration field is 5 bits (e.g., B0∼B4), small unit = 16 µs and large unit = 512 µs (option 1-1 of Table 20).
[Table 21]
B0B1∼B4TXOP duration rangeUnitTXOP duration value
0 0000∼1111 0 us ∼ 240 us 16 us (16 value of (B1∼B4)) us
1 0000∼1111 512 us ∼ 8192 us 512 us (512+ 512 value of (B1∼B4)) us


[0201] Referring to Table 21, B0 indicates the unit (or granularity) of a duration. For example, B0=0 indicates a small unit of 16 µs and B0=1 indicates a large unit of 512 µs. Accordingly, an STA can calculate a TXOP duration value on the basis of values of B0 to B4 of the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A field. For example, TXOP duration value = (16 value of (B1∼B4)) µs when B0=0 and TXOP duration value = (512 + 512 value of (B1∼B4)) µs when B0=1.

(ii) Example of option 1-2 of Table 20:5-bitfield size, 2 units (32 us and 512 us)



[0202] Table 22 illustrates TXOP duration values depending on TXOP duration field values (e.g., TXOP indices) in a case in which the TXOP duration field is 5 bits (e.g., B0∼B4), small unit = 32 µs and large unit = 512 µs (option 1-2 of Table 20).
[Table 22]
B0B1∼B4TXOP duration rangeUnitTXOP duration value
0 0000∼1111 0 us ∼ 480 us 32 us (32 value of (B1∼B4)) us
1 0000∼1111 512 us ∼ 8192 us 512 us (512+ 512 value of (B1∼B4)) us


[0203] Referring to Table 22, B0 indicates the unit (or granularity) of a duration. For example, B0=0 indicates a small unit of 32 µs and B0=1 indicates a large unit of 512 µs. Accordingly, an STA can calculate a TXOP duration value on the basis of values of B0 to B4 of the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A field. For example, TXOP duration value = (32 value of (B1∼B4)) µs when B0=0 and TXOP duration value = (512 + 512 value of (B1∼B4)) µs when B0=1.

[0204] Meanwhile, the STA may acquire a TXOP duration value from a predefined lookup table. For example, the STA may use a lookup table such as Table 23 instead of calculating a TXOP duration value every time. Table 23 shows results calculated according to the above-described TXOP duration value calculation method.
[Table 23]
TXOP IndexTXOP duration Value (us) TXOP IndexTXOP duration Value (us)
0 0   16 512
1 32   17 1024
2 64   18 1536
3 96   19 2048
4 128   20 2560
5 160   21 3072
6 192   22 3584
7 224   23 4096
8 256   24 4608
9 288   25 5120
10 320   26 5632
11 352   27 6144
12 384   28 6656
13 416   29 7168
14 448   30 7680
15 480   31 8192


[0205] TXOP indices in the left column of Table 23 correspond to B0=0 and TXOP indices in the right column correspond to B0=1. For example, the unit of 32 µs is applied to TXOP indices 0 and 1 and the unit of 512 µs is applied to TXOP indices 16 and 17.

(iii) Example of option 2-1 of Table 20: 6-bit field size, 2 units (16 us and 256 us)



[0206] Table 24 illustrates TXOP duration values depending on TXOP duration field values (e.g., TXOP indices) in a case in which the TXOP duration field is 6 bits (e.g., B0∼B5), small unit = 16 µs and large unit = 256 µs (option 2-1 of Table 20).
[Table 24]
B0B1∼B5TXOP duration rangeUnitTXOP duration value
0 00000∼11111 0 us ∼ 496 us 16 us (16 value of (B1∼B5)) us
1 00000∼11111 512 us ∼ 8448 us 256 us (512+ 256 value of (B1∼B5)) us


[0207] Referring to Table 24, B0 indicates the unit (or granularity) of a duration. For example, B0=0 indicates a small unit of 16 µs and B0=1 indicates a large unit of 256 µs. Accordingly, an STA can calculate a TXOP duration value on the basis of values of B0 to B5 of the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A field. For example, TXOP duration value = (16 value of (B1∼B5)) µs when B0=0 and TXOP duration value = (512 + 256 value of (B1∼B5)) us when B0=1.

[0208] Meanwhile, the STA may acquire a TXOP duration value from a predefined lookup table. For example, the STA may use a lookup table such as Table 25 instead of calculating a TXOP duration value every time. Table 25 shows results calculated according to the above-described TXOP duration value calculation method.
[Table 25]
TXOP IndexTXOP duration Value (us) TXOP IndexTXOP duration Value (us)
0 0   32 512
1 16   33 768
2 32   34 1024
3 48   35 1280
4 64   36 1536
5 80   37 1792
6 96   38 2048
7 112   39 2304
8 128   40 2560
9 144   41 2816
10 160   42 3072
11 176   43 3328
12 192   44 3584
13 208   45 3840
14 224   46 4096
15 240   47 4352
16 256   48 4608
17 272   49 4864
18 288   50 5120
19 304   51 5376
20 320   52 5632
21 336   53 5888
22 352   54 6144
23 368   55 6400
24 384   56 6656
25 400   57 6912
26 416   58 7168
27 432   59 7424
28 448   60 7680
29 464   61 7936
30 480   62 8192
31 496   63 8448

(iv) Example of option 2-2 of Table 20: 6-bit field size, 2 units (16 us and 512 us)



[0209] Table 26 illustrates TXOP duration values depending on TXOP duration field values (e.g., TXOP indices) in a case in which the TXOP duration field is 6 bits (e.g., B0∼B5), small unit = 16 µs and large unit = 512 µs (option 2-2 of Table 20).
[Table 26]
B0B1∼B5TXOP duration rangeUnitTXOP duration value
0 00000∼11111 0 us ∼ 496 us 16 us (16 value of (B1∼B5)) us
1 00000∼11111 512 us ∼ 16384 us 512 us (512+512 value of (B1∼B5)) us


[0210] Referring to Table 26, B0 indicates the unit (or granularity) of a duration. For example, B0=0 indicates a small unit of 16 µs and B0=1 indicates a large unit of 512 µs. Accordingly, an STA can calculate a TXOP duration value on the basis of values of B0 to B5 of the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A field. For example, TXOP duration value = (16 value of (B1∼B5)) µs when B0=0 and TXOP duration value = (512 + 512 value of (B1∼B5)) µs when B0=1.

[0211] Meanwhile, the STA may acquire a TXOP duration value from a predefined lookup table. A lookup table corresponding to Table 26 is omitted for convenience.

(v) Example of option 3-0 of Table 20: 7-bit field size, 2 units (8 us and 128 us)



[0212] Table 27 illustrates TXOP duration values depending on TXOP duration field values (e.g., TXOP indices) in a case in which the TXOP duration field is 7 bits (e.g., B0∼B6), small unit = 8 µs and large unit = 128 µs (option 3-0 of Table 20).
[Table 27]
B0B1∼B6TXOP duration rangeUnitTXOP duration value
0 000000∼111111 0 us - 504 us 8 us (8 value of (B1∼B6)) us
1 000000∼111111 512 us ∼ 8576 us 128 us (512+ 128 value of (B1∼B6)) us


[0213] Referring to Table 27, B0 indicates the unit (or granularity) of a duration. For example, B0=0 indicates a small unit of 8 µs and B0=1 indicates a large unit of 128 µs. Accordingly, an STA can calculate a TXOP duration value on the basis of values of B0 to B6 of the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A field. For example, TXOP duration value = (8 value of (B1∼B6)) µs when B0=0 and TXOP duration value = (512 + 128 value of (B1∼B6)) µs when B0=1.

[0214] Meanwhile, the STA may acquire a TXOP duration value from a predefined lookup table. Table 28 is a lookup table corresponding to Table 27.
[Table 28]
TXOP IndexTXOP duration Value (us)TXOP IndexTXOP duration Value (us)TXOP IndexTXOP duration Value (us)TXOP IndexTXOP duration Value (us)
0 0 32 256 64 512 96 4608
1 8 33 264 65 640 97 4736
2 16 34 272 66 768 98 4864
3 24 35 280 67 896 99 4992
4 32 36 288 68 1024 100 5120
5 40 37 296 69 1152 101 5248
6 48 38 304 70 1280 102 5376
7 56 39 312 71 1408 103 5504
8 64 40 320 72 1536 104 5632
9 72 41 328 73 1664 105 5760
10 80 42 336 74 1792 106 5888
11 88 43 344 75 1920 107 6016
12 96 44 352 76 2048 108 6144
13 104 45 360 77 2176 109 6272
14 112 46 368 78 2304 110 6400
15 120 47 376 79 2432 111 6528
16 128 48 384 80 2560 112 6656
17 136 49 392 81 2688 113 6784
18 144 50 400 82 2816 114 6912
19 152 51 408 83 2944 115 7040
20 160 52 416 84 3072 116 7168
21 168 53 424 85 3200 117 7296
22 176 54 432 86 3328 118 7424
23 184 55 440 87 3456 119 7552
24 192 56 448 88 3584 120 7680
25 200 57 456 89 3712 121 7808
26 208 58 464 90 3840 122 7936
27 216 59 472 91 3968 123 8064
28 224 60 480 92 4096 124 8192
29 232 61 488 93 4224 125 8320
30 240 62 496 94 4352 126 8448
31 248 63 504 95 4480 127 8576


[0215] TXOP indices in the left two columns of Table 28 correspond to B0=0 and TXOP indices in the right two columns correspond to B0=1. For example, the unit of 8 µs is applied to TXOP indices 0 and 32 and the unit of 128 µs is applied to TXOP indices 64 and 96.

(vi) Example of option 3-1 of Table 20: 7-bit field size, 4 units (4 us, 8 us. 16 us and 256 us)



[0216] Table 29 illustrates TXOP duration values depending on TXOP duration field values (e.g., TXOP indices) in a case in which the TXOP duration field is 7 bits (e.g., B0∼B6) and a total of 4 duration units of 4 µs, 8 µs, 16 µs and 256 µs (option 3-1 of Table

[0217] 20). For example, 4 µs, 8 µs and 16 µs may correspond to small units and 256 µs may correspond to a large unit.
[Table 29]
B0B1B2∼B6TXOP duration rangeUnitTXOP duration value
00 00000∼11111 0 us ∼ 124 us 4 us (4 value of (B2∼B6)) us
01 00000∼11111 128 us ∼ 376 us 8 us (128+ 8 value of (B2∼B6)) us
10 00000∼11111 384 us ∼ 880 us 16 us (384+ 16 value of (B2∼B6)) us
11 00000∼11111 896 us ∼ 8832 us 256 us (896+ 256 value of (B2∼B6)) us


[0218] Referring to FIG. 29, B0B1 indicates one of 4 duration units (or granularities). For example, B0B1=00 indicates 4 µs, B0B1=01 indicates 8 µs, B0B1=10 indicates 16 µs and B0B1=11 indicates 256 µs.

[0219] Accordingly, an STA can calculate a TXOP duration value on the basis of values B0 to B6 of the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A field. For example, TXOP duration value = (4 value of (B2∼B6)) µs when B0B1=00, TXOP duration value = (128+ 8 value of (B2∼B6)) µs when B0B1=01, TXOP duration value = (384+ 16 value of (B2∼B6)) µs when B0B1=10 and TXOP duration value = (896+ 256 value of (B2∼B6)) µs when B0B1=11.

[0220] Meanwhile, the STA may acquire a TXOP duration value from a predefined lookup table. A lookup table corresponding to Table 29 is omitted for convenience.

(vii) Example of option 3-2 of Table 20: 7-bit field size, 2 units (8 us and 256 us)



[0221] Table 30 illustrates TXOP duration values depending on TXOP duration field values (e.g., TXOP indices) in a case in which the TXOP duration field is 7 bits (e.g., B0∼B6), small unit = 8 µs and large unit = 256 µs (option 3-2 of Table 20).
[Table 30]
B0B1B2∼B6TXOP duration rangeUnitTXOP duration value
00 00000∼11111 0 us ∼ 248 us 8 us (8 value of (B2∼B6)) us
01 00000∼11111 256 us ∼ 506 us (256+ 8 value of (B2∼B6)) us
10 00000∼11111 512 us ∼ 760 us (512+ 8 value of (B2∼B6)) us
11 00000∼11111 768 us ∼ 8704 us 256 us (768+ 256 value of (B2∼B6)) us


[0222] Referring to FIG. 30, B0B1 indicates one of 2 duration units (or granularities). In addition, BOB1 indicates duration values of B2∼B3 (00000). For example, B0B1=00 indicates 8 µs and B2∼B3(00000)=0. B0B1=01 indicates 8 µs and B2∼B3(00000)=256. B0B1=10 indicates 8 µs and B2∼B3(00000)=512. BOB1=11 indicates 256 µs and B2∼B3(00000)=768 µs.

[0223] Accordingly, an STA can calculate a TXOP duration value on the basis of values B0 to B6 of the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A field. For example, TXOP duration value = (8 value of (B2∼B6)) µs when B0B1=00, TXOP duration value = (256+ 8 value of (B2∼B6)) µs when B0B1=01, TXOP duration value = (512 + 8 value of (B2∼B6)) µs when B0B1=10 and TXOP duration value = (768 + 256 value of (B2∼B6)) µs when B0B1=11.

[0224] Meanwhile, the STA may acquire a TXOP duration value from a predefined lookup table. A lookup table corresponding to Table 30 is omitted for convenience.

(viii) Example of option 3-3 of Table 20: 7-bit field size, 2 units (16 us and 256 us)



[0225] Table 31 illustrates TXOP duration values depending on TXOP duration field values (e.g., TXOP indices) in a case in which the TXOP duration field is 7 bits (e.g., B0∼B6), small unit = 16 µs and large unit = 256 µs (option 3-3 of Table 20).
[Table 31]
B0B1∼B6TXOP duration rangeUnitTXOP duration value
0 000000∼111111 0 us ∼ 1008 us 16 us (16 value of (B1∼B6)) us
1 000000∼111111 1024 us ∼ 12616 us 256 us (1024+ 256 value of (B1∼B6)) us


[0226] Referring to Table 31, B0 indicates a duration unit (or granularity). For example, B0=0 indicates a small unit of 16 µs and B0=1 indicates a large unit of 256 µs. Accordingly, an STA can calculate a TXOP duration value on the basis of values B0 to B6 of the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A field. For example, TXOP duration value = (16 value of (B1∼B6)) µs when B0=0 and TXOP duration value = (1024+ 256 value of (B1∼B6)) µs when B0=1.

[0227] Meanwhile, the STA may acquire a TXOP duration value from a predefined lookup table. A lookup table corresponding to Table 31 is omitted for convenience.

[0228] Table 32 shows throughput and gains with respect to the above-described examples. In Table 32, it is assumed that there are 32 BSSs, a maximum of 64 STAs are present per BSS and reuse factor=4. In addition, 20 MHz channels on 5 GHz and 2Tx-2Rx are assumed. Furthermore, it is assumed that a buffer state is a full buffer state, TXOP is 2 ms and RTS is in an off state. The left column of Table 32 represents a case in which the CF-END frame is not used and the right column of Table 32 represents a case in which the CF-END frame is used.

[0229] Referring to Table 32, the influence of most small units (e.g., up to 16 µs) on performance is relatively small. For example, 8/16 µs have throughput loss of 0.7%/1% compared to 1 µs.

[0230] When large units are used, use of the CF-END frame to truncate the remaining TXOP is more advantageous to improvement of system throughput and gain.
[Table 32]
unit (µs)CF-END offCF-END on
Thpt (Mbps)GainThpt (Mbps)Gain
1024 247.648 -49.99% 464.871 -6.08%
512 331.483 -33.05% 466.109 -5.83%
256 394.352 -20.36% 465.743 -5.91%
128 439.931 -11.15% 464.396 -6.18%
64 466.632 -5.76% 465.582 -5.94%
32 481.309 -2.80% 479.736 -3.08%
16 489.537 -1.13% 488.327 -1.34%
8 491.776 -0.682% 491.174 -0.769%
4 493.564 -0.321% 493.129 -0.375%
1 (original) 495,153 0.00% 494.983 0.00%

(4) Determination of TXOP duration value



[0231] An STA (e.g., a TXOP holder/responder) transmitting frames needs to determine and calculate a TXOP duration value that the STA intends to signal through the TXOP duration field of the HE-SIG A. For example, the STA can determine a TXOP duration value (e.g., a value indicated by the TXOP duration field of HE-SIG A) on the basis of the duration of a MAC header included in a frame that the STA transmits (e.g., the duration field of the MAC header of MPDU).

[0232] FIG. 25 illustrates a method of setting a TXOP duration value according to an embodiment. In the present embodiment, it is assumed that MAC duration value = D.

[0233] Referring to FIG. 25, an STA can set TXOP duration value = ceiling (D/granularity) granularity. Here, ceiling (A) represents the smallest integer from among integers equal to or greater than A. Accordingly, the TXOP duration value is set to be greater than MAC duration value D. For example, TXOP duration value = MAC duration value D is satisfied when the MAC duration value D is a multiple of the granularity and TXOP duration value > MAC duration value D is satisfied in other cases.

[0234] For example, when D = 100 µs and granularity = 16 µs, TXOP duration value = ceiling (100/16) 16 = 112 µs. When TXOP duration value = 1,024 µs is signaled in the same way as option 2-2 of Table 20 (e.g., 6-bit duration, small unit=16 µs and large unit=512 µs), the TXOP duration field value (TXOP index) is set to 7.

[0235] In another example, when D = 900 µs and granularity =512 µs, TXOP duration value = ceiling (900/512) 512 = 1,024 µs. When TXOP duration value = 1,024 µs is signaled in the same way as option 2-2 of Table 20 (e.g., 6-bit duration, small unit=16 µs and large unit=512 µs), the TXOP duration field value (TXOP index) is set to 33.

TXOP termination/truncation method



[0236] According to the above-described embodiment, the TXOP duration field of HE-SIG A can set a TXOP duration on the basis of a relatively large granularity. For example, the duration field included in the MAC header can be indicated based on a 1 µs granularity, whereas the TXOP duration field of HE-SIG A can be set to indicate a TXOP duration value on the basis of a granularity greater than the granularity of 1 µs.

[0237] When the TXOP duration is set by the TXOP duration field of HE-SIG A on the basis of a relatively large granularity, the TXOP duration can be set to a time longer than the time actually used for frame transmission. Accordingly, other STAs may set incorrect NAVs on the basis of HE-SIG A and thus cannot use channels for a specific time, and channel efficiency may be deteriorated.

[0238] To solve such problems, information for early termination of TXOP may be transmitted. For example, when a TXOP holder/responder transmits the last frame (e.g., ACK, Block ACK, Multi-STA BA) during a TXOP period, the TXOP holder/responder may include information indicating early termination of TXOP in the last frame and transmit the last frame. Early TXOP termination may be represented as TXOP truncation or simply as (early) termination/truncation. A description will be given of TXOP termination methods.

(1) Method using CF-END frame



[0239] A TXOP holder/responder can transmit the last frame during a TXOP period and then terminate TXOP by transmitting a CF-END frame.

(2) Method using early termination indicator



[0240] According to an embodiment, an STA can include an early termination indicator in part of a frame (e.g., a common part of HE-SIG A and HE-SIG B, etc.) and transmit the frame. For example, the STA can indicate early TXOP termination by setting early termination indicator = 1. TXOP can be terminated immediately after the frame including early termination indicator = 1. The early termination indicator may be combined with the duration field when used. For example, early termination indicator = 1 can indicate that TXOP is terminated at a time indicated by the duration field. When Duration = 0, TXOP can be terminated after the corresponding frame. When the duration field has a value greater than 0, TXOP can be terminated at a time indicated by the duration field.
  1. (i) The MD (more data) field or ESOP field may be reused as the early TXOP termination indicator.
  2. (ii) In the case of a DL frame, the early termination indicator can be transmitted in the last frame of a set TXOP. For example, a TXOP duration is updated and transmitted along with the early termination indicator in the last frame. The TXOP duration is set to be less than a previous TXOP duration and TXOP termination can be indicated through the early termination indicator.
  3. (iii) When TXOP information update is needed, an STA (e.g., a TXOP holder/responder) sets a TXOP updated when a frame is transmitted and transmits the frame. In the frame in which the TXOP is updated, the early termination indicator is used as a TXOP update indicator. For example, the early termination indicator can be set to 1 and transmitted whenever the TXOP is updated. Upon reception of a frame in which the early termination indicator is set to 1, an STA (e.g., a third party STA) updates the TXOP of the corresponding STA (e.g., NAV update).
  4. (iv) In the case of single frame (e.g., PPDU) transmission, the TXOP duration can be set to the size of ACK/BA. In the case of multi-frame transmission, the TXOP duration is set for multi-frame and ACK/BA transmission.
  5. (v) UL MU transmission: If a trigger frame is transmitted in a non-HT PPDU (e.g., 11a format), content of the trigger frame indicates a correct TXOP duration and thus even a legacy STA (e.g., STA that does not support 11ax) can correctly set the TXOP duration (e.g., NAV setting/update). In a UL MU frame, a TXOP duration corresponding to a transmission duration of an ACK/BA frame is indicated, and thus there is no problem in NAV setting/update.


[0241] However, when 11ax format is used and a TXOP duration set in HE-SIG A differs from TXOP duration information included in frame content (TXOP duration of the MAC header), a problem is generated. For example, some STAs (e.g., third party) may read only HE-SIG A and other STAs (e.g., third party) may read both the HE-SIG A and frame content.

[0242] STAs that have read both HE-SIG A and frame content set TXOP through duration information of the frame content (e.g., MAC header). For example, the STAs that have read both HE-SIG A and frame content store the duration information included in HE-SIG A. Upon read of the duration of the MAC header (or duration of the content), the STAs determine a final TXOP duration on the basis of the duration of the MAC header (or duration of the content) instead of the duration of HE-SIG A to update NAVs.

[0243] STAs that read only HE-SIG A update NAVs on the basis of the TXOP duration included in HE-SIG A. In this case, a problem that a TXOP duration longer than the actual TXOP duration of the MAC header is set may be generated. For example, when an ACK/BA/M-BA frame in response to a UL MU frame is transmitted, the STAs update TXOP through TXOP duration information included in HE-SIG A/B or the MAC header (e.g., NAV update) and can terminate TXOP at a corresponding time when the early termination indicator (or TXOP update indicator) is set to 1.

(vi) TXOP termination may be performed on the basis of a BSS color. For example, an STA (e.g., third party) may be configured to terminate TXOP only when TXOP termination is indicated through a frame corresponding to a BSS color thereof. The STA (e.g., third party) checks a BSS color included in a frame. If the BSS color indicates other BSSs, the STA (e.g., third party) does not terminate TOXP even when the frame indicates TXOP termination. Accordingly, the STA (e.g., third party) can terminate/truncate TXOP only when a frame of the BSS thereof indicates TXOP termination (e.g., explicit indication or implicit indication in which duration is set to 0). However, loss of access opportunity of the STA for other BSSs may occur.

(vi) According to an embodiment, when an STA (e.g., a TXOP holder/responder) transmits 1 lax frames within TXOP, the STA can necessarily include TXOP termination/truncation information in the last frame and transmit the last frame. In the case of 11a frames, correct TXOP can be set because TXOP is set through the duration of the MAC header. In an embodiment, the TXOP duration of HE-SIG may be overwritten by the duration of the MAC header.


(3) Method using duration field value of last frame



[0244] According to an embodiment, an STA (e.g., a TXOP holder/responder) may indicate early termination/truncation of TXOP by setting the duration field value of the last frame to a specific value (e.g., setting the duration field value to 0 or setting all bits to 1) instead of using an explicit TXOP termination indicator. Accordingly, upon reception of a frame indicating Duration = specific value (e.g., 0), an STA (e.g., third party) can determine that the TXOP duration has been terminated/truncated after the frame. This can be understood as a function similar to the CF-END frame.

(4) NAV management method



[0245] According to existing NAV setting/update methods, NAV update is performed only when a TXOP duration value of a received frame exceeds a NAV value currently set to an STA (e.g., third party). For early TXOP termination, NAV update needs to be performed even when the TXOP duration value of the received frame is less than the NAV value currently set to an STA. According to an embodiment, the STA may update the NAV with a TXOP duration less than the NAV value currently set thereto on the basis of the aforementioned TXOP truncation/termination/update indicator. However, NAV update with a TXOP duration less than the currently set NAV value may be set to be performed only on the basis of a TXOP termination/update indicator included in myBSS frame.

[0246] The STA may set and maintain a NAV per BSS color. When the STA sets a NAV per BSS color, the STA can truncate the TXOP of the NAV corresponding to a BSS color indicated by a frame indicating TXOP truncation upon reception of the frame.

[0247] However, to reduce complexity of NAV setting and management, the STA may set and maintain two types of NAVs, i.e., myBSS NAV and other BSS NAV (e.g., BSS other than myBSS or a frame that does not indicate myBSS). The term "myBSS" may be referred to as an intra-BSS NAV.

[0248] An operation for TXOP power reduction may be defined. For example, feasibility of NAV update is indicated, an STA (e.g., third party) maintains a wake-up state. If no NAV update is indicated, the STA can switch to a power saving (PS) mode. To this end, an STA (e.g., a TXOP holder/responder) that sets a TXOP may include information about whether NAV update will be performed in a frame and transmit the frame. The STA (e.g., third party) may switch to the PS mode only when a received frame is myBSS frame and indicates switching to the PS mode. (e.g., indicates no NAV update). The STA (e.g., TXOP holder/responder) may not instruct the STA (e.g., third party) to switch to the PS mode when indicating TXOP/NAV update through frame transmission and may instruct the STA (e.g., third party) to switch to the PS mode only when there is no NAV update.

[0249] FIG. 26 illustrates a frame transmission (e.g., TXOP management) and NAV management (e.g., frame reception) method according to an embodiment of the present invention. Description of redundant parts in the above description and the present embodiment will be omitted. It is assumed that STA 1 and STA 3 are TXOP holder/responder STAs and STA 2 is a third party STA. STA 1, STA 2 and STA 3 may be AP or non-AP STAs.

[0250] Referring to FIG. 26, STA 1 sets a first duration field (e.g., TXOP duration field) included in an HE-SIG A field. The first duration field may be set to indicate a TXOP (transmission opportunity value) using a smaller number of bits than that of a second duration field (e.g., MAC duration field) included in a MAC header. In addition, a granularity of a time unit used for indicating a TXOP value in the first duration field may be set to differ from a granularity (e.g., 1 µs) of a time unit used in the second duration field of the MAC header. The second duration field may be set to 15 bits.

[0251] For example, the granularity used in the first duration field may be set to an integer multiple of the granularity used in the second duration field. Furthermore, the granularity used in the first duration field may vary depending on a TXOP value to be indicated through the first duration field.

[0252] The first duration field may include at least one bit (e.g., MSB) indicating a granularity determined according to a TXOP value. The remaining bits of the first duration field may indicate the number of time units included in a TXOP value based on the granularity indicated by the at least one bit.

[0253] Specifically, the first duration field may be set to 5, 6 or 7 bits and the MSB (most significant bit) of the first duration field may be used to indicate a granularity. For example, the first duration field can be set to 5 bits and the granularity indicated by the MSB can be one of 32 µs and 512 µs. As another example, the first duration field can be set to 6 bits and the granularity indicated by the MSB can be one of 16 µs and 256 µs. In another example, the first duration field can be set to 7 bits and the granularity indicated by the MSB can be one of 8 µs and 128 µs.

[0254] Both the TXOP value indicated by the first duration field and the TXOP value indicated by the second duration field (e.g., MAC duration) may be set for transmission of the same frame. However, the TXOP value indicated by the first duration field can be calculated on the basis of the TXOP value indicated by the second duration field. The TXOP value indicated by the first duration field may be determined to be greater than or equals to the TXOP value indicated by the second duration field.

[0255] STA 1 transmits frame 1 including an HE-SIG field and a MAC header (S2601).

[0256] It is assumed that STA 3 is designated as a receiver of frame 1 for convenience of description. For example, it is assumed that a receiver address field of frame 1 transmitted by STA 1 is set to the address of STA 3 (e.g., the MAC address or AID of STA 3). Accordingly, STA 1/STA 3 are TXOP holders/responders and STA 2 is a third party STA.

[0257] STA 2 receives (or detects) frame 1 transmitted form STA 1 to STA 3 (S2615).

[0258] STA 2 may perform NAV management on the basis of one of the first duration field included in the HE-SIG A field and the second duration field included in the MAC header (S2615). NAV management may refer to setting, update or resetting a time period at which channel access is restricted in order to protect the TXOP of the transmitter of frame 1 (e.g., STA 1) or the receiver of frame 1 (e.g., STA 3) when STA 2 is not designated as a receiver of frame 1. It is assumed that STA 2 does not have a currently set NAV value (e.g., NAV = 0) for convenience. Accordingly, STA 2 sets a NAV on the basis of frame 1.

[0259] An STA performing NAV management can perform NAV management on the basis of the second duration field (e.g., MAC header) upon successful MAC header decoding and perform NAV management on the basis of the first duration field (e.g., HE-SIG A) upon MAC header decoding failure. In the present embodiment, it is assumed that second STA 2 sets a NAV on the basis of the first duration field (e.g., HE-SIG A) for convenience.

[0260] Upon reception of frame 1, STA 3 transmits frame 2 including an HE-SIG A and a MAC header to STA 1 (S2620). STA 2 can detect (or receive) frame 2 and update or reset a NAV on the basis of frame 2(S2625).

[0261] FIG. 27 is an explanatory diagram of apparatuses for implementing the aforementioned method.

[0262] A wireless device 800 and a wireless device 850 in FIG. 27 may correspond to the aforementioned STA/AP 1 and STA/AP 2, respectively.

[0263] The STA 800 may include a processor 810, a memory 820, and a transceiver 830 and the AP 850 may include a processor 860, a memory 870, and a transceiver 860. The transceivers 830 and 880 may transmit/receive a wireless signal and may be implemented in a physical layer of IEEE 802.11/3GPP. The processors 810 and 860 are implemented in a physical layer and/or a MAC layer and are connected to the transceivers 830 and 880. The processors 810 and 860 may perform the above-described UL MU scheduling procedure.

[0264] The processors 810 and 860 and/or the transceivers 830 and 880 may include an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), a chipset, a logical circuit, and/or a data processor. The memories 820 and 870 may include a Read-Only Memory (ROM), a Random Access Memory (RAM), a flash memory, a memory card, a storage medium, and/or a storage unit. If an example is performed by software, the above-described method may be executed in the form of a module (e.g., a process or a function) performing the above-described function. The module may be stored in the memories 820 and 870 and executed by the processors 810 and 860. The memories 820 and 870 may be located at the interior or exterior of the processors 810 and 860 and may be connected to the processors 810 and 860 via known means.

[0265] The detailed description of the preferred examples of the present invention has been given to enable those skilled in the art to implement and practice the invention. Although the invention has been described with reference to the preferred examples, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various modifications and variations can be made in the present invention without departing from the scope of the invention described in the appended claims.

[Industrial Applicability]



[0266] The present invention has been described on the assumption that the present invention is applied to a wireless LAN system supporting HE PPDUs. However, the present invention is not limited thereto and can be applied to various wireless communication systems including IEEE 802.11.


Claims

1. A method of transmitting a frame by a station, STA, in a wireless local area network, LAN, system supporting transmission of a high efficiency physical layer protocol data unit, HE PPDU, the method comprising:

setting (S2605) a first duration field included in a HE signal A, HE-SIG A, field; and

transmitting (S2610) the frame including the HE-SIG A field and a media access control, MAC, header,

wherein the first duration field is related to a transmission opportunity, TXOP, duration value,

wherein the first duration field comprises a plurality of bits,

wherein a number of the plurality of the bits is smaller than a number of bits of a second duration field included in the MAC header,

wherein a front part of the plurality of the bits comprises information on whether a granularity of the TXOP duration value is 'A' micro-second or 'B' micro-second,

wherein 'A' and 'B' are predetermined integers greater than 1, respectively, and

wherein a granularity related to the second duration field is different from the granularity of the TXOP duration value.


 
2. The method of claim 1, wherein a remaining part of the plurality of the bits comprises scaled duration information scaled by the granularity of the TXOP duration value.
 
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the TXOP duration value is identified based on a combination of the granularity of the TXOP duration value and the scaled duration information.
 
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the granularity related to the second duration field is 1 micro-second.
 
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the front part is an initial 1-bit of the plurality of the bits, and,
wherein in case of:

the initial 1-bit being 0, the TXOP duration value is related to 'A* the scaled duration information' micro-second, and

the initial 1-bit being 1, the TXOP duration value is related to '512 + B* the scaled duration information' micro-second, and,

wherein * denotes a multiplication operation.


 
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the 'A' is 8, 'B' is 128 and the number of the plurality of the bits is 7.
 
7. A station, STA, transmitting a frame in a wireless local area network, LAN, system supporting transmission of a high efficiency physical layer protocol data unit, HE PPDU, the STA comprising:

a transmitter (130, 180); and,

at least one processer (110, 160) coupled with the transmitter (130, 180),

wherein the at least one processor (110, 160) is configured to:

set a first duration field included in a HE signal A, HE-SIG A, field; and

transmit the frame including the HE-SIG A field and a media access control, MAC, header,

wherein the first duration field is related to a transmission opportunity, TXOP, duration value,

wherein the first duration field comprises a plurality of bits,

wherein a number of the plurality of the bits is smaller than a number of bits of a second duration field included in the MAC header,

wherein a front part of the plurality of the bits comprises information on whether a granularity of the TXOP duration value is 'A' micro-second or 'B' micro-second,

wherein 'A' and 'B' are predetermined integers greater than 1, respectively, and

wherein a granularity related to the second duration field is different from the granularity of the TXOP duration value.


 
8. A method of managing a network allocation vector, NAV, by a station, STA, in a wireless local area network, LAN, system supporting transmission of a high efficiency physical layer protocol data unit, HE PPDU, the method comprising:

receiving (S2615, S2625) a frame including a HE signal A, HE-SIG A, field and a media access control, MAC, header; and

determining whether to use a first duration field included in the HE-SIG A field or a second duration field included in the MAC header;

performing (S2615, S2625) NAV management based on one of the first duration field or the second duration field according to the determination,

wherein the first duration field is related to a transmission opportunity, TXOP, duration value,

wherein the first duration field comprises a plurality of bits,

wherein a number of the plurality of the bits is smaller than a number of bits of a second duration field included in the MAC header,

wherein a front part of the plurality of the bits comprises information on whether a granularity of the TXOP duration value is 'A' micro-second or 'B' micro-second,

wherein 'A' and 'B' are predetermined integers greater than 1, respectively, and

wherein a granularity related to the second duration field is different from the granularity of the TXOP duration value.


 
9. The method of claim 8, wherein a remaining part of the plurality of the bits comprises scaled duration information scaled by the granularity of the TXOP duration value.
 
10. The method of claim 8, wherein performing the NAV management comprises setting, updating or resetting a time where channel access is restricted in order to protect a TXOP of a transmitter of the frame or a receiver of the frame when the STA is not designated as the receiver of the frame.
 
11. The method of claim 8, wherein performing the NAV management comprises:

performing NAV management based on the second duration field when the MAC header has been successfully decoded; and

performing NAV management based on the first duration field when decoding of the MAC header has been failed.


 
12. The method of claim 9, wherein the TXOP duration value is identified based on a combination of the granularity of the TXOP duration value and the scaled duration information.
 
13. The method of claim 8, wherein the granularity related to the second duration field is 1 micro-second.
 
14. The method of claim 8, wherein the front part is an initial 1-bit of the plurality of the bits,
wherein in case of:

the initial 1-bit being 0, the TXOP duration value is related to 'A* the scaled duration information' micro-second, and

the initial 1-bit being 1, the TXOP duration value is related to '512 + B* the scaled duration information' micro-second, and,

wherein * denotes a multiplication operation.


 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zum Übertragen eines Rahmens durch eine Station, STA, in einem drahtlosen lokalen Netzwerk-, LAN-, System, welches die Übertragung einer hocheffizienten physikalischen Schicht-Protokoll-Dateneinheit, HE PPDU, unterstützt, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

Festlegen (S2605) eines ersten Zeitdauerfeldes, das in einem HE-Signal A-, HE-SIG A-, Feld enthalten ist; und

Übertragen (S2610) des Rahmens, einschließlich des HE-SIG A-Feldes und eines Medienzugriffssteuerungs-, MAC-, Headers,

wobei das erste Zeitdauerfeld auf einen Übertragungsgelegenheits-, TXOP-, Zeitdauerwert bezogen ist,

wobei das erste Zeitdauerfeld eine Mehrzahl von Bits umfasst,

wobei eine Anzahl der Mehrzahl der Bits kleiner ist als eine Anzahl von Bits eines zweiten Zeitdauerfeldes, das in dem MAC-Header enthalten ist,

wobei ein vorderer Teil der Mehrzahl der Bits Informationen darüber umfasst, ob eine Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts "A" Mikrosekunden oder "B" Mikrosekunden beträgt,

wobei "A" bzw. "B" vorbestimmte ganze Zahlen grösser als 1 sind, und

wobei eine auf das zweite Zeitdauerfeld bezogene Granularität von einer Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts verschieden ist.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei ein verbleibender Teil der Mehrzahl der Bits skalierte Zeitdauerinformation umfasst, die durch die Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts skaliert ist.
 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, wobei der TXOP-Zeitdauerwert basierend auf einer Kombination der Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts und der skalierten Zeitdauerinformation identifiziert wird.
 
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die auf das zweite Zeitdauerfeld bezogene Granularität 1 Mikrosekunde ist.
 
5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei der vordere Teil ein anfängliches 1-Bit der Mehrzahl der Bits ist, und,
wobei im Fall, dass:

das anfängliche 1-Bit 0 ist, der TXOP-Zeitdauerwert bezogen ist auf "A * die skalierte Zeitdauerinformation" Mikrosekunden, und

das anfängliche 1-Bit 1 ist, der TXOP-Zeitdauerwert bezogen ist auf "512 + B* die skalierte Zeitdauerinformation" Mikrosekunden, und

wobei * eine Multiplikationsoperation bezeichnet.


 
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das "A" 8 ist, "B" 128 ist und die Anzahl der Mehrzahl der Bits 7 ist.
 
7. Station, STA, die einen Rahmens in einem drahtlosen lokalen Netzwerk-, LAN-, System überträgt, welches die Übertragung einer hocheffizienten physikalischen Schicht-Protokoll-Dateneinheit, HE PPDU, unterstützt, wobei die STA umfasst:

einen Sender (130, 180); und,

mindestens einen mit dem Sender (130, 180) gekoppelten Prozessor (110, 160), wobei der mindestens eine Prozessor (110, 160) eingerichtet ist zum:

Festlegen eines ersten Zeitdauerfeldes, das in einem HE-Signal A-, HE-SIG A-, Feld enthalten ist; und

Übertragen des Rahmens, einschließlich des HE-SIG A-Feldes und eines Medienzugriffssteuerungs-, MAC-, Headers,

wobei das erste Zeitdauerfeld auf einen Übertragungsgelegenheits-, TXOP-, Zeitdauerwert bezogen ist,

wobei das erste Zeitdauerfeld eine Mehrzahl von Bits umfasst,

wobei eine Anzahl der Mehrzahl der Bits kleiner ist als eine Anzahl von Bits eines zweiten Zeitdauerfeldes, das in dem MAC-Header enthalten ist,

wobei ein vorderer Teil der Mehrzahl der Bits Informationen darüber umfasst, ob eine Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts "A" Mikrosekunden oder "B" Mikrosekunden beträgt,

wobei "A" bzw. "B" vorbestimmte ganze Zahlen grösser als 1 sind, und

wobei eine auf das zweite Zeitdauerfeld bezogene Granularität von einer Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts verschieden ist.


 
8. Verfahren zum Verwalten eines Netzwerkzuteilungsvektors, NAV, durch eine Station, STA, in einem drahtlosen lokalen Netzwerk-, LAN-, System, welches die Übertragung einer hocheffizienten physikalischen Schicht-Protokoll-Dateneinheit, HE PPDU, unterstützt, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

Empfangen (S2615, S2625) eines Rahmens einschließlich eines HE-Signal A-, HE-SIG A-, Feldes und eines Medienzugriffssteuerungs-, MAC-, Headers; und

Bestimmen, ob ein erstes Zeitdauerfeld, das in dem HE-SIG A-Feld enthalten ist, oder ein zweites Zeitdauerfeld, das in dem MAC-Header enthalten ist, verwendet werden soll;

Durchführen (S2615, S2625) von NAV-Management basierend auf dem ersten Zeitdauerfeld oder dem zweiten Zeitdauerfeld gemäß dem Bestimmen,

wobei das erste Zeitdauerfeld auf einen Übertragungsgelegenheits-, TXOP-, Zeitdauerwert bezogen ist,

wobei das erste Zeitdauerfeld eine Mehrzahl von Bits umfasst,

wobei eine Anzahl der Mehrzahl der Bits kleiner ist als eine Anzahl von Bits eines zweiten Zeitdauerfeldes, das in dem MAC-Header enthalten ist,

wobei ein vorderer Teil der Mehrzahl der Bits Informationen darüber umfasst, ob eine Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts "A" Mikrosekunden oder "B" Mikrosekunden beträgt,

wobei "A" bzw. "B" vorbestimmte ganze Zahlen grösser als 1 sind, und

wobei eine auf das zweite Zeitdauerfeld bezogene Granularität von einer Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts verschieden ist.


 
9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei ein verbleibender Teil der Mehrzahl der Bits skalierte Zeitdauerinformation umfasst, die durch die Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts skaliert ist.
 
10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei das Durchführen des NAV-Managements ein Festlegen, Aktualisieren oder Zurücksetzen einer Zeit umfasst, in der Kanalzugriff beschränkt ist, um eine TXOP eines Senders des Rahmens oder eines Empfängers des Rahmens zu schützen, wenn die STA nicht als der Empfänger des Rahmens bestimmt ist.
 
11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei das Durchführen des NAV-Managements umfasst:

Durchführen von NAV-Management basierend auf dem zweiten Zeitdauerfeld, wenn der MAC-Header erfolgreich dekodiert worden ist; und

Durchführen von NAV-Management basierend auf dem ersten Zeitdauerfeld, wenn die Dekodierung des MAC-Headers gescheitert ist.


 
12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei der TXOP-Zeitdauerwert basierend auf einer Kombination der Granularität des TXOP-Zeitdauerwerts und der skalierten Zeitdauerinformation identifiziert wird.
 
13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei die auf das zweite Zeitdauerfeld bezogene Granularität 1 Mikrosekunde ist.
 
14. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8 wobei der vordere Teil ein anfängliches 1-Bit der Mehrzahl der Bits ist, und,
wobei im Fall, dass:

das anfängliche 1-Bit 0 ist, der TXOP-Zeitdauerwert bezogen ist auf "A * die skalierte Zeitdauerinformation" Mikrosekunden, und

das anfängliche 1-Bit 1 ist, der TXOP-Zeitdauerwert bezogen ist auf "512 + B* die skalierte Zeitdauerinformation" Mikrosekunden, und

wobei * eine Multiplikationsoperation bezeichnet.


 


Revendications

1. Procédé de transmission d'une trame par une station, STA, dans un système de réseau local sans fil, LAN, supportant une transmission d'une unité de données de protocole de couche physique haute efficacité, HE PPDU, le procédé comprenant :

le paramétrage (S2605) d'un premier champ de durée inclus dans un champ de signal HE A, HE-SIG A ; et

la transmission (S2610) de la trame incluant le champ HE-SIG A et un en-tête de contrôle d'accès au support, MAC,

dans lequel le premier champ de durée se rapporte à une valeur de durée d'opportunité de transmission, TXOP,

dans lequel le premier champ de durée comprend une pluralité de bits,

dans lequel un nombre de la pluralité des bits est plus petit qu'un nombre de bits d'un deuxième champ de durée inclus dans l'en-tête MAC,

dans lequel une partie avant de la pluralité des bits comprend une information sur selon qu'une granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP est « A » microsecondes ou « B » microsecondes,

dans lequel « A » et « B » sont des entiers prédéterminés supérieurs à 1, respectivement, et

dans lequel une granularité se rapportant au deuxième champ de durée est différente de la granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel une partie restante de la pluralité des bits comprend une information de durée mise à l'échelle, mise à l'échelle par la granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP.
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la valeur de durée TXOP est identifiée sur la base d'une combinaison de la granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP et de l'information de durée mise à l'échelle.
 
4. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la granularité se rapportant au deuxième champ de durée est 1 microseconde.
 
5. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la partie avant est 1 bit initial parmi la pluralité des bits, et
dans lequel, dans le cas de :

le 1 bit initial étant 0, la valeur de durée TXOP se rapporte à « A*l'information de durée mise à l'échelle » microsecondes, et

le 1 bit initial étant 1, la valeur de durée TXOP se rapporte à « 512+B*l'information de durée mise à l'échelle » microsecondes, et

dans lequel * dénote une opération de multiplication.


 
6. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le « A » est 8, « B » est 128 et le nombre de la pluralité des bits est 7.
 
7. Station, STA, transmettant une trame dans un système de réseau local sans fil, LAN, supportant une transmission d'une unité de données de protocole de couche physique haute efficacité, HE PPDU, la STA comprenant :

un émetteur (130, 180) ; et

au moins un processeur (110, 160) couplé avec l'émetteur (130, 180),

dans laquelle l'au moins un processeur (110, 160) est configuré pour :

paramétrer un premier champ de durée inclus dans un champ de signal HE A, HE-SIG A ; et

transmettre la trame incluant le champ HE-SIG A et un en-tête de contrôle d'accès au support, MAC,

dans laquelle le premier champ de durée se rapporte à une valeur de durée d'opportunité de transmission, TXOP,

dans laquelle le premier champ de durée comprend une pluralité de bits,

dans laquelle un nombre de la pluralité des bits est plus petit qu'un nombre de bits d'un deuxième champ de durée inclus dans l'en-tête MAC,

dans laquelle une partie avant de la pluralité des bits comprend une information sur selon qu'une granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP est « A » microsecondes ou « B » microsecondes,

dans laquelle « A » et « B » sont des entiers prédéterminés supérieurs à 1, respectivement, et

dans laquelle une granularité se rapportant au deuxième champ de durée est différente de la granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP.


 
8. Procédé de gestion d'un vecteur d'affectation de réseau, NAV, par une station, STA, dans un système de réseau local sans fil, LAN, supportant une transmission d'une unité de données de protocole de couche physique haute efficacité, HE PPDU, le procédé comprenant :

la réception (S2615, S2625) d'une trame incluant un champ de signal HE A, HE-SIG A et un en-tête de contrôle d'accès au support, MAC ; et

la détermination s'il convient d'utiliser un premier champ de durée inclus dans le champ HE-SIG A ou un deuxième champ de durée inclus dans l'en-tête MAC ;

l'exécution (S2615, S2625) d'une gestion de NAV sur la base d'un du premier champ de durée ou du deuxième champ de durée en fonction de la détermination,

dans lequel le premier champ de durée se rapporte à une valeur de durée d'opportunité de transmission, TXOP,

dans lequel le premier champ de durée comprend une pluralité de bits,

dans lequel un nombre de la pluralité des bits est plus petit qu'un nombre de bits d'un deuxième champ de durée inclus dans l'en-tête MAC,

dans lequel une partie avant de la pluralité des bits comprend une information sur selon qu'une granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP est « A » microsecondes ou « B » microsecondes,

dans lequel « A » et « B » sont des entiers prédéterminés supérieurs à 1, respectivement, et

dans lequel une granularité se rapportant au deuxième champ de durée est différente de la granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP.


 
9. Procédé selon la revendication 8, dans lequel une partie restante de la pluralité des bits comprend une information de durée mise à l'échelle, mise à l'échelle par la granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP.
 
10. Procédé selon la revendication 8, dans lequel l'exécution de la gestion de NAV comprend le paramétrage, la mise à jour ou la réinitialisation d'un temps où un accès au canal est restreint afin de protéger une TXOP d'un émetteur de la trame ou d'un récepteur de la trame lorsque la STA n'est pas désignée comme le récepteur de la trame.
 
11. Procédé selon la revendication 8, dans lequel l'exécution de la gestion de NAV comprend :

l'exécution de la gestion de NAV sur la base du deuxième champ de durée lorsque l'en-tête MAC a été décodé avec succès ; et

l'exécution de la gestion de NAV sur la base du premier champ de durée lorsque le décodage de l'en-tête MAC a échoué.


 
12. Procédé selon la revendication 9, dans lequel la valeur de durée TXOP est identifiée sur la base d'une combinaison de la granularité de la valeur de durée TXOP et de l'information de durée mise à l'échelle.
 
13. Procédé selon la revendication 8, dans lequel la granularité se rapportant au deuxième champ de durée est 1 microseconde.
 
14. Procédé selon la revendication 8, dans lequel la partie avant est 1 bit initial parmi la pluralité des bits, et
dans lequel, dans le cas de :

le 1 bit initial étant 0, la valeur de durée TXOP se rapporte à « A*l'information de durée mise à l'échelle » microsecondes, et

le 1 bit initial étant 1, la valeur de durée TXOP se rapporte à « 512+B*l'information de durée mise à l'échelle » microsecondes, et

dans lequel * dénote une opération de multiplication.


 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description