(19)
(11)EP 3 298 639 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.01.2021 Bulletin 2021/02

(21)Application number: 16722050.8

(22)Date of filing:  04.05.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 51/56(2006.01)
H01L 51/54(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2016/000739
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/188609 (01.12.2016 Gazette  2016/48)

(54)

FORMULATION CONTAINING AN ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTOR AND A METAL COMPLEX

FORMULIERUNG MIT EINEM ORGANISCHEN HALBLEITER UND METALLKOMPLEX

FORMULATION CONTENANT UN SEMI-CONDUCTEUR ORGANIQUE ET UN COMPLEXE MÉTALLIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 22.05.2015 EP 15001556

(43)Date of publication of application:
28.03.2018 Bulletin 2018/13

(73)Proprietor: Merck Patent GmbH
64293 Darmstadt (DE)

(72)Inventors:
  • ECKES, Fabrice
    68300 Saint Louis (FR)
  • STEGMAIER, Katja
    64287 Darmstadt (DE)
  • HEIL, Holger
    60316 Frankfurt am Main (DE)
  • KUNKEL, Dietmar
    64579 Gernsheim (DE)
  • SEIM, Henning
    64289 Darmstadt (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2014/048542
US-A1- 2015 123 047
US-A1- 2012 273 736
  
  • LESSARD BENOÎT H ET AL: "Poly(2-(N-carbazolyl)ethyl acrylate) as a host for high efficiency polymer light-emitting devices", ORGANIC ELECTRONICS, vol. 17, 2 January 2015 (2015-01-02), pages 377-385, XP029134824, ISSN: 1566-1199, DOI: 10.1016/J.ORGEL.2014.12.019
  • TSUBOI T ET AL: "Photoluminescence characteristics of Ir(ppy)3 and PtOEP doped in TPD host material", THIN SOLID FILMS, ELSEVIER-SEQUOIA S.A. LAUSANNE, CH, vol. 499, no. 1-2, 3 August 2005 (2005-08-03), pages 306-312, XP025006477, ISSN: 0040-6090, DOI: 10.1016/J.TSF.2005.07.020 [retrieved on 2006-03-21]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to a formulation comprising at least one organic semiconductor, at least one metal complex and at least two organic solvents for the production of electronic devices. The present invention furthermore relates to a process for the production of electronic devices.

[0002] Electronic devices which comprise organic, organometallic and/or polymeric semiconductors are increasing in importance; they are employed in many commercial products for cost reasons and owing to their performance. Examples which may be mentioned here are organic-based charge- transport materials (for example triarylamine-based hole transporters) in photocopiers, organic or polymeric light-emitting diodes (OLEDs or PLEDs) and in display devices, or organic photoreceptors in photocopiers. Organic solar cells (O-SC), organic field-effect transistors (O-FET), organic thin-film transistors (O-TFT), organic integrated circuits (O-IC), organic optical amplifiers and organic laser diodes (O-lasers) are at an advanced stage of development and may achieve major importance in the future.

[0003] Generally, an OLED comprises an anode, a cathode and an organic light emitting unit. The last one comprises several functional layers like hole- or electron-injection layers, hole- or electron-transport layers and organic light emitting layers.

[0004] Nowadays, there are two main techniques for the formation of the different functional layers in an OLED device: vacuum evaporation techniques and solution-based coating methods.

[0005] The evaporation techniques are the most common technique for the production of OLEDs devices. However, this represents a major cost disadvantage, in particular for large-area devices, since a multistep vacuum process in various chambers is very expensive and must be controlled very precisely. Less expensive and established coating methods from solution, such as, for example, ink-jet printing, airbrush methods, roll-to-roll processes would be a major advantage here.

[0006] Thus, for example, WO 2009/021107 A1 and WO 2010/006680 A1 describe organic compounds which are suitable for the production of electronic devices, where these compounds can be processed both via gas-phase deposition and also from solution. However, the electronic devices which are obtained via gas-phase deposition exhibit a more favourable property profile. B.H. Lessard et al., Organic Electronics, vol. 17, 2015, p. 377-385, T. Tsuboi et al., Thin Solid Films, vol. 499, 2006, p. 306-312 and US2012273736 disclose electronic devices made from solutions containing an organic semiconductor, a metal complex and at least one solvent.

[0007] Known processes for the production of electronic devices have a usable property profile. However, it is constantly necessary to improve the properties of these processes.

[0008] In particular, the process should be inexpensive to carry out. Furthermore, the process should be suitable for the production of very small structures, enabling high-resolution screens to be obtained by the process. Furthermore, it should be possible to carry out the process using standard printing processes.

[0009] These advantages should be achieved individually or together. An essential point of view here is that the electronic devices obtainable by the process should have excellent properties. These properties include, in particular, the lifetime of the electronic devices.

[0010] A further problem is, in particular, the energy efficiency with which an electronic device achieves the specified object. In the case of organic light-emitting diodes, which may be based both on low-molecular-weight compounds and also on polymeric materials, the light yield, in particular, should be high, so that as little electrical power as possible has to be applied in order to achieve a certain light flux. Furthermore, the lowest possible voltage should also be necessary in order to achieve a specified luminous density. Accordingly, these properties should not be adversely affected by the process.

[0011] More particularly, layers which are directly connected to emitting layers, especially hole-transport layers have a great influence on the properties of the adjacent emitting layer. The quality of the hole-injection layer, which is directly connected to the hole-transport layer, plays also a significant role in the performance of the OLED.

[0012] Compositions, which comprise an organic semiconductor and a metal complex like in WO2013/182389, can be successfully used as a hole injection and/or a hole-transport layer for the production of organic electronic components. These kind of compositions can be deposited using either a vacuum evaporation technique or a solution-based coating method. Nevertheless, the quality of layers, comprising an organic semiconductor and a metal complex, obtained from coating methods from solution is not as good as the quality of the same layers obtained from evaporation techniques. More particularly, it is very difficult to deposit homogenous, thick and reproducible layers in the range of from 100 to 300 nm when using a coating method. This is due to the fact that the solubilities of the organic semiconductor and/or of the metal complex are very limited in the solvents know from the prior art and therefore the total concentration of organic semiconductor and/or metal complex in the known solvents is very low (≤ 3.5 wt.% based on the total formulation).

[0013] It has now been found that formulations comprising at least one organic semiconductor, at least one metal complex and at least one solvent, wherein the organic semiconductor and the metal complex are present at high concentration in the formulation, lead to deposition of very homogenous, thick and transparent layers for the production of electronic devices. At the same time, layers deposited from these formulations were perfectly reproducible. This advantageously lead to electronic devices, which exhibit excellent performance in terms of lifetime, energy efficiency, light yield and working voltage in a reproducible manner. At the same time, the fact that these layers are obtained from a deposition process from a solution leads to a major cost advantage, since a multistep vacuum process in various chambers is avoided.

[0014] Accordingly, the first object of the present invention is a formulation according to claim 1 comprising at least one organic semiconductor, at least one metal complex and at least two organic solvents.

[0015] The formulation of the present invention comprises at least two organic solvents, wherein the solubility of the metal complex is ≥ 5 g/l, preferably ≥ 7.5 g/l and more preferably ≥ 10 g/l and the solubility of the organic semiconductor is ≥ 10 g/l, preferably ≥ 15 g/l and more preferably ≥ 20 g/l.

[0016] For the purposes of this application, the solubility of a material in a solvent is taken to mean the highest material-to-solvent ratio in which the solution at room temperature (at about 20°C), is clear and stays clear for at least several hours, preferably for at least 5 hours.

[0017] The solubility is given in grams per liter (g/l) and is determined according to the following method:

(1) A known amount of the solvent (for example 100 mL) is put in a container;

(2) A defined amount of the material is added and the mixture is stirred with a magnetic stirring bar;

(4) Step (2) is repeated until some of the material does not dissolve despite a vigourous and prolonged stirring.



[0018] Suitable organic solvents according to the invention comprise ketones, esters, amides, sulphur compounds, nitro compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons.

[0019] The proportion of the organic solvent in the formulation according to the invention is preferably at least 60% by weight, preferably at least 70% by weight and more preferably at least 80% by weight, based on the total weight of the formulation.

[0020] The at least two organic solvents comprise a first organic solvent and a second organic solvent.

[0021] The first organic solvent of the present invention has a boiling point of from 100°C to 300°C, preferably from 105°C to 290°C, and more preferably from 110°C to 280°C.

[0022] Suitable solvents that can be used as a first solvent according to the invention are for example Benzonitrile, Dimethylformamide, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Toluene, Anisole, Xylene, Chlorbenzene and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the proportion of the first solvent according to the invention is at least 70% by weight, preferably at least 80% by weight, very preferably 85% by weight and most preferably at least 90% by weight, based on the total weight of the organic solvent.

[0023] The second organic solvent of the invention has a boiling point of from 40°C to 100°C, preferably 45°C to 95°C, and most preferably 50°C to 90°C.

[0024] Suitable solvents that can be used as a second solvent according to the invention are for example Tetrahydrofurane, Hexafluorobenzene, Acetonitrile, Acetone, Methanol, Ethylene glycol dimethyl ether and mixtures thereof.

[0025] Preferably, the proportion of the second organic solvent according to the invention is less than 30% by weight, preferably less than 20% by weight, very preferably less than 15% by weight and most preferably less then 10% by weight, based on the total weight of the organic solvent.

[0026] The first solvent has a boiling point of from 100°C to 300°C, preferably from 105°C to 290°C, and more preferably from 110°C to 280°C and the second solvent has a boiling point of from 40°C to 100°C, preferably 45°C to 95°C, and most preferably 50°C to 90°C. It is further preferred that the difference between the boiling point of the first solvent and of the second solvent is at least 10°C.

[0027] In a very particulary preferred embodiment, the first solvent is chosen from Benzonitrile, Dimethylformamide, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Toluene, Anisole, Xylene or Chlorbenzene and mixtures thereof, preferably Toluene and the second solvent is chosen from Tetrahydrofurane, Hexafluorobenzene, Acetonitrile, Acetone, Methanol or Ethylene glycol dimethyl ether and mixture thereof, preferably Tetrahydrofurane.

[0028] Advantageously, the weight ratio of the first solvent to the second solvent in the formulation of the invention is from 100:1 to 1:1, preferably from 50:1 to 5:1, more preferably from 15:1 to 8:1 and most preferably from 10:1 to 9:1.

[0029] Formulations according to the present invention comprise at least one organic semiconductor.

[0030] The organic semiconductor according to the invention is a hole-transport material (HTM) or a hole-injection material (HIM).

[0031] Hole-injection materials simplify or facilitate the transfer of holes, i.e. positive charges, from the anode into an organic layer. Hole-transport materials are capable of transporting holes, i.e. positive charges, which are generally injected from the anode or an adjacent layer, for example a hole-injection layer.

[0032] These materials are frequently described via the properties of the frontier orbitals, which are described in greater detail below. Molecular orbitals, in particular also the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), their energy levels and the energy of the lowest triplet state T1 or of the lowest excited singlet state S1 of the materials are determined via quantum-chemical calculations. In order to calculate organic substances without metals, firstly a geometry optimisation is carried out using the "Ground State/Semi-empirical/Default Spin/AM1/Charge 0/Spin Singlet" method. An energy calculation is subsequently carried out on the basis of the optimised geometry. The "TD-SCF/ DFT/Default Spin/B3PW91" method with the "6-31 G(d)" base set (charge 0, spin singlet) is used here. For metal-containing compounds, the geometry is optimised via the "Ground State/ Hartree-Fock/Default Spin/LanL2MB/ Charge 0/Spin Singlet" method. The energy calculation is carried out analogously to the above-described method for the organic substances, with the difference that the "LanL2DZ" base set is used for the metal atom and the "6-31G(d)" base set is used for the ligands. The energy calculation gives the HOMO energy level HEh or LUMO energy level LEh in hartree units. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels in electron volts calibrated with reference to cyclic voltammetry measurements are determined therefrom as follows:





[0033] For the purposes of this application, these values are to be regarded as HOMO and LUMO energy levels respectively of the materials.

[0034] The lowest triplet state T1 is defined as the energy of the triplet state having the lowest energy which arises from the quantum-chemical calculation described.

[0035] The lowest excited singlet state S1 is defined as the energy of the excited singlet state having the lowest energy which arises from the quantum-chemical calculation described.

[0036] The method described herein is independent of the software package used and always gives the same results. Examples of frequently used programs for this purpose are "Gaussian09W" (Gaussian Inc.) and Q-Chem 4.1 (Q-Chem, Inc.).

[0037] In general, a hole-injection material has an HOMO level which is in the region of or above the level of the anode, i.e. in general is at least -5.3 eV. A hole-transport material generally has a high HOMO level of preferably at least -5.4 eV. Depending on the structure of an electronic device, it may also be possible to employ a hole-transport material as hole-injection material.

[0038] Preferred hole-injection materials and/or hole-transport materials include, for example, triarylamine, benzidine, tetraaryl-para-phenylenediamine, triarylphosphine, phenothiazine, phenoxazine, dihydrophenazine, thianthrene, dibenzo-para-dioxin, phenoxathiyne, carbazole, azulene, thiophene, pyrrole and furan derivatives and further O-, S- or N-containing heterocycles having a high HOMO (HOMO = highest occupied molecular orbital).

[0039] The hole-injection and/or hole-transport material according to the invention can be a compound having a low molecular weight or a polymer, where the hole-injection material and/or hole-transport material may also be in the form of a mixture. Thus, the formulations according to the invention may comprise two compounds as hole-injection material and/or hole-transport material having a low molecular weight, one compound having a low molecular weight and one polymer or two polymers (blend).

[0040] In a first preferred embodiment, the organic semiconductor according to the invention is a polymer.

[0041] The organic semiconductor may be a polymer compound, or an oligomer compound or a dendrimer. A polymer compound according to the invention preferably has 10 to 10000, more preferably 10 to 5000 and most preferably 10 to 2000 structural units (i.e. repetitive units). An oligomer compound according to the invention preferably has 3 to 9 structural units. The branching factor of the polymer is between 0 (linear polymer, no branching) and 1 (polymer completely branched).

[0042] Polymers according to the invention have a molecular weight (Mw) in the range of 10,000 to 2,000,000 g/mol, preferably in the range of 50,000 to 1,500,000 g/mol, and more preferably in the range of 100,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol. The molecular weight (Mw) is determined by means of GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography) against an internal polystyrene standard.

[0043] Polymers according to the invention are either conjugated, partly conjugated or non-conjugated polymers, preferably conjugated or partly conjugated.

[0044] Preferably, the polymer comprises a structural unit, which is a triarylamine unit having three aromatic or heteroaromatic ring systems Ar1, Ar2, Ar3, wherein at least one of Ar1, Ar2, Ar3 is substituted by Ar4 in at least one, preferably in one of the two ortho positions, where Ar4 is a mono- or polycyclic , aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R.

[0045] More preferably, the triarylamine unit has the following formula (I):

where
Ar1 to Ar3
is on each occurrence, in each case identically or differently, a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R;
R
is on each occurrence, identically or differently, H, D, F, Cl, Br, I, N(R1)2, CN, NO2, Si(R1)3, B(OR1)2, C(=O)R1, P(=O)(R1)2, S(=O)R1, S(=O)2R1, OSO2R1, a straight-chain alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 1 to 40 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 3 to 40 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, where one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by R1C=CR1, C≡C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S or CONR1 and where one or more H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN, or a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having 10 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a crosslinkable group Q, where two or more radicals R may also form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic, aromatic and/or benzo-fused ring system with one another;
R1
is on each occurrence, identically or differently, H, D, F or an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical having 1 to 20 C atoms, an aromatic and/or a heteroaromatic hydrocarbon radical having 5 to 20 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F; where two or more substituents R1 may also form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic or aromatic ring system with one another; and
the dashed lines represent bonds to adjacent structural units in the polymer,
and where at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and/or Ar3 is substituted by a radical R comprising at least 2 C atoms, preferably at least 4 C atoms and more preferably at least 6 C atoms. Advantageously, R exhibit a C-C-Doppelbond or R is a part of a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system with 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms.

[0046] In a preferred embodiment, Ar3 according to formula (I) is in at least one, preferably in one of the two ortho-positions relating to the Nitrogen atom represented in formula (I), substituted by Ar4, where Ar4 is a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system with 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radical R, where R can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0047] Ar4 here may either be linked directly, i.e. via a single bond, to Ar3, or alternatively via a linking group X.

[0048] The compound of formula (I) thus preferably has the following formula (Ia).

where Ar1, Ar2, Ar3, Ar4 and R can adopt the meanings indicated above,

q = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, preferably 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4,

X = CR2, NR, SiR2, O, S, C=O or P=O, preferably CR2, NR, O or S, and

r = 0 or 1, preferably 0.



[0049] According to the invention, structural units of formula (I) can be comprised In the main chain or in the side chain. Structural units of formula (I) are preferably comprised in the main chain of the polymer. When present in the side chain, structural units of formula (I) are either mono- or bivalent, i.e. they either exhibit one or two bonds to the adjacent structural units in the polymer.

[0050] The term "mono- or polycyclic, aromatic ring system" in the present application is taken to mean an aromatic ring system having 6 to 60, preferably 6 to 30 and particularly preferably 6 to 24 aromatic ring atoms, which does not necessarily contain only aromatic groups, but instead in which a plurality of aromatic units may also be interrupted by a short non-aromatic unit (< 10% of the atoms other than H, preferably < 5% of the atoms other than H), such as, for example, an sp3-hybridised C atom or O or N atom, a CO group, etc. Thus, for example, systems such as, for example, 9,9'-spirobifluorene, 9,9-diarylfluorene and 9,9-dialkylfluorene are also intended to be taken to be aromatic ring systems.

[0051] The aromatic ring systems may be mono- or polycyclic, i.e. they may contain one ring (for example phenyl) or a plurality of rings, which may also be condensed (for example naphthyl) or covalently linked (for example biphenyl), or contain a combination of condensed and linked rings.

[0052] Preferred aromatic ring systems are, for example, phenyl, biphenyl, terphenyl, [1,1':3',1"]terphenyl-2'-yl, quaterphenyl, naphthyl, anthracene, binaphthyl, phenanthrene, dihydrophenanthrene, pyrene, dihydropyrene, chrysene, perylene, tetracene, pentacene, benzopyrene, fluorene, indene, indenofluorene and spirobifluorene.

[0053] The term "mono- or polycyclic, heteroaromatic ring system" in the present application is taken to mean an aromatic ring system having 5 to 60, preferably 5 to 30 and particularly preferably 5 to 24 aromatic ring atoms, where one or more of these atoms is (are) a heteroatom. The "mono- or polycyclic, heteroaromatic ring system" does not necessarily contain only aromatic groups, but instead may also be interrupted by a short non-aromatic unit (< 10% of the atoms other than H, preferably < 5% of the atoms other than H), such as, for example, an sp3-hybridised C atom or O or N atom, a CO group, etc.

[0054] The heteroaromatic ring systems may be mono- or polycyclic, i.e. they may contain one ring or a plurality of rings, which may also be condensed or covalently linked (for example pyridylphenyl), or contain a combination of condensed and linked rings. Preference is given to fully conjugated heteroaryl groups.

[0055] Preferred heteroaromatic ring systems are, for example, 5-membered rings, such as pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole, 1,2,4-triazole, tetrazole, furan, thiophene, selenophene, oxazole, isoxazole, 1,2-thiazole, 1,3-thiazole, 1,2,3-oxadiazole, 1,2,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,5-oxadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,3-thiadiazole, 1,2,4-thiadiazole, 1,2,5-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 6-membered rings, such as pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, 1,3,5-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine, 1,2,3-triazine, 1,2,4,5-tetrazine, 1,2,3,4-tetrazine, 1,2,3,5-tetrazine, or groups having a plurality of rings, such as carbazole, indenocarbazole, indole, isoindole, indolizine, indazole, benzimidazole, benzotriazole, purine, naphthimidazole, phenanthrimidazole, pyridimidazole, pyrazinimidazole, quinoxalinimidazole, benzoxazole, naphthoxazole, anthroxazole, phenanthroxazole, isoxazole, benzothiazole, benzofuran, isobenzofuran, dibenzofuran, quinoline, isoquinoline, pteridine, benzo-5,6-quinoline, benzo-6,7-quinoline, benzo-7,8-quinoline, benzoisoquinoline, acridine, phenothiazine, phenoxazine, benzopyridazine, benzopyrimidine, quinoxaline, phenazine, naphthyridine, azacarbazole, benzocarboline, phenanthridine, phenanthroline, thieno[2,3b]thiophene, thieno-[3,2b]thiophene, dithienothiophene, isobenzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzothiadiazothiophene or combinations of these groups.

[0056] The mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system may be unsubstituted or substituted. Substituted in the present application means that the mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system contains one or more substituents R.

[0057] R is on each occurrence preferably, identically or differently, H, D, F, Cl, Br, I, N(R1)2, CN, NO2, Si(R1)3, B(OR1)2, C(=O)R1, P(=O)(R1)2, S(=O)R1, S(=O)2R1, OSO2R1, a straight-chain alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 1 to 40 C atoms or an alkenyl or alkynyl group having 2 to 40 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 3 to 40 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, where one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by R1C=CR1, C=C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S or CONR1 and where one or more H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having 10 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a crosslinkable group Q; two or more radicals R here may also form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic, aromatic and/or benzo-fused ring system with one another.

[0058] R is on each occurrence particularly preferably, identically or differently, H, D, F, Cl, Br, I, N(R1)2, Si(R1)3, B(OR1)2, C(=O)R1, P(=O)(R1)2, a straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy group having 1 to 20 C atoms or an alkenyl or alkynyl group having 2 to 20 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl or alkoxy group having 3 to 20 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, where one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by R1C=CR1, C=C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), NR1, O or CONR1 and where one or more H atoms may be replaced by F, Cl, Br or I, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 30 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 30 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 30 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having 10 to 20 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a crosslinkable group Q; two or more radicals R here may also form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic, aromatic and/or benzo-fused ring system with one another.

[0059] R is on each occurrence very particularly preferably, identically or differently, H, a straight-chain alkyl or alkoxy group having 1 to 10 C atoms or an alkenyl or alkynyl group having 2 to 10 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl or alkoxy group having 3 to 10 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, where one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by R1C=CR1, C=C, C=O, C=NR1, NR1, O or CONR1, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 20 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 20 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 20 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having 10 to 20 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a crosslinkable group Q; two or more radicals R here may also form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic, aromatic and/or benzo-fused ring system with one another.

[0060] In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the compound of formula (I) is characterised in that Ar3 is substituted by Ar4 in one of the two ortho positions, and Ar3 is additionally linked to Ar4 in the meta position that is adjacent to the substituted ortho position.

[0061] The compound of formula (I) thus preferably has the following formula (Ib):

where Ar1, Ar2, Ar3, Ar4 and R can adopt the meanings indicated above,

m = 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4,

n = 0, 1, 2 or 3,

X = CR2, NR, SiR2, O, S, C=O or P=O, preferably CR2, NR, O or S, and s and t are each 0 or 1, where the sum (s + t) = 1 or 2, preferably 1.



[0062] In a first more preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (I) is selected from the following formulae (II), (III) and (IV):





where Ar1, Ar2, Ar4 and R can adopt the meanings indicated above,

m = 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4,

n = 0, 1, 2 or 3, and

X = CR2, NR, SiR2, O, S, C=O or P=O, preferably CR2, NR, O or S.



[0063] In a particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (II) is selected from the following formula (V):

where Ar1, Ar2, R and m can adopt the meanings indicated above, and
p = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5.

[0064] Examples of preferred structural units of formula (V) are depicted in the following table:






(Va) (Vb) (Vc)






(Vd) (Ve) (Vf)




 
(Vg) (Vh)  
where Ar1, Ar2, R, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above, and
k = 0, 1 or 2.

[0065] In a further particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (III) is selected from the following formula (VI):

where Ar1, Ar2, R, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0066] Examples of preferred structural units of formula (VI) are depicted in the following table:






(VIa) (VIb) (VIc)






(VId) (VIe) (VIf)
where Ar1, Ar2, R, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0067] In still a further particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (IV) is selected from the following formula (VII):

where Ar1, Ar2, R, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0068] Examples of preferred structural units of formula (VII) are depicted in the following table:






(VIIa) (VIIb) (VIIc)






(VIId) (VIIe) (VIIf)
where Ar1, Ar2, R, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0069] In a very particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (V) is selected from the following formula (Vg):

where R, m and p can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0070] Examples of preferred structural units of formula (Vg) are depicted in the following table:




(Vg-1) (Vg-2)




(Vg-3) (Vq-4)




(Vg-5) (Vg-6)




(Vg-7) (Vg-8)
where R, k, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above and o is 0, 1 or 2

[0071] In a further very particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (VI) is selected from the following formula (Vlg):

where R, X, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0072] Examples of preferred structural units of formula (IX) are depicted in the following table:




 
(VIq-1) (VIg-2)  




 
(VIg-3) (VIg-4)  






(VIg-5) (VIg-6) (VIg-7)
where R, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above, and
v = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 10.

[0073] In still a further very particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (VII) is selected from compounds of the following formula (Vllg):

where R, X, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0074] Examples of preferred structural units of formula (Vllg) are depicted in the following table:






(VIIg-1) (VIIg-2) (VIIg-3)
where R, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0075] In formulae (Ia), (Ib), (II), (III), (IV), (V) and preferred compound of formula (V), (VI) and preferred compounds of formula (VI), (VII) and preferred compounds of formula (VII), (Vg) and preferred compounds of formula (Vg), (Vlg) and preferred compounds of formula (Vlg), (Vllg) and preferred compounds of formula (Vllg), the dashed lines represent bonds to adjacent structural units in the polymer. They can be, independently from each other, identically or differently, in ortho-, meta- or para-position, preferably identically in ortho-, meta- or para-position, more preferably in meta- or para-position and most preferably in para-position.

[0076] According to an alternative preferred embodiment of the invention, the polymer comprises at least one structural unit of formula (I), selected from structural units of the following formula (VIIIa):

or from structural units of the following formula (Vlllb):

where w is 1, 2 or 3, Ar5 to Ar9 is on each occurence, in each case identically or differently, a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R; where R can adopt the meaning indicated in formula (I); the dashed lines represent bonds to adjacent structural units in the polymer; and at least one of Ar5 to Ar9 is substituted by a radical R comprising at least 2 C atoms, preferably at least 4 C atoms and more preferably at least 6 C atoms.

[0077] At least one of Ar5 and/or Ar8 according to formulae (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb) is substituted by Ar4 in at least one, preferably in one of the two ortho-positions relating to the Nitrogen atom represented in formula (Villa) and/or (Vlllb), where Ar4 is a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R, where R can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formula (I).

[0078] Ar4 here may either be linked directly, i.e. via a single bond, to Ar5 and/or Ar8 according to formulae (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb) or alternatively via a linking group X.

[0079] The structural unit of formula (VIIIa) and/or (Vlllb) is therefore preferably selected from the structures of following formulae (Vllla-1a), (VIIIa-1b), (VIIIa-1c) and/or (VIIIa-1d).







where Ar4, Ar5, Ar6, Ar7, Ar8, Ar9, X, m, n, r, s, t and R can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Villa) and/or (VIIIb).

[0080] Moreover, the structural unit of formulae (Villa) and/or (VIIIb) can be selected from the structural units of formulae (Vlllb-a), (Vlllb-b), (Vlllb-c) and/or (Vlllb-d).







where Ar4, Ar5, Ar6, Ar7, Ar8, Ar9, X, m, n, s, t and R can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Villa) and/or (VIIIb).

[0081] In a preferred embodiment, the at least one structural unit of formula (VIIIa) is selected from the structural units of the following formulae (IX), (X), (XI), (XII), (XIII), (XIV), (XV) and (XVI):















Ar4, Ar5, Ar6, Ar7, Ar8, Ar9, X, m, n, p, R and the dashed lines can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Villa) and/or (Vlllb).

[0082] In a particularly preferred embodiment, the structural units of formulae (IX) and (X) are selected from the structural units of the following formulae (IXa) and (Xa):



where Ar6, Ar7, Ar8, Ar9, R, m, p and the dashed lines can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Villa) and/or (Vlllb).

[0083] Examples of preferred structural units of formulae (IXa) and (Xa) are depicted in the following table:







where Ar6, Ar7, Ar8, R, m, n, p and the dashed lines can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (VIIIa) and/or (Vlllb), and o is 0, 1 or 2.

[0084] In a further particularly preferred embodiment, the structural units of formulae (XI) and (XII) are selected from the structural units of the following formulae (XIa) and (XIIa):



where Ar6, Ar7, Ar8, Ar9, R, m, n and X can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb).

[0085] Examples of preferred structural units of formulae (Xla) and (Xlla) are depicted in the following table:







where Ar6, Ar7, Ar8, R, m, n and p can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb), and o is 0, 1 or 2.

[0086] In a further particularly preferred embodiment, the structural units of formulae (XIII) and (XIV) are selected from the structural formulae of the following formulae (Xllla) and (XIVa):



where Ar6, Ar7, Ar8, Ar9, R, m, n and X can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb).

[0087] Examples of preferred structural units of formulae (Xllla) and (XIVa) are depicted in the following table:









where Ar6, Ar7, Ar8, R, m, n and p can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb) and, o is 0, 1 oder 2.

[0088] In a very particularly preferred embodiment, the structural units of formulae (IXa) and (Xa) are selected from the structural units of the following formulae (IXb) and (Xb):



where Ar9, R, m and p can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Villa) and/or (VIIIb).

[0089] Example of preferred structural units of formulae (IXb) and (Xb) are depicted in the following table:



where R, m, n and p can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb) and, o is 0, 1 or 2.

[0090] In a further very particularly preferred embodiment, the structural units of formulae (XIa) and (XIIa) are selected from the structural units of the following formulae (XIb) and (XIIb):



where Ar9, R, X, m, n and p can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (Villa) and/or (Vlllb).

[0091] Examples of preferred structural units of formulae (Xlb) and (XIIb) are depicted in the following table:





where R, X, m, n and p can adopt the same meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb), and o is 0, 1 or 2.

[0092] In a further very particularly preferred embodiment, the structural units of formulae (XIIIa) and (XIVa) are selected from the structural units of the following formulae (XIIIb) and (XIVb):



where R, X, m, n and p can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb).

[0093] Examples of preferred structural units of formulae (XIIIb) and (XIVb) are depicted in the following table:



where R, X, m, n and p can adopt the meaning indicated above, in particular for the formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb), and o is 0, 1 or 2.

[0094] In formulae (IXa) to (XIVa) and (IXb) to (XIVb), the dashed lines represent bonds to adjacent structural units in the polymer. They can be, independently from each other, identically or differently, in ortho-, meta- or para-position, preferably identically in ortho-, meta- or para-position, more preferably in meta- or para-position and most preferably in para-position.

[0095] According to a further alternative preferred embodiment of the invention, at least one of the structural units of formulae (I), (Ia), (Ib), (II), (III), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VIIIa), (VIIIb), (IX), (X), (XI), (XII), (XIII), (XIV), (XV), (XVI) and/or one preferred embodiment of these structural units has at least one group Q, which is crosslinkable.

[0096] According to the invention, a "crosslinkable group Q" is a functional group, which is able to react and to form a non-soluble bond. The reaction can take place with a further, identical group Q, a further, different group Q or any other part of the same or of another polymer chain. Crosslinkable groups are this reactive groups. The result of the reaction of the crosslinkable groups is a corresponding crosslinked compound. The chemical reaction can also take place in the layer, where an unsoluble layer is produced as a result. The crosslinking can usually be supported with heat or with UV-, microwave-, X-Ray- or electron radiation, optionally in the presence of an initiator. "Unsoluble" in the context of the present invention means preferably, that the polymer according to the present invention exhibits, after the crosslinking reaction, thus after the reaction of the crosslinkable groups, a solubility at room temperature in an organic solvent, which is at least reduced with a factor 3, preferably with a factor 10, in comparison with the corresponding non-crosslinked polymer of the invention in the same organic solvent.

[0097] In the context of the invention, at least one crosslinkable group means that one structural unit has one or more crosslinkable groups. One structural unit preferably has exactly one crosslinkable group.

[0098] If the structural unit of formula (I) has a crosslinkable group, then this group can be linked to Ar1, Ar2 or Ar3. Preferably, the crosslinkable group is linked to the monovalent linked, mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic Ar3.

[0099] If a structural unit of formulae (VIIIa) or (Vlllb) has a crosslinkable group, then this group can be linked to Ar5, Ar6, Ar7, Ar8 or Ar9. The crosslinkable group is preferably linked to one of the monovalent linked, mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system, that is Ar5 or Ar8.

[0100] Preferred mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic groups Ar3 in formula (I), Ar4 in formulae (Ia), (Ib), (II), (III), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VIIIa), (VIIIb), (IX), (X), (XI), (XII), (XIII), (XIV), (XV) and/or (XVI), Ar5 and Ar8 in formulae (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb), as well as the corresponding preferred embodiment are the following:






E1 E2 E3






E4 E5 E6






E7 E8 E9






E10 E11 E12
where R in formulae E1 to E12 can adopt the meaning indicated above for formula (I), X can adopt the meaning indicated for formulae (Ia) and/or (Ib), and the indices have the following meaning:

m = 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4;

n = 0, 1, 2 or 3;

o = 0, 1 or 2; and

p = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5.



[0101] Preference is given to mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic groups Ar1 and Ar2 in formula (I), Ar6, Ar7 and Ar9 in formula (VIIIa) and/or (Vlllb), which have the following formulae:






M1 M2 M3






M4 M5 M6






M7 M8 M9






M10 M11 M12






M13 M14 M15






M16 M17 M18




 
M19 M20  






M21 M22 M23


[0102] R in formulae M1 to M23 can adopt the meaning indicated for formula (I), X can adopt the meaning indicated for formulae (Ia) and/or (Ib).

[0103] Y can be CR2, SiR2, O, S, a straight or branched alkyl group having 1 to 20 C atoms, or an alkenyl or alkynyl group having 2 to 20 C atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, where one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S or CONR1 or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having 10 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, wherein R and R1 can adopt the same meaning as indicated for formula (I).

[0104] The indices have the following meaning:

k = 0 or 1;

m = 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4;

n = 0, 1,2 or 3;

o = 0, 1 or 2; and

q = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6.



[0105] Particular preference is given to mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic groups Ar3 in formula (I), Ar4 in formulae (Ia), (Ib), (II), (III), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VIIIa), (VIIIb), (IX), (X), (XI), (XII), (XIII), (XIV), (XV) and/or (XVI); Ar5 and Ar8 in formulae (VIIIa) and/or (VIIIb), as well as the corresponding preferred embodiment of following formulae:


   
E1a    






E2a E2b E2c






E3a E4a E5a






E6a E6b E7a






E8a E8b E8c






E8d E8e E8f




 
E9a E9b  






E10a E11a E12a


[0106] R in formulae E1a to E12a can adopt the same meaning as indicated for formula (I).

[0107] The indices have the following meaning:

o = 0 or 1; and

n = 0, 1, 2 or 3.



[0108] Particular preference is given to mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic groups Ar2 and Ar3 in formula (I), Ar5, Ar7 and Ar8 in formulae (IIa), Ar4, Ar5 und Ar8 in formulae (IIb), as well as Ar9 in formula (III), which have following formulae:






M1a M1b M2a






M2b M2c M3a


   
M3b    






M4a M5a M6a






M7a M8a M10a






M10b M10c M12a






M13a M14a M17a






M20a M20b M20c






M21a M21b M22a






M22b M23a M23b


[0109] R in formulae M1a to M23b can adopt the meaning indicated for formula (I), X can adopt the meaning indicated for formulae (Ia) and/or (Ib).

[0110] Y can be CR2, SiR2, O, S, a straight alkyl group having 1 to 10 C atoms, or an alkenyl or alkynyl group having 2 to 10 C atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, where one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups, CH-groups or C atoms of the alkyl, alkenyl or alkinyl group group may be replaced by Si(R1)2, C=O, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), NR1, O, CONR1 or an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 30 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 30 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 30 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having 10 to 20 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, wherein R and R1 can adopt the same meaning as indicated for formula (I).

[0111] The indices have the following meaning:

k = 0 or 1;

m = 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4;

n = 0, 1, 2 or 3;

o = 0, 1 or 2.



[0112] The concentration of the polymer in the formulation according to the invention is preferably in the range of from 10 g/l to 100 g/l, more preferably 15 g/l to 80 g/l, and most preferably 20 g/l to 60g/l, based on the total formulation.

[0113] In a second preferred embodiment, the organic semiconductor according to the invention is a low-molecular hole-transport material and/or hole-injection material having a molecular weight of ≤ 5000 g/mol, preferably ≤ 3000 g/mol, and more preferably ≤ 2000 g/mol.

[0114] Preferably, the low molecular hole-transport material and/or hole-injection material is a triarylamine compound having three aromatic or heteroaromatic ring systems Ar1, Ar2, Ar3, wherein at least one of Ar1, Ar2, Ar3 is substituted by Ar4 in at least one, preferably in one of the two ortho positions, where Ar4 is a mono- or polycyclic , aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R.
More preferably, the triarylamine compound has the following formula (I'):

where the symbols and indices can adopt the same meaning as for formula (I).

[0115] In a preferred embodiment, Ar3 according to formula (I') is in at least one, preferably in one of the two ortho-positions relating to the Nitrogen atom represented in formula (I'), substituted by Ar4, where Ar4 is a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system with 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radical R, where R can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0116] Ar4 here may either be linked directly, i.e. via a single bond, to Ar3, or alternatively via a linking group X.

[0117] The compound of formula (I) thus preferably has the following formula (Ia').

where Ar1, Ar2, Ar3, Ar4 and R can adopt the meanings indicated above,

q = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, preferably 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4,

X = CR2, NR, SiR2, O, S, C=O or P=O, preferably CR2, NR, O or S, and

r = 0 or 1, preferably 0.



[0118] In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the compound of formula (I') is characterised in that Ar3 is substituted by Ar4 in one of the two ortho positions, and Ar3 is additionally linked to Ar4 in the meta position that is adjacent to the substituted ortho position.

[0119] The compound of formula (I') thus preferably has the following formula (Ib'):

where Ar1, Ar2, Ar3, Ar4 and R can adopt the meanings indicated above,

m = 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4,

n = 0, 1, 2 or 3,

X = CR2, NR, SiR2, O, S, C=O or P=O, preferably CR2, NR, O or S, and s and t are each 0 or 1, where the sum (s + t) = 1 or 2, preferably 1.



[0120] In a first more preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (I') is selected from the following formulae (II'), (III') and (IV'):





where Ar1, Ar2, Ar4 and R can adopt the meanings indicated above,

m = 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4,

n = 0, 1, 2 or 3, and

X = CR2, NR, SiR2, O, S, C=O or P=O, preferably CR2, NR, O or S.



[0121] In a particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (II') is selected from the following formula (V'):

where Ar1, Ar2, R and m can adopt the meanings indicated above, and
p = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5.

[0122] Examples of preferred compounds of formula (V') are depicted in the following table:






(Va') (Vb') (Vc')






(Vd') (Ve') (Vf')




 
(Vg') (Vh')  
where Ar1, Ar2, R, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above, and
k = 0, 1 or 2.

[0123] In a further particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (III') is selected from the following formula (VI'):

where Ar1, Ar2, R, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0124] Examples of preferred compounds of formula (VI') are depicted in the following table:






(VIa') (VIb') (VIc')






(VId') (VIe') (VIf')
where Ar1, Ar2, R, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0125] In still a further particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (IV') is selected from the following formula (VII'):

where Ar1, Ar2, R, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0126] Examples of preferred compounds of formula (VII') are depicted in the following table:






(VIIa') (VIIb') (VIIc')






(VIId') (VIIe') (VIIf')
where Ar1, Ar2, R, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0127] In a very particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (V') is selected from the following formula (Vg'):

where R, m and p can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0128] Examples of preferred compounds of formula (Vg') are depicted in the following table:




(Vg-1') (Vg-2')




(Vg-3 ') (Vg-4')




(Vg-5') (Vg-6')




(Vg-7') (Vg-8')
where R, k, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0129] In a further very particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (VI') is selected from the following formula (Vlg'):

where R, X, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0130] Examples of preferred compounds of formula (Vlg') are depicted in the following table:




 
(VIg-1') (VIg-2')  




 
(VIg-3') (VIg-4')  






(VIg-5') (VIg-6') (VIg-7')
where R, m, n and p can adopt the meanings indicated above, and
v = 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 10.

[0131] In still a further very particularly preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (VII') is selected from compounds of the following formula (VIIg'):

where R, X, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0132] Examples of preferred compounds of formula (Vllg') are depicted in the following table:






(VIIg-1') (VIIg-2') (VIIg-3')
where R, m and n can adopt the meanings indicated above.

[0133] The concentration of the polymer in the formulation according to the invention is preferably in the range of from 10 g/l to 100 g/l, more preferably 15 g/l to 80 g/l, and most preferably 20 g/l to 60 g/l, based on the total formulation.

[0134] The formulations according to the present invention comprise at least one metal complex. The metal complex according to the invention comprises a metal atom of group 13 to 15 and a ligand of the following structure

where
R11 and R12
are selected, identically or differently, from the group consisting of O, S, Se, NH or NR14, where R14 is an alkyl or aryl group having preferably 1 to 40 C atoms, ,ore preferably 1 to 20 C atoms and most preferably 1 to 12 C atoms; where R14 and R13 may form a ring with one other; and
R13
is selected from the group consisting of a straight-chain alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkyl group having 1 to 40 C atoms or an alkenyl or alkinyl group having 2 to 40 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkyl group having 3 to 40 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, where in each case one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by R1C=CR1, C≡C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S or CONR1 and where one or more H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN, an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having 10 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1; where R13 may form a ring with at least one of the radical R12; and
R1
is on each occurrence, identically or differently, H, D, F or an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical having 1 to 20 C atoms, an aromatic and/or a heteroaromatic hydrocarbon radical having 5 to 20 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F; where two or more substituents R1 may also form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic or aromatic ring system with one another.


[0135] The metal complex is preferably a "p-dopant" material.

[0136] According to the present invention, "p-dopant" materials are materials, which exhibit a lewis-acidity and/or which are able to form a complex with the matrix material, in which these materials act as Lewis-acids (also wenn only formal).

[0137] R13 in formula (L-I) is preferably selected from the group consisting of a straight-chain alkyl, long-chain alkyl, alkoxy, long-chain alkoxy, cycloalkyl, halogenalkyl, aryl, arylene, halogenoaryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylene, heterocycloalkylene, heterocycloalkyl, halogenoheteroaryl, alkenyl, halogenalkenyl, alkinyl, halogenalkinyl, ketoaryl, halogenoketoaryl, ketoheteroaryl, ketoalkyl, halogenoketoalkyl, ketoalkenyl, or halogenketoalkenyl, which preferably have 1 to 40 C atoms, more preferably 1 to 20 C atoms, where in each case one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by -O-, -S-, -NH-, -NR-, -SiR2-, -CO-, -COO-,-OCO-, -OCO-O-, -SO2-, -S-CO-, -CO-S-, -CR=CR- or -C≡C- and in a way that O and/or S are not directly linked with each other, as well as by an aryl- or heteroaryl preferably having 1 to 30C atoms (terminal CH3 groups are understood as CH2 groups in terms of CH2-H), where R can adopt the same meaning as above for formula (I).

[0138] A long-chain alkyl group, considering the description of R11, R12 und R13 according to formula (L-I), preferably has 5 to 20 C atoms. Further considering the description of R11, R12 und R13, alkyl groups where it is not precised that they are "long-chain", can preferably have 1 to 10, more preferably 1 to 4 C atoms.

[0139] The description and definition of the groups, in particular the description and definition of the preferred groups in the frame of formula (L-I) are to be found inter alia in WO 2013/182389 A2 filed on 14.05.2013 at the European Patent Office with the application number PCT/EP2013/059911.

[0140] The term "metal atom of group 13 to 15" refer to metals of the 13. to 15. group according to IUPAC, that is, aluminum, gallium, indium, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, thallium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth or mixtures thereof.

[0141] Preference is given to metals of groups 14 and 15, that is, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, more preferably tin and/or bismuth, most preferably bismuth.

[0142] In a further preferred embodiment of the present invention, the metal atom of the metal complex according to the invention is selected from the group consisting of bismuth, tin or mixtures thereof, where bismuth is particularly preferred.

[0143] According to a preferred embodiment, the metal complex is a mono- or bi- or polynuclear metal complex. More particularly, the metal complex can, in solid state, be present as a polynuclear metal complex.

[0144] According to a preferred embodiment, at least one of ligand L is bridged to two metal atoms.

[0145] According to a preferred embodiment, the metal complex has the sum formula M2L4, (with M = metal atom and L = ligand), where both the metals and the individual ligands, independently from each others, can be selected according to the above definition.

[0146] The metal complex can further have the following structure: MLm, where M = Metal atom, L = ligand and m = 1 to 10 and for the case that m > 1, all L are independent from each others. These metal complexes are particularly preferred for tin and Bismuth; in this case, m is preferably equal to 2 for tin and respectively 2,4 and 3 or 5 for bismuth depending on the oxidation state.

[0147] According to an alternative example not falling under the invention, the metal complex has the following structure: ML2L'n, with M = metal atom, L = ligand, as defined above and L'= ligand different from L selected from the group consisting of aryl, heteroaryl, halogenoaryl and halogenoheteroaryl groups, where n is from 0 to 3 and in the case that n>1, each L' is selected independently from each other. These metal complexes are particularly preferred for tin and Bismuth; in this case, n is preferably equal to 2 for tin and respectively 2 or 3 for bismuth depending on the oxidation state, n=0 is preferred.

[0148] It is particularly preferred that the metal complex comprises bismuth as a metal atom. Particular preference is given to bismuth-metal complexes of:
  • Oxidation stage II, which can exhibit -without wishing to be bound by theory- a paddle-wheel structure as a function of the selected ligand.
  • Oxidation stage III, (MLn = 3), which can not exhibit -without wishing to be bound by theory- a paddle-wheel structure. These compounds are generally mono- or polynuclear compounds in solid state.
  • Oxidation stage V, where a preferred form of the bismuth-metal complex of oxidation stage V corresponds to the form described in WO 2013/182389 A2.


[0149] In a preferred embodiment according to the present invention, a possible metal complex is a metal complex of formula (L-1), in which R13 has at least one substituent, which is selected from halogens, pseudohalogens, -CN, -NO2.

[0150] Advantageously, a metal complex according to the invention is a metal complex of formula (L-I), in which R13 corresponds to one of the following formula (R13-I), (R13-II) or (R13-III) as depicted below:


(R13-I)


(R13-II)


(R13-III)
where Y1 to Y7 are, on each occurrence, independently from each other, selected from the group consisting of C-F, C-CF3, C-NO2, C-CN, C-halogen, C-pseudohalogen or N and the dashed lines represent the connecting sites.

[0151] According to one of the preferred embodiment, R13 is selected from the group consisting of halogenated, preferably perhalogenated and/or pseudohalogenated pteridine, isopteridine, naphtyridine, quinoxaline, azaquinoxaline.

[0152] R13 can further correspond to one of the following structures of the following formulae:






(R13-Ia) (R13-Ib) (R13-Ic)




 
(R13-Id) (R13-Ie)  
, where the dashed lines represent the connecting sites.

[0153] According to a preferred embodiment, the metal complex is a lewis-acid (without the presence of matrix material), that is, the metal complex acts as an electron pair acceptor. This is particularly adapted for the interaction with the matrix material.

[0154] According to a preferred embodiment, the metal complex (without the presence of a matrix material) has at least one open or at least partly accessible coordination site. This is also particularly adapted for the interaction with the matrix material.

[0155] According to a preferred embodiment, R13 is selected from the group consisting in halogenoalkyl groups, preferably perfluoralkyl with 1 to 8 C atoms, more preferably 1 to 4 C atoms, halogenoaryl, preferably perfluoraryl, halogenoalkylaryl, preferably perfluoralkylaryl and halogenheteroaryl, preferably perfluorheteroaryl, where these groups preferably have 6 to 20 C atoms.

[0156] The metal complex can further comprise a ligand L, which is selected from the group consisting of non-substituted, partially fluorinated or perfluorinated organic carboxylic acids

[0157] Further examples of preferred ligands L are fluorinated benzoic acids like 2-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid; 3,5-difluorobenzoic acid; 3- hydroxy-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid; 3-fluoro-4- methylbenzoic acid; 3-(trifluoromethoxy)benzoic acid; 4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzoic acid; 4-chloro-2,5- difluorobenzoic acid; 2-chloro-4,5-difluorobenzoic acid; 2,4,5-trifluorobenzoic acid; 2-fluorobenzoic acid; 4- fluorobenzoic acid; 2,3,4-trifluorobenzoic acid; 2,3,5-trifluorobenzoic acid; 2,3-difluorobenzoic acid; 2,4- bis(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 2,4-difluorobenzoic acid; 2,5-difluorobenzoic acid; 2,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 2,6-difluorobenzoic acid; 2-Chloro-6-fluorobenzoic acid; 2-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 2-fluoro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 3,4,5-trifluorobenzoic acid; 3,4-difluorobenzoic acid; 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 3-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 3-chloro-4-fluorobenzoic acid; 3-fluoro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 3-fluorobenzoic acid; 4-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 4-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; 5-fluoro-2-methylbenzoic acid; 2-(trifluoromethoxy)benzoic acid; 2,3,5-Trichlorobenzoic acid; 4-(Trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid; pentafluorobenzoic acid; 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoic acid, fluorinated or non-fluorinated phenylacetic acid like for example 2-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; 3-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; 4-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2,3-difluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2,4-difluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2,6-difluoro-phenylacetic acid; 3,4-difluoro- phenylacetic acid; 3,5-difluoro-phenylacetic acid; pentafluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2-chloro-6-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2- chloro-3,6-difluoro-phenylacetic acid; 3-chloro-2,6-difluoro-phenylacetic acid; 3-chloro-4-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; 5- chloro-2-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2,3,4-trifluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2,3,5-trifluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2,3,6- trifluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2,4,5-trifluoro-Phenylacetic acid; 2,4,6- trifluoro-phenylacetic acid; 3,4,5-trifluoro-phenylacetic acid; 3-chloro-2-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; α-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; 4-chloro-2-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; 2- chloro-4-fluoro-phenylacetic acid; α, α-difluoro-phenylacetic acid; ethyl-2,2-difluoro-2-phenylacetate; and fluorinated or non-fluorinated acetic acid as for example methyl-trifluoroacetic acid; allyl-trifluoroacetic acid; ethyl-trifluoroacetic acid; isopropyl-trifluoroacetic acid; 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl-trifluoroacetic acid; difluoroacetic acid; trifluoroacetic acid; methyl-chlorodifluoroacetic acid; ethyl- bromodifluoroacetic acid; chlorodifluoroacetic acid; ethyl-chlorofluoroacetic acid; ethyl-difluoroacetic acid; (3-chlorophenyl)-difluoroacetic acid; (3,5-difluorophenyl)-difluoroacetic acid; (4-butylphenyl)difluoroacetic acid; (4-tert- butylphenyl)difluoroacetic acid; (3,4-dimethylphenyl)- difluoroacetic acid; (3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-difluoroacetic acid; (4-chlorophenyl)-difluoroacetic acid; 2- biphenyl-3',5'-difluoroacetic acid; 3-biphenyl-3',5'-difluoroacetic acid; 4-biphenyl-3',5'-difluoroacetic acid; 2- biphenyl-3',41-difluoroacetic acid; 3-biphenyl-3',4'-difluoroacetic acid; 4-biphenyl-3',4'-difluoroacetic acid und 2,2-bifluoropropionic acid and their higher homologues. In case that the ligand L contains acid groups, then these groups are preferably deprotonated.

[0158] Particular preference is given to metal complexes like Bi(O2CCF3)3, Bi(O2CC6H2 (2, 3, 4-F3))3 and Bismuth-tris-pentafluorobenzoate.

[0159] The concentration of the of the metal complex according to the invention can be in the range of from 5 g/l to 100 g/l, preferably 7.5 g/l to 80 g/l, and more preferably 10 g/l to 60g/l, based on the total formulation.

[0160] Advantageously, the weight ratio of the semiconductor to the metal complex in the formulation of the invention is from 1000:1 to 1:2, preferably from 400:1 to 1:1, more preferably from 100:1 to 3:2 and most preferably from 20:1 to 2:1. The amount of metal complex to organic semiconductor is preferably from 0.1 to 70 wt.%, more preferably from 0.25 to 50 wt.%, most preferably from 1 to 40 wt.% and very most preferably from 5 to 30 wt.%, calculated on the total amount of organic semiconductor and metal complex. It is possible to use a higher or lower amount of metal complex, but the performance of the layer obtained from the formulation according to the invention can decrease as a consequence.

[0161] Besides the said components, the formulation according to the invention may comprise further additives and processing assistants. These include, inter alia, surface-active substances, surfactants, lubricants and greases, additives which increase the conductivity, dispersants, hydrophobicising agents, adhesion promoters, flow improvers, antifoams, deaerating agents, diluents, which may be reactive or unreactive, fillers, assistants, processing assistants, dyes, pigments, stabilisers, sensitisers, nanoparticles and inhibitors.

[0162] A method for the preparation of the formulation comprises the following steps:
  1. a. Preparing a first solution comprising at least one solvent and at least one metal complex and
  2. b. Preparing a second solution comprising at least one solvent and at least one organic semiconductor and
  3. c. Mixing the first solution obtained in step a) and the second solution obtained in step b) in a specific ratio and forming a formulation by a physical method.


[0163] A formulation in accordance with the present invention can be employed for the production of a layer or multilayered structure in which the organofunctional materials are present in layers, as are required for the production of preferred electronic or opto-electronic components, such as OLEDs.

[0164] The formulation of the present invention can preferably be employed for the formation of a functional layer comprising an organic semiconductor and a metal complex on a substrate or on one of the layers applied to the substrate.

[0165] Still further object of the invention is a process for the production of an electronic device with a multilayer structure, wherein at least one layer is obtained from the application of a formulation of the present invention. Preferably, a formulation according to the invention is applied to a substrate and dried.

[0166] The functional layer obtained from the formulation according to the invention can be produced, for example, by flood coating, dip coating, spray coating, spin coating, screen printing, relief printing, gravure printing, rotary printing, roller coating, flexographic printing, offset printing or nozzle printing, preferably ink-jet printing on a substrate or one of the layers applied to the substrate.

[0167] After the application of a formulation according to the invention to a substrate or a functional layer already applied, a drying step can be carried out in order to remove the solvent. The drying can preferably be carried out at relatively low temperature and over a relatively long period in order to avoid bubble formation and to obtain a uniform coating. The drying can preferably be carried out at a temperature in the range from 80 to 300°C, particularly preferably 150 to 250°C and especially preferably 180 to 200°C. The drying here can preferably be carried out at a pressure in the range from 10-6 mbar to 2 bar, particularly preferably in the range from 10-2 mbar to 1 bar and especially preferably in the range from 10-1 mbar to 100 mbar. The duration of the drying depends on the degree of drying to be achieved, where small amounts of water can optionally be removed at relatively high temperature and in combination with sintering, which is preferably to be carried out.

[0168] Another object is an electronic device obtainable by such a process for the production of an electronic device.

[0169] An electronic device is taken to mean a device which comprises anode, cathode and at least one functional layer in between, where this functional layer comprises at least one organic or organometallic compound.

[0170] The organic, electronic device is preferably an organic electroluminescent device (OLED), a polymeric electroluminescent device (PLED), an organic integrated circuit (O-IC), an organic field-effect transistor (O-FET), an organic thin-film transistor (O-TFT), an organic, light-emitting transistor (O-LET), an organic solar cell (O-SC), an organic, optical detector, an organic photoreceptor, an organic field-quench device (O-FQD), an organic electrical sensor, a light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) or an organic laser diode (O-laser). Preference is given to organic electroluminescent device (OLED).

[0171] The invention is explained in greater detail below with reference to working examples, but without being restricted thereby.

Working examples


Part A: Organic Semiconductor



[0172] The organic semiconductors (OS) used for the formation of the formulations according to the invention are already described in the prior art and were produced according to the literature instructions.

[0173] They are represented in the table below:
Organic semiconductorsStructureSynthesis according to
OS1

WO2003/048225 WO2010/097155
OS2

WO2003/048225
OS3

WO2003/048225
OS4

WO2003/048225 WO2010/097155
OS5

WO2003/048225
OS6

WO2012034627

Part B: Metal complex



[0174] The metal complex used for the formation of the formulations according to the invention are already described in the prior art and were produced according to the literature instructions.

[0175] An example is represented in the table below:
Metal complexStructureSynthesis according to
M1

WO 2013/182389

Part C: Formulation



[0176] A formulation here is taken to mean a mixture comprising at least one organic semiconductor, at least one metal complex and at least one solvent.

[0177] The solubility of a material in a solvent is the highest material-to-solvent ratio in which the solution at 20°C is clear and stays clear for several hours. The solubility (g/l) is determined according to the following method:
  1. (1) A known amount of the solvent (for example 100 mL) is put in a container;
  2. (2) A defined amount of the material is added and the mixture is stirred with a magnetic stirring bar;
  3. (3) Step (2) is repeated until some of the material does not dissolve despite a vigourous and prolonged stirring.


[0178] The solubilities (in g/l) of the various materials in various solvent at 20°C are listed in the table below.
  Material
 SolventOS3M1OS5OS6
LM1 Anisole : Xylene (2:1) > 20 g/l < 7.5 g/l > 20 g/l > 50 g/l
LM2 Anisole > 20 g/l < 7.5 g/l > 20 g/l 100 g/l
LM3 Xylene > 20 g/l < 7.5 g/l >.20 g/l 40 g/l
LM4 Chlorobenzene > 20 g/l < 7.5 g/l > 20 g/l  
LM5 THF > 40 g/l > 100 g/l > 40 g/l > 40 g/l
LM6 Toluene : THF (9:1) > 50 g/l > 30 g/l > 50 g/l > 50 g/l
LM7 Hexafluorobenzene 10 g/l 15-20 g/l    
LM8 Toluene : Hexafluorobenzene (7:3) 40 g/l 15 g/l 40 g/l 30 g/l
LM9 Metadifluorobenzene > 20 g/l < 7.5 g/l > 20 g/l  
LM10 Fluorobenzene > 30 g/l < 7.5 g/l > 30 g/l  
LM11 Acetonitrile < 5 g/l < 10 g/l < 5 g/l  
LM12 Benzonitrile   > 20 g/l    
LM13 Acetone < 5 g/l > 20 g/l < 5 g/l  
LM14 DMF <2g/l > 40 g/l < 2 g/l 10 g/l
LM15 Toluene : DMF (8:2) 30 g/l 15 g/l 30 g/l 25 g/l
LM16 DMSO <2 g/l > 20 g/l < 2 g/l 10 g/l
LM17 Methanol < 5 g/l > 20 g/l <5 g/l  
LM18 Toluene: Methanol (8:2) 35 g/l 20 g/l 35 g/l 30 g/l
LM19 EGDME < 5 g/l > 20 g/l <5 g/l  
LM20 Toluene > 40 g/l < 7.5 g/l > 40 g/l 60 g/l

Part D: Device examples



[0179] Formulations according to the invention, which comprise at least one organic semiconductor, at least one metal complex and at least one solvent, lead to OLEDs which are much easier to produce than OLEDs obtained from vacuum processes, and at the same time still exhibit good properties.

[0180] The production of solvent-based OLEDs has already been described in the literature, e.g. in WO 2004/037887 and in WO 2010/097155. The method is adapted to the conditions described below (layer thickness variation, materials).

[0181] The formulations according to the invention can be used in two different layer sequences:

Stack A is as follows:

  • Substrate,
  • ITO (50 nm),
  • Hole injection layer (HIL) (200 nm),
  • Cathode.

Stack B is as follows:

  • Substrate,
  • ITO (50 nm),
  • HIL (150 nm),
  • Hole transport layer (HTL) (40 nm)
  • Emissive layer (EML) (30 nm)
  • Electron transport layer (ETL) (20 nm),
  • Cathode.



[0182] The substrate consists of glass platelets, which are coated with a structured 50 nm thick ITO (indium tin oxide) layer. The functional layers are then applied onto the coated substrate according to the structures of Stacks A and B.

[0183] For the preparation of the hole injection layer, the formulations according to the invention as well as comparative mixtures are used. The comparative mixture according to the prior art comprises a solvent consisting of Anisole: Xylene in the ratio 2:1 (LM1). The typical solid content of such solutions is about 8-35 g/l, when film thicknesses of between 20 nm and 200 nm have to be achieved by means of spin coating. The layers were spin coated in an inert gas atmosphere, in this case argon, and heated for 60 minutes at 180 °C or 220 °C.

[0184] The hole transport layer in Stack B is formed by thermal evaporation in a vacuum chamber. The materials used in this case are shown in Table D1.
Table D1:
Structural formula of the hole-transport material (vacuum processed)


 
HT1  


[0185] The emissive layer in Stack B is formed by thermal evaporation in a vacuum chamber. In this case, the layer may consist of more than one material, which are deposited by means of co-evaporation in a given volume fraction. A reference such as MB1:SEB (95%:5%) in this case means that the materials MB1 and SEB are present in the layer in a volume fraction of 95%:5%.

[0186] The materials used in this case are shown in Table D2.
Table D2:
Structural formulae of the materials used in the emissive layer




MB1 SEB


[0187] The materials for the electron-transport layer are also thermally evaporated in a vacuum chamber and are shown in Table D3. The electron-transport layer consists of the two materials ETM1 and ETM2, which are deposited by means of co-evaporation in a volume fraction of 50%:50%.
Table D3:
Structural formulae of the materials used in the hole-blocking and/or electron-transport layers




ETM1 ETM2


[0188] Furthermore, the cathode is formed by the deposition of a 100 nm thick aluminum layer by means of thermal evaporation.

[0189] The exact structure of the OLEDs is shown in Table D4.
Table D4:
Structure of the OLEDs
Ex.Stack  HIL  HTLEML
  OSmetal complex (M)weight ratio (OS: M)solventT [°C]materialcomposition
D1 B OS4 M1 85:15 LM6 180 HT1 MB1 95% SEB 5%
D2 A OS5 M1 70 : 30 LM1 180 - -
D3 A OS1 M1 70 : 30 LM1 180 - -
D4 A OS5 M1 70 : 30 LM6 180 - -
D5 A OS1 M1 70 : 30 LM6 180 - -
D6 A OS6 M1 70 : 30 LM6 180 - -
D7 A OS3 M1 70 : 30 LM8 180 - -
D8 A OS4 M1 85 : 15 LM15 220 - -
D9 A OS2 M1 85 : 15 LM18 180 - -

(Examples D2, D3 and D8 do not form part of the invention)



[0190] The OLEDs are characterized by standard methods. For this purpose, the electroluminescence spectra, the current-voltage-luminance characteristics (IUL characteristics), assuming a Lambertian radiation pattern and in the case of Stack B, the operating lifetime are determined. Data like the operating voltage (in V) and the external quantum efficiency (in %) at a certain brightness are determined from the IUL characteristics. LD80@4000cd/m2 corresponds to the lifetime until which the brightness of the OLED drops from an initial brightness of 4000 cd/m2 to a brightness equal to 80% of the initial intensity, i.e. at 3600 cd m2.

[0191] The properties of the different OLEDs are summarized in Tables D5a and D5b. Examples D2 and D3 were prepared according to the prior art, all the other examples show properties of components according to the invention.

[0192] Table D5a shows results of hole-dominated components according to Stack A. In such components, the current is dominated by holes, which is why no recombination with electrons takes place that would lead to luminescence.
Table D5a:
Ex.Current density at U = 3V [mA/cm2]Scattering parameter
D2 33 1.1
D3 1 0.9
D4 24 0.2
D5 2 0.1
D6 36 0.2
D7 39 0.4
D8 5 0.2
D9 19 0.3


[0193] The scattering parameters in Table D5a correspond to the relative error of the mean value of the current density at U = 3V, which corresponds to the standard deviation divided by the mean value.

[0194] The results in Table D5a show that the scattering of the current density for components obtained from formulations according to the invention is significantly lower than the scattering of the current density for components obtained from formulations according to the prior art.
Table D5b
Ex.Efficiency at 1000 cd/m2Voltage at 1000 cd/m2LD80 at 4000 cd/m2
 % EQE[V][h]
D1 7.7 4.5 420


[0195] Table D5b shows that the use of formulations according to the invention leads to OLEDs with a good lifetime and efficiency.


Claims

1. Formulation comprising at least one organic semiconductor, at least one metal complex and at least two organic solvents,
where the solubility at 20°C of the metal complex is ≥ 5 g/l in at least one organic solvent and the solubility at 20°C of the organic semiconductor is ≥ 10 g/l in at least one organic solvent,
wherein the at least one organic semiconductor is selected from the group consisting of hole-transport materials (HTM) and hole-injection materials (HIM); and wherein a first solvent has a boiling point of from 100°C to 300°C and a second solvent has a boiling point of from 40°C to 100°C,
characterised in that
the at least one metal complex comprises a metal atom of group 13 to 15 and a ligand of the following structure

where

R11 and R12 are selected, identically or differently, from the group consisting of O, S, Se, NH or NR14, where R14 is an alkyl or aryl group; where R14 and R13 may form a ring with one other; and

R13 is selected from the group consisting of a straight-chain alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkyl group having 1 to 40 C atoms or an alkenyl or alkinyl group having 2 to 40 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkyl group having 3 to 40 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, where in each case one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by R1C=CR1, C≡C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S or CONR1 and where one or more H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN, an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having 10 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1; where R13 may form a ring with at least one of the radical R12; and

R1 is on each occurrence, identically or differently, H, D, F or an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical having 1 to 20 C atoms, an aromatic and/or a heteroaromatic hydrocarbon radical having 5 to 20 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F; where two or more substituents R1 may also form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic or aromatic ring system with one another.


 
2. Formulation according to claim 1, characterized in that the solubility at 20°C of the metal complex is ≥ 7.5 g/l, preferably ≥ 10 g/l in at least one organic solvent and the solubility at 20°C of the organic semiconductor is ≥ 15 g/l, preferably ≥ 20 g/l in at least one organic solvent.
 
3. Formulation according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the first organic solvent has a boiling point of from 105°C to 290°C, and preferably from 110°C to 280°C.
 
4. Formulation according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the second organic solvent has a boiling point of from 45°C to 95°C, and preferably 50°C to 90°C.
 
5. Formulation according to one or more of the precefing claims, characterized in that the first solvent is chosen from Benzonitrile, Dimethylformamide, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Toluene, Anisole, Xylene, Chlorbenzene and mixture thereof.
 
6. Formulation according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the second solvent is chosen from Tetrahydrofurane, Hexafluorbenzene, Acetonitrile, Acetone, Methanol, Ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, and mixture thereof.
 
7. Formulation according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that the proportion of the organic solvent in the formulation is at least 60% by weight, preferably at least 70% by weight and more preferably at least 80% by weight, based on the total weight of the formulation
 
8. Formulation according to one or more of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one organic semiconductor is a polymer having a molecular weight (Mw) in the range of 10 000 to 2 000 000 g/mol, preferably in the range of 50 000 to 1 500 000 g/mol, and more preferably in the range of 100 00 to 1 000 000 g/mol.
 
9. Formulation according to claim 8, characterized in that at least one organic semiconductor is a polymer comprising at least one structural unit of the following formula (I):

where

Ar1 to Ar3 is on each occurrence, in each case identically or differently, a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R;

R is on each occurrence, identically or differently, H, D, F, Cl, Br, I, N(R1)2, CN, NO2, Si(R1)3, B(OR1)2, C(=O)R1, P(=O)(R1)2, S(=O)R1, S(=O)2R1, OSO2R1, a straight-chain alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 1 to 40 C atoms or a branched or cyclic alkyl, alkoxy or thioalkoxy group having 3 to 40 C atoms, each of which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, where one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may be replaced by R1C=CR1, C≡C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S or CONR1 and where one or more H atoms may be replaced by D, F, Cl, Br, I or CN, or a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may in each case be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aryloxy or heteroaryloxy group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group having 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a diarylamino group, diheteroarylamino group or arylheteroarylamino group having 10 to 40 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radicals R1, or a crosslinkable group Q, where two or more radicals R may also form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic, aromatic and/or benzo-fused ring system with one another;

R1 is on each occurrence, identically or differently, H, D, F or an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical having 1 to 20 C atoms, an aromatic and/or a heteroaromatic hydrocarbon radical having 5 to 20 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F; where two or more substituents R1 may also form a mono- or polycyclic, aliphatic or aromatic ring system with one another; and

the dashed lines represent bonds to adjacent structural units in the polymer,
and where at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and/or Ar3 is substituted by a radical R comprising at least 2 C atoms.
 
10. Formulation according to one or more of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that at least one organic semiconductor is a low-molecular material having a molecular weight of ≤ 5000 g/mol, preferably ≤ 3000 g/mol, and more preferably ≤ 2000 g/mol.
 
11. Formulation according to claim 10, characterized in that at least one organic semiconductor is a low-molecular material selected from the compounds of the following formula (I'):

where
Ar1, Ar2 and Ar3 have the same meaning as in claim 9.
 
12. Formulation according to one of the claims 9 or 11, characterized in that at least one of Ar1, Ar2 and/or Ar3 according to formula (I) or (I') is in at least one, preferably in one of the two ortho-positions relating to the Nitrogen atom represented in formula (I) or (I'), substituted by Ar4, where Ar4 is a mono- or polycyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ring system with 5 to 60 aromatic ring atoms, which may be substituted by one or more radical R, where R is defined as in claim 9.
 
13. Formulation according to one or more of the preceding claims characterized in that the concentration of the organic semiconductor is in the range of from 10 g/l to 100 g/l, preferably 15 g/l to 80 g/l, and more preferably 20 g/l to 60g/l, based on the total formulation.
 
14. Formulation according to one or more of the preceding claims characterized in that the concentration of the metal complex is in the range of from 5 g/l to 100 g/l, preferably 7.5 g/l to 80 g/l, and more preferably 10 g/l to 60g/l, based on the total formulation.
 
15. Process for the production of an electronic device with a multilayer structure, wherein at least one layer is obtained from the application of a formulation according to one or more of the claims 1 to 14.
 
16. Process according to claim 15, characterised in that the formulation is applied by flood coating, dip coating, spray coating, spin coating, screen printing, relief printing, gravure printing, rotary printing, roller coating, flexographic printing, offset printing, slot die coating or nozzle printing.
 


Ansprüche

1. Formulierung, umfassend mindestens einen organischen Halbleiter, mindestens einen Metallkomplex und mindestens zwei organische Lösungsmittel, wobei die Löslichkeit des Metallkomplexes bei 20 °C in mindestens einem organischen Lösungsmittel ≥ 5 g/l ist und die Löslichkeit des organischen Halbleiters bei 20 °C in mindestens einem organischen Lösungsmittel ≥ 10 g/l ist, wobei der mindestens eine organische Halbleiter aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Lochtransportmaterialien (Hole-Transport Materials, HTM) und Lochinjektionsmaterialien (Hole-Injection Materials, HIM) ausgewählt ist und wobei ein erstes Lösungsmittel einen Siedepunkt von 100 °C bis 300 °C aufweist und ein zweites Lösungsmittel einen Siedepunkt von 40 °C bis 100 °C aufweist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der mindestens eine Metallkomplex ein Metallatom der Gruppe 13 bis 15 und einen Liganden der folgenden Struktur

umfasst, wobei

R11 und R12 gleich oder verschieden aus der Gruppe bestehend aus O, S, Se, NH oder NR14 ausgewählt sind, wobei R14 für eine Alkyl- oder Arylgruppe steht; wobei R14 und R13 miteinander einen Ring bilden können; und

R13 aus der Gruppe bestehend aus einer geradkettigen Alkyl-, Alkoxy- oder Thioalkylgruppe mit 1 bis 40 C-Atomen oder einer Alkenyl- oder Alkinylgruppe mit 2 bis 40 C-Atomen oder einer verzweigten oder cyclischen Alkyl-, Alkoxy- oder Thioalkylgruppe mit 3 bis 40 C-Atomen, wobei jede dieser Gruppen durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, wobei jeweils eine oder mehrere nicht benachbarte CH2-Gruppen durch R1C=CR1, C≡C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S oder CONR1 ersetzt sein können und wobei ein oder mehrere H-Atome durch D, F, Cl, Br, I oder CN ersetzt sein können, einem aromatischen oder heteroaromatischen Ringsystem mit 5 bis 60 aromatischen Ringatomen, das jeweils durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, einer Aryloxy- oder Heteroaryloxygruppe mit 5 bis 60 aromatischen Ringatomen, die durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, oder einer Aralkyl- oder Heteroaralkylgruppe mit 5 bis 60 aromatischen Ringatomen, die jeweils durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, oder eine Diarylaminogruppe, Diheteroarylaminogruppe oder Arylheteroarylaminogruppe mit 10 bis 40 aromatischen Ringatomen, die durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, ausgewählt ist; wobei R13 mit mindestens einem der Reste R12 einen Ring bilden kann; und

R1 bei jedem Auftreten gleich oder verschieden für H, D, F oder einen aliphatischen Kohlenwasserstoffrest mit 1 bis 20 C-Atomen, einen aromatischen und/oder einen heteroaromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffrest mit 5 bis 20 C-Atomen, in dem außerdem ein oder mehrere H-Atome durch F ersetzt sein können, steht; wobei zwei oder mehr Substituenten R1 auch miteinander ein mono- oder polycyclisches, aliphatisches oder aromatisches Ringsystem bilden können.


 
2. Formulierung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Löslichkeit des Metallkomplexes bei 20 °C in mindestens einem organischen Lösungsmittel ≥ 7,5 g/l, vorzugsweise ≥ 10 g/l, ist und die Löslichkeit des organischen Halbleiters bei 20 °C in mindestens einem organischen Lösungsmittel ≥ 15 g/l, vorzugsweise ≥ 20 g/l, ist.
 
3. Formulierung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das erste organische Lösungsmittel einen Siedepunkt von 105 °C bis 290 °C und vorzugsweise von 110 °C bis 280 °C aufweist.
 
4. Formulierung nach einem oder mehreren der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das zweite organische Lösungsmittel einen Siedepunkt von 45 °C bis 95 °C und vorzugsweise von 50 °C bis 90 °C aufweist.
 
5. Formulierung nach einem oder mehreren der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das erste Lösungsmittel aus Benzonitril, Dimethylformamid, Dimethylsulfoxid, Toluol, Anisol, Xylol, Chlorbenzol und Mischungen davon ausgewählt ist.
 
6. Formulierung nach einem oder mehreren der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das zweite Lösungsmittel aus Tetrahydrofuran, Hexafluorbenzol, Acetonitril, Aceton, Methanol, Ethylenglykoldimethylether und Mischungen davon ausgewählt ist.
 
7. Formulierung nach einem oder mehreren der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Anteil des organischen Lösungsmittels in der Formulierung mindestens 60 Gew.-%, vorzugsweise mindestens 70 Gew.-% und weiter bevorzugt mindestens 80 Gew.-%, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht der Formulierung, beträgt.
 
8. Formulierung nach einem oder mehreren der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es sich bei mindestens einem organischen Halbleiter um ein Polymer mit einem Molekulargewicht (Mw) im Bereich von 10.000 bis 2.000.000 g/mol, vorzugsweise im Bereich von 50.000 bis 1.500.000 g/mol und weiter bevorzugt im Bereich von 100.000 bis 1.000.000 g/mol handelt.
 
9. Formulierung nach Anspruch 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es sich bei mindestens einem organischen Halbleiter um ein Polymer handelt, das eine Struktureinheit der folgenden Formel (I) umfasst:

wobei

Ar1 bis Ar3 bei jedem Auftreten jeweils gleich oder verschieden für ein mono- oder polycyclisches, aromatisches oder heteroaromatisches Ringsystem mit 5 bis 60 aromatischen Ringatomen, das durch einen oder mehrere Reste R substituiert sein kann, stehen;

R bei jedem Auftreten gleich oder verschieden für H, D, F, Cl, Br, I, N(R1)2, CN, NO2, Si(R1)3, B(OR1)2, C(=O)R1, P(=O)(R1)2, S(=O)R1, S(=O)2R1, OSO2R1, eine geradkettige Alkyl-, Alkoxy- oder Thioalkoxygruppe mit 1 bis 40 C-Atomen oder eine verzweigte oder cyclische Alkyl-, Alkoxy- oder Thioalkoxygruppe mit 3 bis 40 C-Atomen, wobei jede dieser Gruppen durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, wobei eine oder mehrere nicht benachbarte CH2-Gruppen durch R1C=CR1, C≡C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S oder CONR1 ersetzt sein können und wobei ein oder mehrere H-Atome durch D, F, Cl, Br, I oder CN ersetzt sein können, oder ein mono- oder polycyclisches, aromatisches oder heteroaromatisches Ringsystem mit 5 bis 60 aromatischen Ringatomen, das jeweils durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, oder eine Aryloxy- oder Heteroaryloxygruppe mit 5 bis 60 aromatischen Ringatomen, die durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, oder eine Aralkyl- oder Heteroaralkylgruppe mit 5 bis 60 aromatischen Ringatomen, die jeweils durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, oder eine Diarylaminogruppe, Diheteroarylaminogruppe oder Arylheteroarylaminogruppe mit 10 bis 40 aromatischen Ringatomen, die durch einen oder mehrere Reste R1 substituiert sein kann, oder eine vernetzbare Gruppe Q steht, wobei zwei oder mehr Reste R auch miteinander ein mono- oder polycyclisches, aliphatisches, aromatisches und/oder benzoanelliertes Ringsystem bilden können;

R1 bei jedem Auftreten gleich oder verschieden für H, D, F oder einen aliphatischen Kohlenwasserstoffrest mit 1 bis 20 C-Atomen, einen aromatischen und/oder einen heteroaromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffrest mit 5 bis 20 C-Atomen, in dem außerdem ein oder mehrere H-Atome durch F ersetzt sein können, steht; wobei zwei oder mehr Substituenten R1 auch miteinander ein mono- oder polycyclisches, aliphatisches oder aromatisches Ringsystem bilden können; und

die gestrichelten Linien Bindungen an die benachbarten Struktureinheiten in dem Polymer darstellen,
und wobei mindestens eines von Ar1, Ar2 und/oder Ar3 durch einen Rest R mit mindestens 2 C-Atomen substituiert ist.
 
10. Formulierung nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es sich bei mindestens einem organischen Halbleiter um ein niedermolekulares Material mit einem Molekulargewicht ≤ 5000 g/mol, vorzugsweise ≤ 3000 g/mol und weiter bevorzugt ≤ 2000 g/mol handelt.
 
11. Formulierung nach Anspruch 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es sich bei mindestens einem organischen Halbleiter um ein niedermolekulares Material handelt, das aus den Verbindungen der folgenden Formel (I') ausgewählt ist:

wobei
Ar1, Ar2 und Ar3 die gleiche Bedeutung wie in Anspruch 9 haben.
 
12. Formulierung nach einem der Ansprüche 9 oder 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass mindestens eines von Ar1, Ar2 und/oder Ar3 gemäß Formel (I) bzw. (I') in mindestens einer, vorzugsweise in einer, der beiden ortho-Positionen bezüglich des in Formel (I) bzw. (I') dargestellten Stickstoffatoms durch Ar4 substituiert ist, wobei Ar4 für ein mono- oder polycyclisches, aromatisches oder heteroaromatisches Ringsystem mit 5 bis 60 aromatischen Ringatomen, das durch einen oder mehrere Reste R substituiert sein kann, steht, wobei R wie in Anspruch 9 definiert ist.
 
13. Formulierung nach einem oder mehreren der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Konzentration des organischen Halbleiters im Bereich von 10 g/l bis 100 g/l, vorzugsweise 15 g/l bis 80 g/l und weiter bevorzugt 20 g/l bis 60 g/l, bezogen auf die gesamte Formulierung, liegt.
 
14. Formulierung nach einem oder mehreren der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Konzentration des Metallkomplexes im Bereich von 5 g/l bis 100 g/l, vorzugsweise 7,5 g/l bis 80 g/l und weiter bevorzugt 10 g/l bis 60 g/l, bezogen auf die gesamte Formulierung, liegt.
 
15. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer elektronischen Vorrichtung mit Mehrschichtstruktur, wobei mindestens eine Schicht durch das Aufbringen einer Formulierung nach einem oder mehreren der Ansprüche 1 bis 14 erhalten wird.
 
16. Verfahren nach Anspruch 15, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Formulierung durch Flutbeschichten, Tauchbeschichten, Spritzbeschichten, Aufschleudern, Siebdruck, Hochdruck, Tiefdruck, Rotationsdruck, Walzenbeschichten, Flexodruck, Offsetdruck, Schlitzdüsenbeschichten oder Düsendruck aufgebracht wird.
 


Revendications

1. Formulation comprenant au moins un semi-conducteur organique, au moins un complexe métallique et au moins deux solvants organiques,
où la solubilité à 20 °C du complexe métallique est ≥ 5 g/l dans au moins un solvant organique et la solubilité à 20 °C du semi-conducteur organique est ≥ 10 g/l dans au moins un solvant organique,
dans laquelle l'au moins un semi-conducteur organique est choisi dans le groupe constitué par les matériaux de transport de trous (HTM) et les matériaux d'injection de trous (HIM) ; et dans laquelle un premier solvant a un point d'ébullition de 100 °C à 300 °C et un second solvant a un point d'ébullition de 40 °C à 100 °C, caractérisée en ce que
l'au moins un complexe métallique comprend un atome métallique du groupe 13 à 15 et un ligand de la structure suivante

R11 et R12 sont choisis, de manière identique ou différente, dans le groupe constitué par O, S, Se, NH ou NR14, où R14 est un groupe alkyle ou aryle ; où R14 et R13 peuvent former un cycle l'un avec l'autre ; et

R13 est choisi dans le groupe constitué par un groupe alkyle, alcoxy ou thioalkyle à chaîne linéaire ayant 1 à 40 atomes C ou un groupe alcényle ou alcynyle ayant 2 à 40 atomes C ou un groupe alkyle, alcoxy ou thioalkyle ramifié ou cyclique ayant 3 à 40 atomes C, chacun d'entre eux pouvant être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1, où dans chaque cas un ou plusieurs groupes CH2 non adjacents peuvent être remplacés par R1C=CR1, C≡C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S ou CONR1 et où un ou plusieurs atomes H peuvent être remplacés par D, F, Cl, Br, I ou CN, un système cyclique aromatique ou hétéroaromatique ayant 5 à 60 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut dans chaque cas être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1, un groupe aryloxy ou hétéroaryloxy ayant 5 à 60 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1, ou un groupe aralkyle ou hétéroaralkyle ayant 5 à 60 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut dans chaque cas être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1, ou un groupe diarylamino, un groupe dihétéroarylamino ou un groupe arylhétéroarylamino ayant 10 à 40 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1 ;

où R13 peut former un cycle avec au moins un du radical R12 ; et

R1 représente sur chaque occurrence, de manière identique ou différente, H, D, F ou un radical hydrocarboné aliphatique ayant 1 à 20 atomes C, un radical hydrocarboné aromatique et/ou hétéroaromatique ayant 5 à 20 atomes C, dans lequel, en outre, un ou plusieurs atomes H peuvent être remplacés par F ; où deux substituants R1 ou plus peuvent également former un système cyclique mono- ou polycyclique, aliphatique ou aromatique les uns avec les autres.


 
2. Formulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que la solubilité à 20 °C du complexe métallique est ≥ 7,5 g/l, de préférence ≥ 10 g/l, dans au moins un solvant organique et la solubilité à 20 °C du semi-conducteur organique est ≥ 15 g/l, de préférence ≥ 20 g/l, dans au moins un solvant organique.
 
3. Formulation selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisée en ce que le premier solvant organique a un point d'ébullition de 105 °C à 290 °C, et de préférence de 110 °C à 280 °C.
 
4. Formulation selon une ou plusieurs des revendications précédentes, caractérisée en ce que le second solvant organique a un point d'ébullition de 45 °C à 95 °C, et de préférence de 50 °C à 90 °C.
 
5. Formulation selon une ou plusieurs des revendications précédentes, caractérisée en ce que le premier solvant est choisi parmi le benzonitrile, le diméthylformamide, le diméthylsulfoxyde, le toluène, l'anisole, le xylène, le chlorobenzène et des mélanges de ceux-ci.
 
6. Formulation selon une ou plusieurs des revendications précédentes, caractérisée en ce que le second solvant est choisi parmi le tétrahydrofurane, l'hexafluorobenzène, l'acétonitrile, l'acétone, le méthanol, l'éther diméthylique d'éthylène glycol et des mélanges de ceux-ci.
 
7. Formulation selon une ou plusieurs des revendications précédentes, caractérisée en ce que la proportion du solvant organique dans la formulation est d'au moins 60 % en poids, de préférence d'au moins 70 % en poids et plus préférablement d'au moins 80 % en poids, sur la base du poids total de la formulation.
 
8. Formulation selon une ou plusieurs des revendications précédentes, caractérisée en ce qu'au moins un semi-conducteur organique est un polymère ayant un poids moléculaire (Mp) compris dans la plage de 10 000 à 2 000 000 g/mol, de préférence dans la plage de 50 000 à 1 500 000 g/mol, et plus préférablement dans la plage de 100 000 à 1 000 000 g/mol.
 
9. Formulation selon la revendication 8, caractérisée en ce qu'au moins un semi-conducteur organique est un polymère comprenant au moins un motif structurel de la formule (I) suivante :

Ar1 à Ar3 représentent sur chaque occurrence, dans chaque cas de manière identique ou différente, un système cyclique mono- ou polycyclique, aromatique ou hétéroaromatique ayant 5 à 60 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R ;

R représente sur chaque occurrence, de manière identique ou différente, H, D, F, Cl, Br, I, N(R1)2, CN, NO2, Si(R1)3, B(OR1)2, C(=O)R1, P(=O)(R1)2, S(=O)R1, S(=O)2R1, OSO2R1, un groupe alkyle, alcoxy ou thioalcoxy à chaîne linéaire ayant 1 à 40 atomes C ou un groupe alkyle, alcoxy ou thioalcoxy ramifié ou cyclique ayant 3 à 40 atomes C, chacun d'entre eux pouvant être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1, où un ou plusieurs groupes CH2 non adjacents peuvent être remplacés par R1C=CR1, C≡C, Si(R1)2, C=O, C=S, C=NR1, P(=O)(R1), SO, SO2, NR1, O, S ou CONR1 et où un ou plusieurs atomes H peuvent être remplacés par D, F, Cl, Br, I ou CN, ou un système cyclique mono- ou polycyclique, aromatique ou hétéroaromatique ayant 5 à 60 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut être dans chaque cas substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1, ou un groupe aryloxy ou hétéroaryloxy ayant 5 à 60 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1, ou un groupe aralkyle ou hétéroaralkyle ayant 5 à 60 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut dans chaque cas être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1, ou un groupe diarylamino, un groupe dihétéroarylamino ou un groupe arylhétéroarylamino ayant 10 à 40 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R1, ou un groupe réticulable Q, où deux radicaux R ou plus peuvent également former un système cyclique mono- ou polycyclique, aliphatique, aromatique et/ou benzo-condensé les uns avec les autres ;

R1 représente sur chaque occurrence, de manière identique ou différente, H, D, F ou un radical hydrocarboné aliphatique ayant 1 à 20 atomes C, un radical hydrocarboné aromatique et/ou hétéroaromatique ayant 5 à 20 atomes C, dans lequel, en outre, un ou plusieurs atomes H peuvent être remplacés par F ; où deux substituants R1 ou plus peuvent également former un système cyclique mono- ou polycyclique, aliphatique ou aromatique les uns avec les autres ; et

les lignes pointillées représentent des liaisons à des motifs structurels adjacents dans le polymère,

et où au moins un de Ar1, Ar2 et/ou Ar3 est substitué par un radical R comprenant au moins 2 atomes C.


 
10. Formulation selon une ou plusieurs des revendications 1 à 7, caractérisée en ce qu'au moins un semi-conducteur organique est un matériau de faible poids moléculaire ayant un poids moléculaire ≤ 5 000 g/mol, de préférence ≤ 3 000 g/mol, et plus préférablement ≤ 2 000 g/mol.
 
11. Formulation selon la revendication 10, caractérisée en ce qu'au moins un semi-conducteur organique est un matériau de faible poids moléculaire choisi parmi les composés de la formule (I') suivante :


Ar1, Ar2 et Ar3 ont la même signification que dans la revendication 9.
 
12. Formulation selon l'une des revendications 9 ou 11, caractérisée en ce qu'au moins un de Ar1, Ar2 et/ou Ar3 selon la formule (I) ou (I') est dans au moins une, de préférence dans une des deux positions ortho par rapport à l'atome d'azote représente dans la formule (I) ou (I'), substitué par Ar4, où Ar4 représente un système cyclique mono- ou polycyclique, aromatique ou hétéroaromatique ayant 5 à 60 atomes de cycle aromatique, qui peut être substitué par un ou plusieurs radicaux R, où R est tel que défini dans la revendication 9.
 
13. Formulation selon une ou plusieurs des revendications précédentes, caractérisée en ce que la concentration du semi-conducteur organique est comprise dans la plage de 10 g/l à 100 g/l, de préférence de 15 g/l à 80 g/l, et plus préférablement de 20 g/l à 60 g/l, sur la base de la formulation totale.
 
14. Formulation selon une ou plusieurs des revendications précédentes, caractérisée en ce que la concentration du complexe métallique est comprise dans la plage de 5 g/l à 100 g/l, de préférence de 7,5 g/l à 80 g/l, et plus préférablement de 10 g/l à 60 g/l, sur la base de la formulation totale.
 
15. Procédé de production d'un dispositif électronique ayant une structure multicouche, dans lequel au moins une couche est obtenue à partir de l'application d'une formulation selon une ou plusieurs des revendications 1 à 14.
 
16. Procédé selon la revendication 15, caractérisé en ce que la formulation est appliquée par revêtement par immersion, revêtement par trempage, revêtement par pulvérisation, revêtement par centrifugation, sérigraphie, impression en relief, héliogravure, impression rotative, revêtement au rouleau, impression flexographique, impression offset, revêtement par filière plate ou impression par buse.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description