(19)
(11)EP 3 303 508 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 16728633.5

(22)Date of filing:  25.05.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C09K 8/36(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2016/061760
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/189019 (01.12.2016 Gazette  2016/48)

(54)

ESTERAMIDES AND SUBTERRANEAN TREATMENT FLUIDS CONTAINING SAID ESTERAMIDES

ESTERAMIDE UND UNTERIRDISCHE BEHANDLUNGSFLÜSSIGKEITEN MIT BESAGTEN ESTERAMIDEN

ESTÉRAMIDES ET FLUIDES DE TRAITEMENT SOUTERRAIN CONTENANT CES ESTÉRAMIDES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 26.05.2015 IT UB20150865

(43)Date of publication of application:
11.04.2018 Bulletin 2018/15

(73)Proprietor: Lamberti SPA
21041 Albizzate (VA) (IT)

(72)Inventors:
  • BALESTRINI, Andrea
    Sugar Land, TX 77478 (US)
  • VILLAREAL, Quenton, Christopher
    Rosenberg, TX 77471 (US)
  • MAKIAH, Sama, Nazar
    Richmond, TX 77407 (US)
  • FLORIDI, Giovanni
    28100 Novara (IT)
  • LI BASSI, Giuseppe
    21026 Gavirate (VA) (IT)

(74)Representative: Giaroni, Paola 
LAMBERTI S.p.A. Ufficio Brevetti Via Piave, 18
21041 Albizzate (VA)
21041 Albizzate (VA) (IT)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-89/11516
US-A- 6 004 914
US-A- 4 575 428
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to water-in-oil subterranean treatment fluids with improved stability and environmental compatibility, and to their use in subterranean treatments; more particularly, the described treatment fluids comprise esteramides as emulsion stabilizers.

    [0002] Subterranean treatments fluids are meant to include drilling and completion fluids, as well as other fluids used in subterranean operations such as stimulation fluids, etc.

    STATE OF THE ART



    [0003] Various types of subterranean treatment fluids, such as drilling fluids, are used in operations related to the development, completion, and production of natural hydrocarbon reservoirs.

    [0004] These fluids may be classified according to their fluid base. Water base fluids contain solid particles suspended in water or brine. Alternatively, oil based fluids contain solid particles suspended in an oil continuous phase or, possibly, in water or brine emulsified within a oil (water-in-oil emulsions).

    [0005] Water-in-oil emulsions have the oil phase as the continuous phase and a fluid at least partially immiscible in the oil phase (usually an aqueous-based fluid) as the discontinuous phase.

    [0006] Water-in-oil emulsions may be also referred to as invert emulsions. Invert emulsions are preferred as drilling fluids when the formation is remarkably sensitive to contact with water and they usually have a better thermal resistance and guarantee better lubrication of the drill strings and downhole tools, thinner filter cake formation and improved hole stability. Emulsions are generally stabilized by addition of one or more emulsion stabilizing agents, also referred to as emulsifiers, which prevent the droplets coalescence, phase separations and the reduction of their performances.

    [0007] When used in subterranean applications, emulsions undergo exceptional mechanical and thermal stress, and therefore stability is an especially critical aspect of their formulation.

    [0008] The emulsifiers that are traditionally used in subterranean treatment fluids have surfactant-character, comprising a hydrophobic portion and a hydrophilic portion.

    [0009] Examples of these emulsifiers are (poly)amides that are obtained from the condensation of fatty acids/carboxylic acids with (poly)amines, which show remarkable emulsifying and dispersing properties and are useful in various applications where invert emulsions are formed.

    [0010] For example, US 2,946,746 describes water-in-oil type emulsions comprising a polyamide emulsifying agent which may be prepared by reacting a polyethylene polyamine with a monobasic fatty acid in sufficient quantity to react with all of the amino groups of the polyethylene polyamine, thereby converting them to fatty acid amide groups.

    [0011] US 4,658,036 discloses a process for the preparation of invert emulsifiers useful for oil-base drilling muds. The emulsifiers are prepared by reacting tall oil fatty acids with acrylic acid, maleic anhydride or fumaric acid. The product of this reaction is reacted with diethylene triamine and at least one tall oil fatty acid to give the invert emulsifier.

    [0012] WO 89/11516 relates to an oil-based well-working fluid comprising: a) an emulsifier comprising the reaction product of i) one or two moles of an amide-amine or a hydroxyalkyl amide with ii) one to five moles of a dicarboxylic acid or an acid anhydride; b) a hydrocarbon drilling oil; and c) a sodium, calcium or magnesium brine.

    [0013] US 2003/162668 describes a method and a product which provides emulsion stability and filtration control to invert emulsion drilling fluids. The product comprises a blend of a carboxylic acid terminated polyamide and a mixture produced by the Diels-Alder reaction of dienophiles.

    [0014] US 2011/0306523 relates to emulsifiers for oil-based drilling fluids based on the polyamides derived from fatty acids/carboxylic acids and optionally alkoxylated polyamines.

    [0015] US 2014/121135 discloses an invert emulsion comprising an aqueous fluid, an oleaginous fluid and an emulsifier composition, wherein the emulsifier composition comprises: from 25 to 100 wt % of an emulsifier, which can comprise a carboxylic acid-terminated polyamide. This may be a product of a condensation reaction between a fatty acid, a polyamine and an acid anhydride or a polycarboxylic acid.

    [0016] Unfortunately, many of these emulsifier are highly viscous liquids, almost solid, especially under low temperature conditions, so they must be formulated/diluted with an appropriate solvent to be manageable. This forces the operators to choose a fluid based on the compatibility with the solvent used in the liquid emulsifier formulations, or vice versa.

    [0017] In order to avoid this problem, emulsifiers in the form of powder have been developed. For example, US 2007/167333 describes a spray dried emulsifier comprising a a carboxylic acid terminated fatty amide which is prepared by reacting a fatty acid amine condensate with a polycarboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid anhydride. US4575428 discloses a water-in oil emulsion fluid for use in drilling, comprising a surfactant which is prepared by reacting a polyalkylene polyamine with an understochiometric amount of fatty acid, followed by reacting the intermediate diamide product with either citric acid or trimellitic acid.

    [0018] However, it can be difficult to disperse/solubilize efficiently and quickly these solid emulsifiers into in the oil phase and/or the aqueous phase of the invert subterranean treatment fluids, which usually contain high amount of undissolved solids.

    [0019] For these reasons, there is still a industry-wide interest in, and on-going need for, more efficient and concentrated subterranean treatment fluid additives that can be easily manipulated and for subterranean tratment fluids which can be formulated with minimal or fewer additives than with common prior art fluids.

    [0020] It has now surprisingly been found that esteramides, obtained by condensation reaction between C6-C30 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids, polyamines and polycarboxylic acid esters, are liquid with a pour point at temperatures below zero °C without the addition of any solvent. Thus, they may be manipulated and transported in a highly (more than 90% by weight) active state, which reduces the need of inventory products containing different solvents for compatibility with the treatment fluid. Moreover, this allows to further eliminate the need for transporting large amounts of inert and useless materials.

    [0021] These esteramides can be prepared by reacting the monocarboxylic acids and polyamines in such proportion as to create a "partial amide" intermediate; the remaining amine sites are reacted with a polycarboxylic acid ester to produce the esteramides, i.e. amides which contain residual ester groups.

    [0022] The esteramides so obtained show excellent properties as emulsifier when they are used in invert subterranean treatment fluids, being able to guarantee optimal stability of the fluids in the presence of solid components/contaminants and even at the high temperatures which can be found in the subterranean treatments, for examples in oil well drilling.

    DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0023] One of the object of the present invention are esteramides obtained by preparing in a first step an amide by reaction of one mole of a polyamine having n primary or secondary amino groups, wherein n is an integer ranging from 2 to 4, with from 1 to n-1 moles of a saturated or unsaturated C6-C30 aliphatic monocarboxylic acid; and, in a second step, reacting the remaining primary or secondary amino groups with from 0.4 to 1.3 moles, for each remaining amino group, of a diester of a C2-C10 dicarboxylic acid or of a di- or tri-ester of a tricarboxylic acid; characterized in that the esteramides have ester number higher than 12 mgKOH/g, preferably higher than 25 mgKOH/g, more preferably higher than 40 mgKOH/g.

    [0024] Further, according to the invention, there is provided a water-in-oil subterranean treatment fluid comprising: an oil phase, an aqueous phase and said esteramides as emulsion stabilizing agents.

    [0025] The features and advantages of the present invention will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading of the description of the preferred embodiments which follows.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0026] With the term "esteramides" we mean the product obtained by the above detailed process, i.e. by preparing in a first step an amide by reaction of one mole of a polyamine having n primary or secondary amino groups, wherein n is an integer ranging from 2 to 4, with from 1 to n-1 moles of a saturated or unsaturated C6-C30 aliphatic monocarboxylic acid; and, in a second step, reacting the remaining primary or secondary amino groups with from 0.4 to 1.3 moles, for each remaining amino group, of a diester of a C2-C10 dicarboxylic acid or of a di- or tri-ester of a tricarboxylic acid. The ester number of the esteramides can be determined using the ASTM standard method D5558-95.

    [0027] The amide which is obtained in the first step of the process for the preparation of the esteramides may actually be a mixture of amides.

    [0028] In a preferred embodiment of the invention the polyamine has n primary or secondary amino groups, wherein n is 3 or 4. More preferably n is 3. Suitable polyamines that may be used for the preparation of the esteramides of the invention include, for example, polyalkylene polyamines.

    [0029] The polyalkylene polyamines that advantageously may be employed as a starting material include compounds having the formula I:

            H2N[(CH2)xNH]yH,     I

    where x is an integer ranging from 1 to 6 and y is an integer ranging from 1 to 3.

    [0030] Preferably, the polyamine has formula I in which x is 2 and y is 2 or 3 and is therefore diethylene triamine or triethylene tetramine. More preferably, in formula I x is 2 and y is 2, i.e. the polyamine is diethylene triamine. Other examples of suitable polyamines are polyethyleneimines with a average molecular weight of below about 200 dalton, which exhibit a low degree of branching.

    [0031] Examples of C6-C30 aliphatic unsaturated monocarboxylic acids suitable for the present invention include both unsaturated and polyunsaturated aliphatic carboxylic acids with from 6 to 30 carbon atoms. Examples of these acids are palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and the like.

    [0032] Examples of C6-C30 aliphatic saturated monocarboxylic acids include decanoic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid, and the like.

    [0033] Mixtures of C6-C30 saturated and unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acids can also be used.

    [0034] Mixtures of monocarboxylic acid derived from natural oils, such as coconut oil, mustard seed oil, palm oil, olein, soy oil, canola oil, tall oil, sunflower oil, and mixture thereof, are particularly preferred.

    [0035] In one embodiment of the invention, the C6-C30 monocarboxylic acid is a mixture of C6-C30 saturated and unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acids comprising at least 50 % by weight, preferably at least 70 % by weight, of oleic acid.

    [0036] Preferably, the monocarboxylic acid source is selected from tall oil, rape seed oil, mustard seed oil and mixtures thereof.

    [0037] Tall oil is particularly preferred as the C6-C30 aliphatic saturated and unsaturated monocarboxylic acids source for use in the process for making the esteramides of the present invention.

    [0038] The preparation of the amide may be carried out according to methods well known to those skilled in the art, by heating the polyamine and the monocarboxylic acid up to 250 °C, preferably from 140 to 180 °C, either or not, in a suitable hydrocarbon solvent such as toluene or xylene and azeotroping off the formed water, with or without catalysts such as p-toluenesulphonic acid, zinc acetate, zirconium naphthenate or tetrabutyl titanate. The end-point of the reaction is considered to be reached when the acid number of the reaction mixture, determined by ASTM standard method D1980-87, is below 20 mgKOH/g, preferably below 10 mgKOH/g. When the polyamine used is diethylene triamine, preferably, in the first step one mole of diethylene triamine is reacted with from 1.5 to 2.0 moles of acid.

    [0039] More generally, preferably, in the first step one mole of polyamine is reacted with about n-1 moles of saturated or unsaturated C6-C30 aliphatic monocarboxylic acid.

    [0040] The ester of C2-C10 di- or tri-carboxylic acid that can be reacted with the above-described amides to form the emulsifiers of the present invention is the ester of a C2-C10 di- or tri-carboxylic carboxylic acid, or possibly the corresponding anhydride, with a C1-C8, preferably C1-C5, linear or branched alcohol or with a monoalkyl ether of ethylene or propylene glycol, or with mixtures thereof; most advantageously, the ester does not contain acid groups, being a diester of a dicarboxylic acid or a triester of a tricarboxylic acid.

    [0041] The di- or tri-carboxylic acid used to prepare the ester has preferably from 3 to 8 carbon atoms.

    [0042] Examples of suitable C2-C10 di- or tri-carboxylic acids include succinic acid, malonic acid, (ethylenedioxy) diacetic acid, maleic acid, diglycolic acid, tartaric acid, tartronic acid and fumaric acid; citric acid, aconitic acid, citraconic acid, carboxymethyloxysuccinic acid and lactoxysuccinic acid; phthalic acid; and mixtures thereof.

    [0043] Preferably, the C2-C10 di- or tri-carboxylic acid is fumaric acid, malonic acid, maleic acid or citric acid; or mixtures thereof.

    [0044] C2-C10 dicarboxylic acids are preferred for the realization of the present invention.

    [0045] Suitable C1-C8 linear or branched alcohols used to prepare the ester are methanol, ethanol, propanol, iso-propranol, n-butanol, iso-butanol, tert-butanol, pentanol, hexanol, 2-ethyl hexyl alcohol and the like. Preferred C1-C8 linear or branched alcohols are ethanol and isopropanol.

    [0046] Monoalkyl ethers of ethylene or propylene glycols, wherein the alkyl group has from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, such as the cellosolves, can also be used to prepare the esters of C2-C10 di- or tri-carboxylic acid suitable for the realization of the present invention. Examples of these glycol monoalkyl ethers are ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monobutyl ether, etc.

    [0047] In a particularly preferred embodiment the ester of C2-C10 di- or tri-carboxylic acid is chosen among diethyl maleate, diethyl fumarate, di(ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) maleate, di(diethylene glycol monobutyl ether) maleate and mixtures thereof.

    [0048] The remaining primary or secondary amino groups of the amide and the di- or tri-carboxylic esters described above can be condensed at a temperature ranging from about 120 °C to about 250 °C, preferably from about 140 °C to about 200 °C, while the formed C1-C8 alcohol or the monoalkyl ether of ethylene or propylene glycol is distilled off. The end-point of the reaction is considered to be reached when the total amine value of the reaction mixture, determined by ASTM standard method D2074-12, is below 60 mgKOH/g, preferably below 40 mgKOH/g, more preferably below 20 mgKOH/g.

    [0049] Preferably, the remaining primary or secondary amino groups are reacted with from 0.4 to 1.0 moles, more preferably with about 1 mole, of ester of a C2-C10 di- or tri-carboxylic acid for each remaining amino group.

    [0050] In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, the C1-C8 alcohol or monoalkyl ethers of ethylene or propylene glycol which are generated during the condensation of the ester of the di- or tricarboxylic acid with the amide, are removed from the final product. As a consequence, generally, the esteramides of the invention does not contain but traces of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Therefore, even if the esteramides could contain up to 10 % by weight of the alcohols or of the monoalkyl glycol ethers, most preferably it only contains up to 2% by weight of these compounds, being still in liquid form at ambient temperature.

    [0051] The water-in-oil subterranean treatment fluid of the present invention comprises an oil phase, an aqueous phase (a water based fluid that is at least partially immiscible with the oil phase), and from 0.5 to 5.0 % weight/volume, preferably from 1.0 to 4.0 % weight/volume, of the esteramide.

    [0052] According to an advantageous embodiment of the present invention, the water-in-oil fluids do not comprise any additional emulsifier, except the esteramides.

    [0053] The concentration of the oil phase in the water-in-oil fluid should be sufficient so to form an invert emulsion and may be less than about 90 percent in volume of the invert emulsion (vol. %).

    [0054] In an embodiment, the amount of oil phase is from about 20 to about 85 vol. %, preferably from about 50 to about 85 vol. % based on the total volume of fluid the invert emulsion.

    [0055] In another embodiment, inverse high internal phase ratio emulsions, i.e. systems possessing a larger volume of internal aqueous phase (>50 % in volume), are preferred because of the significant reduction of the oil phase, with its associated costs and possible environmental concern for possible contamination and waste disposal.

    [0056] The oil phase used in the invert emulsions of the present invention may comprise any oil-based fluid suitable for use in emulsions.

    [0057] The oil phase may derive from a natural or synthetic source. Examples of suitable oil phase include, without limitation, diesel oils, paraffin oils, mineral oils, low toxicity mineral oils, olefins, esters, amides, amines, synthetic oils such as polyolefins, ethers, acetals, dialkylcarbonates, hydrocarbons and combinations thereof.

    [0058] The preferred oil phases are paraffin oils, low toxicity mineral oils, diesel oils, mineral oils, polyolefins, olefins and mixtures thereof.

    [0059] Factors determining which oil phase will be used in a particular application, include but are not limited to, its cost and performance characteristics, environmental compatibility, toxicological profile and availability.

    [0060] The invert emulsions of the present invention also comprise an aqueous phase that is at least partially immiscible in the oil phase.

    [0061] Suitable examples of aqueous phase include fresh water, sea water, salt water, brines (e.g. saturated salt waters), glycerin, glycols, polyglycol amines, polyols and derivatives thereof, that are partially immiscible in the oleaginous fluid, and combinations thereof.

    [0062] Suitable brines may include heavy brines.

    [0063] Heavy brines, for the purposes of this application, include brines with various salts at variable concentrations, that may be used to weight up a fluid; generally, the use of weighting agents is required to provide the desired density of the fluid.

    [0064] Brines generally comprise water soluble salts.

    [0065] Suitable water soluble salts are sodium chloride, calcium chloride, calcium bromide, zinc bromide, sodium formate, potassium formate, sodium acetate, potassium acetate, calcium acetate, ammonium acetate, ammonium chloride, ammonium bromide, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, and mixtures thereof.

    [0066] The aqueous phase is chosen taking into account several factors including cost, environmental and health safety profile, density, availability, and which oil phase has been chosen. Another factor that may be considered is the application of the subterranean treatment fluid.

    [0067] For example, if the application needs an emulsion with a heavy weight, a zinc bromide brine may be chosen.

    [0068] The subterranean treatment fluids of the invention may further comprise conventional additives including weighting agents, wetting agents, fluid loss agents, thickeners, thinning agents, lubricants, anti-oxidants, corrosion inhibitors, scale inhibitors, defoamers, biocides, pH modifiers, and the like.

    [0069] Such fluids, in particular, also contain at least one filtrate reducer preferably chosen among gilsonite, organophilic lignite, organophilic tannins, synthetic polymers, polycarboxylic fatty acids and mixtures thereof. When used in certain applications, the fluids may include particulates such as proppant or gravel.

    [0070] The water-in-oil subterranean treatment fluids of the invention may be suitable for use in a variety of subterranean applications wherein water-in-oil emulsions are used; these applications include drilling, completion, stimulation operations (such as fracturing) and work-over, sand control treatments such as installing a gravel pack, spotting, cementing, maintenance and reactivation.

    [0071] The present invention provides a method of treating a subterranean formation that comprises: providing a water-in-oil subterranean treatment fluid containing an oil phase, an aqueous phase and said esteramides as the emulsion stabilizing agents and placing this fluid into the subterranean formation at a pressure to treat the formation.

    [0072] To better illustrate the invention, the following examples are reported to show the effect of the addition of different esteramides and of prior art carboxylic acid-terminated polyamides in exemplary water-in-oil drilling fluids.

    EXAMPLES


    Characterization Methods



    [0073] The acid number was determined following the ASTM standard method ASTM-D1980-87.

    [0074] The total amine value was determined following the ASTM standard method D2074-12.

    [0075] The ester number was determined following the ASTM standard method D5558-95.

    [0076] The Brookfield RV® viscosity was determined at 25 °C and 30 rpm using a Brookfield RV® viscosimeter.

    [0077] The pour point was determined according to the ASTM standard method D97-12.

    [0078] The drilling muds were evaluated according to the ISO standard method 10416-08, chapter 26.

    Emulsifier Preparation


    Example 1 (comparative)



    [0079] 448.7 g of tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) were loaded in a 1000 ml glass reactor equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus and a mechanical blade stirrer and heated to about 95 °C. Then 80.8 g of diethylene triamine were added. The reaction mixture was further heated to 160 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature for 6 hours. At the end of the reaction, 27.6 g of water were recovered and the intermediate product had an acid number lower than 10 mgKOH/g. Subsequently, the mass was cooled to about 82 °C and 76.9 g of maleic anhydride were slowly added. The reaction temperature was increased to 95 °C for 60 minutes. The final product had a total amine content below 20 mgKOH/g and was solid at room temperature.

    Example 2



    [0080] 448.7 g of TOFA were loaded in a 1000 ml glass reactor equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus and a mechanical blade stirrer and heated to about 95 °C. Then 80.8 g of diethylene triamine were added. The reaction mixture was further heated to 160 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature for 6 hours. At the end of the reaction, 27.6 g of water were recovered and the intermediate product had an acid number below 10 mgKOH/g. The mixture was cooled to about 115 °C and 135.1 g of diethyl maleate were slowly added. The reaction mass was heated to 150 °C always under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature until about 35 g of ethanol were collected. The final product was liquid at room temperature, had a total amine content below 20 mgKOH/g and an ester number of 74 mgKOH/g.

    Example 3



    [0081] 228.8 g of TOFA were loaded in a 500 ml glass reactor equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus and a mechanical blade stirrer and heated to about 95 °C. Then 41.2 g of diethylene triamine were added. The reaction mixture was further heated to 160 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature for 6 hrs. At the end of the reaction, 13.8 g of water were recovered and the intermediate product had an acid number below 10 mgKOH/g. The mixture was cooled to 115 °C and 57.6 g of dimethyl maleate were slowly added. The reaction mass was heated to 150 °C always under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature until about 18 g of methanol were collected. The final product was liquid at room temperature, had a total amine content below 20 mgKOH/g and an ester number of 45.5 mgKOH/g.

    Example 4



    [0082] 228.8 g of TOFA were loaded in a 500 ml glass reactor equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus and a mechanical blade stirrer and heated to about 95 °C. Then 41.2 g of diethylene triamine were added. The reaction mixture was further heated to 160 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this value for 6 hours. At the end of the reaction, 13.6 g of water were recovered and the intermediate product had an acid number below 10 mgKOH/g. The mixture was cooled to 115 °C and 91.3 g of dibutyl maleate were slowly added. The reaction mass was heated to 160 °C always under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature until about 27 g of butanol were collected. The final product was liquid at room temperature, had a total amine content below 20 mgKOH/g and an ester number of 77 mgKOH/g.

    Example 5 (comparative)



    [0083] 424.8 g of TOFA were loaded in a 1000 ml glass reactor equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus and a mechanical blade stirrer and heated to about 95 °C. Then, 76.3 g of diethylene triamine were added. The reaction mixture was further heated to 160 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature for 6 hours. At the end of the reaction, 25.4 g of water were recovered and the intermediate product had an acid number below 10 mgKOH/g. The mixture was cooled to about 135 °C and 142.1 g of citric acid were added over a period of one hour. The reaction mass was heated to 160 °C always under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature until about 18 g of water were collected. The final product had a total amine content below 40 mgKOH/g and was solid at room temperature.

    Example 6



    [0084] 277.8 g of TOFA were loaded in a 1000 ml glass reactor equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus and a mechanical blade stirrer and heated to about 95 °C. Then 66.6 g of diethylene triamine were added. The reaction mixture was further heated to 160 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature for 6 hours. At the end of the reaction, 16.5 g of water were recovered and the intermediate product had an acid number lower than 10mgKOH/g.

    [0085] The mixture was cooled to about 115 °C and 133.9 g of triethyl citrate were slowly added. The reaction mass was heated to 175 °C always under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature until about 40 g of ethanol were recovered. The final product was liquid at room temperature, had a total amine content below 40 mgKOH/g and an ester number of 77 mgKOH/g.

    Example 7 (comparative)



    [0086] 242.8 g of TOFA were loaded in a 500 ml glass reactor equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus and a mechanical blade stirrer and heated to about 95 °C. Then, 58.3 g of diethylene triamine were added. The reaction mass was further heated to about 230 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature for 3 hrs.At the end of the reaction, 21.5 g of water were recovered and the intermediate product had an acid number below 7 mgKOH/g.

    [0087] The mixture was cooled to about 82 °C and 38.8 g of maleic anhydride were slowly added. The reaction mass was slowly heated to about 150 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature for 2 hours. Then, the temperature was further increased to about 175 °C for another 2 hours, maintaining the nitrogen atmosphere. The final product had a total amine content below 60 mgKOH/g and was solid at room temperature.

    Example 8



    [0088] 242.8 g of TOFA were loaded in a 500 ml glass reactor equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus and a mechanical blade stirrer and heated to about 95 °C. Then, 58.3 g of diethylene triamine were added. The reaction mass was heated to 165 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature for 6 hrs. The temperature was further increased to 230 °C for other 3 hours, maintaining the nitrogen atmosphere. At the end of the reaction 20.0 g of water were recovered and the intermediate product had an acid number below 7 mgKOH/g.

    [0089] The mass was cooled to about 115 °C and 68.2 g of diethyl maleate were slowly added. Subsequently, the reaction mass was heated to about 175 °C always under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature until about 20 g of ethanol were collected. The final product was liquid at room temperature, had a total amine content below 60 mgKOH/g and an ester number of 61.2 mgKOH/g.

    Example 9



    [0090] 228.8 g of TOFA were loaded in a 500 ml glass reactor equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus and a mechanical blade stirrer and heated to about 95 °C. Then, 41.2 g of diethylene triamine were added. The reaction mass was further heated to 160 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature for 6 hours. At the end of the reaction 13.8 g of water were recovered and the intermediate product had an acid number below 10mgKOH/g.

    [0091] The mixture was cooled to about 115 °C and 126.3 g of di(2-butoxyethyl) maleate were added. The reaction mass was again heated to 150 °C under nitrogen atmosphere and maintained at this temperature until the total amine content was below 20 mgKOH/g. The final product was liquid at room temperature and had an ester number of 83 mgKOH/g.

    Example 10



    [0092] The emulsifier of Example 10 was prepared with the same procedure and the same amount of reagents of Example 9, only di(2-butoxyethyl) fumarate instead of di(2-butoxyethyl) maleate was used. The final product was liquid at room temperature.

    [0093] The Brookfield RVT® viscosity and the pour point of the emulsifiers of Examples 1-10 are reported in Table 1.

    [0094] The esteramides of the invention are liquid at room temperature and show a viscosity which allows an easy on-field manageability. Moreover, they exhibit a pour point well below zero °C which guarantee the same manageability even in low temperature environments.
    Table 1
     Brookfield Viscosity (mPa∗s)Pour Point (°C)
    Example 1* Solid ND
    Example 2 2,990 -14.4
    Example 3 12,160 -8.9
    Example 4 5,360 -10.5
    Example 5* Solid ND
    Example 6 34,000 -7.7
    Example 7* Solid ND
    Example 8 5,000 -11.6
    Example 9 600 -20
    Example 10 674 -10
    * Comparative
    ND = Not determined

    Performance Test



    [0095] The emulsifying performances of the esteramides of the invention were evaluated on exemplary drilling fluids.

    [0096] 350 ml of drilling muds were prepared by means of a Hamilton Beach Mixer according to the formulations described in Table 2.

    [0097] The carboxylic acid-terminated polyamides of comparative Examples 1 and 5 were diluted with synthetic hydrocarbon solvent to a final concentration of active matter of 60 % by weight.

    [0098] For the preparation of the muds, the following commercial products were used:

    EMULAM V-PLUS is a organobentonite, commercialized by Lamberti USA.

    ECOTROL RD is a fluid loss reducer, commercialized by MI-SWACO, USA.



    [0099] For the evaluation of the muds, the rheological properties, the electrical stability (ES) and the HTHP filtrate volume were determined after hot rolling for sixteen hours at 120 °C (250 °F) according to ISO 10416, par. 26.8. The determination conditions are described in ISO 10416 par 26.10. The results are reported in Table 3.
    Table 2
     MUD 1*MUD 2MUD 3MUD 4MUD 5MUD 6MUD 7MUD 8*
    Diesel 179 179 179 179 179 179 179 179
    EMULAM V-PLUS 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
    Lime 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
    Oxidized Tall Oil 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
    Example 1* 10 - - - - - - -
    Example 2 - 6 - - - - - -
    Example 3 - - 6 - - - - -
    Example 4 - - - 6 - - - -
    Example 8 - - - - 6 - - -
    Example 9 - - - - - 7 - -
    Example 10 - - - - - - 7.25 -
    Example 5* - - - - - - - 10
    ECOTROL RD 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
    25% CaCl2 brine 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71
    Barite 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280
    * Comparative
    Table 3
      MUD 1*MUD 2MUD 3MUD 4MUD 5MUD 6MUD 7MUD 8*
    Rheology 600   38 41 40 43 39 44 35 47
    300   22 24 25 26 22 28 20 27
    200   15 18 17 19 15 21 14 20
    100   9 11 11 13 9 14 8 12
    6   2 4 4 4 2 5 3 4
    3   1 3 3 3 1 4 2 3
    10 sec Gel lb/100ft2** 2 3 4 4 2 5 2 4
    10 min Gel lb/100ft2** 2 3 4 4 3 5 2 4
    PV mPa∗s 16 17 15 17 17 16 15 20
    YP lb/100ft2** 6 7 10 9 5 12 5 7
    ES Volt 1399 776 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999
    HTHP Filtr. Vol. Oil ml 2.2 1 4 2 9 2 12 6.2
      Water ml 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
    * comparative
    ** 1 lb/100ft2 = 0.479 Pa


    [0100] The muds prepared with the emulsifier of the invention showed good rheological characteristic, also after the thermal treatment, comparable with those of the emulsifiers of the prior art. Moreover they showed low fluid loss and no water separation in the HTHP filtrates. The good performances of the emulsifiers of the inventions were also demonstrated by the high electrical stability values.


    Claims

    1. Esteramides obtained by preparing in a first step an amide by reaction of one mole of a polyamine having n primary or secondary amino groups, wherein n is an integer ranging from 2 to 4, with from 1 to n-1 moles of a saturated or unsaturated C6-C30 aliphatic monocarboxylic acid; and, in a second step, reacting the remaining primary or secondary amino groups with from 0.4 to 1.3 moles, for each remaining amino group, of a diester of a C2-C10 dicarboxylic acid or of a di- or tri-ester of a tricarboxylic acid, the esteramides having ester number higher than 12 MgKOH/g.
     
    2. The esteramides of claim 1), having ester number higher than 25 MgKOH/g.
     
    3. The esteramides of claim 1) wherein said polyamine is a polyalkylene polyamine having formula I:

            H2N[(CH2)xNH]yH     I

    where x is an integer ranging from 1 to 6 and y is an integer ranging from 1 to 3.
     
    4. The esteramides of claim 3), wherein in formula I x is 2 and y is 2 or 3.
     
    5. The esteramides of claim 4), wherein in formula I y is 2.
     
    6. The esteramides of claim 5), wherein in the first step one mole of the polyalkylene polyamine is reacted with from 1.5 to 2.0 moles of the acid.
     
    7. The esteramides of claim 1), wherein the saturated or unsaturated C6-C30 aliphatic monocarboxylic acid is a mixture of C6-C30 saturated or unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acids derived from a natural oil.
     
    8. The esteramides of claim 7), wherein the natural oil is tall oil.
     
    9. The esteramides of claim 1), wherein the diester of a C2-C10 dicarboxylic acid or di- or tri-ester of a tricarboxylic acid is the ester of a C2-C10 di- or tri-carboxylic carboxylic acid, or the corresponding anhydride, with a C1-C8 linear or branched alcohol or with a monoalkyl ether of ethylene or propylene glycol, or mixture thereof.
     
    10. The esteramides of claim 9), wherein the ester is chosen among diethyl maleate, diethyl fumarate, di(ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) maleate, di(diethylene glycol monobutyl ether) maleate and mixtures thereof.
     
    11. A water-in-oil subterranean treatment fluid comprising an aqueous phase, an oil phase and from 0.5 to 5.0 % weight/volume of esteramides according to any of claims from 1) to 10).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Esteramide, erhalten durch Herstellen eines Amids aus der Reaktion eines Mols eines Polyamins mit n primären oder sekundären Aminogruppen, wobei n eine ganze Zahl im Bereich von 2 bis 4 ist, mit 1 bis n-1 Mol einer gesättigten oder ungesättigten aliphatischen C6-C30-Monocarbonsäure in einem ersten Schritt; und Umsetzen der verbleibenden primären oder sekundären Aminogruppen mit 0,4 bis 1,3 Mol eines Diesters einer C2-C10-Dicarbonsäure oder eines Di- oder Triesters einer Tricarbonsäure, für jede verbleibende Aminogruppe, in einem zweiten Schritt, wobei die Esteramide eine Esterzahl von mehr als 12 mgKOH/g aufweisen.
     
    2. Esteramide nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Esteramide eine Esterzahl von mehr als 25 mgKOH/g aufweisen.
     
    3. Esteramide nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Polyamin ein Polyalkylenpolyamin mit der Formel I ist:

            H2N[(CH2)xNH]yH     I

    wobei x eine ganze Zahl im Bereich von 1 bis 6 und y eine ganze Zahl im Bereich von 1 bis 3 ist.
     
    4. Esteramide nach Anspruch 3, wobei in Formel I x 2 ist und y 2 oder 3 ist.
     
    5. Esteramide nach Anspruch 4, wobei in Formel I y 2 ist.
     
    6. Esteramide nach Anspruch 5, wobei im ersten Schritt ein Mol des Polyalkylenpolyamins mit 1,5 bis 2,0 Mol der Säure umgesetzt wird.
     
    7. Esteramide nach Anspruch 1, wobei die gesättigte oder ungesättigte aliphatische C6-C30-Monocarbonsäure eine Mischung aus gesättigten oder ungesättigten aliphatischen C6-C30-Monocarbonsäuren ist, die von einem natürlichen Öl stammen.
     
    8. Esteramide nach Anspruch 7, wobei das natürliche Öl Tallöl ist.
     
    9. Esteramide nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Diester einer C2-C10-Dicarbonsäure oder der Di- oder Triester einer Tricarbonsäure der Ester einer C2-C10-Di- oder Tricarbonsäure oder dem entsprechenden Anhydrid mit einem linearen oder verzweigten C1-C8-Alkohol oder mit einem Monoalkylether von Ethylen- oder Propylenglykol oder einer Mischung daraus ist.
     
    10. Esteramide nach Anspruch 9, wobei der Ester ausgewählt ist aus Diethylmaleat, Diethylfumarat, Di(ethylenglykolmonobutylether)maleat, Di(diethylenglykolmonobutylether)maleat und Mischungen daraus.
     
    11. Unterirdisches Behandlungsfluid mit Wasser und Öl, umfassend eine wässrige Phase, eine Ölphase und 0,5 bis 5,0 Gew.-% pro Volumseinheit an Esteramiden nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10.
     


    Revendications

    1. Estéramides obtenus en préparant dans une première étape un amide par réaction d'une mole d'une polyamine ayant n groupes amino primaires ou secondaires, où n est un nombre entier allant de 2 à 4, avec de 1 à n-1 mole d'un acide monocarboxylique aliphatique en C6-C30 saturé ou insaturé ; et, dans une seconde étape, par réaction des groupes amino primaires ou secondaires restant avec 0,4 à 1,3 moles, pour chaque groupe amino restant, d'un diester d'un acide dicarboxylique en C2-C10 ou d'un di- ou tri-ester d'un acide tricarboxylique, les estéramides ayant un indice d'ester supérieur à 12 mgKOH/g.
     
    2. Estéramides selon la revendication 1), ayant un indice d'ester supérieur à 25 mgKOH/g
     
    3. Estéramides selon la revendication 1) où ladite polyamine est une polyalkylène polyamine de formule I :

            H2N[(CH2)xNH]yH     I

    où x est un nombre entier allant de 1 à 6 et y est un nombre entier allant de 1 à 3.
     
    4. Estéramides selon la revendication 3), où dans la formule I x est 2 et y est 2 ou 3
     
    5. Estéramides selon la revendication 4), où dans la formule I y est 2.
     
    6. Estéramides selon la revendication 5), où dans la première étape, une mole de polyalkylène polyamine réagit avec 1,5 à 2,0 moles de l'acide.
     
    7. Estéramides selon la revendication 1), où l'acide monocarboxylique aliphatique en C6-C30 saturé ou insaturé est un mélange d'acides monocarboxyliques aliphatiques en C6-C30 saturés ou insaturés dérivés d'une huile naturelle.
     
    8. Estéramides selon la revendication 7), où l'huile naturelle est du tall oil.
     
    9. Estéramides selon la revendication 1), où le diester d'un acide dicarboxylique en C2-C10 ou le di- ou triester d'un acide tricarboxylique est l'ester d'un acide di- ou tricarboxylique en C2-C10 ou l'anhydride correspondant, avec un alcool C1-C8 linéaire ou ramifié ou avec un éther monoalkyle d'éthylène ou propylène glycol, ou leur mélange.
     
    10. Estéramides selon la revendication 9), où l'ester est choisi parmi le maléate de diéthyle, le fumarate de diéthyle, le maléate de di(éther monobutylique d'éthylène glycol), le maléate de di(éther monobutylique de diéthylène glycol) et leurs mélanges.
     
    11. Fluides de traitement souterrain eau dans l'huile comprenant une phase aqueuse, une phase huileuse et de 0,5 à 5,0 % en poids/volume d'estéramides selon l'une quelconque des revendications de 1) à 10).
     






    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description