(19)
(11)EP 3 306 994 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
19.02.2020 Bulletin 2020/08

(21)Application number: 15896676.2

(22)Date of filing:  30.06.2015
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H04W 74/08  (2009.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CN2015/082722
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/000145 (05.01.2017 Gazette  2017/01)

(54)

GRANT-FREE DATA TRANSMISSION METHOD AND APPARATUSES

VERFAHREN UND VORRICHTUNGEN FÜR AUTORISIERUNGSFREIE ÜBERTRAGUNGEN

PROCÉDÉ ET APPAREILS POUR LA TRANSMISSION DE DONNÉES SANS AUTORISATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
11.04.2018 Bulletin 2018/15

(73)Proprietor: Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Longgang Shenzhen, Guangdong 518129 (CN)

(72)Inventors:
  • XU, Xiuqiang
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)
  • LIU, Yalin
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)
  • CHEN, Yan
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)

(74)Representative: Gill Jennings & Every LLP 
The Broadgate Tower 20 Primrose Street
London EC2A 2ES
London EC2A 2ES (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2014/135126
CN-A- 102 158 932
WO-A1-2014/135126
CN-A- 102 291 826
  
  • ORFANOS G ET AL: "A new Distributed Coordination Function for W-LANs with multiple channel structure", PROCEEDINGS OF 14TH IST MOBILE & WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SUMMIT; DRESDEN, GERMANY; 19 - 23 JUNE 2005, , 19 June 2005 (2005-06-19), pages 1-5, XP002756497, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://www.comnets.rwth-aachen.de/publ ications/complete-lists/abstracts/singlepa ge/p/771.html?tx_cndownload_pi1[subtype]=a bstract [retrieved on 2016-04-14]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates to the communications field, and more specifically, to a data transmission method and apparatus.

BACKGROUND



[0002] In a Long Term Evolution (Long Term Evolution, LTE) system, when uplink data needs to be transmitted, user equipment (User Equipment, UE) uses an uplink scheduling request (Scheduling Request, SR) mechanism. The UE sends an uplink scheduling request to a base station, and notifies the base station that the UE requires an uplink resource to transmit data. After receiving the scheduling request from the UE, the base station allocates some resources to the UE, and the UE transmits data on these allocated resources. However, this mechanism causes heavy signaling overheads.

[0003] To resolve the foregoing problem, a grant-free (Grant Free) technical solution has been provided. Grant free means that in a public land mobile network (Public Land Mobile Network, PLMN), UE does not need to request, by using a scheduling request, a base station to allocate a resource for data transmission. A grant-free user may directly use a grant-free transmission mode to transmit a packet on a contention transmission unit (contention transmission unit, CTU) according to different data transmission characteristics, such as requirements on a transmission delay or reliability.

[0004] Uplink grant free (Grant free) may reduce overheads and redundancy caused by frequent scheduling requests. On an uplink channel, instead of requesting a resource, a grant-free terminal directly uses a grant-free resource to perform uplink transmission.

[0005] An uplink grant-free transmission method based on a contention transmission unit (contention transmission unit) is provided in the prior art.

[0006] A terminal selects one CTU from one or more CTUs to send uplink data. However, if different terminals select a same code domain resource in a same CTU, a receive end cannot decode the data sent by the terminals. This reduces decoding reliability.

[0007] WO 2014/135126 discloses a method which includes implementing, by a base station (BS), a grant-free uplink transmission scheme. The grant-free uplink transmission scheme defines a first contention transmission unit (CTU) access region in a time-frequency domain, defines a plurality of CTUs, defines a default CTU mapping scheme by mapping at least some of the plurality of CTUs to the first CTU access region, and defines a default user equipment (UE) mapping scheme by defining rules for mapping a plurality of UEs to the plurality of CTUs.

[0008] ORFANOS G ET AL: "A new Distributed Coordination Function for W-LANs with multiple channel structure " , PROCEEDINGS OF 14TH 1ST MOBILE & WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SUMMIT, discloses an extension for the MCCDMA system, with a new Distributed Coordination Function (DCF), adapted to the multichannel structure of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

SUMMARY



[0009] Embodiments of the present invention provide a data transmission method, according to claim 1, and apparatuses according to claims 4, 11, to improve data reception reliability at a receive end.

[0010] According to one aspect, a data transmission method is provided, including:

determining a contention transmission unit CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, and a code domain resource;

encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups in the code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data, where N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2; and

sending the N groups of encoded data by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU, wherein each group of the N groups of encoded data comprises a control word and a data portion, wherein the control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.



[0011] According to an example, a data transmission method is provided, including:

decoding, by using a code element of a code domain resource of a contention transmission unit CTU, a control word in uplink data received on time domain and frequency domain resources of the CTU, to obtain instruction information, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least the time domain resource, the frequency domain resource, and the code domain resource, and the instruction information is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion; and

performing combined decoding on data portions of uplink data that is sent by a same terminal device and in which the instruction information instructs to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions of the uplink data.



[0012] According to another aspect, a data transmission apparatus is provided, including:

a determining unit, configured to determine a contention transmission unit CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, and a code domain resource;

an encoding unit, configured to encode the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups in the code domain resource corresponding to the CTU determined by the determining unit, to obtain N groups of encoded data, where N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2; and

a sending unit, configured to send the N groups of encoded data by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the CTU determined by the determining unit, wherein each group of the N groups of encoded data comprises a control word and a data portion, wherein the control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.



[0013] According to another aspect, a data transmission apparatus is provided, including:

a first decoding unit, configured to decode, by using a code element of a code domain resource of a contention transmission unit CTU, a control word in uplink data received on time domain and frequency domain resources of the CTU, to obtain instruction information, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least the time domain resource, the frequency domain resource, and the code domain resource, and the instruction information is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion; and

a second decoding unit, configured to perform combined decoding on data portions of uplink data that is sent by a same terminal device and in which the instruction information instructs to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions of the uplink data.



[0014] Therefore, in the embodiments of the present invention, a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data is determined; the to-be-sent uplink data is encoded by using N different code element groups in a code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and the N groups of encoded data are sent by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when a terminal device encodes to-be-sent uplink data by using a code domain resource, provided that a code domain resource used by one group of to-be-sent data obtained by means of encoding does not conflict with a code domain resource used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



[0015] To describe the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention more clearly, the following briefly describes the accompanying drawings required for describing the embodiments. Apparently, the accompanying drawings in the following description show merely some embodiments of the present invention, and persons of ordinary skill in the art may still derive other drawings from these accompanying drawings without creative efforts.

FIG. 1 is a schematic architecture diagram of a communications system to which an embodiment of the present invention is applied;

FIG. 2 is a schematic architecture diagram of a communications system according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a CTU resource definition according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a schematic flowchart of a data transmission method according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of SCMA encoding according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of LDS mapping according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 7 is a schematic flowchart of a data transmission method according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 8 is a schematic flowchart of a data transmission method according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 9 is a schematic flowchart of a data transmission method according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 10 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 11 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 12 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 13 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 14 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 15 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 16 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 17 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention.


DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS



[0016] The following clearly and completely describes the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings in the embodiments of the present invention. Apparently, the described embodiments are a part rather than all of the embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments obtained by persons of ordinary skill in the art based on the embodiments of the present invention without creative efforts shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.

[0017] Terms such as "component", "module", and "system" used in this specification are used to indicate computer-related entities, hardware, firmware, combinations of hardware and software, software, or software being executed. For example, a component may be but is not limited to a process that runs on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable file, a thread of execution, a program, and/or a computer. As shown in figures, both a computing device and an application that runs on a computing device may be components. One or more components may reside within a process and/or a thread of execution, and a component may be located on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers. In addition, these components may be executed from various computer-readable media that store various data structures. For example, the components may communicate by using a local and/or remote process and according to, for example, a signal having one or more data packets (such as data from a component interacting with another component in a local system, a distributed system, and/or across a network such as the Internet interacting with other systems by using the signal).

[0018] It should be understood that, the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention may be applied to various communications systems, such as a Global System for Mobile Communications (Global System for Mobile Communications, "GSM" for short) system, a Code Division Multiple Access (Code Division Multiple Access, "CDMA" for short) system, a Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, "WCDMA" for short) system, a Long Term Evolution (Long Term Evolution, "LTE" for short) system, an LTE frequency division duplex (Frequency Division Duplex, "FDD" for short) system, an LTE time division duplex (Time Division Duplex, "TDD" for short) system, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, "UMTS" for short), and a future 5G communications system.

[0019] The present invention describes the embodiments with reference to a terminal device. The terminal device may be referred to as user equipment (User Equipment, "UE" for short), an access terminal, a subscriber unit, a subscriber station, a mobile station, a remote station, a remote terminal, a mobile device, a user terminal, a terminal, a wireless communications device, a user agent, or a user apparatus. The access terminal may be a cellular phone, a cordless phone, a Session Initiation Protocol (Session Initiation Protocol, "SIP" for short) phone, a wireless local loop (Wireless Local Loop, "WLL" for short) station, a personal digital assistant (Personal Digital Assistant, "PDA" for short), a handheld device having a wireless communication function, a computing device, another processing device connected to a wireless modem, an in-vehicle device, a wearable device, or a terminal device in a future 5G network or a future evolved PLMN.

[0020] The present invention describes the embodiments with reference to a network device. The network device may be a device that communicates with a terminal device. For example, the network device may be a base station (Base Transceiver Station, "BTS" for short) in a GSM system or a CDMA system, may be a base station (NodeB, "NB" for short) in a WCDMA system, or may be an evolved eNodeB (evolved NodeB, "eNB" or "eNodeB" for short) in an LTE system. Alternatively, the network device may be a relay station, an access point, an in-vehicle device, a wearable device, a network-side device in a future 5G network, or a network device in a future evolved PLMN network.

[0021] In addition, aspects or features of the present invention may be implemented as a method, an apparatus, or a product that uses standard programming and/or engineering technologies. The term "product" used in this application covers a computer program that can be accessed from any computer-readable component, carrier, or medium. For example, the computer-readable medium may include but is not limited to a magnetic storage component (such as a hard disk, a floppy disk, or a magnetic tape), an optical disc (such as a CD (Compact Disc, compact disc), or a DVD (Digital Versatile Disc, digital versatile disc), a smart card, and a flash memory component (such as an EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, erasable programmable read-only memory), a card, a stick, or a key drive). In addition, various storage media described in this specification may indicate one or more devices and/or other machine-readable media configured to store information. The term "machine-readable media" may include but is not limited to a radio channel and various other media that can store, contain and/or carry an instruction and/or data.

[0022] Existing cellular communications systems such as GSM, WCDMA, and LTE, support mainly voice and data communication. Generally, a quantity of connections supported by a conventional base station is limited, and is easy to implement.

[0023] A next-generation mobile communications system not only supports conventional communication, but also supports machine to machine (Machine to Machine, "M2M" for short) communication, which is also referred to as machine type communication (Machine Type Communication, "MTC" for short). It is predicted that a quantity of MTC devices connected to networks will be up to 50 billion to 100 billion by 2020. This quantity will be far greater than a quantity of existing connections. M2M services are diverse in service types, and different types of M2M services have quite different network requirements. Roughly, there may be the following several requirements: (I) reliable delay-insensitive transmission; and (II) highly reliable low-delay transmission.

[0024] A service that needs reliable delay-insensitive transmission is relatively easy to process. However, a service that needs highly reliable low-delay transmission, such as a V2V (English full name: Vehicle-to-Vehicle) service, needs not only a low transmission delay but also high reliability. Unreliable transmission causes retransmission. As a result, the transmission delay becomes excessively high, and requirements cannot be met.

[0025] Existence of a large quantity of connections makes a future wireless communications system differ greatly from an existing communications system. Because of the large quantity of connections, more resources need to be consumed for UE to access, and more resources need to be consumed for data transmission of a terminal device and transmission of scheduling signaling related to data transmission of a terminal device.

[0026] FIG. 1 is a schematic architecture diagram of a communications system 100 to which an embodiment of the present invention is applied. As shown in FIG. 1, the communications system 100 may include a network device 102 and terminal devices 104 to 114 (referred to as UE for short in the figure). The network device 102 and the terminal devices 104 to 114 are connected in a wired manner, a wireless manner, or another manner.

[0027] A network in this embodiment of the present invention may be a public land mobile network (Public Land Mobile Network, "PLMN" for short), a D2D network, an M2M network, or another network. FIG. 1 is merely an example of a simplified schematic diagram. The network may further include another network device that is not shown in FIG. 1.

[0028] To deal with a large quantity of MTC services in a future network and to meet a requirement of highly reliable low-delay transmission of services, a grant-free (Grant Free) transmission solution is provided in the present invention. Grant-free transmission herein may be specific to uplink data transmission. Grant-free transmission may be understood as one or more of the following meanings, or a combination of some technical features in multiple meanings, or another similar meaning:
  1. 1. Grant-free transmission: A network device preallocates multiple transmission resources and notifies a terminal device of the multiple transmission resources. When the terminal device has an uplink data transmission requirement, the terminal device selects at least one transmission resource from the multiple transmission resources preallocated by the network device, and sends uplink data by using the selected transmission resource. The network device detects, on one or more of the preallocated multiple transmission resources, the uplink data sent by the terminal device. The detection may be blind detection, may be detection performed according to a control field in the uplink data, or may be detection performed in another manner.
  2. 2. Grant-free transmission: A network device preallocates multiple transmission resources and notifies a terminal device of the multiple transmission resources, so that the terminal device selects, when the terminal device has an uplink data transmission requirement, at least one transmission resource from the multiple transmission resources preallocated by the network device, and sends uplink data by using the selected transmission resource.
  3. 3. Grant-free transmission: Information about preallocated multiple transmission resources is obtained. When there is an uplink data transmission requirement, at least one transmission resource is selected from the multiple transmission resources, and uplink data is sent by using the selected transmission resource. The information may be obtained from a network device.
  4. 4. Grant-free transmission may refer to a method for transmitting uplink data by a terminal device without dynamic scheduling performed by a network device. The dynamic scheduling may be a scheduling manner in which the network device indicates, by using signaling, a transmission resource for each uplink data transmission of the terminal device. Optionally, it may be understood that implementation of uplink data transmission of the terminal device means that two or more terminal devices are allowed to perform uplink data transmission on a same time-frequency resource. Optionally, the transmission resource may be a resource transmitted at one or more transmission time units that are after a moment at which UE receives the signaling. One transmission time unit may be a minimum time unit for one transmission, for example, a transmission time interval (Transmission Time Interval, "TTI" for short) with a value of 1 ms. Alternatively, one transmission time unit may be a preset transmission time unit.
  5. 5. Grant-free transmission: A terminal device transmits uplink data without a grant from a network device. For the meaning of the grant, a terminal device sends an uplink scheduling request to a network device, and after receiving the scheduling request, the network device sends an uplink grant to the terminal device, and the uplink grant indicates an uplink transmission resource allocated to the terminal device.
  6. 6. Grant-free transmission may refer to a contention transmission mode in which specifically multiple terminals simultaneously transmit uplink data on a same preallocated time-frequency resource without a grant from a base station.


[0029] The data may include service data or signaling data.

[0030] The blind detection may be understood as detection performed, when it is not predicted whether data has arrived, on data that may arrive. The blind detection may also be understood as detection performed without an explicit signaling instruction.

[0031] The transmission resource may include but is not limited to one or a combination of the following resources: a time domain resource such as a radio frame, a subframe, or a symbol; a frequency domain resource such as a subcarrier or a resource block; a space domain resource such as a transmit antenna or a beam; a code domain resource such as a sparse code multiple access (Sparse Code Multiple Access, "SCMA" for short) codebook, a low-density signature (Low Density Signature, "LDS" for short) sequence, or a CDMA code; or an uplink pilot resource.

[0032] The transmission resource may be used for transmission according to a control mechanism that includes but is not limited to the following: uplink power control such as uplink transmit power upper-limit control; modulation and coding scheme setting such as transport block size setting, bit rate setting, and modulation order setting; and a retransmission mechanism such as a HARQ mechanism.

[0033] A contention transmission unit (English full name: Contention Transmission Unit, CTU for short) may be a basic transmission resource in grant-free transmission. The CTU may be a transmission resource including a time resource, a frequency resource, and a code domain resource; may refer to a transmission resource including a time resource, a frequency resource, and a pilot resource; or may refer to a transmission resource including a time resource, a frequency resource, a code domain resource, and a pilot resource.

[0034] A CTU access region may refer to a time-frequency region for grant-free transmission.

[0035] During grant-free transmission, the terminal device may be in a connected state or in an idle state. In the idle state, context resources of the terminal device and the network device have been released, and when a grant-free transmission mode is used to transmit a packet, encryption and decryption keys used in the connected state cannot be used again. Therefore, data transmission security cannot be ensured. In addition, in the grant-free transmission mode, because redundant additional information of a protocol stack decreases a transmission rate, the protocol stack should be as simple and efficient as possible. Moreover, a network device in a connected state identifies a user by temporarily allocating a cell radio network temporary identifier (Cell RNTI, C-RNTI) to a terminal device. However, the C-RNTI used in the connected state cannot be used to identify a user in GF transmission in the idle state. When the terminal device performs GF transmission, encapsulation is not required, and an IP packet at an application layer is directly forwarded. This can implement simple and efficient transmission. However, in GF transmission, a CTU resource is a resource that is allocated by the base station and that may be simultaneously used by multiple terminal devices by means of contention instead of being separately used by the terminal device. Therefore, packet masquerading or packet attack from another terminal device is likely to occur, affecting security.

[0036] FIG. 2 is a schematic architecture diagram of a communications system 200 according to another embodiment of the present invention.

[0037] The system 200 includes network nodes such as a low-delay service function (Low Delay Service Function, LDSF) entity 210, a base station 230, an MME/HLR/home subscriber server (Home Subscriber Server, HSS) 220, and a serving gateway (Serving Gateway, S-GW)/public data network gateway (Public Data Network Gateway, P-GW) 250. User equipment 240 communicates with the base station 230 over an air interface. The LDSF 210 may be a logical functional entity or an actual physical device. The LDSF is mainly responsible for two grant-free transmission sub-functions: a function of identity registration of user equipment that supports grant-free transmission and a function of grant-free transmission data (such as packets) distribution.

[0038] For example, when the user equipment performs grant-free transmission, the user equipment requests to register a grant-free transmission identity with the LDSF by using the base station, and the LDSF allocates a cipher key dedicated to grant-free transmission and a user equipment identifier to the user equipment. The user equipment uses the cipher key and the user equipment identifier to encrypt and encapsulate data, and transmits the data in the grant-free transmission mode. After receiving the data that is transmitted by the user equipment in the grant-free mode, the base station sends the data to the LDSF, and the LDSF distributes the data according to a destination address carried in the data.

[0039] It should be understood that the LDSF in this embodiment of the present invention may be an MME or another logical functional entity of a core network device. In the following, for ease of description, the LDSF being a separate physical device is used as an example for description unless otherwise specified.

[0040] It should be understood that the system 200 may include at least one LDSF. Each base station is connected to at least one LDSF. After the base station is started, a transmission channel for packet transmission in a grant-free mode is maintained between the base station and the LDSF. For example, when the LDSF is a logical functional entity of the MME, an interface between the LDSF and the network device is an S1 interface. When the LDSF is an individual physical device, the LDSF and the network device may be connected by using an interface similar to the S1 interface.

[0041] It should be further understood that the embodiment of FIG. 1 is described by using an example in which the network device is a base station, and the network device may be another access device (such as an radio access point).

[0042] FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a CTU resource definition according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0043] FIG. 3 shows four contention access regions (also referred to as CTU access regions) 210, 220, 230, and 240, and an available bandwidth is divided into time-frequency regions of the four contention access regions. Each contention access region may occupy a predetermined quantity of resource blocks (Resource Block). For example, in the embodiment of FIG. 3, the contention access region 210 includes four RBs: an RB1, an RB2, an RB3, and an RB4. This embodiment of the present invention is not limited thereto. For example, different contention access regions may include different quantities of RBs. In FIG. 3, each contention access region can support 36 UEs contending for 36 CTUs defined in the contention region. Each CTU is a combination of a time resource, a frequency resource, a code resource or a signature, and a pilot. The code resource includes a CDMA code, an SCMA (Sparse Code Multiple Access) code, an LDS (Low Density Signature), or another signature (signature). Each contention access region occupies one time-frequency resource region. Each time-frequency resource region supports six signatures (SI to S6), and each signature is mapped to six pilots. Therefore, a total of 36 pilots (PI to P36) are generated. A network device may use a pilot or a signature decorrelator to detect or decode a signal sent on a CTU by each UE.

[0044] When entering a coverage area of a source network device, the UE may receive higher layer signaling sent by the network device. The higher layer signaling may carry a CTU access region definition (CTU access region definition), a total quantity of CTUs, a default mapping rule, and the like. Alternatively, the UE may preconfigure the default mapping rule. The UE may determine an appropriate CTU to perform grant-free transmission on the CTU. When different UEs perform grant-free transmission on a same CTU, that is, contending for a same CTU, a conflict occurs. The UE may determine, according to an indication of the network device, whether there is a conflict. For example, an asynchronous HARQ method may be used to resolve a problem caused by the conflict. However, if a quantity of conflicts exceeds a predetermined threshold, the network device may be requested to remap a CTU. The network device sends information about the remapped CTU to the UE, so that the UE performs grant-free transmission on the remapped CTU.

[0045] It should be understood that, for ease of description, FIG. 3 shows the four contention access regions. This embodiment of the present invention is not limited thereto. More or less contention access regions may be defined according to requirements.

[0046] The application with Patent No. PCT/CN2014/073084 and entitled "System And Method For Uplink Grant-Free Transmission Scheme" provides a technical solution for uplink grant-free transmission. The application PCT/CN2014/073084 describes that a radio resource can be divided into various CTUs, and that UE is mapped to a CTU. A group of codes may be allocated to each CTU. The allocated group of codes may be a group of CDMA codes, an SCMA codebook set, an LDS sequence group, a signature (signature) group, or the like. Each code may be corresponding to a group of pilots. A user equipment may select a code and a pilot in a pilot group corresponding to the code to perform uplink transmission. Details are not further described.

[0047] FIG. 4 is a schematic flowchart of a data transmission method 300 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 4, the method 300 includes the following steps.

[0048] 310. Determine a contention transmission unit CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, and a code domain resource.

[0049] 320. Encode the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups in the code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data, where N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2.

[0050] Optionally, each group of the N different code element groups may include one or more code elements. Optionally, the encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups in the code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data may be understood as encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using N code elements to obtain the N groups of encoded data. The N code elements are obtained by selecting one code element from each group of the N different code element groups. Certainly, if each group of code elements includes only one code element, selection may not be required. This understanding may be applicable to other embodiments.

[0051] Optionally, each group of the N different code element groups may include one or more code elements. The encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups in the code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data may be understood as encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using all code elements in each code element group. Each code element in the code element group may be used to encode a portion of the to-be-sent uplink data, and all the code elements in the code element group are used to complete encoding the entire data of the to-be-sent uplink data. In this way, one group of encoded data may be obtained by using one code element group.

[0052] Optionally, that all code elements in each code element group are used to encode the to-be-sent uplink data in the foregoing may be understood as follows: When any group of the N code element groups is used for encoding, if the any code element group includes multiple code elements, the multiple code elements may be used to encode the to-be-sent uplink data to obtain a group of encoded data. When the multiple code elements are used to encode the to-be-sent uplink data, each of the multiple code elements may be used to encode a part of data of the to-be-sent uplink data.

[0053] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, grouping of a code element group may be preconfigured. Alternatively, a code element group may be obtained by means of selection from all code elements corresponding to the CTU when the terminal device encodes the to-be-sent uplink data.

[0054] The foregoing optional solutions may be applicable to other embodiments, and details are not further described.

[0055] 330. Send the N groups of encoded data by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU.

[0056] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data is determined; the to-be-sent uplink data is encoded by using N different code element groups in a code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and the N groups of encoded data are sent by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when a terminal device encodes to-be-sent uplink data by using a code domain resource, provided that a code domain resource used by one group of to-be-sent data obtained by means of encoding does not conflict with a code domain resource used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end.

[0057] Optionally, uplink data transmission implemented by using the foregoing data transmission method is grant-free transmission. The grant-free transmission is that a network device preallocates multiple CTUs and notifies the terminal device of the multiple CTUs, so that the terminal device selects, when the terminal device has an uplink data transmission requirement, at least one CTU from the multiple CTUs preallocated by the network device, and uses the selected CTU to send uplink data.

[0058] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, each code element group included in the code domain resource may include multiple code elements or one code element.

[0059] Optionally, the code element of the code domain resource includes a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, a low-density signature LDS sequence, or a Code Division Multiple Access CDMA code.

[0060] Specifically, in this embodiment of the present invention, the SCMA codebook, the LDS sequence, or the CDMA code may be used as a code element of the code domain resource. It should be understood that the foregoing enumerated specific instances of code domain resources are merely examples for description. The present invention is not limited thereto. All other codebooks that can be used for transmission fall within the protection scope of the present invention.

[0061] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes at least two code words, the codebook includes two or more code words, and the code words in the codebook may be different from each other. The codebook may represent a mapping relationship between a possible data combination of data of a specific length and a code word in the codebook. The mapping relationship may be a direct mapping relationship. The code word may be represented as a multi-dimensional complex number vector having two or more dimensions, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and two or more modulation symbols. The modulation symbol includes at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol, and the data may be binary bit data or non-binary data.

[0062] Specifically, sparse code multiple access (SCMA, Sparse Code Multiple Access) is a non-orthogonal multiple access technology. Certainly, persons skilled in the art may refer to this technology as another technical name instead of SCMA. In the technology, a codebook is used to transmit multiple different data streams on a same transmission resource. Different data streams use different codebooks, thereby improving resource utilization. The data streams may come from a same terminal device or from different terminal devices.

[0063] A codebook may represent a mapping relationship between a possible data combination of data of a specific length and a code word in the codebook. With the SCMA technology, data in a data stream is directly mapped as a code word in a codebook according to a mapping relationship, that is, a multi-dimensional complex number vector, so that the data is spread and sent on multiple resource units. The direct mapping relationship in the SCMA technology may be understood as follows: Mapping the data in the data stream as an intermediate modulation symbol is not required or another intermediate processing process is not required. The data herein may be binary bit data or non-binary data. The multiple resource units may be resource units in a time domain, a frequency domain, a space domain, a time-frequency domain, a time-space domain, or a time-frequency-space domain.

[0064] FIG. 5 shows a schematic diagram of bit mapping processing (or referred to as encoding processing) of SCMA, and an example in which six data streams multiplex four resource units is used. Alternatively, the data streams may be referred to as variable nodes, and the resource units may be referred to as function nodes. The six data streams constitute one group, and the four resource units constitute one encoding unit. A resource unit may be a subcarrier, a resource element (English: Resource Element, "RE" for short), or an antenna port.

[0065] In the bipartite graph, a connection line between a data stream and a resource unit indicates that after code word mapping is performed on at least one data combination of the data stream, a non-zero modulation symbol is sent on the resource unit. When there is no connection line between a data stream and a resource unit, it indicates that after code word mapping is performed on all possible data combinations of the data stream, all modulation symbols sent on the resource unit are zero.

[0066] A data combination of a data stream may be understood according to the following description. For example, for a binary bit data stream, 00, 01, 10, and 11 are all possible two-bit data combinations. For ease of description, s1 to s6 in sequence represent to-be-sent data combinations of the six data streams in the bipartite graph, and x1 to x4 in sequence represent symbols that are sent on the four resource units in the bipartite graph.

[0067] It can be learned from the bipartite graph that modulation symbols are sent on two or more resource units after code word mapping is performed on data of each data stream. In addition, the symbol sent on each resource unit is superposition of modulation symbols that are obtained after code word mapping is separately performed on data of two or more data streams. For example, non-zero modulation symbols may be sent on a resource unit 1 and a resource unit 2 after code word mapping is performed on a to-be-sent data combination s3 of a data stream 3. Data x3 sent on a resource unit 3 is superposition of non-zero modulation symbols that are obtained after code word mapping is separately performed on to-be-sent data combinations s2, s4, and s6 of a data stream 2, a data stream 4, and a data stream 6. A quantity of data streams may be greater than a quantity of resource units. Therefore, the SCMA system can effectively increase a network capacity, which includes a quantity of users that can be connected to a system, spectral efficiency, and the like.

[0068] With reference to the foregoing descriptions about the codebook and the bipartite graph, a code word in the codebook may be generally in the following form:

and a corresponding codebook is generally in the following form:



[0069] N is a positive integer greater than 1, and may represent a quantity of resource units included in one encoding unit, or may be understood as a code word length. Qm is a positive integer greater than 1, represents a quantity of code words included in the codebook, and may be referred to as a modulation order. Certainly, persons skilled in the art may refer to Qm as another name. For example, Qm is 4 in 4-order modulation, q is a positive integer, and 1 ≤ q ≤ Qm. An element Cn,q included in the codebook and the code word is a complex number, and Cn,q may be mathematically expressed as: Cn,q = α exp(jβ),1≤n≤N,1≤q≤Qm, where α and β may be any real number.

[0070] A code word in a codebook and a data combination of a data stream may form a particular mapping relationship. For example, a code word in a codebook and a two-bit data combination of a binary data stream may form the following mapping relationship: "00" may be mapped as a code word 1, that is,

"01" is mapped as a code word 2, that is,

"10" is mapped as a code word 3, that is,

and "11" is mapped as a code word 4, that is,



[0071] With reference to the bipartite graph, when there is a connection line between a data stream and a resource unit, a codebook corresponding to the data stream and a code word in the codebook has the following characteristic: At least one code word in the codebook is used to send a non-zero modulation symbol on the corresponding resource unit. For example, when there is a connection line between a data stream 3 and a resource unit 1, at least one code word in a codebook corresponding to the data stream 3 holds that c1,q # 0, where 1 ≤ q ≤ Qm. When there is no connection line between a data stream and a resource unit, a codebook corresponding to the data stream and a code word in the codebook has the following characteristic: All code words in the codebook are used to send a zero modulation symbol on the corresponding resource unit. For example, when there is no connection line between the data stream 3 and the resource unit 3, any code word in a codebook corresponding to the data stream 3 holds that c3,q = 0, where 1 ≤ q ≤ Qm. In conclusion, when a modulation order is 4, the codebook corresponding to the data stream 3 in the bipartite graph may have the following form and characteristic:

where cn,q = αexp(jβ),1≤n≤2,1≤q≤4, α and β may be any real number; for any q, 1 ≤ q ≤ 4; c1,q and c2,q are not zeros at the same time; and at least one group of q1 and q2 holds c1,q1 # 0 and c2,q2 # 0, where 1 ≤ q1 and q2 ≤ 4. For example, if the data combination s3 of the data stream 3 is "10", according to the mapping rule, this data combination is mapped as a code word, that is, a four-dimensional complex number vector:



[0072] Optionally, the LDS sequence is a multi-dimensional complex number vector. The multi-dimensional complex number vector includes at least one zero element and at least one non-zero element. The signature sequence is used to adjust an amplitude and a phase of a modulation symbol. The modulation symbol is obtained by performing constellation mapping on data by using a modulation constellation.

[0073] Specifically, a low-density signature (LDS, Low Density Signature) technology is also a non-orthogonal multiple access and transmission technology. Certainly, the LDS technology may be referred to as another name in the communications field. This technology is used to add O (where O is an integer not less than 1) data streams from one or more users to P (where P is an integer not less than 1) subcarriers for transmission. Data of each data stream is spread onto the P subcarriers by means of sparse spread spectrum. When a value of O is greater than that of P, this technology can effectively increase a network capacity, which includes a quantity of users that can be connected to a system, spectral efficiency, and the like. Therefore, as an important non-orthogonal access technology, the LDS technology has drawn more attentions, and become an important candidate access technology for future wireless cellular network evolution.

[0074] In a bipartite graph shown in FIG. 5, a connection line between a data stream and a resource unit indicates that, after constellation mapping and amplitude and phase adjustment are performed on at least one data combination of the data stream, a non-zero modulation symbol is sent on the resource unit. When there is no connection line between a data stream and a resource unit, it indicates that after constellation mapping and amplitude and phase adjustment are performed on all possible data combinations of the data stream, all modulation symbols sent on the resource unit are zero modulation symbols. A data combination of a data stream may be understood according to the following description. For example, for a binary bit data stream, 00, 01, 10, and 11 are all possible data combinations of two-bit data. For ease of description, s1 to s6 in sequence represent to-be-sent data combinations of the six data streams in the bipartite graph, and x1 to x4 in sequence represent modulation symbols that are sent on the four resource units in the bipartite graph.

[0075] It can be learned from the bipartite graph that modulation symbols are sent on two or more resource units after constellation mapping and amplitude and phase adjustment are performed on a data combination of each data stream. In addition, the modulation symbol sent on each resource unit is superposition of modulation symbols that are obtained after constellation mapping and amplitude and phase adjustment are performed on each of data combinations of two or more data streams. For example, non-zero modulation symbols may be sent on a resource unit 1 and a resource unit 2 after constellation mapping and amplitude and phase adjustment are performed on a to-be-sent data combination s3 of a data stream 3. A modulation symbol x3 sent on a resource unit 3 is superposition of non-zero modulation symbols that are obtained after constellation mapping and amplitude and phase adjustment are performed on each of to-be-sent data combinations s2, s4, and s6 of a data stream 2, a data stream 4, and a data stream 6. A quantity of data streams may be greater than a quantity of resource units. Therefore, the non-orthogonal multiple access system can effectively increase a network capacity, which includes a quantity of users that can be connected to a system, spectral efficiency, and the like.

[0076] Further, as shown in FIG. 6, a modulation symbol obtained after constellation mapping is performed on data (b1, b2) of a data stream is q. After phase and amplitude adjustment is performed on the modulation symbol q by using elements in a signature sequence, that is, adjustment factors, modulation symbols sent on resource units are obtained. The modulation symbols are qs1, qs2, qs3, and qs4, respectively.

[0077] It should be understood that the foregoing enumerated SCMA codebook and LDS sequence are merely examples of code domain resources. The present invention is not limited thereto. Further, a CDMA code may be used as an example. Herein, a specific function and a using method of the CDMA code may be similar to those in the prior art. To avoid repetition, details of the specific function and the using method of the CDMA code are omitted herein.

[0078] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, when encoding is performed on the to-be-sent uplink data, N different SCMA codebook sets of the CTU may be determined, and the to-be-sent data is encoded by using the N different SCMA codebook sets to obtain N groups of to-be-sent data.

[0079] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, when encoding is performed on the to-be-sent uplink data, N different CDMA code groups of the CTU may be determined, and the to-be-sent data is encoded by using the N different CDMA code groups to obtain N groups of to-be-sent data.

[0080] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, when encoding is performed on the to-be-sent uplink data, N different LDS sequence groups of the CTU may be determined, and the to-be-sent data is encoded by using the N different LDS sequence groups to obtain N groups of to-be-sent data.

[0081] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, the to-be-sent uplink data includes a control word and a data portion. The control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.

[0082] In addition to an instruction about whether to perform combined decoding, the control word may further include a terminal identifier (Identifier, ID). The terminal identifier is used to indicate a transmit end of the data portion corresponding to the control word.

[0083] Correspondingly, after the receive end decodes control word portions of all groups of transmitted data by using different code domain resources, when the receive end determines that terminal IDs in multiple control word portions are the same, and the control words instruct to perform combined channel decoding on data portions, the receive end may perform combined decoding when decoding the corresponding multiple data portions, to increase decoding reliability.

[0084] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, control words included in P groups of the N groups of encoded data are used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data. Channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same. P is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and less than or equal to N.

[0085] That is, in only some (or all) groups of the N groups of encoded data, control words are used to instruct to perform combined decoding on corresponding data portions.

[0086] Optionally, if an element of the code domain resource included in the CTU is an SCMA codebook, that "channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same" means that SCMA codebooks used for obtaining the P groups of encoded data by means of encoding have a same quantity of code words, and that lengths of the code words are the same.

[0087] Optionally, if an element of the code domain resource included in the CTU is an LDS sequence, that "channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same" means that LDS sequences used for obtaining the P groups of encoded data by means of encoding have a same quantity of signature sequences, and that lengths of the signature sequences are the same.

[0088] If an element of the code domain resource included in the CTU is a CDMA code, that "channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same" means that CDMA codes used for obtaining the P groups of encoded data by means of encoding have a same length.

[0089] In this embodiment of the present invention, a size of a transport block in the control word portion is usually fixed, and a relative location of a time-frequency resource that is used to send an encoded control word portion is fixed in a time-frequency resource of the entire CTU. For example, the receive end and the transmit end agree upon a fixed time-frequency resource location that is used for transmission of the control word portion.

[0090] Optionally, instruction information about whether to perform combined decoding may be indicated by using one bit. For example, 1 is used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. That is, in multiple groups of data received by the receive end, if identifiers of terminal devices are the same, and combined decoding instruction information of a control word portion in each group of data is 1, combined decoding may be performed on data portions of the multiple groups of data. For example, 0 is used to instruct the receive end not to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. That is, if combined decoding instruction information of a control word portion in each group of multiple groups of data received by the receive end is 0, channel decoding may be separately performed on a data portion of each group of the multiple groups of data.

[0091] Optionally, a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the control word is less than a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the data transport block.

[0092] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, bit rates for performing channel encoding for different times may be different. That is, bit rates for performing channel encoding on a control word portion for different times are different from each other, and bit rates for performing channel encoding on a data portion for different times are different from each other.

[0093] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, the transmission resource constituting the CTU further includes a pilot resource. The code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination. Pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal. Code elements in different code element-pilot combinations are different.

[0094] Correspondingly, the method may further include: sending, by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU, a pilot sequence in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to the N groups of encoded data.

[0095] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data is determined; the to-be-sent uplink data is encoded by using N different code element groups in a code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and the N groups of encoded data are sent by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when a terminal device encodes to-be-sent uplink data by using a code domain resource, provided that a code domain resource used by one group of to-be-sent data obtained by means of encoding does not conflict with a code domain resource used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end.

[0096] FIG. 7 is a schematic flowchart of a data transmission method 500 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 7, the data transmission method 500 includes the following steps:

[0097] 510. Decode, by using a code domain resource of a CTU, a control word in uplink data received on a time domain resource and a frequency domain resource of the CTU, to obtain instruction information, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least the time domain resource, the frequency domain resource, and the code domain resource, and the instruction information is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion.

[0098] 520. Perform combined decoding on data portions of uplink data that is sent by a same terminal device and in which the control words are used to instruct to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions of the uplink data.

[0099] In this embodiment of the present invention, a network device may decode, on time domain and frequency domain resources of a CTU, a control word in uplink data by using a code domain resource of the CTU. The control word is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. If the network device detects that instruction information in control words of multiple groups of uplink data is used to instruct to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions, and the multiple groups of uplink data are from a same terminal device, the network device may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of uplink data. This can increase decoding reliability at the receive end.

[0100] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource. Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, the code domain resource may include a code element. The code element may be a CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0101] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes at least two code words, the codebook includes two or more code words, and the code words in the codebook may be different from each other. The codebook may represent a mapping relationship between a possible data combination of data of a specific length and a code word in the codebook. The mapping relationship may be a direct mapping relationship. The code word may be represented as a multi-dimensional complex number vector having two or more dimensions, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and two or more modulation symbols. The modulation symbol includes at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol, and the data may be binary bit data or non-binary data.

[0102] Optionally, the LDS sequence is a multi-dimensional complex number vector. The multi-dimensional vector includes at least one zero element and at least one non-zero element. The LDS sequence is used to adjust an amplitude and a phase of a modulation symbol. The modulation symbol is obtained by performing constellation mapping on data by using a modulation constellation.

[0103] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, the transmission resource further includes a pilot resource. A code element in the the code domain resource and a pilot in the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination. Pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal. Code elements in code element groups in different code element-pilot combinations are different.

[0104] Before the decoding a control word in uplink data by using a code element of the CTU to obtain instruction information, the method further includes: performing, on the time domain resource and the frequency domain resource of the CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination.

[0105] The decoding a control word in uplink data by using a code element of the CTU includes:
decoding the control word in the uplink data by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection, to obtain the instruction information.

[0106] In this embodiment of the present invention, a size of a transport block in the control word portion is usually fixed, and a relative location of a time-frequency resource that is used to send an encoded control word portion is fixed in a time-frequency resource of the entire CTU. For example, the receive end and the transmit end agree upon a fixed time-frequency resource location that is used for transmission of the control word portion.

[0107] Optionally, instruction information about whether to perform combined decoding may be indicated by using one bit. For example, 1 is used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. That is, in multiple groups of data received by the receive end, if identifiers of terminal devices are the same, and combined decoding instruction information of a control word portion in each group of data is 1, combined decoding may be performed on data portions of the multiple groups of data. For example, 0 is used to instruct the receive end not to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. That is, if combined decoding instruction information of a control word portion in each group of multiple groups of data received by the receive end is 0, channel decoding may be separately performed on a data portion of each group of the multiple groups of data.

[0108] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using a code domain resource, provided that a code domain resource used by one group of uplink data obtained by means of encoding does not conflict with a code domain resource used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent uplink data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of uplink data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of uplink data.

[0109] FIG. 8 is a schematic flowchart of a data transmission method 600 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 8, the method 600 includes the following steps.

[0110] 610. Determine a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, a code domain resource, and a pilot resource, a code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination, and pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal.

[0111] 620. Encode the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in N different code element-pilot combinations in the transmission resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data, where N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2.

[0112] Optionally, the code element in the N different code element-pilot combinations may include one or more code elements. Optionally, the encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in N different code element-pilot combinations in the transmission resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data may be understood as encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using N code elements to obtain the N groups of encoded data. The N code elements are obtained by selecting one code element from code elements of each of the N different code element-pilot combinations. Certainly, if each of the N code element-pilot combinations includes only one code element, selection may not be required. This understanding may be applicable to other embodiments.

[0113] 630. Send, by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU, the N groups of encoded data and pilots in the N code element-pilot combinations.

[0114] In this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in multiple different code element-pilot combinations of the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data and a corresponding pilot by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device sends the uplink data, provided that a used code element-pilot combination does not conflict with a code element-pilot combination that is used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of transmitted data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of transmitted data.

[0115] Optionally, uplink data transmission implemented by using the foregoing data transmission method is grant-free transmission. The grant-free transmission is that a network device preallocates multiple CTUs and notifies the terminal device of the multiple CTUs, so that the terminal device selects, when the terminal device has an uplink data transmission requirement, at least one CTU from the multiple CTUs preallocated by the network device, and uses the selected CTU to send uplink data.

[0116] Optionally, each of the N different code element-pilot combinations may include one or more code elements. Optionally, the encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element-pilot combinations corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data may be understood as encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using N code elements to obtain the N groups of encoded data. The N code elements are obtained by selecting one code element from each of the N different code element-pilot combinations. Certainly, if each code element-pilot combination group includes only one code element, selection may not be required. This understanding may be applicable to other embodiments.

[0117] Optionally, each of the N different code element-pilot combinations may include one or more code elements. The encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element-pilot combinations corresponding to the determined CTU to obtain the N groups of encoded data may be understood as encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using all code elements in each code element-pilot combination. Each code element in each code element-pilot combination may be used to encode only a part of data of the to-be-sent uplink data, and all code elements in each code element-pilot combination are used to complete encoding the entire data of the to-be-sent uplink data. In this way, the code elements in one code element-pilot combination may be used to obtain one group of encoded data.

[0118] Optionally, the encoding the to-be-sent uplink data by using all code elements in each code element-pilot combination may be understood as follows: When a code element in any of the N code element-pilot combinations is used for encoding, if the any combination includes multiple code elements, the multiple code elements may be used to encode the to-be-sent uplink data to obtain one group of encoded data. When the multiple code elements are used to encode the to-be-sent uplink data, each of the multiple code elements may be used to encode a part of data of the to-be-sent uplink data.

[0119] The foregoing optional solutions may be applicable to other embodiments, and details are not further described.

[0120] Optionally, the code element of the grant-free code domain resource includes a sparse code division multiple access SCMA codebook, a low-density signature LDS sequence, or a Code Division Multiple Access CDMA code.

[0121] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes at least two code words, the codebook includes two or more code words, and the code words in the codebook may be different from each other. The codebook may represent a mapping relationship between a possible data combination of data of a specific length and a code word in the codebook. The mapping relationship may be a direct mapping relationship. The code word may be represented as a multi-dimensional complex number vector having two or more dimensions, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and two or more modulation symbols. The modulation symbol includes at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol, and the data may be binary bit data or non-binary data.

[0122] Optionally, the LDS sequence is a multi-dimensional complex number vector. The multi-dimensional vector includes at least one zero element and at least one non-zero element. The LDS sequence is used to adjust an amplitude and a phase of a modulation symbol. The modulation symbol is obtained by performing constellation mapping on data by using a modulation constellation.

[0123] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, the to-be-sent uplink data includes a control word and a data portion. The control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.

[0124] In addition to an instruction about whether to perform combined decoding, the control word may further include a terminal identifier (Identifier, ID). The terminal identifier is used to indicate a transmit end of the data portion corresponding to the control word.

[0125] Correspondingly, after the receive end decodes control words of all groups of transmitted data by using code elements in different code element-pilot combinations, when the receive end determines that terminal IDs in multiple control words are the same, and the control words instruct to perform combined decoding on data portions, the receive end may perform combined decoding when decoding the corresponding multiple data portions, to increase decoding reliability.

[0126] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, control words included in P groups of the N groups of encoded data are used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data. Bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data obtained by means of encoding are the same. P is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and less than or equal to N.

[0127] That is, in only some (or all) groups of the N groups of encoded data, control words are used to perform combined decoding on corresponding data portions.

[0128] Optionally, if the code domain resource included in the CTU is an SCMA codebook, that "channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same" means that SCMA codebooks used for obtaining the P groups of encoded data by means of encoding have a same quantity of code words, and that lengths of the code words are the same.

[0129] Optionally, if the code domain resource element included in the CTU is an LDS sequence, that "channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same" means that LDS sequences used for obtaining the P groups of encoded data by means of encoding have a same quantity of signature sequences, and that lengths of the signature sequences are the same.

[0130] If the code domain resource element included in the CTU is a CDMA code, that "channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same" means that CDMA codes used for obtaining the P groups of encoded data by means of encoding have a same length.

[0131] In this embodiment of the present invention, a size of a transport block in the control word portion is usually fixed, and a relative location of a time-frequency resource that is used to send an encoded control word portion is fixed in a time-frequency resource of the entire CTU. For example, the receive end and the transmit end agree upon a fixed time-frequency resource location that is used for transmission of the control word portion.

[0132] Optionally, instruction information about whether to perform combined decoding may be indicated by using one bit. For example, 1 is used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. That is, in multiple groups of data received by the receive end, if identifiers of terminal devices are the same, and combined decoding instruction information of a control word portion in each group of data is 1, combined decoding may be performed on data portions of the multiple groups of data. For example, 0 is used to instruct the receive end not to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. That is, if combined decoding instruction information of a control word portion in each group of multiple groups of data received by the receive end is 0, channel decoding may be separately performed on a data portion of each group of the multiple groups of data.

[0133] Optionally, a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the control word is less than a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the data transport block.

[0134] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, bit rates for performing channel encoding for different times may be different. That is, bit rates for performing channel encoding on a control word portion for different times are different from each other, and bit rates for performing channel encoding on a data portion for different times are different from each other.

[0135] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, code elements in all or some code element-pilot combinations included in the CTU may be the same.

[0136] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, the code element-pilot combination includes at least one code element and one pilot.

[0137] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in multiple different code element-pilot combinations of the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data and a corresponding pilot by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device sends the uplink data, provided that a used code element-pilot combination does not conflict with a code element-pilot combination that is used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of transmitted data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of transmitted data.

[0138] FIG. 9 is a schematic flowchart of a data transmission method 700 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 9, the method 700 includes the following steps:

[0139] 710. Perform, on a time domain resource and a frequency domain resource of a CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least the time domain resource, the frequency domain resource, a code domain resource, and a pilot resource, a code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination, and pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal.

[0140] 720. Decode, by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection, a control word in uplink data received on the CTU, to obtain instruction information, where the instruction information is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion.

[0141] 730. Perform combined decoding on data portions of uplink data that is sent by a same terminal device and in which the instruction information is used to instruct to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions of the uplink data.

[0142] In this embodiment of the present invention, a network device performs, on time domain and frequency domain resources of a CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination; and decodes by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection, a control word in uplink data. The control word is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. If the network device detects that control words of multiple groups of uplink data are used to instruct to perform combined decoding on corresponding data portions, and the multiple groups of uplink data are from a same terminal device, the network device may perform combined decoding on the data portions of the multiple groups of uplink data. This can further increase channel decoding reliability.

[0143] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource. Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, the code element is a CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0144] The SCMA codebook includes two or more code words. The code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols. The at least two modulation symbols include at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.

[0145] The LDS sequence is a multi-dimensional complex number vector. The multi-dimensional vector includes at least one zero element and at least one non-zero element. The LDS sequence is used to adjust an amplitude and a phase of a modulation symbol. The modulation symbol is obtained by performing constellation mapping on data by using a modulation constellation.

[0146] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, the transmission resource further includes the pilot resource. A code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination. Pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal. Code elements in different code element-pilot combinations are different.

[0147] Before the decoding a control word in uplink data by using a code element of the CTU to obtain instruction information, the method further includes: performing, on the time domain resource and the frequency domain resource of the CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination.

[0148] The decoding a control word in uplink data by using a code domain resource of the CTU includes:
decoding the control word in the uplink data by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection, to obtain the instruction information.

[0149] In this embodiment of the present invention, a size of a transport block in the control word portion is usually fixed, and a relative location of a time-frequency resource that is used to send an encoded control word portion is fixed in a time-frequency resource of the entire CTU. For example, the receive end and the transmit end agree upon a fixed time-frequency resource location that is used for transmission of the control word portion.

[0150] Optionally, instruction information about whether to perform combined decoding may be indicated by using one bit. For example, 1 is used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. That is, in multiple groups of data received by the receive end, if identifiers of terminal devices are the same, and combined decoding instruction information of a control word portion in each group of data is 1, combined decoding may be performed on data portions of the multiple groups of data. For example, 0 is used to instruct the receive end not to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion. That is, if combined decoding instruction information of a control word portion in each group of multiple groups of data received by the receive end is 0, channel decoding may be separately performed on a data portion of each group of the multiple groups of data.

[0151] Optionally, in this embodiment of the present invention, the code element-pilot combination includes at least one code element and one pilot. For example, the code element-pilot combination may include one code element and one pilot, or multiple code elements and one pilot. "Multiple" in the present invention may be understood as two or more.

[0152] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in multiple different code element-pilot combinations of the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data and a corresponding pilot by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device sends the uplink data, provided that a used code element-pilot combination does not conflict with a code element-pilot combination that is used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent uplink data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of uplink data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of uplink data.

[0153] FIG. 10 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus 800 according to an embodiment of the present invention. The data transmission apparatus 800 includes:

a determining unit 810, configured to determine a contention transmission unit CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, and a code domain resource;

an encoding unit 820, configured to encode the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups in the code domain resource corresponding to the CTU determined by the determining unit 810, to obtain N groups of encoded data, where N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2; and

a sending unit 830, configured to send the N groups of encoded data by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the CTU determined by the determining unit 810.



[0154] Optionally, each group of the N groups of encoded data includes a control word and a data portion. The control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.

[0155] Optionally, control words included in P groups of the N groups of encoded data are used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data. Channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same. P is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and less than or equal to N.

[0156] Optionally, a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the control word by the encoding unit 820 is less than a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the data portion in the to-be-sent uplink data.

[0157] Optionally, a code element in the code domain resource is a Code Division Multiple Access CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0158] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes two or more code words. The code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols. The at least two modulation symbols include at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.

[0159] Optionally, the transmission resource further includes a pilot resource. A code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination. Pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal. Code elements in code element groups in different code element-pilot combinations are different.

[0160] Optionally, the sending unit 830 is further configured to:
send, by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU, a pilot sequence in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to the N groups of encoded data.

[0161] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource.

[0162] Optionally, the apparatus 800 is a terminal device.

[0163] It should be understood that the apparatus 800 may be corresponding to the terminal device in the method 300, and can implement corresponding functions thereof. For brevity, details are not further described herein.

[0164] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data is determined; the to-be-sent uplink data is encoded by using N different code element groups in a code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and the N groups of encoded data are sent by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when a terminal device encodes to-be-sent uplink data by using a code domain resource, provided that a code domain resource used by one group of to-be-sent data obtained by means of encoding does not conflict with a code domain resource used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end.

[0165] FIG. 11 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus 900 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 11, the apparatus 900 includes:

a determining unit 910, configured to determine a contention transmission unit CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, a code domain resource, and a pilot resource, a code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination, and pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal;

an encoding unit 920, configured to encode the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in N different code element-pilot combinations in a transmission resource corresponding to the CTU determined by the determining unit 910, to obtain N groups of encoded data, where N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2; and

a sending unit 930, configured to send, by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the CTU determined by the determining unit 910, the N groups of encoded data and pilots in the N code element-pilot combinations.



[0166] Optionally, each group of the N groups of encoded data includes a control word. The control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.

[0167] Optionally, control words included in P groups of the N groups of encoded data are used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data. Channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same.

[0168] Optionally, a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the control word by the encoding unit 920 is less than a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the data portion in the to-be-sent uplink data.

[0169] Optionally, the code element is a CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0170] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes two or more code words. The code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols. The at least two modulation symbols include at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.

[0171] Optionally, code elements in all or some code element-pilot combinations included in the CTU are the same.

[0172] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource.

[0173] Optionally, the code element-pilot combination includes at least one code element and one pilot.

[0174] Optionally, the apparatus 900 is a terminal device.

[0175] It should be understood that the apparatus 900 may be corresponding to the terminal device in the method 600, and can implement corresponding functions thereof. For brevity, details are not further described herein.

[0176] In this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in multiple different code element-pilot combinations of the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data and a corresponding pilot by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device sends the uplink data, provided that a used code element-pilot combination does not conflict with a code element-pilot combination that is used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of transmitted data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of transmitted data.

[0177] FIG. 12 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus 1000 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 12, the apparatus 1000 includes:

a first decoding unit 1010, configured to decode, by using a code element of a code domain resource of a contention transmission unit CTU, a control word in uplink data received on time domain and frequency domain resources of the CTU, to obtain instruction information, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least the time domain resource, the frequency domain resource, and the code domain resource, and the instruction information is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion; and

a second decoding unit 1020, configured to perform combined decoding on data portions of uplink data that is sent by a same terminal device and in which the instruction information instructs to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions of the uplink data.



[0178] Optionally, the code element is a CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0179] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes two or more code words. The code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols. The at least two modulation symbols include at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.

[0180] Optionally, the transmission resource further includes a pilot resource. A code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination. Pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal. Code elements in different code element-pilot combinations are different.

[0181] Before the decoding a control word in uplink data by using a code element of the CTU to obtain instruction information, the apparatus 1000 further includes a detection unit 1030, configured to perform, on the time domain resource and the frequency domain resource of the CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination.

[0182] The first decoding unit 1010 is specifically configured to:
decode the control word in the uplink data by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection, to obtain the instruction information.

[0183] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource.

[0184] Optionally, the apparatus 1000 is a network device.

[0185] It should be understood that the apparatus 1000 may be corresponding to the network device in the method 500, and can implement corresponding functions thereof. For brevity, details are not further described herein.

[0186] In this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in multiple different code element-pilot combinations of the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data and a corresponding pilot by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device sends the uplink data, provided that a used code element-pilot combination does not conflict with a code element-pilot combination that is used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of transmitted data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of transmitted data.

[0187] FIG. 13 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus 1100 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 13, the apparatus 1100 includes:

a detection unit 1100, configured to perform, on time domain and frequency domain resources of a contention transmission unit CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least the time domain resource, the frequency domain resource, a code domain resource, and a pilot resource, a code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination, and pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal;

a first decoding unit 1120, configured to decode, by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection by the detection unit 1100, a control word in uplink data received on the time domain and frequency domain resources of the CTU, to obtain instruction information, where the instruction information is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion; and

a second decoding unit 1130, configured to perform combined decoding on data portions of uplink data that is sent by a same terminal device and in which the instruction information instructs to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions of the uplink data.



[0188] Optionally, the code element is a CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0189] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes two or more code words. The code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols. The at least two modulation symbols include at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.

[0190] Optionally, code elements in all or some code element-pilot combinations included in the CTU are the same.

[0191] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource.

[0192] Optionally, the code element-pilot combination includes at least one code element and one pilot.

[0193] Optionally, the apparatus 1100 is a network device.

[0194] It should be understood that the apparatus 1100 may be corresponding to the network device in the method 700, and can implement corresponding functions thereof. For brevity, details are not further described herein.

[0195] In this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in multiple different code element-pilot combinations of the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data and a corresponding pilot by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device sends the uplink data, provided that a used code element-pilot combination does not conflict with a code element-pilot combination that is used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of transmitted data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of transmitted data.

[0196] FIG. 14 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus 1200 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 14, the apparatus 1200 includes a processor 1210 and a transmitter 1230.

[0197] The processor 1210 is configured to: determine a contention transmission unit CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, and a code domain resource; and encode the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups in the code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data, where N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2.

[0198] The transmitter 1230 is configured to send the N groups of encoded data by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU.

[0199] Optionally, each group of the N groups of encoded data includes a control word and a data portion. The control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.

[0200] Optionally, control words included in P groups of the N groups of encoded data are used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data. Channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same. P is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and less than or equal to N.

[0201] Optionally, a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the control word is less than a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the data portion in the to-be-sent uplink data.

[0202] Optionally, a code element in the code domain resource is a Code Division Multiple Access CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0203] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes two or more code words. The code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols. The at least two modulation symbols include at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.

[0204] Optionally, the transmission resource further includes a pilot resource. A code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination. Pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal. Code elements in code element groups in different code element-pilot combinations are different.

[0205] Optionally, the transmitter 1230 is further configured to:
send, by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the CTU determined by the processor 1210, a pilot sequence in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to the N groups of encoded data.

[0206] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource. The apparatus 1200 is a terminal device.

[0207] In this embodiment of the present invention, in addition to the processor 1210 and the transmitter 1230, the apparatus 1200 may further include another part, for example, a memory 1220. The memory 1220 is configured to store corresponding code, and the processor 1210 calls the code to execute a corresponding operation.

[0208] Optionally, the processor 1210, the memory 1220, and the transmitter 1230 may be connected to each other by using a bus.

[0209] It should be understood that the apparatus 1200 may be corresponding to the terminal device in the method 300, and can implement corresponding functions thereof. For brevity, details are not further described herein.

[0210] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using a code domain resource, provided that a code domain resource used by one group of uplink data obtained by means of encoding does not conflict with a code domain resource used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent uplink data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of uplink data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of uplink data.

[0211] FIG. 15 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus 1300 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 15, the apparatus 1300 includes a processor 1310 and a transmitter 1330.

[0212] The processor 1310 is configured to: determine a contention transmission unit CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, where the CTU is a transmission resource including at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, a code domain resource, and a pilot resource, a code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination, and pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal; and encode the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in N different code element-pilot combinations in the transmission resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data, where N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2.

[0213] The transmitter 1330 is configured to send, by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU, the N groups of encoded data and pilots in the N code element-pilot combinations.

[0214] Optionally, each group of the N groups of encoded data includes a control word. The control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.

[0215] Optionally, control words included in P groups of the N groups of encoded data are used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data. Channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same.

[0216] Optionally, a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the control word is less than a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the data portion in the to-be-sent uplink data.

[0217] Optionally, the code element is a CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0218] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes two or more code words. The code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols. The at least two modulation symbols include at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.

[0219] Optionally, code elements in all or some code element-pilot combinations included in the CTU are the same.

[0220] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource. Optionally, the code element-pilot combination includes at least one code element and one pilot.

[0221] Optionally, the apparatus 1300 is a terminal device.

[0222] In this embodiment of the present invention, in addition to the processor 1310 and the transmitter 1330, the apparatus 1300 may further include another part, for example, a memory 1320. The memory 1320 is configured to store corresponding code, and the processor 1310 calls the code to execute a corresponding operation.

[0223] Optionally, the processor 1310, the memory 1320, and the transmitter 1330 may be connected to each other by using a bus.

[0224] It should be understood that the apparatus 1300 may be corresponding to the terminal device in the method 600, and can implement corresponding functions thereof. For brevity, details are not further described herein.

[0225] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in multiple different code element-pilot combinations of the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data and a corresponding pilot by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device sends the uplink data, provided that a used code element-pilot combination does not conflict with a code element-pilot combination that is used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of transmitted data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of transmitted data.

[0226] FIG. 16 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus 1400 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 16, the apparatus 1400 includes a processor 1410 and a receiver 1430.

[0227] The receiver 1430 is configured to receive a control word in uplink data on time domain and frequency domain resources of a CTU. The CTU is a transmission resource including at least the time domain resource, the frequency domain resource, and a code domain resource.

[0228] The processor 1410 is configured to: perform decoding by using a code element of the code domain resource of the contention transmission unit CTU, to obtain instruction information, where the instruction information is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion; and
perform combined decoding on data portions of uplink data that is sent by a same terminal device and in which the instruction information instructs to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions of the uplink data.

[0229] Optionally, the code element is a CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0230] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes two or more code words. The code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols. The at least two modulation symbols include at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.

[0231] Optionally, the transmission resource further includes a pilot resource. A code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination. Pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal. Code elements in different code element-pilot combinations are different.

[0232] The receiver 1430 is further configured to:
before the processor 1410 decodes a control word in uplink data by using a code element of the CTU to obtain the instruction information, perform, on the time domain resource and the frequency domain resource of the CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination.

[0233] The processor 1410 is configured to decode the control word in the uplink data by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection, to obtain the instruction information.

[0234] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource. Optionally, the apparatus 1400 is a network device.

[0235] In this embodiment of the present invention, in addition to the processor 1410 and the receiver 1430, the apparatus 1400 may further include another part, for example, a memory 1420. The memory 1420 is configured to store corresponding code, and the processor 1410 calls the code to execute a corresponding operation.

[0236] Optionally, the processor 1410, the memory 1420, and the transmitter 1430 may be connected to each other by using a bus.

[0237] It should be understood that the apparatus 1400 may be corresponding to the network device in the method 500, and can implement corresponding functions thereof. For brevity, details are not further described herein.

[0238] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using a code domain resource, provided that a code domain resource used by one group of uplink data obtained by means of encoding does not conflict with a code domain resource used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent uplink data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of uplink data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of uplink data.

[0239] FIG. 17 is a schematic block diagram of a data transmission apparatus 1500 according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 17, the apparatus 1500 includes a processor 1510 and a receiver 1530.

[0240] The receiver 1530 is configured to perform, on time domain and frequency domain resources of a contention transmission unit CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination. The CTU is a transmission resource including at least the time domain resource, the frequency domain resource, a code domain resource, and a pilot resource. A code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination. Pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal.

[0241] The processor 1510 is configured to decode, by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection, a control word in uplink data received on the time domain and frequency domain resources of the CTU, to obtain instruction information, where the instruction information is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion; and
perform combined decoding on data portions of uplink data that is sent by a same terminal device and in which the instruction information instructs to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions of the uplink data.

[0242] Optionally, the code element is a CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.

[0243] Optionally, the SCMA codebook includes two or more code words. The code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols. The at least two modulation symbols include at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.

[0244] Optionally, code elements in all or some code element-pilot combinations included in the CTU are the same.

[0245] Optionally, the CTU is a grant-free transmission resource.

[0246] Optionally, the code element-pilot combination includes at least one code element and one pilot.

[0247] Optionally, the apparatus 1500 is a network device.

[0248] In this embodiment of the present invention, in addition to the processor 1510 and the receiver 1530, the apparatus 1500 may further include another part, for example, a memory 1520. The memory 1520 is configured to store corresponding code, and the processor 1510 calls the code to execute a corresponding operation.

[0249] Optionally, the processor 1510, the memory 1520, and the receiver 1530 may be connected to each other by using a bus.

[0250] It should be understood that the apparatus 1500 may be corresponding to the network device in the method 700, and can implement corresponding functions thereof. For brevity, details are not further described herein.

[0251] Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, a terminal device determines a CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data; encodes the to-be-sent uplink data by using code elements in multiple different code element-pilot combinations of the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data; and sends the N groups of encoded data and a corresponding pilot by using time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU. In this way, when the terminal device sends the uplink data, provided that a used code element-pilot combination does not conflict with a code element-pilot combination that is used by another terminal device, a receive end can correctly obtain the uplink data sent by the terminal device, thereby improving data reception reliability at the receive end. In addition, the terminal device may add a combined decoding instruction to control words of the N groups of to-be-sent data. When decoding control words of multiple groups of transmitted data, the receive end may perform combined decoding on data portions of the multiple groups of transmitted data.

[0252] Persons of ordinary skill in the art may be aware that, in combination with the examples described in the embodiments disclosed in this specification, units and algorithm steps may be implemented by electronic hardware or a combination of computer software and electronic hardware. Whether the functions are performed by hardware or software depends on particular applications and design constraint conditions of the technical solutions. Persons skilled in the art may use different methods to implement the described functions for each particular application, but it should not be considered that the implementation goes beyond the scope of the present invention.

[0253] It may be clearly understood by persons skilled in the art that, for the purpose of convenient and brief description, for a detailed working process of the foregoing system, apparatus, and unit, refer to a corresponding process in the foregoing method embodiments, and details are not further described herein. It may be understood that, to make the application document brief and clear, technical features and descriptions in any of the foregoing embodiments may be applicable to other embodiments. For example, the technical features of the method embodiments may be applicable to the apparatus embodiments or other method embodiments, and details are not further described in other embodiments.

[0254] The sending unit or the transmitter in the embodiments may perform transmission on an air interface, or instead of performing transmission on an air interface, send data to another device, so that the another device performs transmission on the air interface. The receiving unit or the receiver in the embodiments may perform reception over an air interface, or instead of performing reception over an air interface, receive data from another device that performs reception on the air interface.

[0255] In the several embodiments provided in this application, it should be understood that the disclosed system, apparatus, and method may be implemented in other manners. For example, the described apparatus embodiment is merely an example. For example, the unit division is merely logical function division and may be other division in actual implementation. For example, a plurality of units or components may be combined or integrated into another system, or some features may be ignored or not performed. In addition, the displayed or discussed mutual couplings or direct couplings or communication connections may be indirect couplings or communication connections between some interfaces, apparatuses, or units, and may be implemented in electronic, mechanical, or other forms.

[0256] The units described as separate parts may or may not be physically separate. Parts displayed as units may or may not be physical units, and may be located in one position or may be distributed in a plurality of network units. Some or all of the units may be selected according to actual requirements to achieve the objectives of the solutions of the embodiments.

[0257] In addition, functional units in the embodiments of the present invention may be integrated into one processing unit, or each of the units may exist alone physically, or two or more units are integrated into one unit.

[0258] When the functions are implemented in the form of a software functional unit and sold or used as an independent product, the functions may be stored in a computer-readable storage medium. Based on such an understanding, the technical solutions of the present invention essentially, or the part contributing to the prior art, or some of the technical solutions may be implemented in a form of a software product. The software product is stored in a storage medium, and includes several instructions for instructing a computer device (which may be a personal computer, a server, a network device, or the like) to perform all or some of the steps of the methods described in the embodiments of the present invention. The foregoing storage medium includes: any medium that can store program code, such as a USB flash drive, a removable hard disk, a read-only memory (ROM, Read-Only Memory), a random access memory (RAM, Random Access Memory), a magnetic disk, or an optical disc.

[0259] The foregoing descriptions are merely specific implementations of the present invention, but are not intended to limit the protection scope of the present invention. Any variation or replacement readily figured out by persons skilled in the art within the technical scope disclosed in the present invention shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the claims.


Claims

1. A data transmission method, comprising:

determining (310) a contention transmission unit, CTU, to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, wherein the CTU is a transmission resource comprising at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, and a code domain resource;

encoding (320) the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups in the code domain resource corresponding to the determined CTU, to obtain N groups of encoded data, wherein N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2; and

sending (330) the N groups of encoded data by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU;

wherein each group of the N groups of encoded data comprises a control word and a data portion, wherein the control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.


 
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the transmission resource further comprises a pilot resource, wherein the code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination, pilots in different code domain element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal, and code elements in code element groups in different code element-pilot combinations are different.
 
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the method further comprises:
sending, by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU, a pilot sequence in a code element-pilot combination corresponding to the N groups of encoded data.
 
4. A data transmission apparatus, comprising:

a determining unit (810), configured to determine a contention transmission unit CTU to be used by to-be-sent uplink data, wherein the CTU is a transmission resource comprising at least a time domain resource, a frequency domain resource, and a code domain resource;

an encoding unit (820), configured to encode the to-be-sent uplink data by using N different code element groups in the code domain resource corresponding to the CTU determined by the determining unit, to obtain N groups of encoded data, wherein N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2; and

a sending unit (830), configured to send the N groups of encoded data by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the CTU determined by the determining unit;

wherein each group of the N groups of encoded data comprises a control word and a data portion, wherein the control word is used to instruct a receive end whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data.


 
5. The apparatus according to claim 4, wherein control words comprised in P groups of the N groups of encoded data are used to instruct the receive end to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion in the encoded data, wherein channel encoding bit rates of data portions in the P groups of encoded data are the same, and P is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and less than or equal to N.
 
6. The apparatus according to claim 5, wherein a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the control word by the encoding unit is less than a bit rate for performing channel encoding on the data portion in the to-be-sent uplink data.
 
7. The apparatus according to any one of claims 4 to 6, wherein a code element in the code domain resource is a Code Division Multiple Access CDMA code, a sparse code multiple access SCMA codebook, or a low-density signature LDS sequence.
 
8. The apparatus according to claim 7, wherein the SCMA codebook comprises two or more code words, the code word is a multi-dimensional complex number vector, and is used to represent a mapping relationship between data and at least two modulation symbols, and the at least two modulation symbols comprise at least one zero modulation symbol and at least one non-zero modulation symbol.
 
9. The apparatus according to any one of claims 4 to 8, wherein the transmission resource further comprises a pilot resource, wherein the code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination, pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal, and code elements in code element groups in different code element-pilot combinations are different.
 
10. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the sending unit (830) is further configured to:
send, by using the time domain and frequency domain resources that are corresponding to the determined CTU, a pilot sequence in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to the N groups of encoded data.
 
11. A data transmission apparatus, comprising:

a first decoding unit (1010), configured to decode, by using a code element of a code domain resource of a contention transmission unit CTU, a control word in uplink data received on time domain and frequency domain resources of the CTU, to obtain instruction information, wherein the CTU is a transmission resource comprising at least the time domain resource, the frequency domain resource, and the code domain resource, and the instruction information is used to instruct whether to perform combined decoding on a corresponding data portion; and

a second decoding unit (1020), configured to perform combined decoding on data portions of uplink data that is sent by a same terminal device and in which the instruction information instructs to perform combined decoding on the corresponding data portions of the uplink data.


 
12. The apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the transmission resource further comprises a pilot resource, wherein the code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination, pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal, and code elements in different code element-pilot combinations are different;
before the decoding a control word in uplink data by using a code element of the CTU to obtain instruction information, the apparatus further comprises a detection unit (1110), configured to perform, on the time domain resource and the frequency domain resource of the CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination; and
the first decoding unit (1120) is specifically configured to:
decode the control word in the uplink data by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection, to obtain the instruction information.
 
13. The transmission apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the apparatus further comprises:

a detection unit, configured to perform, on time domain and frequency domain resources of the contention transmission unit CTU, blind detection of a pilot in a code element-pilot combination, wherein the transmission resource further comprises a pilot resource, a code element of the code domain resource and the pilot resource constitute a code element-pilot combination, and pilots in different code element-pilot combinations are mutually orthogonal;

the first decoding unit, specifically configured to decode, by using code elements in code element-pilot combinations corresponding to a pilot sequence obtained by means of blind detection by the detection unit, the control word in uplink data received on the time domain and frequency domain resources of the CTU, to obtain the instruction information.


 


Ansprüche

1. Datenübertragungsverfahren, umfassend:

Bestimmen (310) einer Wettbewerbsübertragungseinheit bzw. CTU ("Contention Transmission Unit"), die durch zu sendende Uplink-Daten zu verwenden ist, wobei die CTU eine Übertragungsressource ist, die zumindest eine Zeitbereichsressource, eine Frequenzbereichsressource und eine Codedomänenressource umfasst;

Codieren (320) der zu sendenden Uplink-Daten unter Verwendung von N unterschiedlichen Codeelementgruppen in der Codedomänenressource entsprechend der bestimmten CTU, um N Gruppen von codierten Daten zu erhalten, wobei N eine positive ganze Zahl größer als oder gleich 2 ist; und

Senden (330) der N Gruppen von codierten Daten unter Verwendung der Zeitbereichs- und Frequenzbereichsressourcen, die der bestimmten CTU entsprechen;

wobei jede Gruppe der N Gruppen von codierten Daten ein Steuerwort und einen Datenteil umfasst, wobei das Steuerwort verwendet wird, um ein Empfangsende anzuweisen, ob eine kombinierte Decodierung an einem entsprechenden Datenteil in den codierten Daten durchzuführen ist.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Übertragungsressource ferner eine Pilotressource umfasst, wobei das Codeelement der Codedomänenressource und die Pilotressource eine Codeelement-Pilot-Kombination bilden, wobei Piloten in unterschiedlichen Codedomänenelement-Pilot-Kombinationen gegenseitig orthogonal sind und Codeelemente in Codeelementgruppen in unterschiedlichen Codeelement-Pilot-Kombinationen unterschiedlich sind.
 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Verfahren ferner Folgendes umfasst:
Senden, unter Verwendung der Zeitbereichs- und Frequenzbereichsressourcen, die der bestimmten CTU entsprechen, einer Pilotsequenz in einer Codeelement-Pilot-Kombination entsprechend den N Gruppen von codierten Daten.
 
4. Datenübertragungsvorrichtung, umfassend:

eine Bestimmungseinheit (810), die ausgelegt ist zum Bestimmen einer Wettbewerbsübertragungseinheit bzw. CTU, die durch zu sendende Uplink-Daten zu verwenden ist, wobei die CTU eine Übertragungsressource ist, die zumindest eine Zeitbereichsressource, eine Frequenzbereichsressource und eine Codedomänenressource umfasst;

eine Codierungseinheit (820), die ausgelegt ist zum Codieren der zu sendenden Uplink-Daten unter Verwendung von N unterschiedlichen Codeelementgruppen in der Codedomänenressource entsprechend der durch die Bestimmungseinheit bestimmten CTU, um N Gruppen von codierten Daten zu erhalten, wobei N eine positive ganze Zahl größer als oder gleich 2 ist; und

eine Sendeeinheit (830), die ausgelegt ist zum Senden der N Gruppen von codierten Daten unter Verwendung der Zeitbereichs- und Frequenzbereichsressourcen, die der durch die Bestimmungseinheit bestimmten CTU entsprechen;

wobei jede Gruppe der N Gruppen von codierten Daten ein Steuerwort und einen Datenteil umfasst, wobei das Steuerwort verwendet wird, um ein Empfangsende anzuweisen, ob eine kombinierte Decodierung an einem entsprechenden Datenteil in den codierten Daten durchzuführen ist.


 
5. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 4, wobei Steuerwörter, die in P Gruppen der N Gruppen von codierten Daten enthalten sind, verwendet werden, um das Empfangsende anzuweisen, eine kombinierte Decodierung an einem entsprechenden Datenteil in den codierten Daten durchzuführen, wobei Kanalcodierungsbitraten von Datenteilen in den P Gruppen von codierten Daten die gleichen sind und P eine positive ganze Zahl größer als oder gleich 2 und geringer als oder gleich N ist.
 
6. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 5, wobei eine Bitrate zum Durchführen einer Kanalcodierung an dem Steuerwort durch die Codierungseinheit geringer als eine Bitrate zum Durchführen einer Kanalcodierung an dem Datenteil in den zu sendenden Uplink-Daten ist.
 
7. Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 6, wobei ein Codeelement in der Codedomänenressource ein CDMA("Code Division Multiple Access")-Code, ein SCMA("Sparse Code Multiple Access")-Codebuch oder eine LDS("Low-Density Signature")-Sequenz ist.
 
8. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 7, wobei das SCMA-Codebuch zwei oder mehr Codewörter umfasst, das Codewort ein mehrdimensionaler komplexzahliger Vektor ist und zum Repräsentieren einer Abbildungsbeziehung zwischen Daten und mindestens zwei Modulationssymbolen verwendet wird und die mindestens zwei Modulationssymbole mindestens ein Modulationssymbol gleich null und mindestens ein Modulationssymbol ungleich null umfassen.
 
9. Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 8, wobei die Übertragungsressource ferner eine Pilotressource umfasst, wobei das Codeelement der Codedomänenressource und die Pilotressource eine Codeelement-Pilot-Kombination bilden, Piloten in unterschiedlichen Codeelement-Pilot-Kombinationen gegenseitig orthogonal sind und Codeelemente in Codeelementgruppen in unterschiedlichen Codeelement-Pilot-Kombinationen unterschiedlich sind.
 
10. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 9, wobei die Sendeeinheit (830) ferner für Folgendes ausgelegt ist:
Senden, unter Verwendung der Zeitbereichs- und Frequenzbereichsressourcen, die der bestimmten CTU entsprechen, einer Pilotsequenz in Codeelement-Pilot-Kombinationen entsprechend den N Gruppen von codierten Daten.
 
11. Datenübertragungsvorrichtung, umfassend:

eine erste Decodierungseinheit (1010), die ausgelegt ist zum Decodieren, unter Verwendung eines Codeelements einer Codedomänenressource einer Wettbewerbsübertragungseinheit bzw. CTU, eines Steuerworts in Uplink-Daten, die auf Zeitbereichs- und Frequenzbereichsressourcen der CTU empfangen werden, um Anweisungsinformationen zu erhalten, wobei die CTU eine Übertragungsressource ist, die zumindest die Zeitbereichsressource, die Frequenzbereichsressource und die Codedomänenressource umfasst, und die Anweisungsinformationen verwendet werden, um anzuweisen, ob eine kombinierte Decodierung an einem entsprechenden Datenteil durchzuführen ist; und

eine zweite Decodierungseinheit (1020), die ausgelegt ist zum Durchführen einer kombinierten Decodierung an Datenteilen von Uplink-Daten, die durch dieselbe Endgeräteeinrichtung gesendet werden und in denen die Anweisungsinformationen anweisen, eine kombinierte Decodierung an den entsprechenden Datenteilen der Uplink-Daten durchzuführen.


 
12. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 11, wobei die Übertragungsressource ferner eine Pilotressource umfasst, wobei das Codeelement der Codedomänenressource und die Pilotressource eine Codeelement-Pilot-Kombination bilden, Piloten in unterschiedlichen Codeelement-Pilot-Kombinationen gegenseitig orthogonal sind und Codeelemente in unterschiedlichen Codeelement-Pilot-Kombinationen unterschiedlich sind;
wobei vor dem Decodieren eines Steuerworts in Uplink-Daten unter Verwendung eines Codeelements der CTU, um Anweisungsinformationen zu erhalten, die Vorrichtung ferner eine Detektionseinheit (1110) umfasst, die ausgelegt ist zum Durchführen, auf der Zeitbereichsressource und der Frequenzbereichsressource der CTU, einer Blinddetektion eines Piloten in einer Codeelement-Pilot-Kombination; und
wobei die erste Decodierungseinheit (1120) spezifisch für Folgendes ausgelegt ist: Decodieren des Steuerworts in den Uplink-Daten unter Verwendung von Codeelementen in Codeelement-Pilot-Kombinationen entsprechend einer Pilotsequenz, die mittels der Blinddetektion erhalten wird, um die Anweisungsinformationen zu erhalten.
 
13. Übertragungsvorrichtung nach Anspruch 11, wobei die Vorrichtung ferner Folgendes umfasst:

eine Detektionseinheit, die ausgelegt ist zum Durchführen, an Zeitbereichs- und Frequenzbereichsressourcen der Wettbewerbsübertragungseinheit bzw. CTU, einer Blinddetektion eines Piloten in einer Codeelement-Pilot-Kombination, wobei die Übertragungsressource ferner eine Pilotressource umfasst, ein Codeelement der Codedomänenressource und die Pilotressource eine Codeelement-Pilot-Kombination bilden und Piloten in unterschiedlichen Codeelement-Pilot-Kombinationen gegenseitig orthogonal sind;

wobei die erste Decodierungseinheit spezifisch ausgelegt ist zum Decodieren, unter Verwendung von Codeelementen in Codeelement-Pilot-Kombinationen entsprechend einer Pilotsequenz, die mittels einer Blinddetektion durch die Detektionseinheit erhalten wird, des Steuerworts in Uplink-Daten, die auf den Zeitbereichs- und Frequenzbereichsressourcen der CTU empfangen werden, um die Anweisungsinformationen zu erhalten.


 


Revendications

1. Procédé de transmission de données, comprenant les étapes suivantes:

déterminer (310) une unité de transmission de contention, CTU, à utiliser par des données de liaison montante à envoyer, dans lequel la CTU est une ressource de transmission comprenant au moins une ressource de domaine temporel, une ressource de domaine de fréquence et une ressource de domaine de code;

coder (320) les données de liaison montante à envoyer en utilisant N groupes d'éléments de code différents dans la ressource de domaine de code qui correspond à la CTU déterminée, pour obtenir N groupes de données codées, dans lequel N est un entier positif supérieur ou égal à 2; et

envoyer (330) les N groupes de données codées en utilisant les ressources de domaine temporel et de domaine de fréquence qui correspondent à la CTU déterminée;

dans lequel chaque groupe des N groupes de données codées comprend un mot de commande et une partie de données, dans lequel le mot de commande est utilisé pour donner l'instruction à une extrémité de réception d'exécuter ou non un décodage combiné sur une partie de données correspondante dans les données codées.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la ressource de transmission comprend en outre une ressource pilote, dans lequel l'élément de code de la ressource de domaine de code et la ressource pilote constituent une combinaison élément de code - pilote, des pilotes dans différentes combinaisons élément de domaine de code - pilote sont mutuellement orthogonaux, et des éléments de code dans des groupes d'éléments de code dans différentes combinaisons élément de code - pilote sont différents.
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le procédé comprend en outre l'étape consistant à envoyer, en utilisant les ressources de domaine temporel et domaine de fréquence qui correspondent à la CTU déterminée, une séquence pilote dans une combinaison élément de code - pilote qui correspond aux N groupes de données codées.
 
4. Appareil de transmission de données, comprenant:

une unité de détermination (810), configurée de manière à déterminer une unité de transmission de contention, CTU, à utiliser par des données de liaison montante à envoyer, dans lequel la CTU est une ressource de transmission comprenant au moins une ressource de domaine temporel, une ressource de domaine de fréquence et une ressource de domaine de code;

une unité de codage (820), configurée de manière à coder les données de liaison montante à envoyer en utilisant N groupes d'éléments de code différents dans la ressource de domaine de code qui correspond à la CTU déterminée par l'unité de détermination, pour obtenir N groupes de données codées, dans lequel N est un entier positif supérieur ou égal à 2; et

une unité d'envoi (830), configurée de manière à envoyer les N groupes de données codées en utilisant les ressources de domaine temporel et de domaine de fréquence qui correspondent à la CTU déterminée par l'unité de détermination;

dans lequel chaque groupe des N groupes de données codées comprend un mot de commande et une partie de données, dans lequel le mot de commande est utilisé pour donner l'instruction à une extrémité de réception d'exécuter ou non un décodage combiné sur une partie de données correspondante dans les données codées.


 
5. Appareil selon la revendication 4, dans lequel des mots de commande compris dans P groupes des N groupes de données codées sont utilisés pour donner l'instruction à l'extrémité de réception d'exécuter un décodage combiné sur une partie de données correspondante dans les données codées, dans lequel des débits binaires de codage de canal de parties de données dans les P groupes de données codées sont les mêmes, et P est un entier positif supérieur ou égal à 2 et inférieur ou égal à N.
 
6. Appareil selon la revendication 5, dans lequel un débit binaire pour exécuter un codage de canal sur le mot de commande par l'unité de codage est inférieur à un débit binaire pour exécuter un codage de canal sur la partie de données dans les données de liaison montante à envoyer.
 
7. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 6, dans lequel un élément de code dans la ressource de domaine de code est un code de type accès multiple par différence de code, CDMA, un répertoire d'accès multiple à code clairsemé, SCMA, ou une séquence de signature à faible densité, LDS.
 
8. Appareil selon la revendication 7, dans lequel le répertoire SCMA comprend deux ou plus de deux mots codes, le mot code étant un vecteur de nombre complexe multidimensionnel, et étant utilisé pour représenter une relation de mappage entre des données et au moins deux symboles de modulation, et lesdits au moins deux symboles de modulation comprennent au moins un symbole de modulation zéro et au moins un symbole de modulation non nul.
 
9. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 8, dans lequel la ressource de transmission comprend en outre une ressource pilote, dans lequel l'élément de code de la ressource de domaine de code et la ressource pilote constituent une combinaison élément de code - pilote, des pilotes dans différentes combinaisons élément de domaine de code - pilote sont mutuellement orthogonaux, et des éléments de code dans des groupes d'éléments de code dans différentes combinaisons élément de code - pilote sont différents.
 
10. Appareil selon la revendication 9, dans lequel l'unité d'envoi (830) est en outre configurée de manière à envoyer, en utilisant les ressources de domaine temporel et de domaine de fréquence qui correspondent à la CTU déterminée, une séquence pilote dans des combinaisons élément de code - pilote qui correspondent aux N groupes de données codées.
 
11. Appareil de transmission de données, comprenant:

une première unité de décodage (1010), configurée de manière à décoder, en utilisant un élément de code d'une ressource de domaine de code d'une unité de transmission de contention, CTU, un mot de commande dans des données de liaison montante reçues sur des ressources de domaine temporel et de domaine de fréquence de la CTU, pour obtenir des informations d'instruction, dans lequel la CTU est une ressource de transmission comprenant au moins la ressource de domaine temporel, la ressource de domaine de fréquence et la ressource de domaine de code, et les informations d'instruction sont utilisées pour donner l'instruction d'exécuter un décodage combiné sur une partie de données correspondante; et

une seconde unité de décodage (1020), configurée de manière à exécuter un décodage combiné sur des parties de données de données de liaison montante qui sont envoyées par un même dispositif terminal, et dans lequel les informations d'instruction donnent l'instruction d'exécuter un décodage combiné sur les parties de données correspondantes des données de liaison montante.


 
12. Appareil selon la revendication 11, dans lequel la ressource de transmission comprend en outre une ressource pilote, dans lequel l'élément de code de la ressource de domaine de code et la ressource pilote constituent une combinaison élément de code - pilote, des pilotes dans différentes combinaisons élément de code - pilote sont mutuellement orthogonaux, et des éléments de code dans différentes combinaisons élément de code - pilote sont différents;
avant le décodage d'un mot de commande dans des données de liaison montante en utilisant un élément de code de la CTU pour obtenir des informations d'instruction, l'appareil comprend en outre une unité de détection (1110), configurée de manière à exécuter, sur la ressource de domaine temporel et la ressource de domaine de fréquence de la CTU, une détection aveugle d'un pilote dans une combinaison élément de code - pilote; et
la première unité de décodage (1120) est spécifiquement configurée de manière à décoder le mot de commande dans les données de liaison montante en utilisant des éléments de code dans des combinaisons élément de code - pilote qui correspondent à une séquence pilote obtenue au moyen de la détection aveugle, afin d'obtenir les informations d'instruction.
 
13. Appareil selon la revendication 11, dans lequel l'appareil comprend en outre:

une unité de détection, configurée de manière à exécuter, sur des ressources de domaine temporel et de domaine de fréquence d'une unité de transmission de contention, CTU, une détection aveugle d'un pilote dans une combinaison élément de code - pilote, dans lequel la ressource de transmission comprend en outre une ressource pilote, un élément de code de la ressource de domaine de code et la ressource pilote constituent une combinaison élément de code - pilote, et des pilotes dans différentes combinaisons élément de code - pilote sont mutuellement orthogonaux;

la première unité de décodage, spécifiquement configurée de manière à décoder, en utilisant des éléments de code dans des combinaisons élément de code - pilote qui correspondent à une séquence pilote obtenue au moyen de la détection aveugle par l'unité de détection, le mot de commande dans des données de liaison montante reçues sur les ressources de domaine temporel et de domaine de fréquence de la CTU, afin d'obtenir les informations d'instruction.


 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




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