(19)
(11)EP 3 307 856 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
15.09.2021 Bulletin 2021/37

(21)Application number: 16839694.3

(22)Date of filing:  25.08.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C10L 10/00(2006.01)
C10L 1/19(2006.01)
C10L 1/188(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
C10L 2270/023; C10L 1/1824; C10L 1/18; C10L 2230/22; C10L 2270/04; C10L 1/19; C10L 1/14; C10L 1/1881; C10L 1/1616; C10L 2270/026
(86)International application number:
PCT/RU2016/000575
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/034443 (02.03.2017 Gazette  2017/09)

(54)

FUEL ADDITIVE

KRAFTSTOFFADDITIV

ADDITIF POUR CARBURANT


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 26.08.2015 RU 2015136187

(43)Date of publication of application:
18.04.2018 Bulletin 2018/16

(73)Proprietor: Innotech Ltd.
Moscow 119192 (RU)

(72)Inventors:
  • DOYKHEN, Dmitry Yurievich
    Moscow Region Zhukovskiy 140180 (RU)
  • PETROV, Dmitriy Georgievich
    Altai Territory Byisk 659300 (RU)
  • SHTERENLIKHT, Vadim Davydovich
    Moscow 129626 (RU)

(74)Representative: AAA Patendibüroo OÜ 
Tartu mnt 16
10117 Tallinn
10117 Tallinn (EE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-B1- 0 839 174
RU-C1- 2 254 358
US-A1- 2003 061 761
WO-A1-02/079353
US-A- 5 876 467
  
  • DELGADO ET AL: "Kinetic study for esterification of lactic acid with ethanol and hydrolysis of ethyl lactate using an ion-exchange resin catalyst", CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 126, no. 2-3, 7 February 2007 (2007-02-07), pages 111-118, XP005903414, ISSN: 1385-8947, DOI: 10.1016/J.CEJ.2006.09.004
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to hydrocarbon fuel additives.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] From the prior art according to the present invention there are many hydrocarbon fuels additives. However practice demonstrates that the effectiveness of most additives has not been proven yet.

[0003] WO02/079353 discloses a fuel additive blend that improves the fuel economy. The fuel additive blend comprises an organic solvent, an ester of a polyhydroxy alcohol and an ethoxylated fatty amine.

[0004] The task that underlies the present invention and the achievable technical result is to reduce the hydrocarbon fuel consumption in gasoline and diesel internal combustion engines, boiler units, and, accordingly, increase the efficiency of these devices, as well as to extend an arsenal of tools to reduce the hydrocarbon fuel consumption and improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines and boiler units.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0005] The invention is defined by the appended claims.

[0006] The problem is solved by using the hydrocarbon fuel additive that is a solution of the active complex in an organic solvent, where the active complex consists of: chiral ester C4-C9, monocarboxylic acid C1-C6.

[0007] This additive in hydrocarbon fuels ensures a reduction in fuel consumption ranging from 4.7 to 9.9%.

[0008] In this case the molar ratio of chiral ester to monocarboxylic acid in the active complex is preferably from 60:40 to 90:10.

[0009] In this case, the additive maximum efficiency is achieved.

[0010] The amount of the active complex in the additive is preferably from 0.5 to 12% mass.

[0011] This concentration range ensures the precise dosage of the additive and, accordingly, the precise dosage of the active complex in the fuel, and it excludes the impact of solvent on the active complex as for the fuel properties.

[0012] It is advisable, that the organic solvent provides the dissolution of the active complex with the true solution formation and provides the dissolution of the additive in hydrocarbon fuel with the true solution formation, as even a partial formation of an additive colloidal solution in the fuel or a partial additive settling-out reduces the additive effectiveness.

[0013] It is also preferably to add the additive in the hydrocarbon fuel so that to ensure the concentration of the active complex in hydrocarbon fuel from 1*10-6 to 25.0*10-6 moles per liter.

[0014] In this case, the maximum additive efficiency is achieved.

[0015] The problem is also solved by using the hydrocarbon fuel additive active complex comprising chiral ester C4-C9 and monocarboxylic acid C1-C6.

[0016] This active complex in the hydrocarbon fuel provides the decrease in the fuel consumption from 4.7 to 9.9%.

[0017] In this case the molar ratio of chiral ester to monocarboxylic acid in the active complex is preferably from 60:40 to 90:10.

[0018] In this case, the additive maximum efficiency is achieved.

[0019] The problem is also solved by using the hydrocarbon fuel comprising: chiral ester C4-C9 and monocarboxylic acid C1 -C6.

[0020] These components in hydrocarbon fuels ensure the reduction in fuel consumption from 4.7 to 9.9%.

[0021] In this case the molar ratio of chiral ester to monocarboxylic acid is preferably from 60:40 to 90:10.

[0022] In this case the additive maximum efficiency is achieved.

[0023] It is also preferably that the total concentration of the chiral ester and the monocarboxylic acid in the hydrocarbon fuel is from 1*10-6 to 25.0*10-6 moles per liter.

[0024] In this case the additive maximum efficiency is achieved.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0025] According to the present invention, the additive active complex to the hydrocarbon fuel consists of two components:
  • chiral ester (hereinafter, CE) with the number of carbon atoms from 4 to 9 (C4 - C9);
  • monocarboxylic acid with number of carbon atoms from 1 to 6 (C1 - C6).


[0026] As shown in the experimental data, when chiral ester with the total number of carbon atoms more than 9 (10 or more) is used in the additive, the additive becomes
unstable. The fuel additive may form a colloidal mixture (the fuel clouding in case the additive is added) or the additive settling-out. This negative effect for chiral esters C10 and more is particularly evident at low temperatures (minus 5°C and below).

[0027] Thus, as the result of the carried-out experiments it was determined that the CE usage with the number of carbon atoms more than 9 (10 or more) is impossible. The minimum number of carbon atoms in CE is four.

[0028] The possibility of achieving the claimed technical result, namely, the reduced hydrocarbon fuel consumption, is confirmed by the experimental data.

[0029] The experiments were carried out on the basis of the SAK-P-670 brake stand with the UMP 4216.10 gasoline engine (the experiments 1-8) and with the D-145T diesel engine(the experiments 9-16), as well as the SV-1,76 hot- water boiler (the experiments 17-24). In the process of bench testing on one engine, at first the fuel consumption without the additive was measured, and then - the fuel consumption with the additive. The engine behavior (the crankshaft torque moment and rotation frequency) for both fuels was maintained unchanged, the nominal one for this engine. During the experiments on the boiler unit at first, the fuel consumption without the additive was measured, then the fuel consumption with the additive. The operating parameters of the boiler unit (the heating capacity, the fuel oil pressure and temperature before the injector, the pressure of the primary and the secondary air) for both fuels were maintained unchanged. The measurement accuracy of the fuel consumption is ± 1 %.

[0030] The experiments 1-8 were carried out for automobile gasoline.

Experiment 1



[0031] In the experiment 1, the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropionate (C4);

formic acid (C1).



[0032] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0033] The Al92 gasoline was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0034] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 1.
Table 1. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.4 0.6 0.7 0.3
1.0 0.2 4.8 6.1 -0.2
25.0 0.4 5.2 5.3 -0.4
30.0 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4


[0035] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of fuel saving in the range from 4.8% to 6.1% is observed when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0*10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0036] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits , the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 2



[0037] In the experiment 2, the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9);

formic acid (C1).



[0038] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0039] The gasoline Al92 was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0040] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 2.
Table 2. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.5
1.0 -0.1 5.7 6.2 0.4
25.0 0 5.2 6.3 -0.1
30.0 -0.4 0.2 -0.3 -0.2


[0041] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of fuel saving in the range from 5.7 to 6.3% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10, and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0042] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits , the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 3



[0043] In the experiment 3 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester isobutyl-R-lactate (C7);

propionic acid (C3).



[0044] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0045] The gasoline Al92 was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0046] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 3.
Table 3. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.4
1.0 -0.2 5.9 6.0 0.2
25.0 0.1 6.2 7.3 0.1
30.0 0.3 0.3 0 -0.2


[0047] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of fuel saving in the range from 5.9 to 7.3% is observed when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0048] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits , the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 4



[0049] In the experiment 4 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4);

hexanoic acid (C6).



[0050] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0051] The gasoline Al92 was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0052] The results of the experiment are given in the Table 4.
Table 4. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.1 0.6 0.6 -0.4
1.0 0.1 4.7 5.0 -0.2
25.0 -0.4 4.7 5.3 0.2
30.0 0.5 0.4 0.5 -0.4


[0053] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of fuel saving range from 4.7 to 5.3% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90: 10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0*10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0054] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits , the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 5



[0055] In the experiment 5 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9);

hexanoic acid (C6).



[0056] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5

[0057] The gasoline Al92 was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0058] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 5.
Table 5. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.1 0.5 0.4 0.4
1.0 -0.1 4.9 5.6 0.3
25.0 -0.4 4.8 5.3 0.4
30.0 0.2 0.5 -0.4 -0.3


[0059] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of fuel saving in the range from 4.8 to 5.6% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90: 10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0060] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits, the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 6



[0061] In the experiment 6 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4);

heptanoic acid (C7).



[0062] The molar ratio of the CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0063] The gasoline Al92 was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0064] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 6.
Table 6. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.2 0.6 0.3 0.4
1.0 -0.2 0.8 0.5 0.3
25.0 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.4
30.0 0.2 0.5 -0.4 -0.3


[0065] As follows from the experimental data in the whole range of the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid, the additive impact on fuel consumption is in the range of the measurement error.

Experiment 7



[0066] In the experiment 7 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9);

heptanoic acid (C7).



[0067] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0068] The gasoline Al92 was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0069] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 7.
Table 7. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.2
1.0 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.2
25.0 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.5
30.0 0.2 0.4 -0.1 -0.4


[0070] As follows from the experimental data in the whole range of the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid, the additive impact on fuel consumption is in the range of the measurement error.

[0071] The experiment was carried-out with the additive, where the chiral ester was replaced by the achiral ester (AE).

Experiment 8



[0072] In the experiment 8 the additive of the following composition was used:

achiral ester n-amylacetate (C7);

propionic acid (C3).



[0073] The molar ratio of AE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0074] The gasoline Al92 was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0075] The results of the experiment are given in the Table 8.
Table 8. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.3 0.4 -0.2 0.1
1.0 -0.3 -0.5 0.5 -0.2
25.0 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.4
30.0 -0.2 0.1 -0.2 0.3


[0076] As follows from the experimental data in the whole range of the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of AE to the acid, the additive impact on fuel consumption is in the range of the measurement error.

[0077] As follows from the above-mentioned data, the active complex according to the present invention has a positive effect on the gasoline consumption. The fuel economy is ranged from 4.7 to 7.3%.

[0078] The experiments 9-16 were carried-out for diesel.

Experiment 9



[0079] In the experiment 9 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4);

formic acid (C1).



[0080] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0081] The diesel fuel, L-02-62 brand, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 28*10-6 moles per liter.

[0082] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 9.
Table 9. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
55:4560:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
1.0 -0.4 5.1 6.2 0.2
25.0 0.3 5.2 6.3 -0.2
28.0 -0.4 -0.4 0.5 0.5


[0083] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of the fuel saving with the range from 5.1 to 6.3% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0084] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits , the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 10



[0085] In the experiment 10 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9);

formic acid (C1).



[0086] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0087] The diesel fuel, L-02-62 brand, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 28*10-6 moles per liter.

[0088] The results of the experiment are given in table 10.
Table 10. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
55:4560:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 -0.7
1.0 -0.3 6.5 6.7 0.3
25.0 -0.7 5.9 7.7 -0.1
28.0 -0.4 0.3 -0.4 0.4


[0089] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of fuel saving in the range from 5.9 to 7.7% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90: 10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0090] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits , the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 11



[0091] In the experiment 11 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester isobutyl-R-lactate (C7);

propionic acid (C3).



[0092] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0093] The diesel fuel, L-02-62 brand, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 28*10-6 moles per liter.

[0094] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 11.
Table 11. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
55:4560:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.5 0.6 0.3 0.4
1.0 0.2 6.9 6.0 -0.1
25.0 0.3 7.0 8.3 0.5
28.0 0.3 -0.3 0.6 0.8


[0095] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of fuel saving in the range from 6.0 to 8.3% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0096] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits, the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 12



[0097] In the experiment 12 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4);

hexanoic acid (C6).



[0098] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0099] The diesel fuel, L-02-62 brand, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 28*10-6 moles per liter.

[0100] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 12.
Table 12. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
55:4560:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.2 0.7 0.7 -0.3
1.0 -0.2 4.7 6.9 -0.2
25.0 -0.4 5.6 5.4 0.4
28.0 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.6


[0101] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of the fuel saving in the range from 4.7 to 6.9% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90: 10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0102] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits , the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 13



[0103] In the experiment 13 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester S-2-methyl -3- methylbutylpropanoate (C9);

hexanoic acid (C6).



[0104] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0105] The diesel fuel, L-02-62 brand, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 28*10-6 moles per liter.

[0106] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 13.
Table 13. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
55:4560:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.2 0.2 -0.7 0.4
1.0 -0.8 4.9 6.6 0.6
25.0 -0.5 5.8 7.3 0.8
28.0 0.4 0.9 -0.1 -0.1


[0107] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of the fuel saving range from 4.9 to 7.3% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0108] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits, the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 14



[0109] In the experiment 14 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4);

heptanoic acid (C7).



[0110] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0111] The diesel fuel, L-02-62 brand, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 28*10-6 moles per liter.

[0112] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 14.
Table 14. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
55:4560:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.2 0.6 -0.3 0.4
1.0 -0.1 0.8 0.5 -0.3
25.0 -0.3 0.9 0.7 0.4
28.0 0.8 0.9 0.8 -0.3


[0113] As follows from the experimental data in the whole range of the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid, the additive impact on the fuel consumption is in the range of the measurement error.

Experiment 15



[0114] In experiment 15 was used additive of the following composition:

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9);

heptanoic acid (C7).



[0115] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0116] The diesel fuel, L-02-62 brand, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 28*10-6 moles per liter.

[0117] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 15.
Table 15. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
55:4560:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.4 0.5 -0.2 -0.2
1.0 0.3 0.3 -0.5 -0.4
25.0 0.1 0.8 0.3 0.5
28.0 0.2 0.6 0.8 -0.3


[0118] As follows from the experimental data in the whole range of the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid, the additive impact on the fuel consumption is in the range of the measurement error.

[0119] The experiment was also carried-out with the additive, where the chiral ester was replaced by the achiral ester (AE).

Experiment 16



[0120] In the experiment 16 the additive of the following composition was used:

achiral ester n-amylacetate (C7);

propionic acid (C3)



[0121] The molar ratio of AE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0122] The diesel fuel, L-02-62 brand, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 28*10-6 moles per liter.

[0123] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 16.
Table 16. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
55:4560:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.3 0.4 -0.2 0.1
1.0 -0.3 -0.5 0.5 -0.2
25.0 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.4
28.0 -0.2 0.1 -0.2 0.3


[0124] As follows from the experimental data in the whole range of the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of AE to the acid, the additive impact on the fuel consumption is in the range of the measurement error.

[0125] As can be seen from the above-mentioned data, the active complex, according to the present invention, has a positive effect on the diesel fuel consumption. The fuel economy is ranged from 4.7 to 8.3%.

[0126] In case of making of the active complex with the composition that is beyond the scope of the present invention or where the achiral ester is used any impact on fuel savings is not observed.

[0127] The experiments 17-24 were carried-out for fuel oil.

Experiment 17



[0128] In the experiment 17 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4);

formic acid (C1).



[0129] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0130] The fuel oil, M-100 grade, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0131] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 17.
Table 17. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.2 0.7 0.5 0.3
1.0 -0.1 8.8 7.1 0.4
25.0 0.4 8.2 9.3 0.3
30.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4


[0132] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of the fuel saving in the range from 7.1 to 9.3% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0133] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 18



[0134] In the experiment 18 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9);

formic acid (C1).



[0135] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0136] The fuel oil, M-100 grade, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount from 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0137] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 18.
Table 18. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.5
1.0 0.6 9.6 7.2 1.2
25.0 0.5 8.8 7.4 0.9
30.0 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.7


[0138] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of the fuel saving in the range from 7.2 to 9.6% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0139] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits , the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 19



[0140] In the experiment 19 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester isobutyl-R-lactate (C7);

propionic acid (C3).



[0141] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0142] The fuel oil, M-100 grade, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount of 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0143] The results of the experiment are shown in table 19.
Table 19. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.5
1.0 -0.2 9.9 8.1 0.9
25.0 0.6 7.2 8.0 0.2
30.0 0.4 0.8 0.6 -0.2


[0144] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of the fuel saving in the range from 7.2 to 9.9% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90: 10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0145] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits, the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 20



[0146] In the experiment 20 was used additive of the following composition:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4);

hexanoic acid (C6).



[0147] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0148] The fuel oil, M-100 grade, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel M-100. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount of 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0149] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 20.
Table 20. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.5 0.7 0.4 1.1
1.0 0.5 8.7 7.0 -0.9
25.0 -0.1 8.7 8.3 0.6
30.0 0.4 0.6 1.0 -0.8


[0150] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of the fuel saving in the range from 7.0 to 8.7% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0151] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits , the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error, and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 21



[0152] In the experiment 21 was used additive of the following composition:

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9);

hexanoic acid (C6).



[0153] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0154] The fuel oil, M-100 grade, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel M-100. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount of 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0155] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 21.
Table 21. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.9 0.1 0.6 0.4
1.0 0.8 9.9 8.6 0.9
25.0 0.4 6.8 7.3 0.4
30.0 0.8 1.2 -0.4 1.3


[0156] As follows from the experimental data, the positive effect of the fuel saving in the range from 6.8 to 9.9% is observed, when the molar ratio of CE to the acid is in the range from 60:40 to 90:10 and the active complex concentration in the fuel is from 1.0-10-6 to 25*10-6 moles per liter.

[0157] When the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid are below and above the specified limits the fuel rate reduction is within the measurement error and the positive effect is not observed.

Experiment 22



[0158] In the experiment 22 the additive of the following composition was used:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4);

heptanoic acid (C7).



[0159] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0160] The fuel oil, M-100 grade, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel M-100. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount of 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0161] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 22.
Table 22. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 -0.8 0.6 0.1 0.5
1.0 -0.2 -0.8 0.7 1.3
25.0 0.9 1.2 -0.3 0.4
30.0 0.2 0.5 -0.4 -1.3


[0162] As follows from the experimental data in the whole range of the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid, the additive impact on the fuel consumption is in the range of the measurement error.

Experiment 23



[0163] In the experiment 23 the additive of the following composition

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9);

heptanoic acid (C7).



[0164] The molar ratio of CE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0165] The fuel oil, M-100 grade, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel M-100. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount of 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0166] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 23.
Table 23. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.2
1.0 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.8
25.0 -0.2 1.6 0.9 0.5
30.0 0.6 0.4 -0.1 -0.4


[0167] As follows from the experimental data in the whole range of the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of CE to the acid, the additive impact on the fuel consumption is in the range of the measurement error.

[0168] Also an experiment was conducted with the additive, where the chiral ester was replaced by the achiral ester (AE).

Experiment 24



[0169] In the experiment 24 the additive of the following composition was used:

achiral ester n-amylacetate (C7);

propionic acid (C3).



[0170] The molar ratio of AE to the acid ranged from 50:50 to 95:5.

[0171] The fuel oil, M-100 grade, was used as the hydrocarbon fuel M-100. The additive was added to the fuel in the amount of 0.8*10-6 to 30*10-6 moles per liter.

[0172] The results of the experiment are shown in the Table 24.
Table 24. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the active complex in fuel, micromole per literThe molar ratio of CE to acid in the active complex
50:5060:4090:1095:5
0.8 0.4 0.4 -0.1 -0.1
1.0 -0.3 0.4 0.4 -0.2
25.0 0.3 -0.5 -0.2 0.5
30.0 0.1 0.2 -0.3 -0.2


[0173] As follows from the experimental data in the whole range of the active complex concentrations in the fuel and the molar ratios of AE to the acid, the additive impact on the fuel consumption is in the range of the measurement error.

[0174] As can be seen from the above-mentioned data, the active complex, according to the present invention, has a positive effect on the fuel oil consumption. Fuel economy is ranged from 7.0 to 9.9%.

[0175] In the case the active complex manufacturing, with the composition that is beyond the scope of the present invention, or where the achiral ester is used, any impact on the fuel saving is not observed.

[0176] The additional experiments were carried-out with individual CE, AE and the monocarboxylic acid.

[0177] Chiral ester isobutyl-R-lactate (C7) was used as CE.

[0178] Achiral ester n-amylacetate (C7) was used as AE;

[0179] Propionic acid (C3) was used as the monocarboxylic acid.

[0180] The experimental results for gasoline are shown in the Table 25.
Table 25. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the substance in fuel, micromole per literCEAEAcid
0.8 0.3 0.5 -0.1
1.0 0.2 -0.4 0.2
25.0 -0.1 0.5 0.1
30.0 0.1 -0.3 0.1


[0181] The experimental results for the diesel fuel are given in the Table 26.
Table 26. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the substance in fuel, micromole per literCEAEAcid
0.8 0.6 0.6 -0.7
1.0 -0.6 0.5 0.4
25.0 0.8 -0.5 -0.2
30.0 0.4 -0.4 0.1


[0182] The results of the experiments for the residual fuel oil are given in the Table 27.
Table 27. The fuel rate reduction, in %
The concentration of the substance in fuel, micromole per literCEAEAcid
0.8 -0.8 0.5 -0.8
1.0 -0.5 0.6 0.7
25.0 0.3 -0.5 -0.8
30.0 -0.7 0.2 -0.7


[0183] As follows from the obtained results, the individual compounds composing the active complex, as well as the individual AE, do not insure the reduction in fuel consumption.

[0184] To facilitate the fuel use and dosing it is desirable to use a solvent.

[0185] Organic compounds are used as a solvent. For example, aliphatic hydrocarbons C5-C20, aliphatic alcohol C2-C8, C3-C60 ester or their arbitrary mixture.

[0186] The basic requirements to the solvent are as follows:
  • the active compound should be dissolved in the solvent with the true solution formation ;
  • the additive (solvent plus active complex) should be dissolved in the fuel with the true solution formation ;
  • the solvent should not impede the fuel oxidation reaction in an engine.


[0187] The active complex weight content in the additive should be between 0.5 to 12%. The concentration range shall be chosen on the basis of practical reasons. In case the concentration is less than 0.5 %, the solvent starts to exert an independent influence on properties of the fuel, where the additive is added. In case the concentration is above 12%, the problems with dosing accuracy arise.

[0188] According to the present invention, the full-scale tests were carried out with the additive, and the results of the tests are shown in the Tables 1 - 24.

[0189] The fuel economy ranging from 4.7 to 9.9% was recorded for different engine behaviors.

[0190] As can be seen from the above-mentioned data, according to the present invention the active complex has a positive effect on the consumption of various hydrocarbon fuels. It is obvious, that this additive ensures the fuel saving for all types of hydrocarbon fuel, particularly for gasoline, diesel fuel, bunker oil, fuel oil, furnace fuel, etc.


Claims

1. A hydrocarbon fuel additive, being a solution of the active complex in an organic solvent, characterized in that the active complex consists of:
chiral ester C4-C9 and monocarboxylic acid C1-C6, wherein said specific pair of said chiral ester C4-C9 and said monocarboxylic acid C1-C6 are selected from:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropionate (C4) and formic acid (C1),

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4) and formic acid (C1),

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4) and hexanoic acid (C6),

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9) and formic acid (C1),

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9) and hexanoic acid (C6), and

chiral ester isobutyl-R-lactate (C7) and propionic acid (C3).


 
2. The additive according to claim 1, characterized in that the molar ratio of chiral ester to monocarboxylic acid in the active complex ranges from 60:40 to 90:10.
 
3. The additive according to claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the amount of the active complex in the additive ranges from 0.5 to 12% mass.
 
4. The additive according to claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the organic solvent insures the dissolution of the active complex with the true solution formation and insures the additive dissolution in the hydrocarbon fuel with the true solution formation.
 
5. An active complex of an additive to the hydrocarbon fuel, consisting of chiral ester C4-C9 and monocarboxylic acid C1-C6, wherein said specific pair of said chiral ester C4-C9 and said monocarboxylic acid C1-C6 are selected from:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropionate (C4) and formic acid (C1),

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4) and formic acid (C1),

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4) and hexanoic acid (C6),

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9) and formic acid (C1),

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9) and hexanoic acid (C6), and

chiral ester isobutyl-R-lactate (C7) and propionic acid (C3).


 
6. The active complex according to the claim 5, characterized in that the molar ratio of chiral ester to monocarboxylic acid is ranged from 60:40 to 90:10.
 
7. A hydrocarbon fuel, comprising:
chiral ester C4-C9 and monocarboxylic acid C1-C6, wherein said specific pair of said chiral ester C4-C9 and said monocarboxylic acid C1-C6 are selected from:

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropionate (C4) and formic acid (C1),

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4) and formic acid (C1),

chiral ester R-2-hydroxypropyl formate (C4) and hexanoic acid (C6),

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9) and formic acid (C1),

chiral ester S-2-methyl-3-methylbutylpropanoate (C9) and hexanoic acid (C6), and

chiral ester isobutyl-R-lactate (C7) and propionic acid (C3).


 
8. The hydrocarbon fuel according to the claim 7, characterized in that the molar ratio of chiral ester to monocarboxylic acid ranges from 60:40 to 90:10.
 
9. The hydrocarbon fuel according to the claims 7 or 8, characterized in that the total concentration of chiral ester and monocarboxylic acid in the hydrocarbon fuel ranges between 1*10-6 to 25.0*10-6 moles per liter.
 
10. Use of the hydrocarbon fuel according to the claims 7 or 8 as gasoline, diesel fuel, bunker fuel, heating oil, heating fuel.
 
11. The hydrocarbon fuel according to claim 7, characterized in that the hydrocarbon fuel is gasoline, diesel fuel, bunker fuel, heating oil, heating fuel.
 


Ansprüche

1. Ein Additiv zum Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoff, das eine Lösung eines aktiven Komplexes in einem organischen Lösungsmittel ist, ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der aktive Komplex aus Folgendem besteht:
chiraler C4-C9-Ester und C1-C6-Monocarbonsäure, wobei das bestimmte Paar des chiralen C4-C9-Esters und der C1-C6-Monocarbonsäure aus Folgendem ausgewählt ist:

chiraler Ester von R-2-Hydroxypropionat (C4) und Ameisensäure (C1),

chiraler Ester von R-2-Hydroxypropylformiat (C4) und Ameisensäure (C1),

chiraler Ester von R-2-Hydroxypropylformiat (C4) und Hexansäure (C6),

chiraler Ester S-2-Methyl-3-Methylbutylpropanoat (C9) und Ameisensäure (C1),

chiraler Ester S-2-Methyl-3-Methylbutylpropanoat (C9) und Hexansäure (C6), und

chiraler Ester Isobutyl-R-lactat (C7) und Propionsäure (C3).


 
2. Das Additiv nach dem Anspruch 1 ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Molverhältnis von chiralem Ester zu Monocarbonsäure im Wirkstoffkomplex 60:40 bis 90:10 beträgt.
 
3. Das Additiv nach den Ansprüchen 1 oder 2 ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Menge an aktivem Komplex im Additiv 0,5 bis 12% der Masse beträgt.
 
4. Das Additiv nach den Ansprüchen 1 oder 2 ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das organische Lösungsmittel den aktiven Komplex unter Bildung einer echten Lösung auflöst und die Auflösung des Additivs im Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoff unter Bildung einer echten Lösung gewährleistet.
 
5. Aktiver Komplex eines Additivs zum Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoff, bestehend aus chiralem Ester C4-C9 und Monocarbonsäure C1-C6, wobei das spezifische Paar des chiralen Esters C4-C9 und der Monocarbonsäure C1-C6 aus Folgendem ausgewählt ist:

chiraler Ester von R-2-Hydroxypropionat (C4) und Ameisensäure (C1),

chiraler Ester von R-2-Hydroxypropylformiat (C4) und Ameisensäure (C1),

chiraler Ester von R-2-Hydroxypropylformiat (C4) und Hexansäure (C6),

chiraler Ester S-2-Methyl-3-Methylbutylpropanoat (C9) und Ameisensäure (C1),

chiraler Ester S-2-Methyl-3-Methylbutylpropanoat (C9) und Hexansäure (C6), und

chiraler Ester Isobutyl-R-lactat (C7) und Propionsäure (C3).


 
6. Aktiver Komplex nach dem Anspruch 5 ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Molverhältnis von chiralem Ester zu Monocarbonsäure im Bereich von 60:40 bis 90:10 liegt.
 
7. Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoff mit Folgendem:
chiraler C4-C9-Ester und C1-C6-Monocarbonsäure, wobei das bestimmte Paar des chiralen C4-C9-Esters und der C1-C6-Monocarbonsäure aus Folgendem ausgewählt ist:

chiraler Ester von R-2-Hydroxypropionat (C4) und Ameisensäure (C1),

chiraler Ester von R-2-Hydroxypropylformiat (C4) und Ameisensäure (C1),

chiraler Ester von R-2-Hydroxypropylformiat (C4) und Hexansäure (C6),

chiraler Ester S-2-Methyl-3-Methylbutylpropanoat (C9) und Ameisensäure (C1),

chiraler Ester S-2-Methyl-3-Methylbutylpropanoat (C9) und Hexansäure (C6), und

chiraler Ester Isobutyl-R-lactat (C7) und Propionsäure (C3).


 
8. Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoff nach dem Anspruch 7 ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Molverhältnis von chiralem Ester zu Monocarbonsäure im Bereich von 60:40 bis 90:10 liegt.
 
9. Der Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoff nach den Ansprüchen 7 oder 8 ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Gesamtkonzentration an chiralem Ester und Monocarbonsäure in dem Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoff im Bereich von 1*10-6 bis 25,0*10-6 Mol pro Liter liegt.
 
10. Die Verwendung des Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoffs nach den Ansprüchen 7 oder 8 als Benzin, Dieselkraftstoff, Bunkerkraftstoff, Heizöl, Heizkraftstoff.
 
11. Der Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoff nach dem Anspruch 7 ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Kohlenwasserstoffkraftstoff Benzin, Dieselkraftstoff, Bunkerkraftstoff, Heizöl, Heizkraftstoff ist.
 


Revendications

1. L'additif pour le carburant hydrocarboné, étant une solution du complexe actif dans le solvant organique, caractérisé concernant le complexe actif est constitué de:
ester chiral en C4-C9 de l'acide monocarboxylique en C1-C6, dans lequel ladite paire particulière dudit ester chiral en C4-C9 et dudit acide monocarboxylique en C1-C6 est choisie parmi:

ester chiral de R-2-hydroxypropionate (C4) et d'acide formique (C1),

ester chiral de formiate de R-2-hydroxypropyle (C4) et d'acide formique (C1),

ester chiral de formiate de R-2-hydroxypropyle (C4) et d'acide hexanoïque (C6),

ester chiral de S-2-méthyl-3-méthylbutylpropanoate (C9) et de l'acide formique (C1),

ester chiral de S-2-méthyl-3 méthylbutylpropanoate (C9) et d'acide hexanoïque (C6), et

ester chiral d'isobutyl-R-lactate (C7) et de l'acide propionique (C3).


 
2. L'additif selon la réclamation 1, caractérisé en ce que le rapport molaire de l'ester chiral à l'acide monocarboxylique dans le complexe actif est de 60:40 à 90:10.
 
3. L'additif selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisé en ce que la quantité de complexe actif dans l'additif est de 0,5 à 12% en poids.
 
4. L'additif selon la réclamation 1 ou 2, caractérisé en ce que le solvant organique dissout le complexe actif avec formation de solution moléculaire et assure la dissolution de l'additif dans le carburant hydrocarboné avec formation de la solution moléculaire.
 
5. Le complexe actif d'additif à un carburant hydrocarboné, constitué d'un ester chiral en C4-C9 et d'acide monocarboxylique en C1-C6, dans lequel ledit couple spécifique dudit ester chiral en C4-C9 et dudit acide monocarboxylique en C1-C6 est choisi de:

ester chiral de R-2-hydroxypropionate (C4) et d'acide formique (C1),

ester chiral de formiate de R-2-hydroxypropyle (C4) et d'acide formique (C1),

ester chiral de formiate de R-2-hydroxypropyle (C4) et d'acide hexanoïque (C6),

ester chiral de S-2-méthyl-3-méthylbutylpropanoate (C9) et d'acide formique (C1),

ester chiral de S-2-méthyl-3-méthylbutylpropanoate (C9) et d'acide hexanoïque (C6), et

ester chiral d'isobutyl-R-lactate (C7) et d'acide propionique (C3).


 
6. Le complexe actif selon la revendication 5, dans lequel le rapport molaire de l'ester chiral à l'acide monocarboxylique est de 60:40 à 90:10.
 
7. Le carburant hydrocarboné contient:
ester chiral en C4-C9 et acide monocarboxylique en C1-C6, dans lequel ladite paire particulière dudit ester chiral en C4-C9 et dudit acide monocarboxylique en C1-C6 est choisie parmi:

ester chiral de R-2-hydroxypropionate (C4) et d'acide formique (C1),

ester chiral de formiate de R-2-hydroxypropyle (C4) et d'acide formique (C1),

ester chiral de formiate de R-2-hydroxypropyle (C4) et d'acide hexanoïque (C6),

ester chiral chiral de S-2-méthyl-3-méthylbutylpropanoate (C9) et d'acide formique (C1),

ester chiral de S-2-méthyl-3-méthylbutylpropanoate (C9) et d'acide hexanoïque (C6), et ester chiral d'isobutyl-R-lactate (C7) et d'acide propionique (C3).


 
8. Le carburant hydrocarboné selon la réclamation 7, dans lequel le rapport molaire de l'ester chiral à l'acide monocarboxylique est de 60:40 à 90:10.
 
9. Le combustible hydrocarboné selon la réclamation 7 ou 8, caractérisé en ce que la concentration totale d'ester chiral et d'acide monocarboxylique dans le combustible hydrocarboné est de 1*10-6 à 25,0*10-6 mole par litre.
 
10. L'utilisation de carburant hydrocarboné selon la réclamation 7 ou 8 comme essence, gazole, fioul de soute, fioul domestique, huile de chauffage.
 
11. Le carburant hydrocarboné selon la réclamation 7, caractérisé en ce que le carburant hydrocarboné est de l'essence, du gazole, du fioul de soute, du fioul domestique, de l'huile de chauffage.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description