(19)
(11)EP 3 314 916 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/31

(21)Application number: 16738588.9

(22)Date of filing:  23.06.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H04S 7/00(2006.01)
H04S 3/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2016/039091
(87)International publication number:
WO 2016/210174 (29.12.2016 Gazette  2016/52)

(54)

AUDIO PANNING TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM AND METHOD

AUDIOUMBLENDUNGTRANSFORMATIONSSYSTEM UND -VERFAHREN

SYSTÈME ET PROCÉDÉ DE TRANSFORMATION PAR RÉALISATION DE PANORAMIQUE AUDIO


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 25.06.2015 US 201562184351 P
15.12.2015 US 201562267480 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
02.05.2018 Bulletin 2018/18

(73)Proprietor: Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation
San Francisco, CA 94103 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • MCGRATH, David S.
    Sydney, New South Wales NSW 2060 (AU)

(74)Representative: Dolby International AB Patent Group Europe 
Apollo Building, 3E Herikerbergweg 1-35
1101 CN Amsterdam Zuidoost
1101 CN Amsterdam Zuidoost (NL)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2014/159272
US-A1- 2014 133 683
US-A1- 2014 119 581
US-A1- 2015 117 650
  
  • Roberta L. Klatzky: "Allocentric and Egocentric Spatial Representations: Definitions, Distinctions, and Interconnections" In: "Correct System Design", 1 January 1998 (1998-01-01), Springer International Publishing, Cham 032548, XP055300666, ISSN: 0302-9743 ISBN: 978-3-642-34346-9 vol. 1404, pages 1-17, DOI: 10.1007/3-540-69342-4_1, the whole document
  • Jeffrey C Riedmiller ET AL: "Recent Advancements in Audio - How a Paradigm Shift in Audio Spatial Representation & Delivery Will Change the Future of Consumer Audio Experiences", , 21 May 2015 (2015-05-21), XP055300512, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://www.nctatechnicalpapers.com/Pap er/2015/2015-recent-advancements-in-audio- how-a-paradigm-shift-in-audio-spatial-repr esentation-delivery-will-change-the-future -of-consumer-audio-experiences/download [retrieved on 2016-09-07]
  • CHARLES Q ROBINSON ET AL: "Cinematic Sound Scene Description and Rendering Control", ANNUAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION, SMPTE 2014, 21 October 2014 (2014-10-21), pages 1-14, XP055253132, Hollywood, CA, USA DOI: 10.5594/M001544 ISBN: 978-1-61482-954-6
  • PULKKI V: "Virtual Sound Source Positioning Using Vector Base Amplitude Panning", JOURNAL OF THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY, AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY, NEW YORK, NY, US, vol. 45, no. 6, 1 June 1997 (1997-06-01), pages 456-466, XP002719359, ISSN: 0004-7554
  • Anonymus: "Recommendation ITU-R BS Advanced sound system for programme production BS Series Broadcasting service (sound)", , 1 February 2014 (2014-02-01), XP055300502, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://www.itu.int/dms_pubrec/itu-r/re c/bs/R-REC-BS.2051-0-201402-I!!PDF-E.pdf [retrieved on 2016-09-07]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS



[0001] The present invention claims the benefit of United States Provisional Patent Application No. 62/184,351 filed on 25 June 2015, and United States Provisional Patent Application No. 62/267,480 filed on 15 December 2015.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0002] The embodiments provide for an improved audio rendering method for rendering or panning of spatialized audio objects to at least a virtual speaker arrangement.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0003] Any discussion of the background art throughout the specification should in no way be considered as an admission that such art is widely known or forms part of common general knowledge in the field.

[0004] Panning systems for rendering spatialized audio are known. For example, the Dolby Atmos (Trade Mark) system provides for input spatialized audio to be rendered or panned between output audio emission sources so as to maintain some of the spatialization characteristics of the audio objects. Other known panning systems include the vector base amplitude panning system (VBAP).

[0005] WO 2014/159272 discloses a set-up process for rendering audio data that may involve receiving reproduction speaker location data and pre-computing gain values for each of the virtual sources according to the reproduction speaker location data and each virtual source location. The gain values may be stored and used during "run time", during which audio reproduction data are rendered for the speakers of the reproduction environment. During run time, for each audio object, contributions from virtual source locations within an area or volume defined by the audio object position data and the audio object size data may be computed. A set of gain values for each output channel of the reproduction environment may be computed based, at least in part, on the computed contributions. Each output channel may correspond to at least one reproduction speaker of the reproduction environment.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0006] It is an object of the invention to provide an improvement of panning operations for spatialized audio objects.

[0007] In accordance with a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of creating a multichannel audio signal from at least one input audio object according to claim 1.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0008] Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

Fig. 1 illustrates schematically a panner composed of a Panning Function and a Matrix Multiplication Block

Fig. 2 illustrates the conventional coordinate system with a listener positioned at the origin;

Fig. 3 illustrates the Dolby Atmos coordinate system;

Fig. 4 illustrates schematically a comparison of a Dolby Atmos Render and a Panner/Decoder Methodology;

Fig. 5 illustrates the azimuth angles at different heights on the cylinder;

Fig. 6 illustrates the corresponding azimuth angles for different heights on a warped cylinder;

Fig. 7 illustrates the form of tessellation used in Dolby Atmos;

Fig. 8 illustrates the form of radial tessellation;

Fig. 9 illustrates the panning operation in Dolby Atmos, whilst Fig. 10 illustrates the panning operation of an embodiment;

Fig. 11 illustrates a basic panning operation of producing M speaker outputs;

Fig. 12 illustrates the process of panning objects of an embodiment;

Fig. 13 illustrates schematically the SoloMid unit of Fig. 12;

Fig. 14 illustrates a further alternative form of the SoloMid unit of Fig. 12;

Fig. 15 illustrates a further alternative form the SoloMid unit of Fig. 12; and

Fig. 16 illustrates a further alternative form of the SoloMid unit of Fig. 12.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0009] Embodiments provide for an improved audio rendering method for rendering or panning of spatialized audio objects to at least a virtual speaker arrangement. One embodiment has particular application in rendering the (speaker-based) Dolby Atmos objects. Whilst the embodiments are discussed with reference to the Dolby Atmos system, the present invention is not limited thereto and has application to other panning systems where audio panning is required.

[0010] The method of one embodiment is referred to as the "Solo-Mid Panning Method", and enables the spatialized audio objects (e.g. Dolby Atmos objects) to be rendered into Speaker-based and non-Speaker-based multi-channel panned formats.

[0011] Fig. 1 initially illustrates the operation of a panner 1, which takes an audio input signal 2 and an intended location, designated in say (x,y,z) Cartesian coordinates and pans it to a set of M output audio channels 5 of intended speaker positions around a listener. A panner includes the following properties: It is provided with one audio input signal, sig ; it is provided with a (time varying) input that indicates the "location" of the audio objects; Each output signal outm (1 ≤ mM) is equal to the input signal scaled by a gain factor, gm, so that outm = sig×gm; the gain factors, gm, are functions of the "location".

[0012] In Fig. 1, the "location" is specified as a unit-vector, (xu,yu,zu), but (according to our broadest definition of a "panner") the location could potentially be defined in any abstract way (for example, the location could be defined by an integer value that corresponds to one of a finite set of "post-codes").

[0013] The Panner often makes use of a unit vector as the definition of "location" (this case will be referred to as a Unit-Vector Panner, in instances where there is a desire to emphasise this restriction). In other words, the panning function 6 can be defined as:



[0014] Generally, Vu can be referred to in the form of a column vector:



[0015] Fig. 2 illustrates the concept of a spherical set of coordinates, suitable for use with a unit vector panning system. Unit-Vector Panners are an important sub-class of Panners, because many commonly used Panners are defined to operate only on Unit-Vector location input. Examples of unit vector panners include: Vector-Based Amplitude Panners (VBAP), and Higher-Order Ambisonic Panners.

Dolby Atmos Rendering versus Unit-Vector Panning



[0016] As illustrated in Fig. 3, Dolby Atmos objects have a coordinate system location 30 where a location is defined in terms of the 3D coordinate system, (xa,ya,za), where xa ∈ [0,1], ya ∈ [0,1] and za ∈ [-1,1]. The origin of the coordinate system is located at the point 31. An implementation description of the Dolby Atmos system is illustrated at http://www.dolby.com/us/en/technologies/dolby-atmos/authoring-for-dolby-atmos-cinema-sound-manual.pdf.

[0017] There are several practical implementation differences between the expected behaviour of a Dolby Atmos renderer, and the behaviour of a Unit-Vector Panner.
  • A Dolby Atmos Renderer is defined in terms of the way it pans input audio objects to output speaker channels. In contrast, a Panner is permitted to produce outputs that might fulfil some other purpose (not necessarily speaker channels). Often, the output of a Panner is destined to be transformed/processed in various ways, with the final result often being in the form of speaker channels (or binaural channels).
  • A Dolby Atmos Renderer is defined to operate according to panning rules that allow the (xa,ya,za) coordinates to vary over a 3D range (xa ∈ [0,1], ya ∈ [0,1] and za ∈ [-1,1]). In contrast, the behaviour of a Unit-Vector Panner is normally only defined for coordinates (xu,yu,zu) that lie on the 2D surface of the unit-sphere.
  • A Dolby Atmos object's location is defined in terms of its position within a listening space (for example, a cinema). In contrast, a Unit-Vector Panner makes use of objects that are "located" at a direction of arrival relative to the listener. The translation from a room-centric cinema format to a listener-centric consumer format is a difficult problem addressed by the present embodiment.
  • A Dolby Atmos Renderer knows what speaker-arrangement is being used by the listener. In contrast, the Panner-based systems of the embodiments attempt to operate without specific prior knowledge of the playback system, because the output of the Panner can be repurposed to a particular playback environment at a later stage.


[0018] Fig. 4 illustrates the difference between a Dolby Atmos render 40 and a panning operation or panner 41. The typical use-case for a Panner-based content-delivery-chain is shown 41. The intention normally is to deliver the Panned signal 42 into an intermediate spatial format (ISF) which is then repurposed or decoded 43 for a particular output device or set of speakers 45. The operation of the panner can be undertaken off line, with the output separately distributed for playback on many different decoders 43.

[0019] In some cases, the intermediate Panned signal output by panner 42 is fit for direct listening on certain playback systems (for example, LtRt signals can be played back directly on stereo devices). However, in most cases, the intention is for the Panned intermediate signal to be "decoded" or "reformatted" 43 for playback on a speaker system (or headphones), where the nature of the playback system is not originally known to the Panner.

[0020] Whilst in most cases the Panner does not directly drive the speakers, it is often convenient to distort nomenclature and assume things like "the Panner will pan the audio object to the Left Back speaker", on the understanding that the decoder/reformatter will responsible for the final delivery of the sound to the speaker. This distortion of nomenclature makes it easier to compare the way a Panner-based system works vs a traditional Dolby Atmos renderer 40, which provides direct speaker outputs by pretending that both systems are driving speakers, even though the Panner is only doing part of the job.

Mapping a Dolby Atmos Cube to the Unit-Sphere



[0021] Given a (xa,ya,za) location for an object in the Dolby Atmos Cube of Fig. 3, it is desirable to map this location to the Panner's unit sphere of Fig. 2. A method for converting the Dolby Atmos location to a point on the Unit-Sphere (plus an additional parameter indicating the "Atmos Radius" of the object) will now be described. Assuming, as input, the Atmos coordinates:


where 0 ≤ xa ≤ 1, 0 ≤ ya ≤ 1, -1 ≤ za ≤ 1, it is desirable to compute the Map() function:


by the process as follows:
  1. 1. Begin by shifting the Atmos Coordinates, to put the origin in the centre of the room, and scale the coordinates so that they are all in the range [-1,1], as follows:

  2. 2. Construct a line from the origin (the centre of the unit-cube), through the point (xs,ys,zs), and determine the point (xp,yp,zp), where this line intersects the walls of the unit-cube. Also, compute the "Atmos Radius", which determines how far the point (xs,ys,zs) is from the origin, relative to the distance to (xp,yp,zp). Many methods of determining a distance between two points will be evident to one of ordinary skill in the art, any of which may be used to determine the Atmos Radius. One exemplary form of measurement can be:



  3. 3. Next, the cube can be deformed to form a cylinder (expressed in cylindrical coordinates, (r,φ,z)), and we may also distort the radius with the sine function to "encourage" objects in the ceiling to stick closer to the edges of the room:


    or (applying the optional sine distortion) :


    The arctan function used here takes 2 args, as defined by the Matlab atan2 function.
  4. 4. There is a need to account for the possibility that the Unit-Vector Panner might prefer to place particular default speaker locations at specific azimuths. It is therefore assumed that a Warp() function is provided, which changes only the azimuths:


    This Warp function makes use of the zc coordinate, as it may choose to apply a different azimuth warping for locations at z = 0 (at ear-level), compared to z = 1 (on the ceiling) of z = -1 (on the floor).
  5. 5. Finally, the point (rcpanner,zc), which still lies on the surface of the cylinder, is projected to the unit-sphere:



[0022] The process above implements a Map() function, allowing Dolby Atmos coordinates to be converted to Unit-Vector coordinates. At Step 4, a Warp() function is called, which provides a means for altering the azimuth of the object. More details of this Warp() function are given below. The Map() function also computes a term called AtmosRadius, and this term will also be used by methods, such as the "Solo-Mid Panning Method", also described below.

The Warp() Function



[0023] The choice of a particular multi-channel soundfield format can involve the choice of a Unit-Vector Panner and a Warp() function. For example, an Ambisonics audio format can be defined by the use of an Ambisonics Panner along with the WarpITU() warping function (which will map the Left Channel ,which appears in the front left corner of the Dolby Atmos cube, at 45°, to the standard Left-channel angle of 30°).

[0024] Preferably, any Warp() function used in practical applications should also have an easily computed inverse function,



[0025] One possible method for implementing a Warp() function is as follows. Given inputs φc and zc, the WarpITU() function computes φpanner = WarpITU(φc,zc) by the following steps:
  1. 1. Starting with a table of 6 constants that define the behaviour of the Warp() function as follows:

    ΦM,F = 30, the warped azimuth for the ear-level front-left channel;

    ΦM,B = 150, the warped azimuth for the ear-level back-left channel;

    ΦU,F = 45, the warped azimuth for the upper front-left channel;

    ΦU,B = 135, the warped azimuth for the upper back-left channel;

    ΦL,F = 45, the warped azimuth for the lower front-left channel;

    ΦL,B = 135, the warped azimuth for the lower back-left channel.

  2. 2. Three "elevation weighting" coefficients can be defined as follows:






    These coefficients satisfy the rule: wup + wdown + wmid = 1 for all permissible values of zc between -1 and +1.
  3. 3. Now, the warped azimuth angles can be defined for the elevation:



  4. 4. And finally, the new azimuth can be computed as a piecewise linear function (here, the nomenclature uses the Matlab interp1 function):



    or, alternatively, we may apply the warping such that the 90-degree angles are also preserved:





[0026] By way of an example, an object at - 45° aimuth (the front right corner of the Dolby Atmos square) will be mapped to a new azimuth angle: -ΦF, where ΦF is derived as a piecewise-linear mixture of ΦM,F, ΦU,F and ΦL,F, dependant on the elevation (z - coordinate) of the object.

[0027] The operation of the warping, on the surface of the cylinder, is shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 Fig. 5 illustrates the unwarped cylindrical coordinate mapping whereas Fig. 6 illustrates the warped cylindrical mapping.

[0028] More than one possible warping function can be defined, depending on the application. For example, when we are intending to map the location of Atmos objects onto the unit-sphere, for the purpose of panning the objects to a 2-channel "Pro Logic" signal, the panning rules will be different, and we will make use of a warping function that we refer to as WarpPL(). Each warping function is defined by the choice of the six warping constants. Typical values for the warping constants are shown in the following Table which shows Warping azimuths for different Atmos to Unit-vector transformations.
 labelbaseWarpPL( )WarpISF( )WarpITU( )
ΦM,F FL 45 90 51.4 30
ΦM,B BL 135 162 154.3 150
ΦU,F TpFL 45 72 45 45
ΦU,B TpBL 135 144 135 135
ΦL,F BtFL 45 72 72 45
Φ L,B BtBL 135 144 144 135


[0029] By way of example, suppose that an object is located in Dolby Atmos coordinates at (0,0,

). Then, the Dolby Atmos coordinates will be mapped to the cylindrical coordinates:

rc = 1 and φc = 45°. If it is intended to pan the audio object into an Ambisonics signal, we may wish to first warp the azimuth angle according to the ITU warping rules (as per the column headed WarpITU() in Table 1). According to this table, an object at φ = 45°, will be mapped to 30° if it lies on the middle plane (at z = 0), and it will be mapped to 45° if it lies on the upper plane (at z = 1). Hence, being located half-way between these planes, at

it will be mapped to 37.5° (since this is the average of 30 and 45). In other words, WarpITU(45°,0.5)= 37.5°.

Inverse Mapping Functions



[0030] The Mapping function (Map()) is invertible, and it will be appreciated that an inverse function may be readily implemented. The inverse function, Map-1(), will also include the use of an inverse warping function (note that the Warp() function is also invertible). It will also be appreciated that the output of the Map() function may also be expressed in Spherical Coordinates (in terms of Azimuth and Elevation angles, and radius), according to well known methods for conversion between cartesian and spherical coordinate systems. Likewise, the inverse function, Map-1(), may be adapted to take input that is expressed in terms of Spherical coordinates (in terms of Azimuth and Elevation angles, and radius).

[0031] By way of example, an inverse mapping function is described, which converts from a point that lies on, or inside, the unit sphere, to a point, represented in Atmos-coordinates, that lies on, or inside the Atmos-cube. In this example, the input to the mapping function is defined in Spherical Coordinates, and the inverse mapping function is defined as follows:



[0032] The procedure for implementation of this inverse mapping function is as follows:

Step 1. Input is provided in the form of an Azimuth angle (φs), an Elevation angle (θs) and a radius (rs).

Step 2. Modify the elevation angle, so that 30° elevation is mapped to 45° :

Step 3. Unwarp the azimuth angle :

Step 4. Map the modified azimuth and elevation angles onto the surface of a unit-sphere:





Step 5. Distort the sphere into a cylinder:







Step 6. Distort the cylinder into a cube (by scaling the (x,y) coordinates), and then apply the radius:







Step 7. Shift the unit cube onto the Atmos cube, in terms of the coordinates xa, ya and za:



za = Z



[0033] In the preceeding description the azimuth inverse-warping is used : φw = Warp-1(φs). This inverse warping may be performed using the procedure described above (for the Warp() function), wherein equations (8a) and (9a) are replaced by the following (inverse) warping equation:

or, alternatively, wherein equations (8) and (9) are replaced by the following (inverse) warping equation, such that the 90-degree angles are not preserved:


The Solo-Mid Panning Method



[0034] A Dolby Atmos renderer normally operates based on its knowledge of the playback speaker locations. Audio objects that are panned "on the walls" (which includes the ceiling) will be rendered by an Atmos renderer in a manner that is very similar to vector-based-amplitude panning (but, where VBAP uses a triangular tessellation of the walls, Dolby Atmos uses a rectangular tessellation).

[0035] In general, it could be argued that the sonic differences between different panning methods are not a matter of artistic choice, and the primary benefit of the Dolby Atmos panning rules is that the rules are readily extended to include behaviour for objects that are panned away from the walls, into the interior of the room.

[0036] Assuming, for a moment, that a Unit-Vector Panner, f(), is used that provides some kind of desired useful panning functionality. The problem is that, whilst such a panner is capable of panning sounds around the surface of the unit-sphere, it has no good strategy for panning sounds "inside the room". The Solo-Mid Panning Method provides a methodolgy for overcoming this issue.

[0037] The Solo-Mid Panning Method is a process that takes a Dolby Atmos location (xa,ya,za) and attempts to render an object according to the Dolby Atmos panning philosophy, whereby the rendering is done via a Unit-Vector Panner, rather than to speakers.

[0038] Fig. 7 illustrates a top view 70 of the ear-level plane (za = 0) in the Dolby Atmos coordinate system. This square region is broken in rectangular tiles 71, 72, 73, where the tiling is performed based on the location of the speakers along the sides of the "Dolby Atmos square".

[0039] An alternative strategy, as shown in Fig. 8, according to the Solo-Mid Manning Method, is to break the Dolby Atmos Square into triangular regions e.g. 81. The triangular tessellation works on the assumption that there is a strategy for handling the Solo-Mid location 82 (the spot marked M in the centre of the room). The benefit of this triangular tessellation is that the lines dividing the tiles are all radial from the centre of the room (the Solo-Mid location). Of course, the Panner does not really know where the playback speakers will be located, so the tessellation can be thought of as a more abstract concept.

[0040] Specifically, by way of example, Fig. 9 shows an object (labelled X) 91 that is panned to (0.25,0.375,0) in Dolby Atmos coordinates. Fig. 9 shows the Dolby Atmos panner in action, creating the panned image of the object (X) by creating intermediate "phantom objects" A 92, and B 93. The following panning equations are simplified, to make the maths look neater, as the real equations involve trig functions:



[0041] The mixture of four speakers, to produce the Dolby Atmos object (X), is all carried out inside the Dolby Atmos renderer, at playback time, so that the object is directly panned to the four speakers.

[0042] Turning to Fig. 10, there is illusrated the corresponding Solo-Mid Panner production chain. This process produces an image of the Dolby Atmos object (X) by a two-stage process.

[0043] Step 1: The Panner: The Panner/encoder forms the image of the object (X) 101 by creating two phantom objects, D 102 and M 103, where M represents an object in the centre of the room. This process is performed by the above discussed Map() function: [(xD,yD,zD),AtmosRadiusD] = Map(0.25,0.375,0), which gives the Unit-Vector for phantom object D (xD,yD,zD), as well as AtmosRadiusD = 0.5 for the object.

[0044] Then, in the simplest kind of Solo-Mid Panner, the phantom object M 103 can in turn be formed by two phantom objects, E and F. Some radial warping can be applied to the panning function, by squaring the distance from the wall:





[0045] In a simplified version of the method, the M×1 Gain Vector for the M channel might be formed from a mixture of gain vectors for the Dolby Atmos positions on the left and right walls (where the Ls and Rs speakers normally sit):

and the Gain Vector for the panned object D 102 will be:



[0046] Hence, the Solo-Mid Panned signals will render the object X according to the M×1 Gain Vector:



[0047] Step2: The Decoder. The phantom objects D (102), E (104) and F (105) can be "baked in" to the Panned signals by the Unit-Vector Panner. The decoder has the job of taking the Panned signals and rendering these signals to the available speakers. The decoder can therefore (ideally) place the three phantom objects D, E and F approximately as follows:
D → 0.5L + 0.5Ls
ELs
FRs

[0048] The final result, from the combination of the encoder and the decoder, is as follows:
X → 0.75D + 0.125E + 0.125F
→ 0.375L + 0.5Ls + 0.125Rs

[0049] The table below shows a comparison of the gains for the atmos and solo mid panning process:
SpeakerGain (Dolby Atmos)Gain (Solo-Mid)
L 0.125 0.375
R 0 0
C 0.125 0
Ls 0.5625 0.5
Rs 0.1825 0.125
Lb 0 0
Rb 0 0


[0050] The Table shows the theoretical gains for the Dolby Atmos and Solo-Mid pans. This represents a slightly simplified example, which assumes that the conversion from the Solo-Mid Panned signal to speaker signals is ideal. In this simple example, the gains were all formed using a linear (amplitude preserving) pan. Further alternative panning methods for the Solo-Mid Method will be described below (and the Dolby Atmos panner may be built to be power-preserving, not amplitude preserving).

Using Decorrelation to Render the Solo-Mid Channel



[0051] The Solo-Mid Channel (the phantom position at location M 103 in Fig. 10) may be rendered by a variety of techniques. One option is to use decorrelation to spread sound to the LeftSide and RightSide locations (at the positions where the Ls and Rs speakers are expected to be).

[0052] Assuming there are two decorrelators, DL and DR, both of which are approximately unity-gain. Then, the Solo-Mid panning function can be defined to be:



[0053] The new version of the Solo-Mid channel will be decorrelated from the D phantom image 102 (the projection of the object X 101 onto the walls for the room). Hence, the rendering of X 101 as a mixture of D and M can be done with a power-preserving pan:


Alternative panning laws



[0054] In the previous section, different approaches were shown for the creation of GSM (the Gain Vector used to pan to the Solo-Mid position M 103). One approach used decorrelation, and as a result, the mixture of the two phantom objects (at Dolby Atmos locations (0,0.5,0) and (1,0.5,0)) was carried out using gain factors of

If the Gain Vectors for these two Dolby Atmos locations, (0,0.5,0) and (1,0.5,0), are correlated in some way, the sum of the two vectors will require some post-normalisation, to ensure that the resulting gain vector, GSM has the correct magnitude.

[0055] The original (non-decorrelating) method for forming the phantom image for the Solo-Mid channel, as per Equation 11, can be varied as follows :









[0056] This slightly more complex method for computing GSM provides for a better result, in most cases. As GSM needs to be computed only once, there is no problem with the computation being complicated.

[0057] Looking at the way the phantom image X is formed, as a mixture of Gain Vectors GD and GSM, it is possible to generalise the panning rule to choose between constant-power or constant-amplitude panning with the parameter, p :

where p = 1 when it is known that the gain vectors G1 and G2 are highly correlated (as assumed in Equation 11), and

when it is known that the gain vectors are totally decorrelated (as per Equation 13). In practice, when the Gain Vectors are only partly correlated, or when it is not known how correlated they are, a compromised choice can be

The new variant of Equations 12 and 14 can be as follows:


Example Implementations - Spherical Panning



[0058] Fig. 11 illustrates 110 an example arrangement for panning objects to M speaker outputs, where the objects to be panned are panned to the surface of a sphere around a listener. In this arrangement 110, a series of input audio objects e.g. 111, 112 each contain location 114 and signal level data 113. The location data is fed to a panner 115 which maps the Dolby Atmos to Spherical coordinates and produces M output signals 116 in accordance with the above Warping operation. These outputs are multiplied 117 with the reference signal 113 to produce M outputs 118. The outputs are summed 119 with the outputs from other audio object position calculations to produce an overall output 120 for output for the speaker arrangement.

[0059] Fig. 12 illustrates a modified arrangement 121 which includes the utilisation of a SoloMid calcluation unit 122. In this arrangement, which implements the form of calculation of the SoloMid function, the input consists of a series of audio objects e.g. 123, 124, In each of these signals the location information is input and split into wall 127 and SoloMid 128 panning factors, in addition to wall location 129. The wall location portion 129 is used to produce 130 the M speaker gain signals 131. These are modulated by the signal 132, which is calculated by modulating the input signal 126 by the wall factor 127. The output 133 is summed 134 with other audio objects to produce output 135.

[0060] The SoloMid signal for an object is calculated by taking the SoloMid factor 128 associated with the location of the object and using this factor to modulate the input signal 126. The output is summed with other outputs 137 to produce SoloMid unit input 138. The SoloMid unit 122 subsequently implements the SoloMid operation (described hereinafter) to produce M speaker outputs 139, which are added to the outputs 135 to produce overall speaker outputs 141.

[0061] Fig. 13 illustrates a first example version of the SoloMid unit 122 of Fig. 12. In this arrangement, the position of the left and right speakers are input 150 to corresponding panning units 151, which produce M-channel output gains 152, 153. The input scaled origin signal is fed to decorrelators 154, 155, which output signals to gain mulitpliers 156, 157. The M-channel ouputs are then summed together 158 to form the M-channel output signal 139.

[0062] Fig. 14 illustrates an alternative form of the SoloMid unit 122 which implements a simple decorrelator function. In this embodiment, a simple decorrelator function is performed by forming delayed version 160 of the input signal and forming sum 161 and difference 162 signal outputs of the decorrleator, with the rest of the operation of the SoloMid unit being as discussed with reference to Fig. 13.

[0063] Fig. 15 illustrates a further alternative form of the SoloMid unit 122 wherein M-channel sum and difference panning gains are formed 170 and 171 and used to modulate 173, 174 the input signal 138 and a delayed version thereof 172. The two resultant M-channel signals are summed 175 before output. The arrangement of Fig. 15 providing a further simplification of the SoloMid process.

[0064] Fig. 16 illustrates a further simplified alternative form of the SoloMid unit 122. In this arrangement, no decorrelation is attempted and the sum gains 180 are applied directly to the input signals to produce the M-channel output signal.

[0065] The processing for one object (for example 123) in Fig. 12 results in an M-channel wall-panned signal being fed to summer 134, and a single-channel Scaled Origin Signal being fed to summer 137. This means that the processing applied to a single object results in M+1 channels.

[0066] This process can be thought of in terms of a (M+1)×1 gain vector, where the additional channel is the Solo-Mid channel. This "extended" (M+1)×1 gain vector is returned by the AtmosXYZ_to_Pan() panning function.

[0067] The (M+1)×1 column vector returned by this function can be:

where the gain values gD,1···gD,M are the individual elements of GD that are correspond to the panning gains for the wall-location (for example, 102 in Fig. 10).

[0068] This (M+1)×1 column vector simply provides the M gain values required to pan the Dolby Atmos object into the M Intermediate channels, plus 1 gain channel required to pan the Dolby Atmos object to the Solo-Mid channel. The Solo-Mid channel is then passed through the SoloMid process (as per 122 in Fig. 12) and before being combined 140 with the M intermediate channels to produce the otuput 141.

[0069] The embodiments provide for a method of panning audio objects to at least an intermediate audio format, where the format is suitable for subsequent decoding and playback. The audio objects can exist virtually within an intended output audio emission space, with panning rules, including panning to the center of the space, utilised to approximate a replication of the audio source.

Interpretation



[0070] Reference throughout this specification to "one embodiment", "some embodiments" or "an embodiment" means that a particular feature, structure or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment of the present invention. Thus, appearances of the phrases "in one embodiment", "in some embodiments" or "in an embodiment" in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment, but may. Furthermore, the particular features, structures or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner, as would be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art from this disclosure, in one or more embodiments, within the scope as defined by the appended claims.

[0071] As used herein, unless otherwise specified the use of the ordinal adjectives "first", "second", "third", etc., to describe a common object, merely indicate that different instances of like objects are being referred to, and are not intended to imply that the objects so described must be in a given sequence, either temporally, spatially, in ranking, or in any other manner.

[0072] In the claims below and the description herein, any one of the terms comprising, comprised of or which comprises is an open term that means including at least the elements/features that follow, but not excluding others. Thus, the term comprising, when used in the claims, should not be interpreted as being limitative to the means or elements or steps listed thereafter. For example, the scope of the expression a device comprising A and B should not be limited to devices consisting only of elements A and B. Any one of the terms including or which includes or that includes as used herein is also an open term that also means including at least the elements/features that follow the term, but not excluding others. Thus, including is synonymous with and means comprising.

[0073] As used herein, the term "exemplary" is used in the sense of providing examples, as opposed to indicating quality. That is, an "exemplary embodiment" is an embodiment provided as an example, as opposed to necessarily being an embodiment of exemplary quality.

[0074] It should be appreciated that in the above description of exemplary embodiments of the invention, various features of the invention are sometimes grouped together in a single embodiment, FIG., or description thereof for the purpose of streamlining the disclosure and aiding in the understanding of one or more of the various inventive aspects. This method of disclosure, however, is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed invention requires more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive aspects lie in less than all features of a single foregoing disclosed embodiment. Thus, the claims following the Detailed Description are hereby expressly incorporated into this Detailed Description, with each claim standing on its own as a separate embodiment of this invention.


Claims

1. A method of creating a multichannel audio signal from at least one input audio object (123), by creating intermediate phantom objects, wherein the at least one input audio object includes an audio object signal (126) and an audio object location (125), the method including the steps of:

(a) determining, in response to the audio object location, a first location and a first panning factor (127) for a first phantom object, and a second location and a second panning factor (128) for a second phantom object, wherein the first location is on a surface surrounding an expected listening location corresponding to a center of the volume enclosed by said surface, and the second location is at the center of the volume enclosed by said surface;

(b) determining, for the audio object, a first phantom object signal (132) and a second phantom object signal, wherein:

the first phantom object is located at the first location, and the first phantom object signal is determined by modulating the audio object signal (126) by the first phantom object panning factor (127); and

the second phantom object is located at the second location, and the second phantom object signal is determined by modulating the audio object signal (126) by the second phantom object panning factor (128);

(c) determining M first channels (133) of the multichannel audio signal by modulating the first phantom object signal by a first phantom object gain vector (131) for rendering the first phantom object signal to available speakers, wherein the first phantom object gain vector is determined in response to the first location;

(d) determining M second channels (139) of the multichannel audio signal by applying a panning operation (122) to the second phantom object signal for rendering the second phantom object signal to available speakers; and

(e) combining the M first channels of the multichannel audio signal and the M second channels of the multichannel audio signal to produce said multichannel audio signal.


 
2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the panning operation applied to the second phantom object signal is responsive to left and right gain vectors.
 
3. A method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the left gain vector is determined by mapping a left object location to a first location on the surface, and evaluating a panning function at the first location, and the right gain vector is determined by mapping a right object location to a second location on the surface, and evaluating the panning function at the second location.
 
4. A method as claimed in any previous claim wherein the panning operation applied to the second phantom object signal utilizes predetermined gain factors.
 
5. A method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the panning operation applied to the second phantom object signal comprises applying a sum gain vector to the second phantom object signal to obtain the M second channels of the multichannel audio signal, wherein the sum gain vector represents a sum of the left gain vector and the right gain vector.
 
6. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein said first location is substantially at the intersection of the surface and a radial line through the center of the volume enclosed by said surface and said audio object location.
 
7. A method as claimed in any previous claim wherein said surface comprises substantially a sphere or rectangular block.
 
8. A method as claimed in any previous claim wherein said panning operation applied to the second phantom object signal comprises applying a decorrelation process to the second phantom object signal.
 
9. A method as claimed in claim 8, wherein applying a decorrelation process comprises applying a delay to the second phantom object signal.
 
10. A method as claimed in claim 8 or 9, wherein the panning operation applied to the second phantom object signal comprises:

applying a first decorrelation process to the second phantom object signal to obtain a first decorrelated signal;

applying a second decorrelation process to the second phantom object signal to obtain a second decorrelated signal;

applying a left gain vector to the first decorrelated signal to obtain a panned first decorrelated signal;

applying a right gain vector to the second decorrelated signal to obtain a panned second decorrelated signal; and

combining the panned first decorrelated signal and the panned second decorrelated signal to obtain the M second channels of the multichannel audio signal.


 
11. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the panning operation applied to the second phantom object signal comprises:

applying a decorrelation process to the second phantom object signal to obtain a decorrelated signal;

determining a sum signal by adding the decorrelated signal to the second phantom object signal;

determining a difference signal by subtracting the decorrelated signal from the second phantom object signal;

applying a left gain vector to the sum signal to obtain a panned sum signal;

applying a right gain vector to the difference signal to obtain a panned difference signal; and

combining the panned sum signal and the panned difference signal to obtain the M second channels of the multichannel audio signal.


 
12. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the panning operation applied to the second phantom object signal comprises:

applying a decorrelation process to the second phantom object signal to obtain a decorrelated signal;

applying a first gain vector to the second phantom object signal to obtain a panned second phantom object signal, wherein the first gain vector corresponds to a sum of a left gain vector and a right gain vector;

applying a second gain vector to the decorrelated signal to obtain a panned decorrelated signal, wherein the second gain vector corresponds to a difference of a left gain vector and a right gain vector; and

combining the panned second phantom object signal and the panned difference signal to obtain the M second channels of the multichannel audio signal.


 
13. A method as claimed in any previous claim wherein said method is applied to multiple input audio objects to produce an overall output set of panned audio signals as said multichannel audio signal.
 
14. An apparatus comprising one or more means including a processor for performing the method of any one of claims 1 to 13.
 
15. A computer-readable storage medium comprising instructions which, when executed by a computer, cause the computer to perform the method of any one of claims 1 to 13.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zum Erzeugen eines Mehrkanal-Audiosignals aus mindestens einem Eingangs-Audioobjekt (123) durch Erzeugen von intermediären Phantomobjekten, wobei das mindestens eine Eingangs-Audioobjekt ein Audioobjektsignal (126) und einen Audioobjektort (125) einschließt, wobei das Verfahren die folgenden Schritte einschließt:

(a) Bestimmen, als Reaktion auf den Audioobjektort, eines ersten Ortes und eines ersten Panning-Faktors (127) für ein erstes Phantomobjekt und eines zweiten Ortes und eines zweiten Panning-Faktors (128) für ein zweites Phantomobjekt, wobei sich der erste Ort auf einer Oberfläche befindet, die einen erwarteten Hörort umgibt, der einem Zentrum des von der Oberfläche eingeschlossenen Volumens entspricht, und der zweite Ort sich im Zentrum des von der Oberfläche eingeschlossenen Volumens befindet;

(b) Bestimmen, für das Audioobjekt, eines ersten Phantomobjektsignals (132) und eines zweiten Phantomobjektsignals, wobei
sich das erste Phantomobjekt an dem ersten Ort befindet und das erste Phantomobjektsignal durch Modulieren des Audioobjektsignals (126) mit dem ersten Phantomobjekt-Panning-Faktor (127) bestimmt wird; und
sich das zweite Phantomobjekt an dem zweiten Ort befindet und das zweite Phantomobjektsignal durch Modulieren des Audioobjektsignals (126) mit dem zweiten Phantomobjekt-Panning-Faktor (128) bestimmt wird;

(c) Bestimmen von M ersten Kanälen (133) des Mehrkanal-Audiosignals durch Modulieren des ersten Phantomobjektsignals durch einen ersten Phantomobjekt-Verstärkungsvektor (131) zur Wiedergabe des ersten Phantomobjektsignals an verfügbare Lautsprecher, wobei der erste Phantomobjekt-Verstärkungsvektor als Reaktion auf den ersten Ort bestimmt wird;

(d) Bestimmen von M zweiten Kanälen (139) des Mehrkanal-Audiosignals durch Anwenden eines Panning-Vorgangs (122) auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal zur Wiedergabe des zweiten Phantomobjektsignals an verfügbare Lautsprecher; und

(e) Kombinieren der M ersten Kanäle des Mehrkanal-Audiosignals und der M zweiten Kanäle des Mehrkanal-Audiosignals, um das genannte Mehrkanal-Audiosignal zu erzeugen.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei der auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal angewendete Panning-Vorgang auf linke und rechte Verstärkungsvektoren reagiert.
 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, wobei der linke Verstärkungsvektor durch Mapping eines linken Objektortes auf einen ersten Ort auf der Oberfläche und Auswerten einer Panning-Funktion an dem ersten Ort bestimmt wird, und der rechte Verstärkungsvektor durch Mapping eines rechten Objektortes auf einen zweiten Ort auf der Oberfläche und Auswerten der Panning-Funktion an dem zweiten Ort bestimmt wird.
 
4. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei der auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal angewendete Panning-Vorgang vorbestimmte Verstärkungsfaktoren verwendet.
 
5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, wobei der auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal angewendete Panning-Vorgang das Anwenden eines Summenverstärkungsvektors auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal umfasst, um die M zweiten Kanäle des Mehrkanal-Audiosignals zu erhalten, wobei der Summenverstärkungsvektor eine Summe des linken Verstärkungsvektors und des rechten Verstärkungsvektors darstellt.
 
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei der erste Ort im Wesentlichen am Schnittpunkt der Oberfläche und einer radialen Linie durch die Mitte des von der Oberfläche und dem Audioobjektort umschlossenen Volumens liegt.
 
7. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Oberfläche im Wesentlichen eine Kugel oder einen rechteckigen Block umfasst.
 
8. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei der auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal angewendete Panning-Vorgang das Anwenden eines Dekorrelationsprozesses auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal umfasst.
 
9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei das Anwenden eines Dekorrelationsprozesses das Anwenden einer Verzögerung auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal umfasst.
 
10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8 oder 9, wobei der auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal angewendete Panning-Vorgang Folgendes umfasst:

Anwenden eines ersten Dekorrelationsprozesses auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal, um ein erstes dekorreliertes Signal zu erhalten;

Anwenden eines zweiten Dekorrelationsprozesses auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal, um ein zweites dekorreliertes Signal zu erhalten;

Anwenden eines linken Verstärkungsvektors auf das erste dekorrelierte Signal, um ein gepanntes erstes dekorreliertes Signal zu erhalten;

Anwenden eines rechten Verstärkungsvektors auf das zweite dekorrelierte Signal, um ein gepanntes zweites dekorreliertes Signal zu erhalten; und

Kombinieren des gepannten ersten dekorrelierten Signals und des gepannten zweiten dekorrelierten Signals, um die M zweiten Kanäle des Mehrkanal-Audiosignals zu erhalten.


 
11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei der auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal angewendete Panning-Vorgang Folgendes umfasst:

Anwenden eines Dekorrelationsprozesses auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal, um ein zweites dekorreliertes Signal zu erhalten;

Bestimmen eines Summensignals durch Addieren des dekorrelierten Signals zu dem zweiten Phantomobjektsignal;

Bestimmen eines Differenzsignals durch Subtrahieren des dekorrelierten Signals von dem zweiten Phantomobjektsignal;

Anwenden eines linken Verstärkungsvektors auf das Summensignal, um ein gepanntes Summensignal zu erhalten;

Anwenden eines rechten Verstärkungsvektors auf das Differenzsignal, um ein gepanntes Differenzsignal zu erhalten; und

Kombinieren des gepannten Summensignals und des gepannten Differenzsignals, um die M zweiten Kanäle des Mehrkanal-Audiosignals zu erhalten.


 
12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei der auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal angewendete Panning-Vorgang Folgendes umfasst:

Anwenden eines Dekorrelationsprozesses auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal, um ein zweites dekorreliertes Signal zu erhalten;

Anwenden eines ersten Verstärkungsvektors auf das zweite Phantomobjektsignal, um ein gepanntes zweites Phantomobjektsignal zu erhalten, wobei der erste Verstärkungsvektor einer Summe eines linken Verstärkungsvektors und eines rechten Verstärkungsvektors entspricht;

Anwenden eines zweiten Verstärkungsvektors auf das dekorrelierte Signal, um ein gepanntes dekorreliertes Signal zu erhalten, wobei der zweite Verstärkungsvektor einer Differenz eines linken Verstärkungsvektors und eines rechten Verstärkungsvektors entspricht; und

Kombinieren des gepannten zweiten Phantomobjektsignals und des gepannten Differenzsignals, um die M zweiten Kanäle des Mehrkanal-Audiosignals zu erhalten.


 
13. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Verfahren auf mehrere Eingangs-Audioobjekte angewendet wird, um eine Gesamtausgangsmenge von gepannten Audiosignalen als das Mehrkanal-Audiosignal zu erzeugen.
 
14. Einrichtung, umfassend eines oder mehreren Mitteln einschließlich eines Prozessors zum Durchführen des Verfahrens nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13.
 
15. Computerlesbares Speichermedium, umfassend Anweisungen, die, wenn sie von einem Computer ausgeführt werden, den Computer veranlassen, das Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13 durchzuführen.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé de création d'un signal audio multicanal à partir d'au moins un objet audio d'entrée (123), en créant des objets fantômes intermédiaires,
dans lequel l'au moins un objet audio d'entrée inclut un signal d'objet audio (126) et un emplacement d'objet audio (125), le procédé incluant les étapes consistant à :

(a) déterminer, en réponse à l'emplacement d'objet audio, un premier emplacement et un premier facteur de panoramique (127) pour un premier objet fantôme, et un second emplacement et un second facteur de panoramique (128) pour un second objet fantôme, dans lequel le premier emplacement est sur une surface entourant un emplacement d'écoute attendu correspondant à un centre du volume renfermé par ladite surface, et le second emplacement est au niveau du centre du volume renfermé par ladite surface ;

(b) déterminer, pour l'objet audio, un premier signal d'objet fantôme (132) et un second signal d'objet fantôme, dans lequel :

le premier objet fantôme est situé au niveau du premier emplacement, et le premier signal d'objet fantôme est déterminé en modulant le signal d'objet audio (126) à l'aide du premier facteur de panoramique d'objet fantôme (127) ; et

le second objet fantôme est situé au niveau du second emplacement, et le second signal d'objet fantôme est déterminé en modulant le signal d'objet audio (126) à l'aide du second facteur panoramique d'objet fantôme (128) ;

(c) déterminer M premiers canaux (133) du signal audio multicanal en modulant le premier signal d'objet fantôme à l'aide d'un premier vecteur de gain d'objet fantôme (131) pour restituer le premier signal d'objet fantôme à des locuteurs disponibles, dans lequel le premier vecteur de gain d'objet fantôme est déterminé en réponse au premier emplacement ;

(d) déterminer M seconds canaux (139) du signal audio multicanal en appliquant une opération de panoramique (122) au second signal d'objet fantôme pour restituer le second signal d'objet fantôme à des locuteurs disponibles ; et

(e) combiner les M premiers canaux du signal audio multicanal et les M seconds canaux du signal audio multicanal pour produire ledit signal audio multicanal.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1 dans lequel l'opération de panoramique appliquée au second signal d'objet fantôme est réactive à des vecteurs de gain gauche et droit.
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel le vecteur de gain gauche est déterminé en mappant un emplacement d'objet gauche à un premier emplacement sur la surface, et en évaluant une fonction de panoramique au niveau du premier emplacement, et le vecteur de gain droit est déterminé en mappant un emplacement d'objet droit à un second emplacement sur la surface, et en évaluant la fonction de panoramique au niveau du second emplacement.
 
4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel l'opération de panoramique appliquée au second signal d'objet fantôme utilise des facteurs de gain prédéterminés.
 
5. Procédé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel l'opération de panoramique appliquée au second signal d'objet fantôme comprend l'étape consistant à appliquer un vecteur de gain de somme au second signal d'objet fantôme pour obtenir les M seconds canaux du signal audio multicanal, dans lequel le vecteur de gain de somme représente une somme du vecteur de gain gauche et du vecteur de gain droit.
 
6. Procédé selon la revendication 1 dans lequel le premier emplacement est sensiblement au niveau de l'intersection de la surface et d'une ligne radiale à travers le centre du volume renfermé par ladite surface et ledit emplacement d'objet audio.
 
7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel ladite surface comprend sensiblement une sphère ou un bloc rectangulaire.
 
8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel ladite opération de panoramique appliquée au second signal d'objet fantôme comprend l'étape consistant à appliquer un processus de décorrélation au second signal d'objet fantôme.
 
9. Procédé selon la revendication 8, dans lequel l'étape consistant à appliquer un processus de décorrélation comprend l'étape consistant à appliquer un délai au second signal d'objet fantôme.
 
10. Procédé selon la revendication 8 ou 9, dans lequel l'opération de panoramique appliquée au second signal d'objet fantôme comprend les étapes consistant à :

appliquer un premier processus de décorrélation au second signal d'objet fantôme pour obtenir un premier signal décorrélé ;

appliquer un second processus de décorrélation au second signal d'objet fantôme pour obtenir un second signal décorrélé ;

appliquer un vecteur de gain gauche au premier signal décorrélé pour obtenir un premier signal décorrélé de panoramique ;

appliquer un vecteur de gain droit au second signal décorrélé pour obtenir un second signal décorrélé de panoramique ; et

combiner le premier signal décorrélé de panoramique et le second signal décorrélé de panoramique pour obtenir les M seconds canaux du signal audio multicanal.


 
11. Procédé selon la revendication 9, dans lequel l'opération de panoramique appliquée au second signal d'objet fantôme comprend les étapes consistant à :

appliquer un processus de décorrélation au second signal d'objet fantôme pour obtenir un signal décorrélé ;

déterminer un signal de somme en additionnant le signal décorrélé au second signal d'objet fantôme ;

déterminer un signal de différence en soustrayant le signal décorrélé du second signal d'objet fantôme ;

appliquer un vecteur de gain gauche au signal de somme pour obtenir un signal de somme de panoramique ;

appliquer un vecteur de gain droit au signal de différence pour obtenir un signal de différence de panoramique ; et

combiner le signal de somme de panoramique et le signal de différence de panoramique pour obtenir les M seconds canaux du signal audio multicanal.


 
12. Procédé selon la revendication 9, dans lequel l'opération de panoramique appliquée au second signal d'objet fantôme comprend les étapes consistant à :

appliquer un processus de décorrélation au second signal d'objet fantôme pour obtenir un signal décorrélé ;

appliquer un premier vecteur de gain au second signal d'objet fantôme pour obtenir un second signal d'objet fantôme de panoramique, dans lequel le premier vecteur de gain correspond à une somme d'un vecteur de gain gauche et d'un vecteur de gain droit ;

appliquer un second vecteur de gain au signal décorrélé pour obtenir un signal décorrélé de panoramique, dans lequel le second vecteur de gain correspond à une différence entre un vecteur de gain gauche et un vecteur de gain droit ; et

combiner le second signal d'objet fantôme de panoramique et le signal de différence de panoramique pour obtenir les M seconds canaux du signal audio multicanal.


 
13. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes dans lequel ledit procédé est appliqué à de multiples objets audio d'entrée pour produire un ensemble de sorties global de signaux audio de panoramique comme ledit signal audio multicanal.
 
14. Appareil comprenant un ou plusieurs moyens incluant un processeur pour effectuer le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13.
 
15. Support de stockage lisible par ordinateur comprenant des instructions qui, lorsqu'elles sont exécutées par un ordinateur, amènent l'ordinateur à effectuer le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description