(19)
(11)EP 3 330 691 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/37

(21)Application number: 17203788.9

(22)Date of filing:  27.11.2017
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
G01M 5/00(2006.01)
G01M 15/14(2006.01)
G01M 11/08(2006.01)

(54)

VISUAL CREEP INSPECTION OF ROTATING COMPONENTS

OPTISCHE CREEP INSPEKTION VON ROTIERENDEN KOMPONENTEN

INSPECTION VISUEL DE FLUAGE DE COMPOSANTS ROTATIFS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 01.12.2016 US 201615366714

(43)Date of publication of application:
06.06.2018 Bulletin 2018/23

(73)Proprietor: General Electric Company
Schenectady, NY 12345 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • COLLETTI, Andrew Joseph
    Greenville, SC 29615-4614 (US)
  • GERMANN, Bryan Joseph
    Greenville, SC 29615 (US)
  • HOVIS, Gregory Lee
    Greenville, SC 29615 (US)

(74)Representative: Freigutpartners IP Law Firm 
Hahnrainweg 4
5400 Baden
5400 Baden (CH)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 778 645
US-A1- 2002 195 551
JP-A- S61 162 730
US-A1- 2016 252 417
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND



    [0001] The disclosure relates to systems and methods for optically measuring creep and, more specifically, measuring creep of rotating components.

    [0002] Gas turbines typically include a compressor section, a combustion section, and a turbine section. The compressor section pressurizes air flowing into the turbine. The combustion section receives the pressurized air, mixes it with fuel, and combusts the mixture. The turbine section receives the combustion flow from the combustion section to drive the turbine and generate power. Various components along the flow path, particularly in the compressor and turbine sections, rotate around one or more central axis during operation. These rotating components are subject to wear, swell, shrink, and migration during use. Rotating components are subject to creep due to the high temperatures and stresses during operation and may be permanently deformed. Significant deformation can lead to loss of efficiency and mechanical failure in some systems. Rotating components may be periodically or occasionally inspected to assure continued operation and/or schedule maintenance or end of service.

    [0003] Conventional methods of measuring gas turbine components for creep have required system tear down and removal of such components in order to precisely measure strain within the component. For high availability systems, this can be problematic and create a significant loss in productivity.

    [0004] Visual and, more specifically, digital image based measurement methods have been employed for measuring creep in some components, though often with the requirement of a precision fixture to enable image correlation that requires removal of the component from the gas turbine. Removal of rotating components may be particularly undesirable. Image-based analysis of a coupon or pattern attached to a component for strain information may also require a field of view sufficient to capture the entire coupon or pattern. In situ rotating components may be difficult to capture in a single image.
    US 2002/195551 A1 discloses an angle sensor for sensing the absolute angular position of a rotatable body, such as a rotating shaft of an electric power steering system for an automobile. EP 2 778 645 A1 suggests a system for monitoring a component within a turbomachine that includes: a borescope probe sized to pass through an opening in the turbomachine, the borescope probe for detecting a symbolic data array on the component within the turbomachine; and at least one computing device operably coupled to the borescope probe, the at least one computing device configured to: obtain image data about the symbolic data array from the borescope probe; evaluate the image data to determine whether the image data is compatible with a symbolic data array analysis program; and analyze the image data using the symbolic data array analysis program in response to determining the image data is compatible with the symbolic data array analysis program.
    JPS 61162730 A suggests to achieve a higher working efficiency eliminating prerotation, by detecting a reference mark attached to the circumference of a sample during the rotation for measurement with a photocell to detect and memorize the peak thereof, which is utilized for indexing an unbalanced angle.

    SUMMARY



    [0005] A first aspect of this invention provides a system for visual creep inspection of rotating components. A component has an external surface and an axis of rotation. The external surface has a circumference and a plurality of three dimensional reference marks forming a reference pattern along the circumference. An optical data capture device generates a data signal based on the plurality of three dimensional reference marks. A data analysis system processes the data signal to calculate a deviation in spacing of the reference pattern along the

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0006] These and other features of this disclosure will be more readily understood from the following detailed description of the various aspects of the disclosure taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings that depict various embodiments of the disclosure, in which:

    FIG. 1 shows a diagram of an example system for visual creep inspection of rotating components according to various embodiments of the disclosure.

    FIG. 2 shows a diagram of an example rotating component, which does not fall within the literal scope of the appended claims.

    FIG. 3 shows a diagram of another example rotating component.

    FIG. 4 shows an example method of generating visual data according to various embodiments of the disclosure.

    FIG. 5 shows an example method of processing visual data to calculate strain according to various embodiments of the disclosure.



    [0007] It is noted that the drawings of the disclosure are not necessarily to scale. The drawings are intended to depict only typical aspects of the disclosure, and therefore should not be considered as limiting the scope of the disclosure. In the drawings, like numbering represents like elements between the drawings.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0008] In the following description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings that form a part thereof, and in which is shown by way of illustration specific exemplary embodiments in which the present teachings may be practiced. These embodiments are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the present teachings and it is to be understood that other embodiments may be used and that changes may be made without departing from the scope of the present teachings. The following description is, therefore, merely illustrative.

    [0009] Where an element or layer is referred to as being "on," "engaged to," "disengaged from," "connected to" or "coupled to" another element or layer, it may be directly on, engaged,

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0010] These and other features of this disclosure will be more readily understood from the following detailed description of the various aspects of the disclosure taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings that depict various embodiments of the disclosure, in which:

    FIG. 1 shows a diagram of an example system for visual creep inspection of rotating components according to various embodiments of the disclosure.

    FIG. 2 shows a diagram of an example rotating component, which does not fall within the scope of the appended claims.

    FIG. 3 shows a diagram of another example rotating component.

    FIG. 4 shows an example method of generating visual data according to various embodiments of the disclosure.

    FIG. 5 shows an example method of processing visual data to calculate strain according to various embodiments of the disclosure.



    [0011] It is noted that the drawings of the disclosure are not necessarily to scale. The drawings are intended to depict only typical aspects of the disclosure, and therefore should not be considered as limiting the scope of the disclosure. In the drawings, like numbering represents like elements between the drawings.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0012] In the following description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings that form a part thereof, and in which is shown by way of illustration specific exemplary embodiments in which the present teachings may be practiced. These embodiments are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the present teachings and it is to be understood that other embodiments may be used and that changes may be made without departing from the scope of the present teachings. The following description is, therefore, merely illustrative.

    [0013] Where an element or layer is referred to as being "on," "engaged to," "disengaged from," "connected to" or "coupled to" another element or layer, it may be directly on, engaged, 116 may include reference marks 112 that are three dimensional reference marks. Three dimensional reference marks may be additive features on exterior surface 116 that include a length and width in the plane of exterior surface and a non-zero height projecting perpendicular to exterior surface 116. The height of three dimensional reference marks may generally be determined by the projection necessary for the feature not to be lost or substantially distorted by dirt, debris, and other contaminants that may accumulate on the surfaces of components inside a machine. For example, three dimensional reference marks may have a depth in the range of 0.005" (0.127 mm) to 0.020" (0.508 mm), such as 0.010" (0.254 mm) by surface peening, or a height in the range of 0.005" (0.127 mm) or greater, such as 0.010" (0.254 mm) by surface deposition. While some embodiments may use reference marks that are subtractive features, such as grooves or shaped blind depressions, in exterior surface 116, subtractive features may be more prone to obfuscation by surface debris and exterior surface 116 may better tolerate additive features of greater than 0.010" (0.254 mm) with improved visibility. In some embodiments, reference marks 112 are regularly spaced and discontinuous three dimensional features, such as line features running in an axial direction at regular intervals around the circumference of exterior surface 116. Other example features may include circles or dots, blocks, square frames, crosses, or more complex yet discrete shapes. In some embodiments, reference marks 112 are connected by continuous features, while still providing periodic reference points. According to the herein claimed invention, reference marks 112 include a plurality of line features running in the axial direction interconnected by one or more line features running circumferentially to form a ladder pattern around the circumference of exterior surface 116. The size and shapes of reference marks 112 along with their positions and spacings may constitute a reference pattern for component 110 or a portion thereof.

    [0014] Visual data capture device 130 may include a variety image sensors, generally coupled with one or more controlled light sources, that may be used for precisely gathering visual data 116 may include reference marks 112 that are three dimensional reference marks. Three dimensional reference marks may be additive features on exterior surface 116 that include a length and width in the plane of exterior surface and a non-zero height projecting perpendicular to exterior surface 116. The height of three dimensional reference marks may generally be determined by the projection necessary for the feature not to be lost or substantially distorted by dirt, debris, and other contaminants that may accumulate on the surfaces of components inside a machine. For example, three dimensional reference marks may have a depth in the range of 0.005" (0.127 mm) to 0.020" (0.508 mm), such as 0.010" (0.254 mm) by surface peening, or a height in the range of 0.005" (0.127 mm) or greater, such as 0.010" (0.254 mm) by surface deposition. While some embodiments may use reference marks that are subtractive features, such as grooves or shaped blind depressions, in exterior surface 116, subtractive features may be more prone to obfuscation by surface debris and exterior surface 116 may better tolerate additive features of greater than 0.010" (0.254 mm) with improved visibility. In some embodiments, reference marks 112 are regularly spaced and discontinuous three dimensional features, such as line features running in an axial direction at regular intervals around the circumference of exterior surface 116. Other example features may include circles or dots, blocks, square frames, crosses, or more complex yet discrete shapes. In some embodiments, reference marks 112 are connected by continuous features, while still providing periodic reference points. According to the invention, reference marks 112 include a plurality of line features running in the axial direction interconnected by one or more line features running circumferentially to form a ladder around the circumference of exterior surface 116. The size and shapes of reference marks 112 along with their positions and spacings may constitute a reference pattern for component 110 or a portion thereof.

    [0015] Visual data capture device 130 may include a variety image sensors, generally coupled with one or more controlled light sources, that may be used for precisely gathering visual data relative to positioning information. For example, visual data capture device 130 may include an optical coordinate measurement machine, a structured light profilometer, a laser profilometer, or a borescope camera (with light sources and phase measurement). In some embodiments, visual data capture device 130 may have sufficient resolution from its operating position to measure surface features with thousandths of an inch (thousandths of 25.4 mm) precision. Visual data capture device 130 may include an image sensors, analog/digital converters, and other data processing for generating visual data descriptive of at least one revolution of component 110. For example, visual data capture device 130 may collect an array of data elements representing distinct positions on exterior surface 116 and provide them as a data stream or data file for further digital analysis. In another example, visual data capture device 130 may generate analog signal data representing sensed light over time that may be accurately mapped to position based on either a known anchor reference mark and rate of rotation, or synchronization with position index data, such as the data from position index encoder 140. In some embodiments, position index encoder 140 provides position index data to assist with analysis of the visual data and accurately map visual information to the physical structure of component 110. In some embodiments, position index encoder 140 is built into the machine in which component 110 operates, such as a shaft encoder. In some embodiments, position index encoder 140 is an additional component specifically associated with system 100. For example, position index encoder 140 may include a rotary (gear) encoder that may be synchronized with the rotation of component 110 to provide positioning data to visual data capture device 130.

    [0016] Computing system 150 may provide computing resources (memory, processing, and I/O) for processing visual data and position index data to generate strain data for component 110. In some embodiments, computing system 150 is a general purpose computing devices, such as a personal computer, work station, mobile device, or an embedded system in an industrial control or measurement system (using general purpose computing components and operating systems). In some embodiments, computing system 150 may be a specialized data processing system for the task of analyzing visual data and may be directly integrated with visual data capture device 130. In some embodiments, computing system 150 implements data analyzer 170 as computer program code and may include computer program code for other functions as well, including the control of visual data capture device 130. Computing system 150 may include at least one memory, processor, and input/output (I/O) interface interconnected by a bus. Further, computing system 150 may include communication with external I/O device/resources and/or storage systems, including connected system, such as visual data capture device 130, and network resources. In general, a processor executes computer program code, such as data analyzer 170, that is stored in memory and/or a storage system. While executing computer program code, the processor can read and/or write data to/from memory, storage systems, and I/O devices. The bus provides a communication link between each of the components within computing system 150. I/O devices may comprise any device that enables a user to interact with computing system 150 (e.g., keyboard, pointing device, display, etc.). Computing system 150 is only representative of various possible combinations of hardware and software. For example, the processor may comprise a single processing unit, or be distributed across one or more processing units in one or more locations, e.g., on a client and server. Similarly, memory and/or storage systems may reside at one or more physical locations. Memory and/or storage systems can comprise any combination of various types of non-transitory computer readable storage medium including magnetic media, optical media, random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), etc. In some embodiments, computing system 150 is a laptop computer in communication with visual data capture device 130 via a wired (serial, USB, Ethernet, etc.) or wireless (802.11, Bluetooth, etc.) connection and running application software for data analyzer 170.

    [0017] Data analyzer 170 may provide data, logic, and user interface for calculating strain around the circumference of component 110. Data analyzer 170 may receive or otherwise be in communication with visual data 172 and position index data 174. In some embodiments, position index data 174 may be calculated from visual data 172 based on an anchor reference mark that is uniquely discernable from among the plurality of reference marks 112. For example, an anchor reference mark may include a reference mark with a unique size, shape, spacing, or position relative to other reference marks that makes it identifiable within data analyzer 170 and from which visual data 172 may be accurately mapped to external surface 116. In some embodiments, visual data 172 may come from visual data capture device 130 and position index data 174 may come from position index encoder 140. Feature extractor 176 may process visual data 172 and position index data 174 to extract features related to the positions of reference marks 112. For example, feature extractor 176 may identify reference marks 112 based on algorithms for identifying changes or patterns in visual data 172 at specific positions or feature counts along the visual data stream or array and convert the series of positions into an ordered set of spacings between detected features. In some embodiments, feature extractor 176 may convert or express the position information as an ordered set of arc lengths along the circumference of component 110. In some embodiments, reference pattern marks 112 may include shapes (e.g., rectangles) with detectable width and length dimensions and feature extraction may include multiple values for each feature and/or calculated feature values such as the aspect ratio (width:length) of a rectangle. Baseline data 178 may be a set of extracted features based on reference marks 112 from an earlier time point to form the basis of a creep or strain calculation. In some embodiments, baseline data 178 may be an ordered set of arc lengths along the circumference of component 110 that correlate on an element-by-element basis to the set of arc lengths from feature extractor and being analyzed by data analyzer 170. For example, baseline data 178 may be the set of features measured prior to placing the equipment containing component 110 into service and/or the set of features from an earlier inspection, maintenance, or service call to take a baseline measurement. In some embodiments, a baseline data set based on the specifications of component 110 may also be available and used for calculation of variations between the component as specified, as manufactured, and/or as installed for strain values. In some embodiments, baseline data 178 may include a plurality of data sets for different time points to enable measurement of strain changes over time or operating life. Data from feature extractor 176 may be added to baseline data 178 for use in future strain calculations. Deviation calculator 180 may calculate the difference between baseline data 178 and the data from feature extractor 176. For example, deviation calculator 180 may calculate deviations in spacing around the circumference of component 110. In some embodiments, deviation values may be reported directly as quantifications of creep or distortion at various points around the circumference of component 110. Strain calculator 182 may calculate the ratio between baseline data 178 and the most recent data from feature extractor 176. In some embodiments, strain may be expressed as a percentage change between a baseline value for each reference mark and the most recent value for the same reference mark. If the time or operating time between the baseline measurement and recent value is known, a strain rate may be calculated as well. Measurement reporter 184 makes extracted, baseline, and/or calculated values available to users through a user interface, such as the user interface of computing system 150, and/or through data transfer to other systems, including maintenance and/or plant management systems.

    [0018] Referring to FIG. 2, an example simplified component 200 is shown in situ inside machine casing 250, where a system similar to system 100 may be used for visual creep inspection. A removable panel has been removed from machine casing 250 to provide an opening 252 enable clear, visual access to component 200 from at least one direction. In FIG. 2, component 200 is viewed from a direction perpendicular to axis of rotation 202, such as laterally or from above component 200 and the view shown may include cutaway of other components and/or sections of machine casing that would otherwise obscure component 200 from that view. Component 200 includes a component body 210 with an exterior surface 212. A series of discontinuous reference marks 214, 216, 218 are provided on exterior surface 212 at regular spacings. It should be noted that reference marks would continue around the circumference of component body 210. In some examples, reference marks 214, 216, 218 may be of identical configurations (size, shape, position, etc.) and a creep measurement system may require an independent anchor reference and/or rotational position index. A creep measurement system may have its visual data capture device positioned such that the field of view or measurement includes the axial position of reference marks 214, 216, 218 and they (and the complete series of reference marks around the circumference) will pass through the field when component 200 is rotated a full revolution.

    [0019] Referring to FIG. 3, another example simplified component 300 is shown in situ inside machine casing 350, where a system similar to system 100 may be used for visual creep inspection. A borescope port 352 in machine casing 350 provides an opening 355 enable entry of a visual data capture device or a portion thereof inside casing 350. For example, insertion of a borescope camera with light sources may provide clear, visual access to component 300 at an axial position proximate reference pattern 314. In FIG. 3, component 300 is viewed from a direction perpendicular to axis of rotation 302, such as laterally or from above component 300 and the view shown may include cutaway of other components and/or sections of machine casing that would otherwise obscure component 300 from that view. Component 300 may include a component body 310 with an exterior surface 312. A series of continuous reference marks may define reference pattern 314 on exterior surface 312. Reference pattern 314 may include spaced circumferential lines 316, 318 interconnecting perpendicular axial lines 320, 322, 324, 326, 328, 330, 332. It should be noted that reference pattern 314 would continue around the circumference of component body 310. In some embodiments, axial lines 320, 322, 324, 326, 328, 330, 332 may be of identical configurations (size, shape, position, etc.) and a creep measurement system may require an independent anchor reference and/or rotational position index. In the embodiment shown, axial line 330 is distinguishable from axial lines 320, 322, 324, 326, 328, 332 due to an increased thickness detectable in the visual data to act as an anchor reference and/or rotational position index. A creep measurement system may have its visual data capture device positioned through borescope port 352 such that the field of view or measurement includes the axial position of reference pattern 314 and the complete series of reference marks around the circumference will pass through the field when component 300 is rotated a full revolution.

    [0020] Referring to FIG. 4, an example method 400 of generating visual data using a visual creep inspection system, such as system 100, is shown. In step 410, reference marks (see e.g., reference marks in FIGS. 1-3) are applied to a component to support future creep measurement. For example, reference marks may be applied around the circumference of a component during component manufacture before the component is installed in the machine, the reference marks may be applied once the component is partially or completely installed in the machine, or during later maintenance or service of the machine in situ or in a service center. In some embodiments, reference marks may be applied to the exterior surface of the component using an additive manufacturing method, such as electro spark deposition, laser welding, or mechanical dot peening. Because operating time and conditions between any baseline measurement and resulting creep or strain measurement may result in significant wear or corrosion on the component surface, permanent or semi-permanent reference marks made of resilient materials (generally metal) and compatible with bond coat used on the component should be used. In some embodiments, cold spray or spot cured (laser) ceramics may also be used for reference marks. Reference marks may generally be applied in a highly specific location with precision to thousandths of an inch. Selection of the axial location and configuration of reference marks may be based on thermal models, stress models, and/or field data for the actual or similar components or machines. In step 415, the positions of the reference marks may be synchronized with a rotational index encoder during application of the reference marks and/or separately after application of the reference marks to support measurement of baseline data. For example, a rotational index encoder (independent or integrated into the machine or manufacturing fixture) may be synchronized with the additive manufacturing tool and/or device used for generating baseline data. In step 420, baseline data is generated from the reference marks on the component. For example, a visual creep inspection system may be used to take and store a baseline measurement of the reference marks around the circumference of the component. In some embodiments, an alternate system may be used for taking the baseline measurement, such as a measurement system integrated with the manufacturing technology or an alternate measurement technology available in the manufacturing, testing, or assembly process, including non-visual methods such as contact-based CMM. In step 430, the machine including the component is operated over a period of time after the baseline measurement has been taken. For example, a machine, such as a gas turbine, may be put into service in a power plant and operate on a duty cycle appropriate to the machine and demands of the power plant. Periodically or based upon an event, the machine or component may be scheduled for inspection, maintenance, or service and there may be a desire to take a creep or strain measurement for the component. In step 440, an optical data capture device is positioned such that it has line of site to an axial position that includes the reference marks. For example, a high fidelity, high resolution optical data capture device integrated into a borescope may be inserted through a borescope port, the machine casing or a portion of the machine casing may be removed to provide visual access to the component, the entire rotor assembly may be removed from the machine and placed where it can be viewed, or the component may be entirely removed from its associated machine components and placed in a fixture for rotating the component in association with the optical data capture device. In step 445, rotation of the component may be synchronized with a rotational index encoder and the rotational index data may be used by the optical data capture

    [0021] The description of the present disclosure has been presented for purposes of illustration and description, but is not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the disclosure in the form disclosed. Many modifications and variations will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the scope of the claims. The embodiment was chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and the practical application, and to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the invention for various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. embodiments, reference marks may include shapes (e.g., rectangles) with detectable width and length dimensions and feature extraction may include multiple values for each feature and/or calculated feature values such as the aspect ratio (width:length) of a rectangle. In step 540, baseline data is retrieved from data storage. For example, the baseline measurements between reference marks generated at an earlier time point may be retrieved from a data repository of component-related data. In step 550, the difference between baseline data and the extracted feature data based on the current positions of the reference marks may be calculated. For example, deviations in spacing around the circumference of the component may be calculated. In step 560, the ratio between spacings in the baseline data and spacings in the extracted feature data may be calculated to quantify strain. For example, strain may be expressed as a percentage change between a baseline spacing value for each reference mark and the most recent spacing value for the same reference mark. In step 570, extracted, baseline, and/or calculated values are output through a user interface, such as the user interface of a computing system and/or through data transfer to other systems, including maintenance and/or plant management systems. This data output may be used for service, maintenance, and operations decisions related to the component and the machine in which it operates, including replacement or repair of the component.

    [0022] The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the disclosure. It will be further understood that the terms "comprises" and/or "comprising," when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof.

    [0023] The description of the present disclosure has been presented for purposes of illustration and description, but is not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the disclosure in the form disclosed. The embodiment was chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and the practical application, and to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the invention for various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated.


    Claims

    1. A system (100) comprising:

    a component (110, 200, 300) with an external surface (116) and an axis of rotation (114, 202, 302), wherein the external surface (116) has a circumference and a plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) forming a reference pattern (314) along the circumference;

    an optical data capture device (130) that transmits a data signal based on the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218); and

    a data analysis system (100) that processes the data signal to calculate a deviation in spacing of the reference pattern (314) along the circumference and determine a strain measurement,

    characterized in that the reference pattern (314) is a ladder pattern including a plurality of reference lines parallel to the circumference and a plurality of reference lines perpendicular to the circumference and wherein the reference pattern (314) includes an anchor mark at a single circumferential position and the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) each have a count from the anchor mark for use by the data analysis system (100).


     
    2. The system (100) of claim 1, wherein the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) have a mark height measured from the external surface (116) and are added to the external surface (116) by a process selected from electro spark deposition, laser welding, or mechanical dot peening.
     
    3. The system (100) of claim 1 or claim 2, further comprising a rotational index encoder that generates position data related to the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) as the component (110, 200, 300) rotates around the axis of rotation (114, 202, 302), and wherein the data analysis system (100) uses the position data to calculate the deviation in spacing of the reference pattern (314).
     
    4. The system (100) of any preceding claim, wherein the optical data capture device (130) is selected from an optical coordinate measurement machine, a structured light profilometer, a laser profilometer, or a borescope camera.
     
    5. The system (100) of any preceding claim, wherein the data analysis system (100) extracts an ordered set of spacing values among the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) and converts the ordered set of spacing values to arc lengths along the circumference to calculate the deviation in spacing based on a reference set of spacing values.
     
    6. A rotating component (110, 200, 300) comprising:

    a component (110, 200, 300) according to any of the preceding claims,

    wherein the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) have a mark height measured from the external surface (116).


     
    7. A method (400, 500) comprising:

    rotating (450) a component (110, 200, 300) with an external surface (116) and an axis of rotation (114, 202, 302), wherein the external surface (116) has a circumference and a plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) forming a reference pattern (314) along the circumference;

    generating (460) a data signal based on the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218);

    calculating (550) a deviation in spacing of the reference pattern (314) along the circumference using the data signal; and

    determining (560) a strain measurement,

    characterized in that

    the reference pattern (314) is a ladder pattern including a plurality of reference lines parallel to the circumference and a plurality of reference lines perpendicular to the circumference and wherein the reference pattern (314) includes an anchor mark at a single circumferential position and the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) each have a count from the anchor mark for use in calculating the deviation in spacing.
     
    8. The method (400, 500) of claim 7, further comprising applying (410) the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) to the external surface (116) by a process selected from electro spark deposition, laser welding, or mechanical dot peening.
     
    9. The method (400, 500) of any of claims 7 or 8, further comprising inserting an optical data capture device (130) through a borescope port (352) for generating the data signal, wherein the component (110, 200, 300) is enclosed within a gas turbine casing (350).
     
    10. The method (400, 500) of any of claims 7 to 9, wherein calculating (550) the deviation in spacing includes extracting an ordered set of spacing values among the plurality of three dimensional reference marks (112, 214, 216, 218) and converting the ordered set of spacing values to arc lengths along the circumference to calculate the deviation in spacing based on a reference set of spacing values.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. System (100), umfassend:

    eine Komponente (110, 200, 300) mit einer Außenfläche (116) und einer Drehachse (114, 202, 302), wobei die Außenfläche (116) einen Umfang und eine Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) aufweist, die ein Bezugsmuster (314) entlang dem Umfang bilden;

    eine optische Datenerfassungsvorrichtung (130), die ein Datensignal basierend auf der Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) überträgt; und

    ein Datenanalysesystem (100), das das Datensignal verarbeitet, um eine Abweichung bei den Abständen in dem Bezugsmuster (314) entlang dem Umfang zu berechnen und um eine Verformungsmessung zu bestimmen,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Bezugsmuster (314) ein Leitermuster ist, das eine Vielzahl von Bezugslinien parallel zu dem Umfang und eine Vielzahl von Bezugslinien senkrecht zu dem Umfang einschließt, und wobei das Bezugsmuster (314) eine Ankermarkierung an einer einzigen Umfangsposition einschließt und die Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) jeweils einen Zählstand ab der Ankermarkierung zur Verwendung durch das Datenanalysesystem (100) aufweist.


     
    2. System (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) eine von der Außenfläche (116) gemessene Markierungshöhe aufweisen und durch einen aus Elektrofunkenauftragsschweißen, Laserschweißen oder mechanischer Nadelprägung ausgewählten Prozess auf die Außenfläche (116) hinzugefügt werden.
     
    3. System (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder Anspruch 2, ferner umfassend einen Index-Drehgeber, der Positionsdaten in Bezug auf die Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) erzeugt, während sich die Komponente (110, 200, 300) um die Drehachse (114, 202, 302) dreht, und wobei das Datenanalysesystem (100) die Positionsdaten verwendet, um die Abweichung bei den Abständen in dem Bezugsmuster (314) zu berechnen.
     
    4. System (100) nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die optische Datenerfassungsvorrichtung (130) aus einem optischen Koordinatenmessgerät, einem Streifenlicht-Profilometer, einem Laser-Profilometer oder einer Boreskopkamera ausgewählt ist.
     
    5. System (100) nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Datenanalysesystem (100) eine geordnete Menge von Abstandswerten aus der Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) extrahiert und die geordnete Menge von Abstandswerten in Bogenlängen entlang dem Umfang umwandelt, um die Abweichung bei den Abständen basierend auf einer Bezugsmenge von Abstandswerten zu berechnen.
     
    6. Drehkomponente (110, 200, 300), umfassend:

    eine Komponente (110, 200, 300) nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche,

    wobei die Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) eine von der Außenfläche (116) gemessene Markierungshöhe aufweisen.


     
    7. Verfahren (400, 500), umfassend:

    Drehen (450) einer Komponente (110, 200, 300) mit einer Außenfläche (116) und einer Drehachse (114, 202, 302), wobei die Außenfläche (116) einen Umfang und eine Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) aufweist, die ein Bezugsmuster (314) entlang dem Umfang bilden;

    Erzeugen (460) eines Datensignals basierend auf der Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218);

    Berechnen (550) einer Abweichung bei den Abständen in dem Bezugsmuster (314) entlang dem Umfang unter Verwendung des Datensignals und

    Bestimmen (560) einer Verformungsmessung,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass

    das Bezugsmuster (314) ein Leitermuster ist, das eine Vielzahl von Bezugslinien parallel zu dem Umfang und eine Vielzahl von Bezugslinien senkrecht zu dem Umfang einschließt, und wobei das Bezugsmuster (314) eine Ankermarkierung an einer einzigen Umfangsposition einschließt und die Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) jeweils einen Zählstand ab der Ankermarkierung zur Verwendung beim Berechnen der Abweichung bei den Abständen aufweist.


     
    8. Verfahren (400, 500) nach Anspruch 7, ferner umfassend das Aufbringen (410) der Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) auf die Außenfläche (116) durch einen Prozess, der aus Elektrofunkenauftragsschweißen, Laserschweißen oder mechanischer Nadelprägung ausgewählt ist.
     
    9. Verfahren (400, 500) nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 8, ferner umfassend das Einführen einer optischen Datenerfassungsvorrichtung (130) durch einen Boreskopzugang (352) zum Erzeugen des Datensignals, wobei die Komponente (110, 200, 300) in einem Gasturbinengehäuse (350) eingeschlossen ist.
     
    10. Verfahren (400, 500) nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 9, wobei das Berechnen (550) der Abweichung bei den Abständen das Extrahieren einer geordneten Menge von Abstandswerten aus der Vielzahl von dreidimensionalen Bezugsmarkierungen (112, 214, 216, 218) und das Umwandeln der geordneten Menge von Abstandswerten auf Bogenlängen entlang dem Umfang einschließt, um die Abweichung bei den Abständen basierend auf einer Bezugsmenge von Abstandswerten zu berechnen.
     


    Revendications

    1. Système (100) comprenant :

    un composant (110, 200, 300) avec une surface externe (116) et un axe de rotation (114, 202, 302), dans lequel la surface externe (116) a une circonférence et une pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) formant un motif de référence (314) le long de la circonférence ;

    un dispositif de capture de données optiques (130) qui émet un signal de données en fonction de la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) ; et

    un système d'analyse de données (100) qui traite le signal de données pour calculer un écart dans l'espacement du motif de référence (314) le long de la circonférence et déterminer une mesure de contrainte,

    caractérisé en ce que le motif de référence (314) est un motif en échelle incluant une pluralité de lignes de référence parallèles à la circonférence et une pluralité de lignes de référence perpendiculaires à la circonférence et où le motif de référence (314) inclut une marque d'ancrage à une position circonférentielle unique et la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) ont chacune un comptage de la marque d'ancrage utilisable par le système d'analyse de données (100).


     
    2. Système (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) ont une hauteur de marque mesurée à partir de la surface externe (116) et sont ajoutées à la surface externe (116) par un procédé choisi parmi le dépôt par électro-érosion, le soudage au laser, ou le marquage mécanique par micro-percussion.
     
    3. Système (100) selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, comprenant en outre un codeur d'index par rotation qui génère des données de position apparentées à la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) à mesure que le composant (110, 200, 300) tourne autour de l'axe de rotation (114, 202, 302), et dans lequel le système d'analyse de données (100) utilise les données de position pour calculer l'écart dans l'espacement du motif de référence (314).
     
    4. Système (100) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel le dispositif de capture de données optiques (130) est choisi parmi une machine de mesure de coordonnées optiques, un profilomètre à lumière structurée, un profilomètre laser, ou une caméra d'endoscope.
     
    5. Système (100) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel le système d'analyse de données (100) extrait un ensemble ordonné de valeurs d'espacement parmi la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) et convertit l'ensemble ordonné de valeurs d'espacement en longueurs d'arc le long de la circonférence pour calculer l'écart dans l'espacement en fonction d'un ensemble de référence de valeurs d'espacement.
     
    6. Composant rotatif (110, 200, 300) comprenant :

    un composant (110, 200, 300) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes,

    dans lequel la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) ont une hauteur de marque mesurée à partir de la surface externe (116).


     
    7. Procédé (400, 500) comprenant :

    la mise en rotation (450) d'un composant (110, 200, 300) avec une surface externe (116) et un axe de rotation (114, 202, 302), où la surface externe (116) a une circonférence et une pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) formant un motif de référence (314) le long de la circonférence ;

    la génération (460) d'un signal de données en fonction de la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) ;

    le calcul (550) d'un écart dans l'espacement du motif de référence (314) le long de la circonférence à l'aide du signal de données ; et

    la détermination (560) d'une mesure de contrainte,

    caractérisé en ce que

    le motif de référence (314) est un motif en échelle incluant une pluralité de lignes de référence parallèles à la circonférence et une pluralité de lignes de référence perpendiculaires à la circonférence et où le motif de référence (314) inclut une marque d'ancrage à une position circonférentielle unique et la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) ont chacune un comptage de la marque d'ancrage utilisable pour le calcul de l'écart dans l'espacement.


     
    8. Procédé (400, 500) selon la revendication 7, comprenant en outre l'application (410) de la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) à la surface externe (116) par un procédé choisi parmi le dépôt par électro-érosion, le soudage au laser, ou le marquage mécanique par micro-percussion.
     
    9. Procédé (400, 500) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 ou 8, comprenant en outre l'insertion d'un dispositif de capture de données optiques (130) à travers un orifice d'endoscope (352) pour générer le signal de données, dans lequel le composant (110, 200, 300) est enfermé dans un carter de turbine à gaz (350).
     
    10. Procédé (400, 500) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 9, dans lequel le calcul (550) de l'écart dans l'espacement inclut l'extraction d'un ensemble ordonné de valeurs d'espacement parmi la pluralité de marques de référence tridimensionnelles (112, 214, 216, 218) et la conversion de l'ensemble ordonné de valeurs d'espacement en longueurs d'arc le long de la circonférence pour calculer l'écart dans l'espacement en fonction d'un ensemble de référence de valeurs d'espacement.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description