(19)
(11)EP 3 334 036 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
31.07.2019 Bulletin 2019/31

(21)Application number: 17798508.2

(22)Date of filing:  17.02.2017
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H02S 50/10(2014.01)
H02S 40/32(2014.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CN2017/073991
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/197941 (23.11.2017 Gazette  2017/47)

(54)

PHOTOVOLTAIC ASSEMBLY DETECTION APPARATUS AND ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM

FOTOVOLTAIKANLAGENDETEKTIONSVORRICHTUNG UND STROMVERSORGUNGSSYSTEM

APPAREIL DE DÉTECTION D'ENSEMBLE PHOTOVOLTAÏQUE ET SYSTÈME D'ALIMENTATION ÉLECTRIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 20.05.2016 CN 201610338915

(43)Date of publication of application:
13.06.2018 Bulletin 2018/24

(73)Proprietor: Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Longgang District Shenzhen, Guangdong 518129 (CN)

(72)Inventors:
  • CAO, Fayin
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)
  • SHUI, Wei
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)
  • MA, Xun
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)

(74)Representative: Epping - Hermann - Fischer 
Patentanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Schloßschmidstraße 5
80639 München
80639 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
CN-A- 101 969 214
CN-A- 105 932 964
US-A1- 2014 067 298
US-A1- 2015 214 887
CN-A- 103 000 719
DE-A1-102012 102 932
US-A1- 2014 265 638
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD



    [0001] Embodiments of the present invention relate to the communications field, and in particular, to a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus and a power system.

    BACKGROUND



    [0002] A photovoltaic (PV) power system is a new power generating system that uses a photovoltaic effect of a solar cell semiconductor material to directly convert solar radiation energy into electric energy. This power generating manner does not generate oxynitride, a gas harmful to human bodies, or a radioactive waste, and therefore has a broad development prospect.

    [0003] To ensure normal working of the photovoltaic power system, information about a voltage, a temperature, and the like of each PV module (for example, a solar panel) included in the photovoltaic power system needs to be monitored. An existing photovoltaic power system generally includes an inverter, multiple PV modules, and a PV module monitoring apparatus corresponding to each PV module. After obtaining the information about the voltage, the temperature, and the like of the PV module, the PV module monitoring apparatus needs to encode the information, and sends encoded information to the inverter. However, the photovoltaic power system includes multiple PV modules, and the encoded information needs to be sent to the inverter after passing through the multiple PV modules. Therefore, the encoded information is attenuated once after passing through each PV module. A larger quantity of PV modules included in the photovoltaic power system indicates greater attenuation in the encoded information sent to the inverter. This significantly reduces reliability of power line communication.

    [0004] DE 10 2012 102 932 A1 relates to a method for signaling partial shadowing within a PV generator including at least two partial PV generators connected in parallel. The method includes performing a reference impedance measurement on each of the at least two partial PV generators in a state of uniform irradiation of the PV generator, and determining at least one reference resonant property of each of the at least two partial PV generators from the reference impedance measurement. Furthermore, impedance measurements are carried out on the at least two partial PV generators at a first operating point of the PV generator during operation of the PV generator. Resonant properties of the partial PV generators are determined from the impedance measurements. Partial shadowing within the PV generator is detected and signaled if a difference between the resonant properties of the partial PV generators at the first operating point differs from a difference between the reference resonant properties of the partial PV generators. The disclosure also relates to an apparatus suitable for carrying out the method.

    [0005] US 2014/0265638 A1 relates to intelligent safety disconnect switching methods and arrangements for Photo Voltaic (PV) panels. A determination is made as to whether a reconnect condition, for reconnecting a PV panel to a power system from which the PV panel is disconnected, is satisfied. The PV panel is automatically reconnected to the power system responsive to determining that the reconnect condition is satisfied. A determination is then made as to whether a power system operating condition is satisfied on reconnection of the PV panel, and the PV panel is automatically disconnected from the power system responsive to determining that the power system operating condition is not satisfied on reconnection of the PV panel.

    SUMMARY



    [0006] Embodiments of the present invention provide a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus and a power system according to the attached claims, so as to avoid attenuation caused when data passes through a PV module, and improve reliability of power line communication.

    [0007] To achieve the foregoing objective, the following technical solutions are used in the embodiments of the present invention.

    [0008] According to a first aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, applied to a power system, including an inverter and a photovoltaic PV module serially connected to the inverter and parallelly connected to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, wherein the power system uses an electrical power cable of the power system as a transmission medium for transmission of an analog signal or a digital signal at a high speed by using a carrier and the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus includes:
    a driver module and a bypass module parallelly connected to the driver module, where the driver module is configured to: receive a status request differential signal sent by the inverter of the power system via the electrical power cable; obtain, according to the status request differential signal, status information of the photovoltaic PV module corresponding to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus; modulate the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to generate a status response differential signal; and send the status response differential signal to the inverter via the electrical power cable; the bypass module is configured to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal; an input end of the driver module and an input end of the bypass module are configured to be connected to an input end of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, an output end of the driver module and an output end of the bypass module are configured to be connected to an output end of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, and an impedance of the bypass module is less than an impedance of the photovoltaic PV module with respect to the status request differential signal sent from the inverter and the status response differential signal sent to the inverter.

    [0009] According to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus provided in this embodiment of the present invention, the bypass module configured to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal is disposed, and the impedance of the bypass module is less than the impedance of the PV module. Therefore, the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal are transmitted on a low impedance loop, so that attenuation caused when the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal in the prior art pass through the PV module is avoided, and reliability of power line communication is improved.

    [0010] Further, the driver module specifically includes: a receiving module connected to the bypass module, a control module connected to the receiving module, and a sending module connected to all the control module, the receiving module, and the bypass module, where the receiving module is configured to: receive the status request differential signal sent by the inverter; demodulate the status request differential signal to generate a level signal used to request the status information of the photovoltaic PV module; and send the level signal to the control module; the control module is configured to receive the level signal sent by the receiving module; and read the status information of the photovoltaic PV module and then send the status information to the sending module according to the level signal; and the sending module is configured to: receive the status information of the photovoltaic PV module sent by the control module; modulate the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to generate the status response differential signal; and send the status response differential signal to the inverter.

    [0011] Further, the bypass module specifically includes: a first capacitor connected to both the sending module and the receiving module, where one end of the first capacitor is connected to the sending module, and the other end of the first capacitor is connected to the receiving module.

    [0012] According to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus provided in this embodiment of the present invention, the capacitor is a device that isolates a direct current and conducts an alternating current. Therefore, during alternating current transmission, the impedance of the bypass module is far less than the impedance of the PV module.

    [0013] Optionally, the bypass module further includes: a resistor connected to the first capacitor, where one end of the resistor is connected to one end of the first capacitor, and the other end of the resistor is connected to the sending module.

    [0014] Optionally, the bypass module further includes a switch element connected to the first capacitor, where one end of the switch element is connected to one end of the first capacitor, the other end of the switch element is connected to the sending module, and the switch element is connected to the control module; and the control module is further configured to control conduction and disconnection of the switch element.

    [0015] Optionally, the bypass module further includes a resistor connected to the first capacitor, and a switch element connected to the resistor, where one end of the resistor is connected to one end of the first capacitor, the other end of the resistor is connected to one end of the switch element, the other end of the switch element is connected to the sending module, and the switch element is connected to the control module; and the control module is further configured to control conduction and disconnection of the switch element.

    [0016] According to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus provided in this embodiment of the present invention, the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus includes a switch element, and a control module can control conduction and disconnection of the switch element. Therefore, when a status request differential signal and a status response differential signal need to be transmitted, a bypass module is conducted, or when a status request differential signal and a status response differential signal do not need to be transmitted, a bypass module is disconnected.

    [0017] Further, the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus further includes a second capacitor and a third capacitor, where one end of the second capacitor is connected to the sending module, the other end of the second capacitor is connected to the bypass module, one end of the third capacitor is connected to the receiving module, and the other end of the third capacitor is connected to the bypass module.

    [0018] Further, the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus further includes a power supply connected to the control module, configured to supply power to the control module.

    [0019] According to a second aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a power system, including an inverter, at least one photovoltaic PV module serially connected to the inverter, and at least one photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus that is serially connected to the inverter and that is according to any one implementation of the first aspect, where the PV module and the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus are in a one-to-one correspondence, and the photovoltaic PV module is parallelly connected to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the photovoltaic PV module.

    [0020] According to the power system provided in the embodiments of the present invention, a bypass module configured to transmit a status request differential signal and a status response differential signal is disposed in a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus included in the power system, and an impedance of the bypass module is less than an impedance of a PV module.

    [0021] Therefore, the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal are transmitted on a low impedance loop, so that attenuation caused when the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal in the prior art pass through the PV module is avoided, and reliability of power line communication is improved.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



    [0022] 

    FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a power system in the prior art;

    FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram 1 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram 2 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 4 is a schematic structural diagram 3 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 5 is a schematic structural diagram 4 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 6 is a schematic structural diagram 5 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 7 is a schematic structural diagram 6 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 8 is a schematic structural diagram 7 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 9 is a schematic structural diagram 8 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 10 is a schematic structural diagram of a power system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 11 is a schematic flowchart 1 of a power line communication method according to an embodiment of the present invention;

    FIG. 12 is a schematic flowchart 2 of a power line communication method according to an embodiment of the present invention; and

    FIG. 13 is a schematic flowchart 3 of a power line communication method according to an embodiment of the present invention.


    DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS



    [0023] The technologies described in the embodiments of the present invention are mainly applied to a direct current power system. The power system uses an electrical power cable as a transmission medium, and transmits an analog signal or a digital signal at a high speed by using a carrier, and is a communication manner specific to a power system. The greatest feature of the direct current power system is that an additional communications line does not need to be set up, and only an existing electrical power cable needs to be used to transmit data, so that line complexity and construction costs of the power system may be effectively reduced.

    [0024] The power system generally includes multiple PV modules. To ensure normal working of the power system, information about a voltage, a temperature, and the like of each PV module included in the power system needs to be monitored. A schematic structural diagram of an existing power system is shown in FIG. 1. The power system includes an inverter, multiple PV modules, and a monitoring apparatus corresponding to each PV module. Each PV module is parallelly connected to the monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module. Specifically, an input end of each PV module is connected to an input end of the monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module, and an output end of each PV module is connected to an output end of the monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module.

    [0025] In an example in which the power system monitors information about a PV module 1, the inverter first sends a status request message to a monitoring apparatus (referred to as the monitoring apparatus of the PV module 1 in the following) corresponding to the PV module 1.

    [0026] After obtaining the information about the PV module 1 according to the status request message, the monitoring apparatus of the PV module 1 encodes the information about the PV module 1, and returns encoded information to the inverter. However, the multiple PV modules are serially connected. Therefore, the information about the PV module 1 can be returned to the inverter only after passing through a PV module 2, a PV module 3, ..., and a PV module n. The information about the PV module 1 is attenuated once after passing through each PV module. Therefore, when receiving the information about the PV module 1, the inverter may be incapable of identifying the information about the PV module 1, significantly reducing reliability of power line communication.

    [0027] The embodiments of the present invention provide a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, so as to ensure that data is transmitted on a low impedance loop of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, avoid attenuation caused when the data passes through a PV module, and improve reliability of power line communication.

    [0028] It should be noted that, the term "and/or" in this specification describes only an association relationship for describing associated objects and represents that three relationships may exist.

    [0029] For example, A and/or B may represent the following three cases: Only A exists, both A and B exist, and only B exists. In addition, the character "/" in this specification generally indicates an "or" relationship between the associated objects.

    [0030] In the specification, claims, and accompanying drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, the terms "first", "second", "third", and so on are intended to distinguish between different objects but do not indicate a particular order. In addition, the terms "including", "having", and any other variant thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion. For example, a process, a method, a system, a product, or a device that includes a series of steps or units is not limited to the listed steps or units, but optionally further includes an unlisted step or unit, or optionally further includes another inherent step or unit of the process, the method, the product, or the device.

    [0031] An embodiment of the present invention provides a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, which is applied to a power system. As shown in FIG. 2, the apparatus includes a driver module 10 and a bypass module 11.

    [0032] The driver module 10 is configured to: receive a status request differential signal sent by an inverter of the power system; obtain, according to the status request differential signal, status information of a photovoltaic PV module corresponding to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus; modulate the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to generate a status response differential signal; and send the status response differential signal to the inverter.

    [0033] The bypass module 11 parallelly connected to the driver module 10 is configured to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal.

    [0034] An impedance of the bypass module 11 is less than an impedance of the photovoltaic PV module.

    [0035] Specifically, an input end of the driver module 10 is connected to an input end of the bypass module 11, and an output end of the driver module 10 is connected to an output end of the bypass module 11.

    [0036] It should be noted that the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus provided in this embodiment of the present invention is parallelly connected to a PV module corresponding to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, and a positive end and a negative end (as shown in FIG. 2) of the PV module corresponding to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus are respectively connected to those of the driver module 10.

    [0037] It may be understood that information received and transmitted by the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus is a differential signal. Differential signal transmission and receiving are a signal transmission technology different from a conventional technology of a single end signal.

    [0038] In differential transmission, signals are transmitted on both cables, and the two signals have same amplitudes but opposite phases. The signals transmitted on the two cables are differential signals.

    [0039] When the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus detects the PV module corresponding to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, a pair of status request differential signals sent by the inverter is respectively transmitted, after passing through the bypass module 11, from the positive end and the negative end shown in FIG. 2 to the driver module 10. The driver module 10 demodulates the pair of status request differential signals to generate a level signal used to request the status information of the photovoltaic PV module, reads the status information of the photovoltaic PV module according to the level signal, modulates the status information of the PV module to generate a pair of status response differential signals, and sends, by using the bypass module 11, the pair of status response differential signals from the positive end and the negative end shown in FIG. 2 to the inverter. The impedance of the bypass module 11 is less than the impedance of the PV module. Therefore, the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal are transmitted on a low impedance loop, so that attenuation caused when the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal in the prior art pass through the PV module is avoided, and reliability of power line communication is improved.

    [0040] It should be noted that the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus is parallelly connected to the PV module. Therefore, the driver module 10 of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus may directly read the status information of the PV module. The status information of the PV module may include but is not limited to status information such as a temperature of the PV module and a voltage of the PV module.

    [0041] Specifically, as shown in FIG. 3, the driver module 10 specifically includes:

    a receiving module 100 connected to the bypass module 11, configured to: receive the status request differential signal sent by the inverter; demodulate the status request differential signal to generate a level signal; and send the level signal to a control module 101, where the level signal is used to request the status information of the photovoltaic PV module;

    the control module 101 connected to the receiving module 100, configured to receive the level signal sent by the receiving module 100; and read the status information of the photovoltaic PV module and then send the status information to a sending module 102 according to the level signal; and

    the sending module 102 connected to all the control module 101, the receiving module 100, and the bypass module 11, configured to: receive the status information of the photovoltaic PV module sent by the control module; modulate the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to generate the status response differential signal; and send the status response differential signal to the inverter.



    [0042] Further, as shown in FIG. 4, the bypass module 11 specifically includes:
    a first capacitor C1 connected to both the sending module 102 and the receiving module 100, where one end of the first capacitor C1 is connected to the sending module 102, and the other end of the first capacitor C1 is connected to the receiving module 100.

    [0043] It may be understood that the capacitor is a device that isolates a direct current and conducts an alternating current. Therefore, the impedance of the bypass module is far less than the impedance of the PV module, so that a status request differential signal and a status response differential signal are transmitted on a low impedance loop, avoiding attenuation caused when the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal in the prior art pass through the PV module, and improving reliability of power line communication.

    [0044] In a first possible implementation, with reference to FIG. 4, as shown in FIG. 5, the bypass module 11 further includes a resistor R serially connected to the first capacitor C1. One end of the resistor R is connected to one end of the first capacitor C1, and the other end of the resistor R is connected to the sending module 102.

    [0045] In a second possible implementation, with reference to FIG. 4, as shown in FIG. 6, the bypass module 11 further includes a switch element K serially connected to the first capacitor C1. One end of the switch element K is connected to one end of the first capacitor C1, the other end of the switch element K is connected to the sending module 102.

    [0046] Further, the switch element K is connected to the control module 101. The control module 101 is further configured to control conduction and disconnection of the switch element.

    [0047] It may be understood that when the bypass module 11 needs to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal, the control module 101 controls the switch K to be conducted. Alternatively, when the bypass module 11 does not need to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal, the control module 101 controls the switch K to be disconnected.

    [0048] In a third possible implementation, with reference to FIG. 4, as shown in FIG. 7, the bypass module 11 further includes a resistor R serially connected to the first capacitor C1 and a switch element K serially connected to the resistor R. One end of the resistor R is connected to one end of the first capacitor C1, the other end of the resistor R is connected to one end of the switch element K, and the other end of the switch element K is connected to the sending module 102.

    [0049] Further, the switch element K is connected to the control module 101. The control module 101 is further configured to control conduction and disconnection of the switch element K.

    [0050] It may be understood that when the bypass module 11 needs to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal, the control module 101 controls the switch K to be conducted. Alternatively, when the bypass module 11 does not need to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal, the control module 101 controls the switch K to be disconnected.

    [0051] Optionally, with reference to FIG. 3, as shown in FIG. 8, the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus further includes:
    a second capacitor C2 and a third capacitor C3, where one end of the second capacitor C2 is connected to the sending module 102, the other end of the second capacitor C2 is connected to the bypass module 11, one end of the third capacitor C3 is connected to the receiving module 100, and the other end of the third capacitor C3 is connected to the bypass module 11.

    [0052] The second capacitor C2 is configured to perform rectification and filtering on a status request differential signal and a status response differential signal that pass through the second capacitor C2. The third capacitor C3 is configured to perform rectification and filtering on a status request differential signal and a status response differential signal that pass through the third capacitor C3.

    [0053] Optionally, with reference to FIG. 8, as shown in FIG. 9, the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus further includes:
    a power supply 12 connected to the control module 101, configured to supply power to the control module 101.

    [0054] It should be noted that if the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus does not include the power supply 12, the inverter in the power system supplies power to the control module 101.

    [0055] Alternatively, if the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus includes the power supply 12, the power supply 12 built in the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus is configured to supply power to the control module 101. This is not limited in this embodiment of the present invention.

    [0056] This embodiment of the present invention provides a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, applied to a power system, where the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus includes: a driver module, configured to: receive a status request differential signal sent by an inverter of the power system; obtain, according to the status request differential signal, status information of a photovoltaic PV module corresponding to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus; modulate the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to generate a status response differential signal; and send the status response differential signal to the inverter; and a bypass module parallelly connected to the driver module, configured to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal, where an impedance of the bypass module is less than an impedance of the photovoltaic PV module. Based on the description in the foregoing embodiment, the bypass module configured to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal is disposed, and the impedance of the bypass module is less than the impedance of the PV module. Therefore, the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal are transmitted on a low impedance loop, so that attenuation caused when the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal in the prior art pass through the PV module is avoided, and reliability of power line communication is improved.

    [0057] An embodiment of the present invention provides a power system, as shown in FIG. 10, including an inverter and at least one photovoltaic PV module serially connected to the inverter, where the power system further includes:
    at least one photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus that is serially connected to the inverter and that has any of the foregoing features, where the photovoltaic PV module is in a mapping relationship with the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, and the photovoltaic PV module is parallelly connected to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus with which the photovoltaic PV module is in the mapping relationship.

    [0058] It may be understood that a mapping relationship between the photovoltaic PV module and the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus means that the photovoltaic PV module and the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus are in a one-to-one correspondence, and in the power system, a quantity of photovoltaic PV modules is equal to a quantity of photovoltaic module monitoring apparatuses. As shown in FIG. 10, the quantity of photovoltaic PV modules is n.

    [0059] Therefore, the quantity of photovoltaic module monitoring apparatuses is n. In addition, a photovoltaic PV module is parallelly connected to a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus with which the photovoltaic PV module is in a mapping relationship.

    [0060] In an example in which the power system monitors information about a PV module 1, the inverter first sends a pair of status request differential signals from a positive end and a negative end of the inverter to a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module 1. After obtaining the information about the PV module 1 according to the status request differential signals, the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module 1 encodes the information about the PV module 1 to generate a pair of status response differential signals, and returns the status response differential signals to the inverter. Multiple PV modules are serially connected, and multiple photovoltaic module monitoring apparatuses are also serially connected. Therefore, a negative status response differential signal is returned to the inverter after passing through a bypass module 11 of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module 1, and a positive status response differential signal is returned to the inverter by successively passing through the bypass module 11 of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module 1, a bypass module 11 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to a PV module 2, a bypass module 11 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to a PV module 3, ..., and a bypass module 11 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to a PV module n, so that a status response differential signal is transmitted on a low impedance loop.

    [0061] Likewise, a principle for transmitting a status request differential signal is the same as that for transmitting a status response differential signal. Details are not described herein.

    [0062] In an example in which the power system monitors information about a PV module 2, the inverter first sends a pair of status request differential signals from a positive end and a negative end of the inverter to a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module 2. After obtaining the information about the PV module 2 according to the status request differential signals, the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module 2 encodes the information about the PV module 2 to generate a pair of status response differential signals, and returns the status response differential signals to the inverter. Multiple PV modules are serially connected, and multiple photovoltaic module monitoring apparatuses are also serially connected. Therefore, a negative status response differential signal is returned to the inverter after passing through a bypass module 11 of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module 2 and a bypass module 11 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to a PV module 1, and a positive status response differential signal is returned to the inverter by successively passing through the bypass module 11 of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the PV module 2, a bypass module 11 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to a PV module 3, ..., and a bypass module 11 of a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to a PV module n, so that a status response differential signal is transmitted on a low impedance loop. Likewise, a principle for transmitting a status request differential signal is the same as that for transmitting a status response differential signal. Details are not described herein.

    [0063] This embodiment of the present invention provides a power system, including an inverter, at least one photovoltaic PV module serially connected to the inverter, and at least one photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus that is serially connected to the inverter and that has any of the foregoing features, where the photovoltaic PV module and the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus are in a one-to-one correspondence, and the photovoltaic PV module is parallelly connected to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the photovoltaic PV module. Based on the description in the foregoing embodiment, a bypass module configured to transmit a status request differential signal and a status response differential signal is disposed in a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus included in the power system, and an impedance of the bypass module is less than an impedance of a PV module. Therefore, the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal are transmitted on a low impedance loop, so that attenuation caused when the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal in the prior art pass through the PV module is avoided, and reliability of power line communication is improved.

    [0064] An embodiment of the present invention further provides a power line communication method, which is applied to the power system described in the foregoing embodiment. As shown in FIG. 11, the method includes:
    S101. A photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus receives a pair of status request differential signals sent by an inverter.

    [0065] It should be noted that the power system generally detects only one PV module in the power system at a same time.

    [0066] Specifically, a receiving module in the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus receives, by using a bypass module, the pair of status request differential signals sent by the inverter.

    [0067] S102. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus obtains, according to the status request differential signals, status information of a photovoltaic PV module parallelly connected to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus.

    [0068] Specifically, as shown in FIG. 12, step S102 may include S102a and S102b.

    [0069] S102a. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus generates a level signal according to the status request differential signals.

    [0070] Specifically, the receiving module of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus demodulates the pair of status request differential signals to generate the level signal, and sends the level signal to a control module, where the level signal is used to request the status information of the photovoltaic PV module.

    [0071] S102b. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus obtains, according to the level signal, status information of the photovoltaic PV module parallelly connected to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus.

    [0072] Specifically, after receiving the level signal, the control module of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus obtains the status information of the photovoltaic PV module according to the level signal.

    [0073] S103. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus sends the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to the inverter by using bypass modules of all photovoltaic module monitoring apparatuses in a power system.

    [0074] Specifically, as shown in FIG. 13, step S103 may include S103a and S103b.

    [0075] S103a. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus generates a pair of status response differential signals according to the status information of the photovoltaic PV module.

    [0076] Specifically, the control module of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus sends the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to a sending module. After receiving the status information of the photovoltaic PV module sent by the control module, the sending module modulates the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to generate the pair of status response differential signals.

    [0077] S103b. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus sends the status response differential signals to the inverter by using the bypass modules of all the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatuses in the power system.

    [0078] Specifically, the sending module of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus sends the pair of status response differential signals to the inverter by using the bypass modules.

    [0079] This embodiment of the present invention provides a power line communication method, which is applied to a power system that has any of the foregoing features. The method includes: receiving, by a photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, a pair of status request differential signals sent by an inverter; obtaining, by the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to the status request differential signals, status information of a photovoltaic PV module parallelly connected to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus; and sending, by the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to the inverter by using bypass modules of all photovoltaic module monitoring apparatuses in the power system. Based on the description in the foregoing embodiment, a bypass module configured to transmit a status request differential signal and a status response differential signal is disposed, and an impedance of the bypass module is far less than an impedance of the PV module. Therefore, the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal are transmitted on a low impedance loop, so that attenuation caused when the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal in the prior art pass through the PV module is avoided, and reliability of power line communication is improved.

    [0080] The foregoing descriptions are merely specific implementations of the present invention, but are not intended to limit the protection scope of the present invention. Any variation or replacement readily figured out by persons skilled in the art within the technical scope disclosed in the present invention shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the claims.


    Claims

    1. A photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, applied to a power system including an inverter and a photovoltaic PV module serially connected to the inverter and parallelly connected to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, wherein the power system uses an electrical power cable of the power system as a transmission medium for transmission of an analog signal or a digital signal at a high speed by using a carrier and the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus comprises:

    a driver module (10), configured to: receive a status request differential signal sent by the inverter of the power system via the electrical power cable; obtain, according to the status request differential signal, status information of the photovoltaic PV module corresponding to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus; modulate the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to generate a status response differential signal; and send the status response differential signal to the inverter via the electrical power cable; and

    a bypass module (11) parallelly connected to the driver module (10), configured to transmit the status request differential signal and the status response differential signal, wherein

    an input end of the driver module (10) and an input end of the bypass module (11) are configured to be connected to an input end of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, an output end of the driver module (10) and an output end of the bypass module (11) are configured to be connected to an output end of the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus, and the impedance of the bypass module (11) is less than the impedance of the photovoltaic PV module with respect to the status request differential signal sent from the inverter and the status response differential signal sent to the inverter.


     
    2. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the driver module (10) specifically comprises:

    a receiving module (100) connected to the bypass module (11), configured to: receive the status request differential signal sent by the inverter; demodulate the status request differential signal to generate a level signal; and send the level signal to a control module (101), wherein the level signal is used to request the status information of the photovoltaic PV module;

    the control module (101) connected to the receiving module (100), configured to receive the level signal sent by the receiving module (100); and read the status information of the photovoltaic PV module and then send the status information to a sending module (102) according to the level signal; and

    the sending module (102) connected to all the control module (101), the receiving module (100), and the bypass module (11), configured to: receive the status information of the photovoltaic PV module sent by the control module (101); modulate the status information of the photovoltaic PV module to generate the status response differential signal; and send the status response differential signal to the inverter.


     
    3. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the bypass module (11) specifically comprises:
    a first capacitor (C1) connected to both the sending module (102) and the receiving module (100), wherein one end of the first capacitor (C1) is connected to the sending module (102), and the other end of the first capacitor (C1) is connected to the receiving module (100).
     
    4. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the bypass module (11) further comprises:

    a resistor (R) connected to the first capacitor (C1), wherein

    one end of the resistor (R) is connected to one end of the first capacitor (C1), and the other end of the resistor (R) is connected to the sending module (102).


     
    5. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to claim 3, wherein
    the bypass module (11) further comprises a switch element (K) connected to the first capacitor (C1), wherein
    one end of the switch element (K) is connected to one end of the first capacitor (C1), the other end of the switch element (K) is connected to the sending module (102), and the switch element (K) is connected to the control module (101); and
    the control module (101) is further configured to control conduction and disconnection of the switch element (K).
     
    6. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to claim 3, wherein
    the bypass module (11) further comprises a resistor (R) connected to the first capacitor (C1), and a switch element (K) connected to the resistor (R), wherein one end of the resistor (R) is connected to one end of the first capacitor (C1), the other end of the resistor (R) is connected to one end of the switch element (K), the other end of the switch element (K) is connected to the sending module (102), and the switch element (K) is connected to the control module (101); and
    the control module (101) is further configured to control conduction and disconnection of the switch element (K).
     
    7. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus further comprises:
    a second capacitor (C2) and a third capacitor (C3), wherein one end of the second capacitor (C2) is connected to the sending module (102), the other end of the second capacitor (C2) is connected to the bypass module (11), one end of the third capacitor (C3) is connected to the receiving module (100), and the other end of the third capacitor (C3) is connected to the bypass module (11).
     
    8. The photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus further comprises:
    a power supply connected to the control module (101), configured to supply power to the control module (101).
     
    9. A power system, comprising an inverter and at least one photovoltaic PV module serially connected to the inverter, wherein the power system further comprises:
    at least one photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus that is serially connected to the inverter and that is according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the photovoltaic PV module and the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus are in a one-to-one correspondence, and the photovoltaic PV module is parallelly connected to the photovoltaic module monitoring apparatus corresponding to the photovoltaic PV module.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule, die an ein Energiesystem angelegt ist, das einen Umrichter und ein in Reihe an den Umrichter und parallel an die Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule angeschlossenes Photovoltaik-PV-Modul, enthält, wobei das Energiesystem ein elektrisches Stromkabel des Energiesystems als ein Übertragungsmedium zum Übertragen eines Analogsignals oder eines Digitalsignals mit hoher Geschwindigkeit unter Verwendung eines Trägers verwendet und die Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule umfasst:

    ein Ansteuerungsmodul (10), das ausgelegt ist: ein vom Umrichter des Energiesystems über das elektrische Stromkabel gesandtes Statusanforderungs-Differenzialsignal zu empfangen; in Übereinstimmung mit dem Statusanforderungs-Differenzialsignal Statusinformationen des Photovoltaik-PV-Moduls zu beziehen, die der Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule entsprechen; die Statusinformationen des Photovoltaik-PV-Moduls zu modulieren, um ein Statusantwort-Differenzialsignal zu generieren; und das Statusantwort-Differenzialsignal über das elektrische Stromkabel an den Umrichter zu senden; und

    ein Umgehungsmodul (11), das parallel an das Ansteuerungsmodul (10) angeschlossen ist und ausgelegt ist, das Statusanforderungs-Differenzialsignal und das Statusantwort-Differenzialsignal zu senden, wobei

    ein Eingangsende des Ansteuerungsmoduls (10) und ein Eingangsende des Umgehungsmoduls (11) ausgelegt sind, an ein Eingangsende der Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule angeschlossen zu werden, ein Ausgangsende des Ansteuerungsmoduls (10) und ein Ausgangsende des Umgehungsmoduls (11) ausgelegt sind, an ein Ausgangsende der Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule angeschlossen zu werden und die Impedanz des Umgehungsmoduls (11) in Bezug auf das vom Umrichter gesendete Statusanforderungs-Differenzialsignal und das an den Umrichter gesendete Statusantwort-Differenzialsignal geringer ist als die Impedanz des Photovoltaik-PV-Moduls.


     
    2. Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Ansteuerungsmodul (10) genauer umfasst:

    ein Empfangsmodul (100), das an das Umgehungsmodul (11) angeschlossen ist und ausgelegt ist: das vom Umrichter gesendete Statusanforderungs-Differenzialsignal zu empfangen; das Statusanforderungs-Differenzialsignal zu demodulieren, um ein Pegelsignal zu generieren; und das Pegelsignal an ein Steuermodul (101) zu senden, wobei das Pegelsignal verwendet wird, um die Statusinformationen des Photovoltaik-PV-Moduls anzufordern;

    das Steuermodul (101), das an das Empfangsmodul (100) angeschlossen ist und ausgelegt ist, das vom Empfangsmodul (100) gesendete Pegelsignal zu empfangen; und die Statusinformationen des Photovoltaik-PV-Moduls zu lesen und danach die Statusinformationen in Übereinstimmung mit dem Pegelsignal an ein Sendemodul (102) zu senden; und

    das an alle vom Steuermodul (101), dem Empfangsmodul (100) und dem Umgehungsmodul (11) angeschlossene Sendemodul (102), das ausgelegt ist: die vom Steuermodul (101) gesendeten Statusinformationen des Photovoltaik-PV-Moduls zu empfangen; die Statusinformationen des Photovoltaik-PV-Moduls zu modulieren, um das Statusantwort-Differenzialsignal zu generieren; und das Statusantwort-Differenzialsignal an den Umrichter zu senden.


     
    3. Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das Umgehungsmodul (11) genauer umfasst:
    einen ersten Kondensator (C1), der sowohl an das Sendemodul (102) als auch an das Empfangsmodul (100) angeschlossen ist, wobei ein Ende des Kondensators (C1) an das Sendemodul (102) angeschlossen ist und das andere Ende des ersten Kondensators (C1) an das Empfangsmodul (100) angeschlossen ist.
     
    4. Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule nach Anspruch 3, wobei das Umgehungsmodul (11) ferner umfasst:
    einen Widerstand (R), der an den ersten Kondensator (C1) angeschlossen ist, wobei ein Ende des Widerstands (R) an ein Ende des ersten Kondensators (C1) angeschlossen ist und das andere Ende des Widerstands (R) an das Sendemodul (102) angeschlossen ist.
     
    5. Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule nach Anspruch 3, wobei das Umgehungsmodul (11) ferner ein Schaltelement (K) umfasst, das an den ersten Kondensator (C1) angeschlossen ist, wobei
    ein Ende des Schaltelements (K) an ein Ende des ersten Kondensators (C1) angeschlossen ist, das andere Ende des Schaltelements (K) an das Sendemodul (102) angeschlossen ist und das Schaltelement (K) an das Steuermodul (101) angeschlossen ist; und
    das Steuermodul (101) ferner ausgelegt ist, eine Leitung und Trennung des Schaltelements (K) zu steuern.
     
    6. Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule nach Anspruch 3, wobei das Umgehungsmodul (11) ferner einen Widerstand (R), der an den ersten Kondensator (C1) angeschlossen ist, und ein Schaltelement (K) umfasst, das an den Widerstand (R) angeschlossen ist, wobei ein Ende des Widerstands (R) an das andere Ende des ersten Kondensators (C1) angeschlossen ist, das andere Ende des Widerstands (R) an ein Ende des Schaltelements (K) angeschlossen ist, das andere Ende des Schaltelements (K) an das Sendemodul (102) angeschlossen ist und das Schaltelement (K) an das Steuermodul (101) angeschlossen ist; und
    das Steuermodul (101) ferner ausgelegt ist, eine Leitung und Trennung des Schaltelements (K) zu steuern.
     
    7. Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei die Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule ferner umfasst:
    einen zweiten Kondensator (C2) und einen dritten Kondensator (C3), wobei ein Ende des zweiten Kondensators (C2) an das Sendemodul (102) angeschlossen ist, das andere Ende des zweiten Kondensators (C2) an das Umgehungsmodul (11) angeschlossen ist, ein Ende des dritten Kondensators (C3) an das Empfangsmodul (100) angeschlossen ist und das andere Ende des dritten Kondensators (C3) an das Umgehungsmodul (11) angeschlossen ist.
     
    8. Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, wobei die Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule ferner umfasst:
    eine Energieversorgung, die an das Steuermodul (101) angeschlossen ist und ausgelegt ist, das Steuermodul (101) mit Energie zu versorgen.
     
    9. Energiesystem, das einen Umrichter und mindestens ein in Reihe an den Umrichter angeschlossenes Photovoltaik-PV-Modul umfasst, wobei das Energiesystem ferner umfasst:
    mindestens eine Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, die in Reihe an den Umrichter angeschlossen ist, wobei das Photovoltaik-PV-Modul und die Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule in einer eineindeutigen Beziehung stehen und das Photovoltaik-PV-Modul parallel an die Überwachungsvorrichtung für Photovoltaikmodule angeschlossen ist, die dem Photovoltaik-PV-Modul entspricht.
     


    Revendications

    1. Appareil de surveillance d'un module photovoltaïque, appliqué à un système d'alimentation comprenant un onduleur et un module photovoltaïque PV connecté en série à l'onduleur et connecté en parallèle à l'appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque, dans lequel le système d'alimentation utilise un câble d'alimentation électrique du système d'alimentation en tant que support de transmission pour la transmission d'un signal analogique ou numérique à une vitesse élevée en utilisant un support et l'appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque comprend :

    un module pilote (10), configuré pour : recevoir un signal différentiel de demande d'état envoyé par l'onduleur du système d'alimentation par le câble d'alimentation électrique ; obtenir, en fonction du signal différentiel de demande d'état, des informations d'état du module photovoltaïque PV correspondant à l'appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque ; moduler les informations d'état du module photovoltaïque PV pour générer un signal différentiel de réponse d'état ; et envoyer le signal différentiel de réponse d'état à l'onduleur par le câble d'alimentation électrique ; et

    un module de dérivation (11) connecté en parallèle au module pilote (10), configuré pour transmettre le signal différentiel de demande d'état et le signal différentiel de réponse d'état, dans lequel

    une extrémité d'entrée du module pilote (10) et une extrémité d'entrée du module de dérivation (11) sont configurées pour être connectées à une extrémité d'entrée de l'appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque, une extrémité de sortie du module pilote (10) et une extrémité de sortie du module de dérivation (11) sont configurées pour être connectées à une extrémité de sortie de l'appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque, et

    l'impédance du module de dérivation (11) est inférieure à l'impédance du module photovoltaïque PV par rapport au signal différentiel de demande d'état envoyé par l'onduleur et au signal différentiel de réponse d'état envoyé à l'onduleur.


     
    2. Appareil de surveillance d'un module photovoltaïque selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le module pilote (10) comprend en particulier :

    un module de réception (100) connecté au module de dérivation (11), configuré pour : recevoir le signal différentiel de demande d'état envoyé par l'onduleur ; démoduler le signal différentiel de demande d'état pour générer un signal de niveau ; et envoyer le signal de niveau à un module de commande (101), dans lequel le signal de niveau est utilisé pour demander les informations d'état du module photovoltaïque PV;

    le module de commande (101) connecté au module de réception (100), configuré pour recevoir le signal de niveau envoyé par le module de réception (100) ; et lire les informations d'état du module photovoltaïque PV, puis envoyer les informations d'état à un module d'envoi (102) en fonction du signal de niveau ; et

    le module d'envoi (102) connecté à l'ensemble du module de commande (101), du module de réception (100) et du module de dérivation (11), configuré pour : recevoir les informations d'état du module photovoltaïque PV envoyées par le module de commande (101) ; moduler les informations d'état du module photovoltaïque PV pour générer le signal différentiel de réponse d'état ; et envoyer le signal différentiel de réponse d'état à l'onduleur.


     
    3. Appareil de surveillance d'un module photovoltaïque selon les revendications 1 ou 2, dans lequel le module de dérivation (11) comprend en particulier :
    un premier condensateur (C1) connecté à la fois au module émetteur (102) et au module récepteur (100), dans lequel une extrémité du premier condensateur (C1) est connectée au module d'envoi (102), et l'autre extrémité du premier condensateur (C1) est connectée au module de réception (100).
     
    4. Appareil de surveillance d'un module photovoltaïque selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le module de dérivation (11) comprend en outre :
    une résistance (R) connectée au premier condensateur (C1), dans laquelle une extrémité de la résistance (R) est connectée à une extrémité du premier condensateur (C1) et l'autre extrémité de la résistance (R) est connectée au module émetteur (102).
     
    5. Appareil de surveillance d'un module photovoltaïque selon la revendication 3, dans lequel
    le module de dérivation (11) comprend en outre un élément de commutation (K) connecté au premier condensateur (C1), dans lequel
    une extrémité de l'élément de commutation (K) est connectée à une extrémité du premier condensateur (C1), l'autre extrémité de l'élément de commutation (K) est connectée au module émetteur (102) et l'élément de commutation (K) est connecté au module de commande (101) ; et
    le module de commande (101) est en outre configuré pour commander la conduction et la déconnexion de l'élément de commutation (K).
     
    6. Appareil de surveillance d'un module photovoltaïque selon la revendication 3, dans lequel
    le module de dérivation (11) comprend en outre une résistance (R) connectée au premier condensateur (C1) et un élément de commutation (K) connecté à la résistance (R), dans lequel une extrémité de la résistance (R) est connectée à une extrémité du premier condensateur (C1), l'autre extrémité de la résistance (R) est connectée à une extrémité de l'élément de commutation (K), l'autre extrémité de l'élément de commutation (K) est connectée au module émetteur (102) et l'élément de commutation (K) est connecté au module de commande (101) ; et
    le module de commande (101) est en outre configuré pour commander la conduction et la déconnexion de l'élément de commutation (K).
     
    7. Appareil de surveillance d'un module photovoltaïque selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel l'appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque comprend en outre :
    un second condensateur (C2) et un troisième condensateur (C3), dans lequel une extrémité du second condensateur (C2) est connectée au module émetteur (102), l'autre extrémité du second condensateur (C2) est connectée au module de dérivation (11), une extrémité du troisième condensateur (C3) est connectée au module de réception (100), et l'autre extrémité du troisième condensateur (C3) est connectée au module de dérivation (11).
     
    8. Appareil de surveillance d'un module photovoltaïque selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, dans lequel l'appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque comprend en outre :
    une alimentation électrique connectée au module de commande (101), configurée pour alimenter le module de commande (101).
     
    9. Système d'alimentation comprenant un onduleur et au moins un module photovoltaïque PV connecté en série à l'onduleur, dans lequel le système d'alimentation comprend en outre :
    au moins un appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque qui est connecté en série à l'onduleur et qui est conforme à l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel le module photovoltaïque PV et l'appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque se trouvent en correspondance un à un, et le module photovoltaïque PV est connecté en parallèle à l'appareil de surveillance du module photovoltaïque correspondant au module photovoltaïque PV.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description