(19)
(11)EP 3 357 075 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
10.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/24

(21)Application number: 16794732.4

(22)Date of filing:  28.09.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01F 7/04(2006.01)
B25B 11/00(2006.01)
B23Q 3/154(2006.01)
H01F 7/20(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/IB2016/055798
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/056014 (06.04.2017 Gazette  2017/14)

(54)

MAGNETIC APPARATUS

MAGNETISCHE VORRICHTUNG

APPAREIL MAGNÉTIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 01.10.2015 IT UB20154095

(43)Date of publication of application:
08.08.2018 Bulletin 2018/32

(73)Proprietor: S.P.D. S.p.A.
24043 Caravaggio (BG) (IT)

(72)Inventors:
  • FILOSA, Giuseppe
    24043 Caravaggio (BG) (IT)
  • CIPOLLA, Matteo
    24043 Caravaggio (BG) (IT)
  • COSMAI, Giovanni
    24043 Caravaggio (BG) (IT)
  • CONTI, Claudio
    24043 Caravaggio (BG) (IT)
  • AMBONI, Roberto
    24043 Caravaggio (BG) (IT)

(74)Representative: Vanosi, Adelio Valeriano 
ADV IP S.r.l. Corso di Porta Vittoria, 29
20122 Milano
20122 Milano (IT)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 929 904
WO-A1-2012/029073
EP-A2- 1 419 034
US-A1- 2007 290 780
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to a magnetic apparatus.

    [0002] More in particular, it relates to a clamping magnetic apparatus comprising a magnetizable surface configured to anchor one or more ferromagnetic elements in a removable manner.

    [0003] The magnetizable surface is at least partially defined by the free surfaces of a plurality of mutually side by side magnetic poles.

    PRIOR ART



    [0004] Magnetic locking systems (or magnetic devices) are equipment intended for anchoring ferromagnetic material during machining with machine tools, within the context of moving mechanical workpieces (handling and/or lifting) or for the quick locking of molds.

    [0005] Some magnetic apparatuses, defined electro-permanent, comprise a magnetic section (called electro-permanent magnetic module), and an electronic activation/deactivation system (called control unit).

    [0006] The electro-permanent magnetic module comprises a mild steel supporting structure, adapted to contain all the internal components and one or more mild steel polar expansions, of various shapes and features to suit different needs. Polar expansions are also known as magnetic poles.

    [0007] Each magnetic pole has permanent magnets and reversible magnets associated thereto. Each reversible magnet is coupled to a solenoid which is able to change the polarity of the reversible magnet.

    [0008] When the field generated by the permanent magnets and by the reversible magnet is added, the magnetizable surface is active. When the field of the permanent magnets and of the reversible ones is subtracted, the magnetizable surface is not active.

    [0009] The activation solenoids are controlled by a control unit which comprises:
    • a controlled bidirectional power rectifier, which provides for suitably supplying the solenoids of the electro-permanent magnetic module;
    • one or more control panels in order to allow the operator to activate and deactivate the electro-permanent magnetic module;
    • a system management control logic;
    • an electrical connection system, typically a cable, to allow the connection between the control unit and the electro-permanent magnetic module.


    [0010] The control unit's task is to activate/deactivate the electro-permanent magnetic module, through magnetization, demagnetization or polarity reversion operations of a part or all of the reversible magnets contained within the module itself.

    [0011] Besides the time required to complete the two magnetization operations, the control unit can be electrically disconnected from the magnetic module.

    [0012] Other magnetic devices are also known that work differently.

    [0013] For example magnetic devices are known, formed by electromagnets. In this case, in order to obtain the magnetization of the magnetizable surface, coils associated with the plurality of magnetic poles that define magnetizable surface must be supplied continuously.

    [0014] Other magnetic devices are also known, commonly referred to as 'permanent magnets'. These systems operate by using the magnetic field produced by permanent magnets which do not require the use of electrical devices to be activated.

    [0015] The magnetic action of the product can be activated or deactivated through a lever that mechanically changes the combination between iron and magnet, arranged below the magnetizable surface. It is the best known and most widely used system for simple handling of ferrous materials, especially because it does not require power supply and maintenance in general.

    [0016] In all known systems, the anchoring/gripping force is a function of many parameters, such as:
    • the air gap, i.e. the air space existing between the magnetizable surface of the magnetic module and the surface of the workpiece to be anchored, which depends for example on the degree of surface finishing of the workpieces;
    • the temperature;
    • the nature of the material to be anchored;
    • the thickness and geometrical shape of the piece to be anchored.


    [0017] The major manufacturers of magnetic modules provide a multitude of diagrams that show the variation of force in a more or less accurate manner upon the variation of one of the above parameters.

    [0018] This method should allow a trained operator to always work in perfect safety.

    [0019] Unfortunately, while for some "derating" conditions (decrease of the anchoring force of the magnetic module) it is simple to check the possible loss of force associated therewith, such as when a low magnetic permeability material is lifted of which the force feature is known, the case is different when one has to estimate the air gap which can form between the magnetic device and the workpiece to be anchored.

    [0020] Even more complex is the case when the geometry of the workpiece to be anchored is not always the same, and the workpiece cannot be perfectly coupled to the geometry of the magnetic module.

    [0021] In particular, if the coverage of the magnetic module is only partial and/or the thickness of the workpiece to be anchored changes along the anchoring surface, the determination of the above force is extremely difficult, if not impossible, with the derating graphs alone.

    [0022] This can cause significant risks to the operators.

    [0023] Moreover, if the magnetic module is used for anchoring workpieces being machined, an undesired displacement can cause defects in the final machining resulting from the undesired displacement of the workpiece, or accidents.

    [0024] On the other hand, if the magnetic module is used for anchoring a mold, serious problems may arise during the injection step.

    [0025] EP 1 419 034 A2 describes a magnetic clamping device known in the art.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0026] The object of the present invention is to solve the drawbacks of the prior art.

    [0027] A further object of the present invention is to provide a magnetic apparatus able to measure the magnetic force actually developed by the magnetic module on the workpiece to be anchored and able to provide an operator or a control unit of the magnetic module with data relating to the force actually developed.

    [0028] This can simplify the management of conditions in which there are more or less complex combinations of different derating indexes.

    [0029] This and other objects are achieved by a magnetic clamping apparatus according to claim 1 and a method according to claim 13.

    [0030] Advantageously, the information obtained through the present invention can be used in conjunction with other security safety systems to prevent improper operation.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



    [0031] Further features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the description of a preferred but non-exclusive embodiment of the device, shown by way of a non-limiting example in the accompanying drawings, in which:

    figure 1 is a perspective, partially sectional view of a magnetic module of a magnetic apparatus according to the present invention;

    figure 2 is a partial section taken along line II-II in figure 1;

    figure 3 is a partial section taken along line III-III in figure 1;

    - figure 4 is an enlarged view of the portion enclosed within the circle in figure 3;

    figure 5 is a perspective view of a different embodiment of the magnetic module in figure 1;

    figure 6 is a partial section taken along line VI-VI in figure 1;

    figure 7 is an enlarged a view of the detail enclosed in the circle in figure 6;

    figure 8 and figure 9 are two schematic diagrams showing two different logics of determination of a magnetic force generated by the apparatus in figure 1; and

    figure 10 shows a possible alternative configuration of a magnetic pole with which the apparatus according to the present invention is made.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0032] With reference to the above figures, a magnetic apparatus is shown, globally denoted by reference numeral 1.

    [0033] The magnetic apparatus 1 shown in figure 1, comprising an electro-permanent magnetizable surface 2 configured to anchor a ferromagnetic element (not shown) in a removable manner.

    [0034] In the present description, the term 'a ferromagnetic element' will be used for simplicity, which can be understood either as a single element or as a group of one or more ferromagnetic elements simultaneously treated by the magnetic apparatus.

    [0035] The electromagnetic element intended to be locked by the magnetizable surface 2 can for example be an injection mold, a workpiece to be machined on a numerical control machine, an element intended to be moved between different areas of a workspace, a group of ferromagnetic elements, etc.

    [0036] The magnetic apparatus 1 comprises a plurality of magnetic poles 3 associated with the magnetizable surface 2 with alternating north N, south S polarity.

    [0037] As can be seen in figure 2, two neighboring north N and south S magnetic poles may be shortcircuited by means of a casing 20 of the magnetic apparatus 1, which can be made of ferromagnetic material (e.g. mild steel). In the example, the different magnetic poles are constrained by screws to casing 20.

    [0038] Each magnetic pole 3 is provided with a free surface 4 thereof that is part of the magnetizable surface 2.

    [0039] In essence, the magnetizable surface 2 is at least partially defined by the free surfaces 4 mutually side by side of the plurality of magnetic poles 3 of the magnetic apparatus 1.

    [0040] In the example shown in figure 1, gaps 21 are provided between the various magnetic poles 3 and between the magnetic poles 3 and casing 20 of apparatus 1, which can be filled with a suitable resin (not shown, for simplicity, in figure 1), so that the magnetizable surface 2 is substantially flat and homogeneous.

    [0041] This prevents the accumulation of dirt and debris of any kind between the different poles of the magnetizable surface 2, which is then superficially free from cracks or slits.

    [0042] According to alternative embodiments, gaps 21 may also be occupied by one or more sheets made flush with the free surface of the magnetic poles 3, or slightly lowered with respect to the latter. Underneath the sheets it is still possible to provide some resin, as in the cases above. It must be said that in the presence of said sheets, coils 6 can be placed on top of the latter.

    [0043] In a different embodiment, the magnetizable surface 2 can be formed in a single metal piece. In this case, the seats for the coils and/or magnets needed for the operation of the apparatus can be underneath the magnetic surface 2, for example by means of deep grooves.

    [0044] In this case, the ferromagnetic material connection that interconnects the different magnetic poles and that substantially replaces the resin must be such as to have the minimum thickness possible. This is to ensure both the mechanical structurality and the minimum magnetic flux conduction between the poles. The minimum flux conduction between the poles allows not considerably affecting the magnetic field generated by the magnetic poles 3.

    [0045] As can be seen in figure 1, all the magnetic poles 3 that form the magnetizable surface 2 are provided with measuring areas 5 on the free surface thereof.

    [0046] In particular, each magnetic pole 3 of the magnetizable surface 2 is provided with four measuring areas 5 on the free surface 4 thereof, but even just two are enough, as shown in the embodiment in figure 10, which will be described hereinafter.

    [0047] In alternative embodiments, only one part (or group) of the magnetic poles 3 of the magnetizable surface 2 may be provided with measuring areas 5 configured as described herein, for example only the group of the twelve peripheral magnetic poles.

    [0048] Each magnetic pole of the group has a free surface (of the magnetic pole) where at least two measuring areas 5 are defined.

    [0049] In other words, one part (or group) of the magnetic poles 3 forming the magnetizabile surface 3, has at least two measuring areas 5 on the free surface of each magnetic pole of the group; each measuring area 5 is associated with at least one sensor 6 adapted to detect a magnetic flux exiting from said area.

    [0050] Each measuring area 5 is associated with at least one sensor element 6 adapted to detect a magnetic flux exiting from the respective measuring area.

    [0051] The sensor element 6 may for example be any system or group of systems able to detect the magnetic field either directly or indirectly. For example, it may be a HALL sensor which directly measures B. However, in order to be placed on the magnetic pole 3, these sensors require the creation of an air gap in the circuit which may decrease the performance of the magnetic apparatus.

    [0052] Preferably, as can be seen from the analysis in figure 4, the sensor element comprises at least one coil 6 adapted to detect a magnetic flux which crosses said measuring area 5 during at least one activation transient of the magnetizable surface 2.

    [0053] It must be said that in the example, each coil 6 surrounding the respective measuring area 5 consists of two turns. Obviously, coil 6 may also be formed by one turn only or by a greater or lesser number of turns depending on the project requirements.

    [0054] With a coil 6 formed by multiple turns it is possible to obtain induced voltages values of such a magnitude that cannot be significantly altered by the noise typically present in the environments in which they operate.

    [0055] As is seen in figure 3, at least one part of the perimeter of each measuring area 5 is delimited by a channel 7 made in the magnetic pole 3 and housing at least one part of coil 6. Channel 7 is open on the free surface 4 of the magnetic pole 3 and this configuration makes the placement of coils 6 particularly simple.

    [0056] In particular, only one part (about half) of coil 6 is inserted in channel 7, while the other part thereof externally surrounds the part of the magnetic pole 3 located peripherally of each measuring area 5.

    [0057] It must be said that within channel 7, part of the various coils associated with the four measuring areas of the magnet can be overlapped or side by side.

    [0058] The easiest way to make channel 7 is to form a groove (such as by chip removal) on the free surface of the magnetic pole 3. The optimal configuration of the groove (i.e. the one that maximizes the surface of the measuring areas 5 and allows an optimal subdivision of the surface of the magnetic pole 3) may be the cross configuration shown in figures 1 to 4.

    [0059] In fact, with two milling operations perpendicular to the sides of the magnetic pole 3, which cross at the center of the latter, it is possible to divide the free surface 4 into four measuring areas 5, obtaining an excellent coverage with a really simple machining.

    [0060] Of course, the measuring areas 5 may have a different shape, such as the rectangular one shown in the above figure 10. However, the shape and surface of the measuring area may be any, according to the technical requirements and also to the shape of the free surface 4 of the magnetic poles.

    [0061] In fact, the magnetic poles may have a circular, rectangular or any other shape according to the requirements. It is however important that at least two measuring areas are provided on at least one part of the magnetic poles that at least partially define the magnetizable surface 2.

    [0062] A particularly effective embodiment of the measuring areas 5 is that shown in the embodiment of figures 5-7.

    [0063] In these figures, the same reference numerals used above are used to denote parts functionally similar to those already described. Therefore, these parts are not described again.

    [0064] In this case, the measuring system may comprise a coil 6 with round section placed at the center of gravity of each of four sections in which the surface of magnetic pole 3 is divided. The section of the coil may of course be any, such as square.

    [0065] In the embodiment in figure 6, it is seen that channel 7 in which the coil is accommodated is formed between the peripheral surface of a hole 9 made in the magnetic pole and the peripheral surface of a ferromagnetic core 10 accommodated in hole 9.

    [0066] The ferromagnetic core 10 may be screwed (or otherwise attached) within hole 9 and advantageously, head 12 of the ferromagnetic core is aligned with the free surface 4 of the magnetic pole 3.

    [0067] Coil 6 may be wound about the ferromagnetic core 10, for example at a surface recess 11 thereof.

    [0068] As can be seen in figure 5, each magnetic pole 3 can be provided with four measuring areas 5, whose surface coincides with that of head 12 of the ferromagnetic core 10. Each ferromagnetic core 10 is placed at a center of gravity of a sector of the magnetic pole 3.

    [0069] In this way, measuring the flux in a barycenter position, all the measurement can be extended to the relative area of which the sensor is the center of gravity, rather than using interpolations to calculate the surface flux pattern.

    [0070] It should be noted that each hole 9 in which the ferromagnetic core 10 is accommodated is connected by an auxiliary channel 7A leading on the side of the magnetic pole 3, and allowing the electrical connection of coil 6.

    [0071] As with gaps 21, channels 7 of all the embodiments (and the auxiliary channels 7A) can also be filled with resin 13 in order to create a regular magnetizable surface 2.

    [0072] For example, the resin may be of the epoxy type.

    [0073] To complete the description of the magnetic apparatuses described above, it is noted that each magnetic pole 3 can be of the type known as electro-permanent (as shown in figures 2 and 6).

    [0074] In this case, each of the magnetic poles 3 may comprise a core 3A associated with at least one reversible magnet 15 coupled to a reversion coil 16, and at least one permanent magnet 18 (in the case of figure 4, one for each side of the pole) which is also associated with said core 3A.

    [0075] The magnetic field generated by the at least one reversible magnet is substantially equal to the sum of the magnetic fields generated by the permanent magnets 18.

    [0076] Therefore, when the magnetic field generated by the reversible magnet is opposed to that generated by the permanent magnets, the magnetizable surface 2 is neutral. When the magnetic field of the reversible magnet is added to that of the permanent magnets, the magnetizable surface is magnetized and thus able to exert a magnetic force of attraction of a ferromagnetic material.

    [0077] It must be said that the apparatus according to the present invention can be provided with magnetic field generation systems other than those described above. For example, it may be of the type with electromagnets and thus each of the magnetic poles 3 may comprise a core associated with a magnetization coil that generates a magnetic field only when this is crossed by electric current and thus active.

    [0078] Alternately, a permanent magnet magnetic apparatus may be provided, wherein the magnetic poles 3 may be associated with a permanent magnet and a mechanical system (such as lever) adapted to change the combination between a ferromagnetic material and the permanent magnet at the magnetizable surface, so as to magnetize it or not.

    [0079] By the system described above in its different variations, it is possible to analyze and measure the force produced by a magnetizable surface 2 or subsections thereof. In particular, this system involves the integration of a plurality of flux sensors, made with simple turns buried in the magnetic circuit of at least one part of the magnetic poles of the magnetizable surface. This allows obtaining a well detailed force profile associated with a specific workpiece to be anchored and to a specific magnetizable anchoring surface.

    [0080] The operation of the invention is clear to a man skilled in the art and is substantially as follows.

    [0081] With reference for example to figure 1, it can be seen that a piece of ferromagnetic material placed on the magnetizable surface 2, when active, forms a preferential passage path for the magnetic flux from the north poles to the south poles. The anchoring force will be a function of the magnitude of the flux crossing the system.

    [0082] In particular, assuming that the flux through said magnetic poles 3 in the proximity of their free surface 4 is equal to Ø and assuming that such a flux is even, it is possible to calculate the relative magnetic induction by the formula:

    where B is the magnetic induction and S is the flux crossing surface.

    [0083] Knowing B, it is possible to calculate the surface force density P by means of simple relationships related to B2 and known in the literature, such as:



    [0084] Each coil 6, during the activation of the magnetizable surface 2, will generate a voltage at its ends which is proportional to the change in the magnetic flux linked therewith.

    [0085] Each coil 6 then measures the magnetic flux passing through the respective measuring area 5 located on the free surface 4 of the relative magnetic pole 3.

    [0086] The voltage may be determined by the Lenz-Newman law:

    where e(t) is the voltage generated, n is the number of turns from of which coil 6 is formed and (∂Ø)/∂t is the derivative with respect to the time of the concatenated flux with coil 6 crossing the measuring surface 5.

    [0087] The reversal of this relationship allows calculating the magnetic flux Ø crossing each of the measuring areas 5 described above.

    [0088] Knowing the flux, induction B is calculated from relationship R1.

    [0089] Knowing B, the surface force density P is obtained for example by formula R2.

    [0090] The surface force density P multiplied by the surface of the measuring area 5 provides the value of the force exerted by the magnetic pole at each section.

    [0091] These operations are carried out for example by a computer MC which provides an operator or a control unit associated with the magnetic module 1 with a signal related to the force calculated as above.

    [0092] The signal may be a value of the force exerted by the surface and displayed on a display associated with module 1, an alarm signal or another visual signal suitably interpreted by an operator.

    [0093] The presence of at least two measuring areas 5 associated with each magnetic pole 3 allows calculating the force produced by each partition of the latter in an extremely accurate manner.

    [0094] This is particularly useful especially in the case that the magnetic pole is covered only partially by the ferromagnetic workpiece being machined and/or the thickness of the workpiece to be anchored or the air gap along the surface of the magnetic pole.

    [0095] In practice, the present invention provides a method for detecting the anchoring force exerted on a ferromagnetic element by a magnetizable surface 2 at least partially defined by the free surfaces 4 of a plurality of magnetic poles 3, comprising the step of detecting a magnetic flux exiting from at least two distinct measuring areas 5 of the free surface 4 of at least one part of the magnetic poles 5, and associating, for example by the relationships described above, a value of the force exerted by the magnetizable surface 2 on the ferromagnetic element with said flux.

    [0096] As already mentioned, the magnetic apparatus 1 may comprise a circuit like that shown in figure 8.

    [0097] Here, each coil 6 is indicated as C1 ...... Cn. Each coil is connected to a respective amplifier A1...An which reads the voltage induced at the ends of each coil installed on the magnetic poles and amplifies it.

    [0098] Then, each of the signals thus obtained is filtered and/or band limited (F1, Fn) and made available to an analog to digital converter CAD.

    [0099] The signals duly converted into numerical form are then processed by the computer MC.

    [0100] The microcomputer MC is the numerical processor able to carry out the calculations shown in relationships R1, R2, R3, etc. (or other similar and known in the literature) and configured to physically calculate the force values through such relationships.

    [0101] The forces thus obtained may be made available to an operator and/or a machine tool in integral form (sum of all the forces obtained from the various sensing coils) or as a matrix to allow the management of the two-dimensional force profile resulting from the specific anchoring operation.

    [0102] Unlike the circuit described above, the one in figure 8 processes the series of signals coming from the different coils C1.....Cn.

    [0103] The circuit in figure 8 is less complex than that described above, and the physical implementation of the system is also less complex.

    [0104] In this case, coils C1...Cn are simply connected in series (logic module +), so as to obtain a single signal of force equal to the sum of the n constituents.

    [0105] With this architecture it is however not possible to determine the two-dimensional force distribution profile.

    [0106] The circuit described is still very useful to obtain the total force value.

    [0107] In practice, the circuits discussed above provide a calculation method in which the anchoring force is detected by reading a signal obtained from a plurality of coils 6, each associated with one of said measuring areas 5, wherein the signal deriving from each coil 6 is separately amplified A1, An, filtered F1, Fn and converted into digital CAD before being processed by a computer MC.

    [0108] A method is also provides wherein the signal of all coils 6 is added S, amplified A, filtered F and converted into digital CAD before being processed by a computer MC.

    [0109] Starting from the flux measurements obtained, it is also possible to use two-dimensional interpolations to find the flux values in unmeasured points starting from those measured ones, or to fit, with regression methods, functions of known shape in the calculated points in order to determine the parameters of said functions.

    [0110] The embodiments described are particularly useful for example to lift a mass of ferromagnetic material.

    [0111] In this case, an indication of the gripping force developed by the magnetizable surface 2 can be processed jointly, for example, with the information about the weight of the iron mass obtained from a dynamometric cell. This can allow the generation of a positive signal in the event that there are all the safety conditions, and a negative signal otherwise.

    [0112] Last but not least, possible field of application is the machine tool industry, where knowing the anchoring force of the workpiece to be machined may allow, in combination with the use of other analysis technologies, to automatically managing the cutting parameters and preventing hazardous situations due to the detachment of the mass being machined, or to the displacement thereof.

    [0113] Various embodiments of the invention have been described but others may be conceived using the same innovative concept.

    [0114] For example, the number of partitions (or measuring areas 5) may be adapted according to the best resolution required for the specific application. Moreover, the shape of the partitions may be any and not necessarily rectangular, square, circular or in any case repeatable.

    [0115] As seen, in fact, the calculation procedure is independent of the shape of the measuring area 5 of the relative underlying surface.

    [0116] For example, there may be applications in which the measuring areas 5 of some magnetic poles may differ from the measuring surfaces of other magnetic poles belonging to the same magnetizable surface. For example, magnetic poles may be provided with larger measuring areas 5 in the proximity of the center of the magnetic surface 2, and with smaller measuring areas (and thus offering a more precise reading) in peripheral areas of the magnetizable surface 2.

    [0117] For example, this may be account for the fact that it is more likely that the central poles of the magnetizable surface are completely covered, while the outer ones risk to be less covered, depending on the geometry of the piece to be anchored.


    Claims

    1. A magnetic clamping apparatus (1) comprising a magnetizable surface (2) configured to anchor a ferromagnetic element in a removable manner and a plurality of magnetic poles (3), each provided with a free surface (4) thereof, the magnetizable surface (2) being at least partially defined by the free surfaces (4) of said plurality of magnetic poles (3) placed side by side, on the magnetizable surface (2) at least a part of the magnetic poles (3) being arranged in a group, characterized in that each free surface (4) of each magnetic pole (3) of the group has at least two measuring areas (5), each measuring area (5) being associated with at least one sensor (6) adapted to detect a magnetic flux exiting from said area.
     
    2. A magnetic apparatus (1) according to the preceding claim, wherein the sensor element comprises at least one coil (6) adapted to detect a magnetic flux which crosses said measuring area (5) during at least one activation transient of the magnetizable surface.
     
    3. A magnetic apparatus (1) according to claim 2, wherein at least one part of the perimeter of the measuring area (5) is delimited by a channel (7) made in the magnetic pole (3) which houses at least one part of the coil (6), the channel (7) being open on said free surface (4) of the magnetic pole (3).
     
    4. A magnetic apparatus (1) according to claim 3, wherein the channel (7) is defined by a groove made on the free surface of the magnetic pole.
     
    5. A magnetic apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the groove is cross-shaped and divides the free surface (4) of the magnetic pole (3) into four measuring areas (5).
     
    6. A magnetic apparatus (1) according to claim 3, wherein the channel (7) is obtained between the peripheral surface of a hole (9) made in the magnetic pole and the peripheral surface of a ferromagnetic core (10) housed in the hole.
     
    7. A magnetic apparatus according to claim 3 or 6, wherein the coil (6) is wound about the ferromagnetic core (10) at a surface recess (11) thereof.
     
    8. A magnetic apparatus according to claim 3 or 6, wherein the head (12) of the ferromagnetic core is aligned with the free surface (4) of said pole.
     
    9. A magnetic apparatus according to claim 3 or 6, wherein the ferromagnetic core (10) is positioned at a barycenter of a sector of the magnetic pole (3).
     
    10. A magnetic apparatus (1) according to claim 3, wherein an insulating resin (13) is arranged inside the channel.
     
    11. A magnetic apparatus (1) according to one or more of the preceding claims, wherein each of said magnetic poles (3) comprises a core (3A) associated with at least one reversible magnet (15) coupled to a reversion coil (16) and at least one permanent magnet (18) also associated with said core (3A) and wherein the magnetic field generated by the at least one reversible magnet (15) is substantially equal to the magnetic field generated by the at least one permanent magnet (18).
     
    12. An apparatus according to one or more of the preceding claims wherein each of said magnetic poles (3) comprises a core associated with a magnetizing coil and wherein each of said magnetic poles (3) is associated with a permanent magnet and a mechanical system adapted to modify the combination between a ferromagnetic material and a permanent magnet at said magnetizable surface.
     
    13. A method for detecting the anchoring force exerted on a ferromagnetic element by a magnetizable surface (2) at least partially defined by the free surfaces (4) of a plurality of magnetic poles (3), at least a part of the magnetic poles (3) being arranged in a group, characterized by comprising the step of detecting a magnetic flux exiting from at least two distinct measuring areas (5) formed on each single free surface (4) of each magnetic pole (3) of the group, and associating a value of the force exerted by the magnetizable surface (2) on the ferromagnetic element with said flux.
     
    14. A method according to the preceding claim, wherein said anchoring force is detected by reading a signal obtained from a plurality of coils (6), each associated with one of said measuring areas (5).
     
    15. A method according to the preceding claim, wherein the signal of all coils (6) is added (S), amplified (A), filtered (F) and converted to digital (CAD) before being processed by a computer (MC).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Magnetische Klemmvorrichtung (1), umfassend eine magnetisierbare Fläche (2), die dazu konfiguriert ist, ein ferromagnetisches Element auf entfernbare Weise zu verankern, und mehrere magnetische Pole (3), wobei jeder mit einer freien Fläche (4) davon versehen ist, wobei die magnetisierbare Fläche (2) zumindest zum Teil von den freien Flächen (4) der mehreren magnetischen Pole (3), die nebeneinander platziert sind, definiert wird, wobei auf der magnetisierbaren Fläche (2) mindestens ein Teil der magnetischen Pole (3) in einer Gruppe angeordnet ist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass jede freie Fläche (4) jedes magnetischen Pols (3) der Gruppe mindestens zwei Messbereiche (5) aufweist, wobei jeder Messbereich (5) mit mindestens einem Sensor (6) assoziiert ist, der dazu eingerichtet ist, einen Magnetfluss zu erfassen, der aus dem Bereich austritt.
     
    2. Magnetische Vorrichtung (1) nach dem vorhergehenden Anspruch, wobei das Sensorelement mindestens eine Spule (6) umfasst, die dazu eingerichtet ist, einen Magnetfluss zu erfassen, der während mindestens einer Aktivierungstransiente der magnetisierbaren Fläche den Messbereich (5) überquert.
     
    3. Magnetische Vorrichtung (1) nach Anspruch 2, wobei mindestens ein Teil des Umfangs des Messbereichs (5) durch einen Kanal (7) abgegrenzt ist, der in dem magnetischen Pol (3) ausgebildet ist und der mindestens einen Teil der Spule (6) beherbergt, wobei der Kanal (7) zu der freien Fläche (4) des magnetischen Pols (3) offen ist.
     
    4. Magnetische Vorrichtung (1) nach Anspruch 3, wobei der Kanal (7) von einer Nut definiert wird, die auf der freien Fläche des magnetischen Pols ausgebildet ist.
     
    5. Magnetische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Nut kreuzförmig ist und die freie Fläche (4) des magnetischen Pols (3) in vier Messbereiche (5) unterteilt.
     
    6. Magnetische Vorrichtung (1) nach Anspruch 3, wobei der Kanal (7) zwischen der Randfläche eines Lochs (9) erhalten wird, das in dem magnetischen Pol ausgebildet ist, und die Randfläche eines ferromagnetischen Kerns (10) in dem Loch beherbergt ist.
     
    7. Magnetische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 3 oder 6, wobei die Spule (6) um den ferromagnetischen Kern (10) an einer Flächenaussparung (11) davon gewickelt ist.
     
    8. Magnetische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 3 oder 6, wobei der Kopf (12) des ferromagnetischen Kerns auf die freie Fläche (4) des Pols ausgerichtet ist.
     
    9. Magnetische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 3 oder 6, wobei der ferromagnetische Kern (10) an einem Massenmittelpunkt eines Sektors des magnetischen Pols (3) positioniert ist.
     
    10. Magnetische Vorrichtung (1) nach Anspruch 3, wobei ein isolierender Kunststoff (13) im Inneren des Kanals angeordnet ist.
     
    11. Magnetische Vorrichtung (1) nach einem oder mehreren der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei jeder der magnetischen Pole (3) einen Kern (3A) umfasst, der mit mindestens einem umkehrbaren Magneten (15) assoziiert ist, der an eine Umkehrspule (16) und mindestens einem Permanentmagneten (18) gekoppelt ist, der ebenfalls mit dem Kern (3A) assoziiert ist, und wobei das von dem mindestens einen umkehrbaren Magneten (15) erzeugte Magnetfeld im Wesentlichen gleich dem von dem mindestens einen Permanentmagneten (18) erzeugten Magnetfeld ist.
     
    12. Vorrichtung nach einem oder mehreren der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei jeder der magnetischen Pole (3) einen Kern umfasst, der mit einer magnetisierenden Spule assoziiert ist, und wobei jeder der magnetischen Pole (3) mit einem Permanentmagneten und einem mechanischen System assoziiert ist, das dazu eingerichtet ist, die Kombination zwischen einem ferromagnetischen Material und einem Permanentmagneten an der magnetisierbaren Fläche zu modifizieren.
     
    13. Verfahren zum Erfassen der Verankerungskraft, die auf ein ferromagnetisches Element von einer magnetisierbaren Fläche (2) ausgeübt wird, die zumindest zum Teil von den freien Flächen (4) von mehreren magnetischen Polen (3) definiert wird, wobei mindestens ein Teil der magnetischen Pole (3) in einer Gruppe angeordnet ist, gekennzeichnet durch Umfassen des Schritts eines Erfassens eines Magnetflusses, der aus mindestens zwei verschiedenen Messbereichen (5) austritt, die auf jeder einzelnen freien Fläche (4) jedes magnetischen Pols (3) der Gruppe gebildet sind, und eines Assoziierens eines Werts der Kraft, die von der magnetisierbaren Fläche (2) auf das ferromagnetische Element ausgeübt wird, mit dem Fluss.
     
    14. Verfahren nach dem vorhergehenden Anspruch, wobei die Verankerungskraft durch Lesen eines Signals erfasst wird, das von mehreren Spulen (6) erhalten wird, wobei jede mit einem der Messbereiche (5) assoziiert ist.
     
    15. Verfahren nach dem vorhergehenden Anspruch, wobei das Signal aller Spulen (6) addiert (S), verstärkt (A), gefiltert (F) und in ein digitales Signal umgewandelt (CAD) wird, bevor es von einem Computer (MC) verarbeitet wird.
     


    Revendications

    1. Appareil de serrage magnétique (1) comprenant une surface magnétisable (2) conçue pour ancrer un élément ferromagnétique de manière amovible et une pluralité de pôles magnétiques (3), chacun étant doté d'une surface libre (4) de ceux-ci, la surface magnétisable (2) étant au moins partiellement définie par les surfaces libres (4) de ladite pluralité de pôles magnétiques (3) placées côte à côte, sur la surface magnétisable (2) au moins une partie des pôles magnétiques (3) étant agencés en groupe, caractérisé en ce que chaque surface libre (4) de chaque pôle magnétique (3) du groupe possède au moins deux zones de mesure (5), chaque zone de mesure (5) étant associée à au moins un capteur (6) adapté pour détecter un flux magnétique sortant de ladite zone.
     
    2. Appareil magnétique (1) selon la revendication précédente, ledit élément capteur comprenant au moins une bobine (6) adaptée pour détecter un flux magnétique qui traverse ladite zone de mesure (5) durant au moins une activation transitoire de la surface magnétisable.
     
    3. Appareil magnétique (1) selon la revendication 2, au moins une partie du périmètre de la zone de mesure (5) étant délimitée par un canal (7) réalisé dans le pôle magnétique (3) qui abrite au moins une partie de la bobine (6), le canal (7) étant ouvert sur ladite surface libre (4) du pôle magnétique (3).
     
    4. Appareil magnétique (1) selon la revendication 3, ledit canal (7) étant défini par une rainure réalisée sur la surface libre du pôle magnétique.
     
    5. Appareil magnétique selon la revendication 4, ladite rainure étant en forme de croix et divisant la surface libre (4) du pôle magnétique (3) en quatre zones de mesure (5).
     
    6. Appareil magnétique (1) selon la revendication 3, ledit canal (7) étant obtenu entre la surface périphérique d'un trou (9) réalisé dans le pôle magnétique et la surface périphérique d'un noyau ferromagnétique (10) logé dans le trou.
     
    7. Appareil magnétique selon la revendication 3 ou 6, ladite bobine (6) étant enroulée autour du noyau ferromagnétique (10) au niveau d'un évidement de surface (11) de celui-ci.
     
    8. Appareil magnétique selon la revendication 3 ou 6, ladite tête (12) du noyau ferromagnétique étant alignée avec la surface libre (4) dudit pôle.
     
    9. Appareil magnétique selon la revendication 3 ou 6, ledit noyau ferromagnétique (10) étant positionné au niveau d'un barycentre d'un secteur du pôle magnétique (3).
     
    10. Appareil magnétique (1) selon la revendication 3, une résine isolante (13) étant agencée à l'intérieur du canal.
     
    11. Appareil magnétique (1) selon l'une ou plusieurs des revendications précédentes, chacun desdits pôles magnétiques (3) comprenant un noyau (3A) associé à au moins un aimant réversible (15) couplé à une bobine de réversion (16) et au moins un aimant permanent (18) également associé audit noyau (3A) et ledit champ magnétique généré par l'au moins un aimant réversible (15) étant sensiblement égal au champ magnétique généré par l'au moins un aimant permanent (18).
     
    12. Appareil selon l'une ou plusieurs des revendications précédentes, chacun desdits pôles magnétiques (3) comprenant un noyau associé à une bobine magnétisante et chacun desdits pôles magnétiques (3) étant associé à un aimant permanent et un système mécanique adapté pour modifier la combinaison entre un matériau ferromagnétique et un aimant permanent au niveau de ladite surface magnétisable.
     
    13. Procédé permettant de détecter la force d'ancrage exercée sur un élément ferromagnétique par une surface magnétisable (2) au moins partiellement définie par les surfaces libres (4) d'une pluralité de pôles magnétiques (3), au moins une partie des pôles magnétiques (3) étant agencés en groupe,
    caractérisé en
    comprenant l'étape de détection d'un flux magnétique sortant d'au moins deux zones de mesure distinctes (5) formées sur chaque surface libre unique (4) de chaque pôle magnétique (3) du groupe, et associant une valeur de la force exercée par la surface magnétisable (2) sur l'élément ferromagnétique avec ledit flux.
     
    14. Procédé selon la revendication précédente, ladite force d'ancrage étant détectée en lisant un signal obtenu à partir d'une pluralité de bobines (6), chacune associée à l'une desdites zones de mesure (5).
     
    15. Procédé selon la revendication précédente, ledit signal de toutes les bobines (6) étant ajouté (S), amplifié (A), filtré (F) et converti en numérique (CAD) avant d'être traité par un ordinateur (MC).
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description