(19)
(11)EP 3 358 147 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
23.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/39

(21)Application number: 18152765.6

(22)Date of filing:  22.01.2018
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F01D 17/08(2006.01)
F16K 37/00(2006.01)
B01D 35/143(2006.01)
F02C 7/232(2006.01)
F01D 17/10(2006.01)
F16K 15/04(2006.01)
B01D 35/147(2006.01)
F16K 17/04(2006.01)

(54)

BYPASS VALVE SYSTEM STATE INDICATION

ZUSTANDSANZEIGE EINES BYPASSVENTILSYSTEMS

INDICATION DE L'ÉTAT D'UN SYSTÈME DE VANNE DE DÉRIVATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 02.02.2017 US 201715422921

(43)Date of publication of application:
08.08.2018 Bulletin 2018/32

(73)Proprietor: United Technologies Corporation
Farmington, CT 06032 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • CLARK, Richard W.
    Jensen Beach, FL Florida 34957 (US)
  • CUÉ, Javier A.
    Palm Beach Gardens, FL Florida 33418 (US)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A- 2 729 339
US-A- 4 654 140
US-A1- 2015 219 242
US-A- 3 626 474
US-A- 4 932 205
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD



    [0001] This disclosure generally relates to bypass valves.

    BACKGROUND



    [0002] Fluid passages in vehicles (e.g., aircraft, automobiles, boats, etc.) may, over time, accumulate impurities from the fluid flowing through such fluid passages. The impurities may cause blockages in the fluid passages. As a result, there may be a pressure differential between the fluid flow into the fluid passage (inlet flow) and the fluid flow out the fluid passage (outlet flow). Because of the blockage in the fluid passage, the inlet flow may have a higher pressure than the outlet flow. If the inlet flow reaches a certain pressure threshold, a bypass valve may open to allow some of the inlet flow through the bypass valve to reduce the pressure. The bypass valve opening may indicate that the fluid passage (such as a filter or heat exchanger) may need to be replaced because there is significant buildup of impurities in the fluid passage.

    [0003] US 4,932,205 discloses a bypasss valve for a fuel supply system of an aircraft. The bypass valve has a housing with a chamber having an entrance port connected to a pump and an exit port connected to a regulator. An end cap which is screwed into the housing to seal the chamber. A sleeve which extends from the end cap into the chamber has a series of radial openings to communicate the exit port with the interior of the sleeve. A piston is retained in the sleeve by a retainer stop. A spring acts on the piston to move a face against the retainer stop to separate the entrance port from the exit port.

    [0004] US 2015/0219242 A1 discloses a surge relief valve including a piston housing and a piston located within the housing for reciprocal motion. The valve also includes a position sensor to resolve the axial position of the piston relative to the piston housing.

    SUMMARY



    [0005] From a first aspect, a fluid system for gas turbine engine as claimed in claim 1 is provided.

    [0006] In various embodiments, the fluid passage may be at least one of an oil filter, a fuel filter, an air filter, or a heat exchanger. In various embodiments, the position sensor may be at least one of a proximity probe, a linear variable differential transformer, a sonar device, or a magnetic pickup. In various embodiments, the bypass valve may comprise a cap coupled to the spring, wherein the spring may be disposed between the cap and the piston, and the position sensor may be coupled to the cap.

    [0007] In various embodiments, the bypass valve may be configured to allow the piston to move along the bypass slack area in response to the pressure threshold being reached by the inlet flow in the passage inlet before allowing the fluid to pass through the bypass outlet. In various embodiments, the bypass valve may be configured to pass the fluid through the bypass outlet in response to the piston moving past the bypass slack area caused by the inlet flow reaching the bypass pressure threshold, and in response to the piston moving past the bypass slack area, the bypass outlet is in fluid communication with the bypass inlet.

    [0008] From a further aspect, an aircraft as claimed in claim 8 is provided.

    [0009] From a further aspect, a method for monitoring a fluid passage in a gas turbine engine as claimed in claim 9 is provided.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0010] The subject matter of the present disclosure is particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed in the concluding portion of the specification. A more complete understanding of the present disclosure, however, may best be obtained by referring to the detailed description and claims when considered in connection with the drawing figures. Elements with the like element numbering throughout the figures are intended to be the same.

    FIG. 1 illustrates a perspective view of an aircraft, in accordance with various embodiments;

    FIG. 2 illustrates a perspective view of a gas turbine engine, in accordance with various embodiments;

    FIG. 3 illustrates a schematic view of a fluid system, in accordance with various embodiments;

    FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrate perspective views of a bypass valve, in accordance with various embodiments; and

    FIG. 5 illustrates a method for monitoring a fluid passage, in accordance with various embodiments.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0011] The detailed description of various embodiments herein makes reference to the accompanying drawings, which show various embodiments by way of illustration. While these various embodiments are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the disclosure, it should be understood that other embodiments may be realized and that changes may be made without departing from the scope of the disclosure. Thus, the detailed description herein is presented for purposes of illustration only and not of limitation.

    [0012] Aircraft, such as aircraft 50 depicted in FIG. 1, may comprise a gas turbine engine 90. Referring to FIG. 2, a gas turbine engine 100 (such as a turbofan gas turbine engine) is illustrated according to various embodiments. Gas turbine engine 100 is disposed about axis of rotation 120. Gas turbine engine 100 may comprise a fan 140, compressor sections 150 and 160, a combustion section 180, and turbine sections 190, 191. Air compressed in compressor sections 150, 160 may be mixed with fuel and burned in combustion section 180 and expanded across turbine sections 190, 191. Turbine sections 190, 191 may include high pressure rotors 192 and low pressure rotors 194, which rotate in response to the expansion. Turbine sections 190, 191 may comprise alternating rows of rotary airfoils or blades 196 and static airfoils or vanes 198. A plurality of bearings 115 may support spools to which the rotors are affixed in gas turbine engine 100. FIG. 2 provides a general understanding of the sections in a gas turbine engine, and is not intended to limit the disclosure. The present disclosure may extend to all types of turbine engines, including turbofan gas turbine engines and turbojet engines, for all types of applications.

    [0013] The forward-aft positions of gas turbine engine 100 lie along axis of rotation 120. For example, fan 140 may be referred to as forward of turbine section 190 and turbine section 190 may be referred to as aft of fan 140. Typically, during operation of gas turbine engine 100, air flows from forward to aft, for example, from fan 140 to turbine section 190. As air flows from fan 140 to the more aft components of gas turbine engine 100, axis of rotation 120 may also generally define the direction of the air stream flow.

    [0014] In various embodiments, referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, aircraft 50 (or other vehicles such as automobiles, boats, etc.) may comprise fluid passages, which may be any device used for the processing of fluid within the vehicle. Fluid passages may also be in fluid communication with or comprised in an engine within a vehicle (e.g., gas turbine engine 100). For example, a fluid passage may be an oil filter, fuel filter, and/or an air filter implemented to remove impurities from the fluid (e.g., oil, fuel, and/or air, respectively), or a heat exchanger.

    [0015] FIG. 3 illustrates a fluid system 300 comprising a fluid passage 310, a bypass valve 350, and a control system 360. In various embodiments, fluid passage 310 comprises a passage inlet 302 through which the fluid to be processed (e.g., filtered, cooled, heated) may enter fluid passage 310 (i.e., an inlet flow 303), and a passage outlet 309 through which the processed fluid may exit fluid passage 310 (i.e., an outlet flow 308). Over time, as the fluid passes through fluid passage 310, impurities may accumulate and create blockages in fluid passage 310. Therefore, as blockages accumulate in fluid passage 310, the inlet flow pressure associated with the inlet flow 303 through passage inlet 302 may have a higher pressure than the outlet flow pressure associated with the outlet flow 308 through passage outlet 309.

    [0016] In various embodiments, bypass valve 350 may be configured to relieve pressure in the inlet flow 303 of passage inlet 302 in response to the inlet flow pressure reaching a certain threshold (i.e., a "bypass pressure threshold"). Bypass valve 350 comprises a bypass inlet 348 in fluid communication with passage inlet 302, and a bypass outlet 352. If the inlet flow pressure in passage inlet 302 is below the bypass pressure threshold, bypass valve 350 may be closed such that no fluid may flow through bypass inlet 348 and/or bypass outlet 352. In response to the inlet flow 303 reaching the bypass pressure threshold, bypass valve 350 may open allowing fluid to pass through bypass valve 350 from bypass inlet 348 to bypass outlet 352 to relieve pressure from the inlet flow 303 in passage inlet 302. In various embodiments, bypass outlet 352 may be in fluid communication with passage outlet 309, and therefore, in response to bypass valve 350 being open, fluid exiting bypass valve 350 through bypass outlet 352 may join the outlet flow 308 in passage outlet 309. In various embodiments, bypass outlet 352 may be in fluid communication with other portions of fluid system 300 or other part of the vehicle comprising fluid system 300. In such embodiments, in response to bypass valve 350 being open, fluid exiting bypass valve 350 through bypass outlet 352 may travel to another part of fluid system 300 or the vehicle.

    [0017] With reference to FIGS. 4A and 4B, a bypass valve 400 (an example of bypass valve 350 in FIG. 3) comprises a bypass inlet 448 having an inlet surrounding wall 412, a bypass outlet 452 having an outlet surrounding wall 405, a piston 410 disposed in bypass inlet 448 and/or bypass outlet 452 blocking, a spring 415 coupled to the piston 410, a cap 430 coupled to spring 415, wherein spring 415 is coupled between piston 410 and cap 430, and/or a position sensor 440 configured to detect the position of piston 410. Inlet surrounding wall 412 and outlet surrounding wall 405 may be circular in cross section, or any suitable geometric shape (e.g., square, rectangle, octagon, hexagon, or the like). With additional reference to FIG. 3, and implementing bypass valve 400 in fluid system 300 (as bypass valve 350), bypass inlet 448 is in fluid communication with passage inlet 302. Piston 410 is disposed in bypass inlet 448 such that piston 410 blocks the fluid from flowing through bypass outlet 452 of bypass valve 400. Spring 415 may retain piston 410 in a rest position 411 due to the bias of spring 415. When piston 410 is in rest position 411, spring 415 may be in a relaxed position 416.

    [0018] In various embodiments, piston 410 is disposed in bypass inlet 448, and therefore rest position 411 is in bypass inlet 448 as well. As discussed herein, the inlet flow pressure in passage inlet 302 applies pressure on piston 410 and spring 415. Spring 415 is configured to retain piston 410 in rest position 411. However, in response to the inlet flow pressure in passage inlet 302 reaching a pressure threshold, spring 415 compresses and piston 410 moves toward bypass outlet 452. The area of inlet surrounding wall 412 which spans between rest position 411 and bypass outlet 452 is a bypass slack area 413, along which piston 410 moves as a result of inlet flow pressure increasing above the pressure threshold without opening bypass valve 400 by allowing fluid through bypass outlet 452. Piston 410 being moved from rest position 411 (located at a slack area end 422 of bypass slack area 413 furthest from bypass outlet 452) to a place along bypass slack area 413 such that piston 410 still blocks bypass outlet 452 may be referred to as an "impending bypass flow" because the inlet flow pressure will have almost reached the bypass pressure threshold which will open bypass outlet 452 (i.e., a bypass flow is impending). In response to piston 410 moving to a place along bypass slack area 413, such a position of piston 410 may referred to as a displaced position.

    [0019] In various embodiments, the inlet flow pressure increasing to the pressure threshold, or above the pressure threshold, but below the bypass pressure threshold, moves piston 410 along bypass slack area 413 toward bypass outlet 452. In response to inlet flow pressure in passage inlet 302 reaching the bypass pressure threshold (or above), spring 415 has been compressed enough by the inlet flow pressure to cause piston 410 to move in the direction of bypass inlet flow 402 past bypass slack area 413, and therefore, allow fluid to flow through bypass valve 400 and out bypass outlet 452 as bypass outlet flow 403 (i.e., a "bypass flow" has occurred). In such a position, piston 410 is in a bypass position 421, which is a position of piston 410 that allows fluid through bypass outlet 452. In response to piston 410 being in bypass position 421, spring 415 is in a compressed position 417. In various embodiments, spring 415 may be compressed to varying degrees, and piston 410 may be pushed by inlet flow pressure to varying degrees so that piston 410 remains in bypass position 421 (i.e., to allow fluid flow through bypass valve 400). In various embodiments, bypass outlet 452 may be completely open before piston 410 has been pushed by inlet flow pressure to a point of maximum compression.

    [0020] While FIGS. 4A and 4B depicted piston 410 and spring 415 being disposed in bypass inlet 448, in other examples not falling under the scope of the claimed invention, the piston and spring may be disposed in bypass outlet 452. In such examples, the rest position of the piston may be in bypass outlet 452, along with the bypass slack area along outlet surrounding wall 405. In such examples, similar to the embodiments pictured in FIGS. 4A and 4B discussed herein, the inlet flow pressure reaching the pressure threshold may compress the spring and move the piston from the rest position in bypass outlet 452 along the bypass slack area along outlet surrounding wall 405. In response to the inlet flow pressure reaching the bypass pressure threshold, the spring may be further compressed and the piston may be pushed past the bypass slack area, such that fluid may flow through bypass valve 400 through bypass outlet 452 as bypass outlet flow 403. In various embodiments, the spring may be disposed in any suitable configuration such that it applies pressure to maintain, or be biased to maintain, the piston in the rest position.

    [0021] In various embodiments, with continued reference to FIGS. 3, 4A, and 4B, position sensor 440 is comprised in, and/or coupled to, bypass valve 400 on any suitable portion of bypass valve 400. As depicted in FIGS. 4A and 4B, position sensor 440 may be coupled to cap 430, in accordance with various embodiments. However, in various embodiments, position sensor 440 may be coupled to inlet surrounding wall 412, outlet surrounding wall 405, piston 410, a housing enclosing bypass valve 400, or any other suitable location. Position sensor 440 is configured to detect the position of piston 410. For example, position sensor 440 may detect if piston 410 is in rest position 411, in a displaced position along bypass slack area 413, and/or if piston 410 is in a bypass position 421.

    [0022] Position sensor 440 may be any suitable position sensor. In various embodiments, position sensor 440 may be a sonar device which emits sound wave pulses and detects changes in sound wave feedback (i.e., sound wave echoes) to determine the position of an object (e.g., piston 410). In various embodiments, position sensor 440 may be a magnetic pickup which detects changes in a surrounding magnetic field based on movement of an object (e.g., piston 410). In various embodiments, position sensor 440 may be a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) which detects changes in electromagnetic flux based on changes in position of an object (e.g., piston 410). In various embodiments, position sensor 440 may be a proximity probe which emits an electromagnetic field or electromagnetic radiation and detects changes in the field or return signals indicating the change in position of an object (e.g., piston 410). In various embodiments, rest position 411 may be the zero or standard to which all other position readings or information are compared. In various embodiments, position sensor 440 is comprised in, or in electrical communication with, control system 360 via wiring 457 (or as depicted in FIG. 3, position sensor 355 is in electrical communication with control system 360 via wiring 357). In various embodiments, position sensor 440 2. converts the detection and information of the position of piston 410 into an electrical signal, and transmit the signal to control system 360 for processing. In various embodiments, position sensor 440 may comprise a processor to analyze the position information collected.

    [0023] In various embodiments, control system 360 (or position sensor 440) comprises a processor configured to implement various logical operations in response to execution of instructions, for example, instructions stored on a non-transitory, tangible, computer-readable medium. Control system 360 may be a full authority digital engine control ("FADEC"), or control system 360 may be a dedicated engine health monitoring device separate from the FADEC.

    [0024] In various embodiments, control system 360 receives the transmission from position sensor 355, and determine the position of piston 410 and/or whether piston 410 has moved from rest position 411. In response to control system 360 determining that piston 410 is in rest position, control system 360 may take no action, or send a notification to an operator that there is no change in piston 410's position. In response to control system 360 determining that piston 410 is in a displaced position along bypass slack area 413, control system 360 determines that there is an impending bypass flow because inlet flow pressure has reached at least the pressure threshold to push piston 410 from rest position 411. In such a case, control system 360 may transmit a notification that the appropriate maintenance should be taken to avoid a bypass flow (e.g., replacing fluid passage 310, such as a filter or a heat exchanger). In response to control system 360 determining that piston 410 is in a bypass position 421, control system 360 determines that there is a bypass flow because inlet flow pressure has reached at least the bypass pressure threshold to push piston 410 far enough to open bypass valve 400 and allow fluid to pass through bypass outlet 452. In such a case, control system 360 may transmit a notification that the appropriate maintenance should be taken to avoid further bypass flow (e.g., replacing fluid passage 310, such as a filter or a heat exchanger).

    [0025] The fluid systems described herein allow accurate monitoring of a fluid passage such that the timing of maintenance may maximize life of the fluid passage. The inlet flow pressure and outlet flow pressure do not need to be measured and compared to determine whether the fluid passage need maintenance or replacement, therefore, eliminating the inherent inaccuracies of such a monitoring technique.

    [0026] In accordance with various embodiments, FIG. 5 depicts a method 500 for monitoring a fluid passage. With combined reference to FIGS. 3-5, in various embodiments, a fluid is passed through fluid passage 310 (step 502) through passage inlet 302 and passage outlet 309. Over time, impurities may accumulate in fluid passage 310 and create blockages in fluid passage 310. Therefore, the inlet flow pressure in passage inlet 302 may increase. As described herein, bypass valve 400 is comprised in the fluid system 300 in which fluid passage 310 is being utilized. While fluid is flowing through fluid passage 310, position sensor 440 of bypass valve 400 is detecting the position of the piston (step 504). Position sensor 440 transmits the detected position information for piston 410 to control system 460 (step 506) for processing. In various embodiments, position sensor 440 may process the position information.

    [0027] A processor in control system 460 (or position sensor 440) determines whether piston 410 moved from rest position 411 (step 508), which would indicate that the inlet flow pressure in passage inlet 302 has reached or exceeded the pressure threshold. The processor may compare the received position information for piston 410 with a standard (e.g., rest position 411). As a simple example, rest position 411 may be represented by "1," bypass position 421 may be represented by "5," and a displaced position in bypass slack area 413 is anywhere between 1 and 5. The standard may be 1 (rest position 411). Therefore, if the received position information is a 1, then the processor determines that piston 410 is in rest position 411. If the received position information is a 2, the processor determines that piston 410 is in a displaced position along bypass slack area 413. Accordingly, in response to the processor determining that piston 410 has moved from rest position 411, the processor may determine whether there is an impending bypass flow or a bypass flow (step 510). In response to it being determined that piston 410 is at a displaced position along bypass slack area 413, the processor determines that there is an impending bypass flow. In response to it being determined that piston 410 is at bypass position 421, the processor determines that there is a bypass flow. In response to an impending bypass flow or a bypass flow being detected (indicating a pressure build-up in passage inlet 302 and blockage in fluid passage 310), the processor may send a notification to an operator (step 512) advising that maintenance to, or replacement of, fluid passage 310 may be desired.


    Claims

    1. A fluid system (300) for a gas turbine engine (100), comprising:

    a fluid passage (310) comprising a passage inlet (302) and a passage outlet (309), wherein the fluid passage (310) is configured to allow a fluid to pass through the fluid passage (310) by entering the passage inlet (302) as an inlet flow (303) and exiting the passage outlet (309) as an outlet flow (308);

    a bypass valve (350; 400) comprising a bypass inlet (348; 448) and a bypass outlet (352; 452), the bypass inlet (348; 448) being in fluid communication with the passage inlet (302), wherein the bypass valve (350; 400) further comprises a piston (410) coupled to a spring (415), wherein the spring (415) retains the piston (410) in a rest position (411), and the spring (415) and the piston (410) are configured to block the fluid from passing through the bypass outlet (352; 452) in response to the inlet flow (303) exerting a pressure below a bypass pressure threshold; and

    a position sensor (440) coupled to the bypass valve (350; 400) and configured to detect a position of the piston (410) in the bypass valve (350; 400),

    wherein the piston (410) is in the rest position (411) in the bypass inlet (348; 448), wherein the bypass inlet (348; 448) comprises an inlet surrounding wall (412) and a portion of the inlet surrounding wall (412) adjacent to the bypass outlet (352; 452) is a bypass slack area, wherein the piston (410) is in the rest position (411) at a slack area end furthest from the bypass outlet (352; 452), and the piston (410) is configured to move along the bypass slack area toward the bypass outlet (352; 452) in response to a pressure threshold being reached by the inlet flow (303) in the passage inlet (302),

    characterised by the fluid system (300) further comprising a control system (360) in electronic communication with the position sensor (440), wherein the position sensor (440) transmits the position of the piston (410) to the control system (360),

    wherein the control system (360) comprises a processor and is configured to determine at least one of an impending bypass flow through the bypass outlet (352; 452) in response to the piston (410) being moved to a displaced position along the bypass slack area from the rest position (411) without allowing the fluid to pass through the bypass outlet (352; 452), or a bypass flow through the bypass outlet (352; 452) in response to the piston (410) moving past the bypass slack area and allowing the fluid to pass through the bypass outlet (352; 452).


     
    2. The fluid system (300) of claim 1, wherein the fluid passage (310) is at least one of an oil filter, a fuel filter, or an air filter.
     
    3. The fluid system (300) of claim 1, wherein the fluid passage (310) is a heat exchanger.
     
    4. The fluid system (300) of claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein the bypass valve (350; 400) is configured to allow the piston (410) to move along the bypass slack area in response to the pressure threshold being reached by the inlet flow (303) in the passage inlet (302) before allowing the fluid to pass through the bypass outlet (352; 452).
     
    5. The fluid system (300) of claim 4, wherein the bypass valve (350; 400) is configured to pass the fluid through the bypass outlet (352; 452) in response to the piston (410) moving past the bypass slack area caused by the inlet flow (303) reaching the bypass pressure threshold, and in response to the piston (410) moving past the bypass slack area, the bypass outlet (352; 452) is in fluid communication with the bypass inlet (348; 448).
     
    6. The fluid system (300) of any preceding claim, wherein the position sensor is at least one of a proximity probe, a linear variable differential transformer, a sonar device, or a magnetic pickup.
     
    7. The fluid system (300) of any preceding claim, wherein the bypass valve (350; 400) comprises a cap coupled to the spring, wherein the spring (415) is disposed between the cap and the piston (410), and the position sensor (440) is coupled to the cap.
     
    8. An aircraft, comprising:

    a gas turbine engine (100); and

    a fluid system (300) as claimed in any preceding claim, at least one of coupled to, or in fluid communication with, the gas turbine engine (100).


     
    9. A method for monitoring a fluid passage of a gas turbine engine (100), comprising:

    passing a fluid through the fluid passage (310) in a fluid system (300) by the fluid entering a fluid inlet as an inlet flow (303) and exiting through a fluid outlet as an outlet flow (308), wherein the fluid system (300) comprises a bypass valve (350; 400) having a bypass inlet fluidly coupled to a passage inlet (302) and a bypass outlet (352; 452), wherein the bypass valve (350; 400) further comprises a piston (410) in the passage inlet (302) coupled to a spring (415), wherein the spring (415) retains the piston (410) in a rest position (411), and the spring (415) and the piston (410) are configured to block the fluid from passing through the bypass outlet (352; 452) in response to the inlet flow (303) exerting a pressure below a bypass pressure threshold; and

    detecting, by a position sensor (440) coupled to the bypass valve (350; 400), a position of the piston (410) in the passage inlet (302);

    wherein the bypass inlet (348; 448) comprises an inlet surrounding wall (412) and a portion of the inlet surrounding wall (412) adjacent to the bypass outlet (352; 452) is a bypass slack area, wherein the piston (410) is in the rest position (411) at a slack area end furthest from the bypass outlet (352; 452) of the bypass slack area, and the piston (410) is configured to move along the bypass slack area toward the bypass outlet (352; 452) in response to the pressure threshold being reached by the inlet flow (303) in the passage inlet (302) before allowing the fluid to pass through the bypass outlet (352; 452),

    characterised in that the method further comprises determining, by the processor, whether the piston (410) has moved from the rest position (411); and

    determining by the processor, an impending bypass flow in response to determining that the piston (410) has moved from the rest position (411) to a displaced position along the bypass slack area, or

    determining, by the processor, a bypass flow in response to determining that the piston has moved from the rest position (411) to a bypass position, wherein the bypass position is when the piston has moved past the bypass slack area, causing the fluid to pass through bypass outlet (352; 452).


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Fluidsystem (300) für ein Gasturbinentriebwerk (100), das Folgendes umfasst:

    einen Fluidkanal (310), der einen Kanaleinlass (302) und einen Kanalauslass (309) umfasst, wobei der Fluidkanal (310) dazu konfiguriert ist, einem Fluid zu ermöglichen, durch Eintreten in den Kanaleinlass (302) als ein Einlassstrom (303) und Austreten aus dem Kanalauslass (309) als ein Auslassstrom (308) durch den Fluidkanal (310) zu verlaufen;

    ein Bypassventil (350; 400), das einen Bypasseinlass (348; 448) und einen Bypassauslass (352; 452) umfasst, wobei der Bypasseinlass (348; 448) in Fluidverbindung mit dem Kanaleinlass (302) steht, wobei das Bypassventil (350; 400) ferner einen Kolben (410) umfasst, der an eine Feder (415) gekoppelt ist, wobei die Feder (415) den Kolben (410) in einer Ruheposition (411) hält, und wobei die Feder (415) und der Kolben (410) dazu konfiguriert sind, das Fluid daran zu hindern, durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452) zu verlaufen, als Reaktion darauf, dass der Einlassstrom (303) einen Druck unter einem Bypassdruckschwellenwert ausübt; und

    einen Positionssensor (440), der an das Bypassventil (350; 400) gekoppelt ist und dazu konfiguriert ist, eine Position des Kolbens (410) in dem Bypassventil (350; 400) zu detektieren,

    wobei der Kolben (410) in der Ruheposition (411) in dem Bypasseinlass (348; 448) ist, wobei der Bypasseinlass (348; 448) eine Einlassumgebungswand (412) umfasst und wobei ein Abschnitt der Einlassumgebungswand (412) benachbart zu dem Bypassauslass (352; 452) ein Bypassschlupfbereich ist, wobei der Kolben (410) in der Ruheposition (411) an einem Schlupfbereichende ist, das am weitesten von dem Bypassauslass (352; 452) entfernt ist, und wobei der Kolben (410) dazu konfiguriert ist, sich entlang des Bypassschlupfbereichs zu dem Bypassauslass (352; 452) als Reaktion darauf zu bewegen, dass ein Druckschwellenwert durch den Einlassstrom (303) in dem Kanaleinlass (302) erreicht ist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Fluidsystem (300) ferner ein Steuersystem (360) in elektronischer Kommunikation mit dem Positionssensor (440) umfasst, wobei der Positionssensor (440) die Position des Kolbens (410) an das Steuersystem (360) überträgt,

    wobei das Steuersystem (360) einen Prozessor umfasst und dazu konfiguriert ist, mindestens eines von einem bevorstehenden Bypassstrom durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452), als Reaktion darauf, dass der Kolben (410) in eine verschobene Position entlang des Bypassschlupfbereichs aus der Ruheposition (411) bewegt wird, ohne dem Fluid zu ermöglichen, durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452) zu verlaufen, oder einem Bypassstrom durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452) zu bestimmen, als Reaktion darauf, dass sich der Kolben (410) an dem Bypassschlupfbereich vorbei bewegt und dem Fluid ermöglicht, durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452) zu verlaufen.


     
    2. Fluidsystem (300) nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Fluidkanal (310) mindestens eines von einem Ölfilter, einem Kraftstofffilter oder einem Luftfilter ist.
     
    3. Fluidsystem (300) nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Fluidkanal (310) ein Wärmetauscher ist.
     
    4. Fluidsystem (300) nach Anspruch 1, 2 oder 3, wobei das Bypassventil (350; 400) dazu konfiguriert ist, dem Kolben (410) zu ermöglichen, sich entlang des Bypassschlupfbereichs zu bewegen, als Reaktion darauf, dass der Druckschwellenwert durch den Einlassstrom (303) in dem Kanaleinlass (302) erreicht wird, bevor dem Fluid ermöglicht wird, durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452) zu verlaufen.
     
    5. Fluidsystem (300) nach Anspruch 4, wobei das Bypassventil (350; 400) dazu konfiguriert ist, das Fluid durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452) zu leiten, als Reaktion darauf, dass sich der Kolben (410) an dem Bypassschlupfbereich vorbei bewegt, was dadurch verursacht ist, dass der Einlassstrom (303) den Bypassdruckschwellenwert erreicht, und als Reaktion darauf, dass sich der Kolben (410) an dem Bypassschlupfbereich vorbei bewegt, wobei der Bypassauslass (352; 452) in Fluidverbindung mit dem Bypasseinlass (348; 448) steht.
     
    6. Fluidsystem (300) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der Positionssensor mindestens eines von einer Annäherungssonde, einem linear variablen Differentialtransformer, einer Sonarvorrichtung oder einem Magnettonabnehmer ist.
     
    7. Fluidsystem (300) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Bypassventil (350; 400) eine Kappe umfasst, die an die Feder gekoppelt ist, wobei die Feder (415) zwischen der Kappe und dem Kolben (410) angeordnet ist und der Positionssensor (440) an die Kappe gekoppelt ist.
     
    8. Luftfahrzeug, das Folgendes umfasst:

    ein Gasturbinentriebwerk (100); und

    ein Fluidsystem (300) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, das mindestens eines von an das Gasturbinentriebwerk (100) gekoppelt oder damit in Fluidverbindung stehend ist.


     
    9. Verfahren zum Überwachen eines Fluidkanals eines Gasturbinentriebwerks (100), das Folgendes umfasst:

    Leiten eines Fluids durch den Fluidkanal (310) in einem Fluidsystem (300), indem das Fluid als ein Einlassstrom (303) in einen Fluideinlass eintritt und als ein Auslassstrom (308) aus einem Fluidauslass austritt, wobei das Fluidsystem (300) ein Bypassventil (350; 400) umfasst, das einen Bypasseinlass, der fluidisch an einen Kanaleinlass (302) gekoppelt ist, und einen Bypassauslass (352; 452) aufweist,

    wobei das Bypassventil (350; 400) ferner einen Kolben (410) in dem Kanaleinlass (302) umfasst, der an eine Feder (415) gekoppelt ist, wobei die Feder (415) den Kolben (410) in einer Ruheposition (411) hält, und wobei die Feder (415) und der Kolben (410) dazu konfiguriert sind, das Fluid daran zu hindern, durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452) zu verlaufen, als Reaktion darauf, dass der Einlassstrom (303) einen Druck unter einem Bypassdruckschwellenwert ausübt; und

    Detektieren, durch einen Positionssensor (440), der an das Bypassventil (350; 400) gekoppelt ist, einer Position des Kolbens (410) in dem Kanaleinlass (302);

    wobei der Bypasseinlass (348; 448) eine Einlassumgebungswand (412) umfasst und wobei ein Abschnitt der Einlassumgebungswand (412) benachbart zu dem Bypassauslass (352; 452) ein Bypassschlupfbereich ist, wobei der Kolben (410) in der Ruheposition (411) an einem Schlupfbereichende ist, das am weitesten von dem Bypassauslass (352; 452) des Bypassschlupfbereichs entfernt ist, und wobei der Kolben (410) dazu konfiguriert ist, sich entlang des Bypassschlupfbereichs zu dem Bypassauslass (352; 452) als Reaktion darauf zu bewegen, dass der Druckschwellenwert durch den Einlassstrom (303) in dem Kanaleinlass (302) erreicht wird, bevor dem Fluid ermöglicht wird, durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452) zu verlaufen,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren ferner ein Bestimmen, durch den Prozessor, umfasst, ob sich der Kolben (410) aus der Ruheposition (411) bewegt hat; und

    Bestimmen, durch den Prozessor, eines bevorstehenden Bypassstroms als Reaktion auf Bestimmen, dass sich der Kolben (410) aus der Ruheposition (411) in eine verschobene Position entlang des Bypassschlupfbereichs bewegt hat, oder

    Bestimmen, durch den Prozessor, eines Bypassstroms als Reaktion auf Bestimmen, dass sich der Kolben aus der Ruheposition (411) in eine Bypassposition bewegt hat, wobei die Bypassposition ist, wenn sich der Kolben an dem Bypassschlupfbereich vorbei bewegt hat, was das Fluid dazu veranlasst, durch den Bypassauslass (352; 452) zu verlaufen.


     


    Revendications

    1. Système de fluide (300) pour un moteur à turbine à gaz (100), comprenant :

    un passage de fluide (310) comprenant une entrée de passage (302) et une sortie de passage (309), dans lequel le passage de fluide (310) est configuré pour permettre à un fluide de passer à travers le passage de fluide (310) en entrant dans l'entrée de passage (302) comme un flux d'entrée (303) et en sortant de la sortie de passage (309) comme un flux de sortie (308) ;

    une vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400) comprenant une entrée de dérivation (348 ; 448) et une sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452), l'entrée de dérivation (348 ; 448) étant en communication fluidique avec l'entrée de passage (302),dans lequel la vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400) comprend en outre un piston (410) couplé à un ressort (415), dans lequel le ressort (415) retient le piston (410) dans une position de repos (411), et le ressort (415) et le piston (410) sont configurés pour bloquer le passage du fluide à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) en réponse au flux d'entrée (303) exerçant une pression inférieure à un seuil de pression de dérivation ; et

    un capteur de position (440) étant couplé à la vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400) et étant configuré pour détecter une position du piston (410) dans la vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400),

    dans lequel le piston (410) est dans la position de repos (411) dans l'entrée de dérivation (348 ; 448), dans lequel l'entrée de dérivation (348 ; 448) comprend une paroi périphérique d'entrée (412) et une partie de la paroi périphérique d'entrée (412) adjacente à la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) est une zone de détente de dérivation, dans lequel le piston (410) est dans la position de repos (411) à une extrémité de la zone de détente la plus éloignée de la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452), et le piston (410) est configuré pour se déplacer le long de la zone de détente de dérivation vers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) en réponse à l'atteinte d'un seuil de pression par le flux d'entrée (303) dans l'entrée de passage (302),

    caractérisé par le système de fluide (300) comprenant en outre un système de commande (360) en communication électronique avec le capteur de position (440), dans lequel le capteur de position (440) transmet la position du piston (410) au système de commande (360),

    dans lequel le système de commande (360) comprend un processeur et est configuré pour déterminer au moins un parmi un écoulement de dérivation imminent à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) en réponse au déplacement du piston (410) vers une position déplacée le long de la zone de détente de dérivation à partir de la position de repos (411) sans permettre au fluide de passer à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452), ou à un flux de dérivation à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) en réponse au déplacement du piston (410) au-delà de la zone de détente de dérivation et permettant au fluide de passer à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452).


     
    2. Système de fluide (300) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le passage de fluide (310) est au moins un parmi un filtre à huile, un filtre à carburant ou un filtre à air.
     
    3. Système de fluide (300) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le passage de fluide (310) est un échangeur de chaleur.
     
    4. Système de fluide (300) selon la revendication 1, 2 ou 3, dans lequel la vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400) est configurée pour permettre au piston (410) de se déplacer le long de la zone de détente de dérivation en réponse à l'atteinte du seuil de pression par le flux d'entrée (303) dans l'entrée de passage (302) avant de permettre au fluide de passer à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452).
     
    5. Système de fluide (300) selon la revendication 4,dans lequel la vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400) est configurée pour faire passer le fluide à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) en réponse au déplacement du piston (410) au-delà de la zone de détente de dérivation causée par le flux d'entrée (303) atteignant le seuil de pression de dérivation, et en réponse au déplacement du piston (410) au-delà de la zone de détente de dérivation, la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) est en communication fluidique avec l'entrée de dérivation (348 ; 448) .
     
    6. Système de fluide (300) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel le capteur de position est au moins un parmi une sonde de proximité, un transformateur différentiel variable linéaire, un dispositif sonar ou un capteur magnétique.
     
    7. Système de fluide (300) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel la vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400) comprend un bouchon couplé au ressort, dans lequel le ressort (415) est disposé entre le bouchon et le piston (410), et le capteur de position (440) est couplé au bouchon.
     
    8. Aéronef, comprenant :

    un moteur à turbine à gaz (100) ; et

    un système de fluide (300) selon une quelconque revendication précédente, au moins un parmi les éléments couplés à, ou en communication fluidique avec le moteur à turbine à gaz (100).


     
    9. Procédé de surveillance d'un passage de fluide d'un moteur à turbine à gaz (100), comprenant :

    le passage d'un fluide à travers le passage de fluide (310) dans un système de fluide (300) par le fluide entrant dans une entrée de fluide en tant que flux d'entrée (303) et sortant à travers une sortie de fluide en tant que flux de sortie (308), dans lequel le système de fluide (300) comprend une vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400) ayant une entrée de dérivation couplée fluidiquement à une entrée de passage (302) et une sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) dans lequel la vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400) comprend en outre un piston (410) dans l'entrée de passage (302) couplé à un ressort (415), dans lequel le ressort (415) retient le piston (410) dans une position de repos (411), et le ressort (415) et le piston (410) sont configurés pour bloquer le passage du fluide à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) en réponse au flux d'entrée (303) exerçant une pression inférieure à un seuil de pression de dérivation ; et

    la détection, par un capteur de position (440) couplé à la vanne de dérivation (350 ; 400), d'une position du piston (410) dans l'entrée de passage (302) ;

    dans lequel l'entrée de dérivation (348 ; 448) comprend une paroi périphérique d'entrée (412) et une partie de la paroi périphérique d'entrée (412) adjacente à la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) est une zone de détente de dérivation, dans lequel le piston (410) est dans la position de repos (411) à une extrémité de la zone de détente la plus éloignée de la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) de la zone de détente de dérivation, et le piston (410) est configuré pour se déplacer le long de la zone de détente de dérivation vers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452) en réponse à l'atteinte du seuil de pression par le flux d'entrée (303) dans l'entrée de passage (302) avant de permettre au fluide de passer à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452),

    caractérisé en ce que le procédé comprend en outre le fait de déterminer, par le processeur, si le piston (410) s'est déplacé de la position de repos (411) ; et

    la détermination par le processeur, d'un flux de dérivation imminent en réponse à la détermination du fait que le piston (410) s'est déplacé de la position de repos (411) à une position déplacée le long de la zone de détente de dérivation, ou

    la détermination, par le processeur, d'un flux de dérivation en réponse à la détermination du fait que le piston est déplacé de la position de repos (411) à une position de dérivation, dans lequel la position de dérivation se trouve lorsque le piston s'est déplacé au-delà de la zone de détente de dérivation, amenant le fluide à passer à travers la sortie de dérivation (352 ; 452).


     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description