(19)
(11)EP 3 359 543 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 17817845.5

(22)Date of filing:  18.12.2017
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C07D 487/22(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/GB2017/053776
(87)International publication number:
WO 2018/115822 (28.06.2018 Gazette  2018/26)

(54)

CUCURBITURIL DERIVATIVES

CUCURBITURILDERIVATE

DÉRIVÉS DE CUCURBITURILE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 22.12.2016 GB 201621948
05.07.2017 GB 201710811

(43)Date of publication of application:
15.08.2018 Bulletin 2018/33

(60)Divisional application:
19172316.2

(73)Proprietor: Aqdot Limited
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB22 3EG (GB)

(72)Inventors:
  • COULSTON, Roger
    Cambridgeshire CB22 3EG (GB)
  • DIEC, David
    Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB22 3EG (GB)
  • NOGUEIRA, Guilherme
    Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB22 3EG (GB)
  • DE ROOIJ, Johannes Gerardus
    Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB22 3EG (GB)

(74)Representative: Stratagem IPM Limited 
Meridian Court Comberton Road
Toft, Cambridge CB23 2RY
Toft, Cambridge CB23 2RY (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-2007/014214
US-B1- 6 793 839
WO-A2-2011/077099
  
     
    Remarks:
    The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
     
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Field of the Invention



    [0001] This invention relates to cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof with low formaldehyde content, and to the use of said cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof, in particular in consumer and industrial products, and in industrial processes.

    Background of the Invention



    [0002] Cucurbiturils are known to bind a number of substances to form host-guest compounds and, for this reason, have high application potential in a number of applications.

    [0003] According to the state of the art, the production of cucurbiturils is a chemical process, involving the polycondensation of glycoluril and formaldehyde under strongly acidic aqueous conditions at high temperatures. For example 9 M sulphuric acid or 5 M to 9 M hydrochloric acid is used as the reaction medium and the reaction temperature is higher than 75°C, usually between 75 and 90 °C. The reaction time is typically in the order of 24 hours. Such a process is also described in US 6 793 839.

    [0004] A principal disadvantage of this process is the presence of unreacted formaldehyde in the product.

    [0005] The regulatory constraints on formaldehyde are continuously increasing owing to the carcinogenic potential of this substance. Decreasing the level of residual formaldehyde in consumer products is therefore a recognised necessity. For example, natural formaldehyde levels as low as those measured in plant material such as fruits and vegetables (6 to 35 ppm) are highly desirable (EFSA Journal 2014;12(2):3550).

    [0006] Therefore, a process leading to the formation of cucurbiturils and/or one or more derivatives thereof with low residual formaldehyde levels, is highly desirable.

    [0007] WO 2007/014214 (University of Maryland and Pohang University of Science and Technology) relates to inverted cucurbituril compounds having at least one pair of hydrogen atoms protruding into an internal molecular cavity thereof.

    [0008] WO 2011/077099 (Cambridge Enterprise Limited) relates to a method for purifying a cucurbituril from a mixture, the method comprising the step of forming a complex between the cucurbituril and a cucurbituril guest. The complex has altered physical and/or chemical properties to the cucurbituril which allows the complex to be separated from at least one other component of the mixture.

    Summary of the Invention



    [0009] In a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided curcubituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof comprising less than 300 ppm formaldehyde, that is to say, provided is cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof with a residual formaldehyde level of less than 300 ppm. The cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof may comprise less than 200 ppm, less than 100 ppm, less than 50 ppm formaldehyde. Preferably, the cucurbituril and /or one or more derivatives thereof comprises less than 25 ppm formaldehyde. More preferably, the cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof comprises less than 10 ppm formaldehyde. Low levels of residual formaldehyde are advantageous for applications in pharmaceutical, personal care, household, industrial and consumer products.

    [0010] In a second unclaimed aspect of the invention, there is provided a process for the preparation of cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof comprising mixing glycoluril or a derivative thereof with a methylene bridging agent, in the presence of an acid, and in the absence of any formaldehyde or formaldehyde precursor. In particular, the methylene bridging agent is a dialkoxymethane reagent.

    [0011] The glycoluril is selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted glycoluril, alkoxy methylated glycoluril, other derivatives thereof, and a mixture thereof.

    [0012] In a third unclaimed aspect of the invention, there is provided a process for the preparation of cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof comprising mixing a fully alkoxy methylated glycoluril with unsubstituted glycoluril in the presence of an acid, and in the absence of any formaldehyde or a formaldehyde precursor.

    [0013] In one embodiment, the fully alkoxy methylated glycoluril is tetramethoxymethylglycoluril.

    [0014] In one embodiment, the acid used in the unclaimed second and third aspects is a mineral acid or an organic acid. The acid may be selected from sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, phosphoric acid, toluenesulfonic acid and methanesulfonic acid.

    [0015] In one embodiment, the acid is methanesulfonic acid.

    [0016] In a fourth unclaimed aspect of the invention, there is provided cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof obtained or obtainable by the process described in the unclaimed second or third aspects of the invention.

    [0017] In a fifth aspect of the invention, there is provided a composition comprising cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof comprising less than 300 ppm formaldehyde and a suitable carrier.

    [0018] In a sixth aspect of the invention, there is provided use of cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof described in the first or unclaimed fourth aspect in consumer or industrial products.

    Detailed Description of the Invention



    [0019] The present inventors have found a process for preparing cucurbiturils and/or one or more derivatives thereof without adding any formaldehyde or formaldehyde precursor as starting reagent. The cucurbiturils and/or one or more derivatives thereofobtained by this process are particularly clean and free of residual formaldehyde. Advantageously, the formaldehyde free cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof is obtained without the need for the onerous purification steps often required with the prior art methods.

    Cucurbituril



    [0020] The present invention provides formaldehyde free cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof.

    [0021] Cucurbituril is a member of the cavitand family, and the general cucurbituril structure is based on the cyclic arrangement of glycoluril subunits linked by methylene bridges.

    [0022] For example, cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]; CAS 259886-51-6) is a barrel shaped container molecule which has eight repeat glycoluril units and an internal cavity volume of 479A3 (see structure below).



    [0023] In one embodiment, the cucurbituril is a CB[5], CB[6], CB[7], CB[8], CB[9], CB[10], CB[11], CB[12], CB[13] or CB[14] compound.

    [0024] In one embodiment, the cucurbituril is a CB[5], CB[6], CB[7], CB[8], CB[9], CB[10], CB[11] or CB[12] compound.

    [0025] In one embodiment, the cucurbituril is a CB[5], CB[6], CB[7], or CB[8] compound.

    [0026] In one embodiment, the cucurbituril is a CB[6] compound.

    [0027] In one embodiment, the cucurbituril is a CB[7] compound.

    [0028] In one embodiment, the cucurbituril is a CB[8] compound.

    [0029] The cucurbituril of the invention may include a single analogue of cucurbituril, or may alternatively include two or more different sized cucurbiturils selected from the group consisting of CB[5], CB[6], CB[7], CB[8], CB[9], CB[10], CB[11], CB[12], CB[13] and CB[14]. A mixture of two or more different cucurbiturils is defined as CB[n].

    [0030] In one embodiment, the cucurbituril is a CB[n] mixture.

    [0031] When the cucurbituril of the invention comprises at least two different cucurbiturils selected from CB[5], CB[6], CB[7] and CB[8], the total concentration of the CB[5], CB[6], CB[7] and/or CB[8] may be greater than 75% by weight, more particularly greater than about 90% by weight, more particularly greater than about 99% by weight of the total weight of cucurbituril. The remaining components of the cucurbituril may contain CB[4], CB[9] and/or higher cucurbiturils (i.e. CB[10] - CB[20]), either as a single sized cucurbituril or as a mixture of these sizes.

    [0032] The % weights of cucurbiturils described above are based on the total weight of cucurbituril (of all sizes).

    [0033] Cucurbituril derivatives are provided and find use in the compositions and applications described herein. A derivative of a cucurbituril is a structure having one, two, three, four or more substituted glycoluril units. A substituted cucurbituril compound may be represented by the structure below:

    wherein:
    n is an integer between 4 and 20;
    and for each glycoluril unit:

    each X is O, S or NR3, and

    -R1 and -R2 are each independently selected from -H and the following optionally substituted groups: -R3, -OH, -OR3, -COOH, -COOR3, -NH2, -NHR3 and -N(R3)2 where -R3 is independently selected from C1-20alkyl group, C6-20carboaryl group, and C5-20heteroaryl group, or where -R1 and/or -R2 is -N(R3)2, both -R3 together form a C5-7 heterocyclic ring; or together -R1 and -R2 are C4-6alkylene forming a C6-8carbocyclic ring together with the uracil frame.



    [0034] In one embodiment, one of the glycoluril units is a substituted glycoluril unit. Thus, -R1 and -R2 are each independently -H for n-1 of the glycoluril units.

    [0035] In one embodiment, n is 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12.

    [0036] In one embodiment, n is 5, 6, 7 or 8.

    [0037] In one embodiment, each X is O.

    [0038] In one embodiment, each X is S.

    [0039] In one embodiment, R1 and R2 are each independently H.

    [0040] In one embodiment, for each unit one of R1 and R2 is H and the other is independently selected from -H and the following optionally substituted groups: -R3, -OH, -OR3, - COOH, -COOR3, -NH2, -NHR3 and -N(R3)2. In one embodiment, for one unit one of R1 and R2 is H and the other is independently selected from -H and the following optionally substituted groups: -R3, -OH, -OR3, -COOH, -COOR3, -NH2, -NHR3 and -N(R3)2. In this embodiment, the remaining glycoluril units are such that R1 and R2 are each independently H.

    [0041] Preferably -R3 is C1-20alkyl group, most preferably C1-6alkyl group. The C1-20alkyl group may be linear and/or saturated. Each group -R3 may be independently unsubstituted or substituted. Preferred substituents are selected from: -R4, -OH, -OR4, -SH, - SR4, -COOH, -COOR4, -NH2, -NHR4 and -N(R4)2, wherein -R4 is selected from C1-20alkyl group, C6-20carboaryl group, and C5-20heteroaryl group. The substituents may be independently selected from -COOH and -COOR4.

    [0042] In some embodiments, -R4 is not the same as -R3. In some embodiments, -R4 is preferably unsubstituted.

    [0043] Where -R1 and/or -R2 is -OR3, -NHR3 or -N(R3)2, then -R3 is preferably C1-6alkyl. In some embodiments, -R3 is substituted with a substituent -OR4, -NHR4 or -N(R4)2. Each -R4 is C1-6alkyl and is itself preferably substituted.

    [0044] The cucurbiturils of the invention may be in the native form or they may be modified as described above in order to improve solubility or suspendability, and more generally their formulation and handling.

    [0045] The cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof of the present invention are characterised by low levels of residual formaldehyde.

    [0046] In one embodiment, the cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof comprises less than 300 ppm formaldehyde, that is to say, the weight ratio of formaldehyde to cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof is 300 : 1 000 000 or 3 : 10 000, more particularly, less than 200 ppm formaldehyde, even more particularly less than 100 ppm formaldehyde, for example less than 50 ppm formaldehyde, preferably less than 25 ppm formaldehyde.

    [0047] In one embodiment, the cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof is free of formaldehyde. As used herein, the term "free of formaldehyde" or "formaldehyde free" is intended to mean cucurbituril with levels of formaldehyde which are equivalent to those found in nature, i.e. with less than 25 ppm of formaldehyde, more particularly less than 10 ppm of formaldehyde.

    [0048] Suitable methods for measuring the level of formaldehyde in cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof will be known to those skilled in the art. The level of residual formaldehyde in samples can be determined using HPLC with fluorescence detection. Post column derivatisation of free formaldehyde is done using Nash reagent in a compartment of the HPLC system by automatic pump. The derivatisation is done inline, therefore all portions eluting from the column will react. Fluorescence is then used to measure the quantity of formaldehyde in the sample.

    Process



    [0049] The cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof with low formaldehyde content may be prepared by mixing unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof with a methylene bridging agent, in the presence of an acid.

    [0050] The terms "methylene bridging agent" and "reagent" are used interchangeably throughout.

    [0051] The reaction of unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof and the reagent is required to take place in the presence of an acid. The acid acts to catalyse the reaction(s) taking place. Without the acid, the unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof and the reagent will not react.

    [0052] Suitable acids for use in the processes described herein include strong acids. Examples of strong acids include mineral acids and organic acids, such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, phosphoric acid, toluenesulphonic acid, and alkanesulphonic acid. However in principle, any acid can be used.

    [0053] In particular the acid used is an alkanesulphonic acid. Examples of alkanesulphonic acids include methanesulphonic acid, ethanesulphonic acid, n-propanesulphonic acid, isopropanesulphonic acid, n-butanesulphonic acid, isobutanesulphonic acid, sec-butanesulphonic acid, tert-butanesulphonic acid, and mixtures thereof.

    [0054] In one embodiment, the acid is methanesulphonic acid.

    [0055] In one embodiment, the unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof and the acid are mixed together simultaneously. The acid may be present in excess which allows the unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof to dissolve in the acid. The reagent is then added portion-wise or drop-wise to the unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof and acid mixture.

    [0056] Alternative methods include simultaneous addition of the unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof, the acid and reagent. Another method involves the sequential addition of the unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof, the acid and the reagent. For example, the reagent may be added to the acid followed by the unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof.

    [0057] The acid may be a heterogeneous acid where the phase of the acid is different to that of the reagents. Alternatively, the acid may be a homogeneous acid where the acid and the reagents are in the same phase.

    [0058] Once all the components are added, the reaction mixture is then heated to a temperature of between 40°C and 200°C. Alternatively, the unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof and the acid may be mixed in a heated reaction vessel before addition of the reagent. The heated reaction vessel may also be at a temperature of 40°C to 200°C.

    [0059] In one embodiment, the process is carried out at a temperature of at least 40°C, more particularly at least 80°C, still more particularly at least 90°C. For example, the process may be carried out at a temperature from about 40°C to about 200°C, in particular, from about 70°C to about 110°C, more particularly, from about 75°C to 100°C. For example, the process may be carried out at a temperature of about 75°C, about 85°C or about 100°C.

    [0060] The process may be reacted for up to 24 hours. More particularly, the process is reacted for up to 20 hours, for example up to 18 hours. However, shorter reaction times are possible and in certain instances, the process is reacted for up to 1 hour, for example up to 45 minutes or up to 30 minutes.

    [0061] After prolonged heating of the reaction mixture, the mixture may be cooled, for example, to room temperature.

    [0062] Finally, the processes described herein may further comprise a purification step. In one embodiment the purification step is a washing step. Alternative purification steps include recrystallization. Washing of the reaction mixture can be done with any suitable solvent. Such solvents will be well known to the skilled person and examples include acetone and methanol. Washing of the reaction mixture is often required in order to remove any remaining reagent and acid. However, as a result of the cleaner reaction, the washing and drying steps in the processes of the present invention are far less onerous compared to the prior art processes.

    [0063] Formaldehyde scavengers, such as 3-dicarbonyl compounds, amides, imines, acetal formers, sulfur containing compounds, activated carbon, ammonium, organic amines, an oxidizing agent or mixtures thereof, are often used as a purification step in prior art methods. Such methods are disclosed in US 2007/0138671. However, again as the result of the cleaner reaction, the processes described herein minimise, if not eliminate, the need for scavengers in the end product.

    [0064] Depending on the glycoluril derivative used, there are instances where the reaction of unsubstituted glycoluril and/or a derivative thereof in the presence of an acid can be performed in the absence of a methylene bridging reagent. For example, when the starting glycolurils are a mixture of fully alkoxy methylated glycoluril and unsubstituted glycoluril, no external methylene bridging agent (e.g. dialkoxy methane reagent) is needed.

    [0065] Therefore, in a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a process for the preparation of cucurbituril comprising reacting a fully alkoxy methylated glycoluril with unsubstituted glycoluril in the presence of an acid, as described above, but in the absence of a methylene bridging agent.

    [0066] In one embodiment, the fully alkoxy methylated glycoluril is 1,3,4,6-tetrakis(methoxymethyl)glycoluril (CAS No. 17464-88-9), which may also be referred to throughout as tetramethoxymethylglycoluril (TMMG).

    [0067] Importantly, the processes described herein are carried out in the absence of any formaldehyde, or any formaldehyde producing precursor. The term "formaldehyde" refers to a compound with formula CH2O and includes formalin which is an aqueous solution of formaldehyde. The terms "formaldehyde producing precursor" or "formaldehyde precursor" are used interchangeably throughout and refer to polymers and oligomers of formaldehyde which exist in equilibrium with formaldehyde in water. Examples of formaldehyde precursors include paraformaldehyde (a linear polymer of formaldehyde) and trioxane (a cyclic trimer of formaldehyde), both of which have similar chemical properties to formaldehyde and are often used interchangeably. Other formaldehyde precursors will be known to the skilled person.

    [0068] Advantageously, the methylene bridging agents of the present invention, for example compounds of formula (IV), do not exist in equilibrium with formaldehyde in water.

    Glycoluril



    [0069] Glycolurils are the monomer units that make up cucurbituril. The glycolurils are selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted glycoluril, alkoxy-methylated glycoluril, other derivatives thereof, and a mixture thereof.

    [0070] In one embodiment, the glycoluril is represented by formula (I):

    wherein R1, R2, R3 and R4 each independently represent hydrogen or -CH2-O-C1-C4 alkyl.

    [0071] When at least one of R1, R2, R3 and R4 is -CH2-O-C1-C4 alkyl group, the glycoluril may be referred to as an alkoxy-methylated glycoluril. When R1, R2, R3 and R4 are each hydrogen, the glycoluril may be referred to as unsubstituted glycoluril.

    [0072] The -CH2-O-C1-C4 alkyl group is preferably unsubstituted.

    [0073] For a mono-alkoxy methylated glycoluril, one of the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups represents - CH2-O-C1-C4 alkyl group whilst the remaining groups represent hydrogen. For a di-alkoxy methylated glycoluril, two of the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups each independently represent-CH2-O-C1-C4 alkyl group whilst the remaining groups represent hydrogen. For a tri-alkoxy methylated glycoluril, three of the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups each independently represent-CH2-O-C1-C4 alkyl group whilst the remaining group represents hydrogen. Finally for a tetra-alkoxy methylated glycoluril, four of the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups each independently represent -CH2-O-C1-C4 alkyl group.

    [0074] In one embodiment, the alkoxy methylated glycoluril is selected from mono-alkoxy methylated, di-alkoxy methylated, tri-alkoxy methylated and tetra-alkoxy methylated glycoluril or a mixture thereof.

    [0075] In one embodiment, the glycoluril is monomethoxymethylglycoluril, dimethoxymethylglycoluril, trimethoxymethylglycoluril, tetramethoxymethylglycoluril, or a mixture thereof.

    [0076] In another embodiment, R1, R2, R3 and R4 each represent hydrogen and the glycoluril is therefore unsubstituted glycoluril and is represented by formula (II):



    [0077] The unsubstituted or monomethoxy methylated, dimethoxymethylated or trimethoxymethylated glycoluril is reacted with a methylene bridging reagent under the conditions described hereinabove.

    [0078] In one embodiment, the glycoluril is tetramethoxymethylglycoluril (TMMG), which has the structure of formula (III):



    [0079] When the glycoluril is TMMG, the reaction of TMMG with unsubstituted glycoluril in the presence of acid can be performed in the absence of a methylene bridging reagent, as described above.

    Reagent



    [0080] Certain processes described herein involve the reaction of a reagent with glycolurils. The reagent must be a compound capable of forming methylene bridges between the glycoluril units. The reagent cannot be formaldehyde, or a formaldehyde precursor, for example, paraformaldehyde or trioxane.

    [0081] One class of suitable reagents are compounds with the formula (IV):

    wherein each X is independently selected from an electronegative atom;

    R1 and R2 are each independently selected from hydrogen, an unsubstituted or substituted straight chain, branched or cyclic, saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical; and

    R represents hydrogen.



    [0082] In one embodiment, each X is selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus.

    [0083] In one embodiment, the straight chain, branched or cyclic saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical is substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, cyano, oxo, nitro or C1-C3 alkoxy.

    [0084] Examples of compounds of formula (IV) include dimethoxymethane, diethoxymethane, dipropoxymethane, dibutoxymethane, 1,3-dioxacyclopentane, methylidinoglycerol, 2,4-dithiapentane, bis(phenylthio)methane, bis(dimethylphosphino)methane, methylene diacetate and methanediol.

    [0085] In one embodiment, the reagent is selected from dialkoxymethane, diethoxymethane and dipropoxymethane.

    [0086] The dialkoxymethane may be selected from dimethoxymethane, diethoxymethane, dipropoxymethane (1-(propoxymethoxy)propane), diisopropoxymethane (2-(isopropoxymethoxy)propane), dibutoxymethane (1-(butoxymethoxy)butane), di(tert-butoxy)methane (2-methyl-2-{[(2-methyl-2-propanyl)oxy]methoxy}propane), and mixtures thereof.

    [0087] In one embodiment, the reagent is dimethoxymethane.

    [0088] Other suitable reagents include 1,3-cycloketals.

    [0089] 1,3-cycloketals include 1,3-dioxolane, 1,3-dioxane, glycerol formal, 1,3-dioxepane, 1,3-dioxopane, Poly(vinyl formal).

    [0090] Other suitable reagents include alkoxymethyl alkane sulphonate, for example methoxymethane methane sulphonate, methoxymethyl benzenesulphonate, methoxymethyl p-toluene sulphonate, benzyloxymethyl methanesulphonate.

    Compositions



    [0091] In one aspect of the invention there is provided a composition comprising cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof with low levels of residual formaldehyde.

    [0092] In another aspect, a composition is provided, the composition comprising cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof, the composition further comprising no more than 300, preferably no more than 150, more preferably no more than 50, most preferably no more than 10 ppm formaldehyde originating from the cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof, that is to say formaldehyde originating from the process of preparing the cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof. By way of a benchmark, apple comprises about 35 ppm formaldehyde.

    [0093] A composition may be a liquid or a solid, such as powder, composition.

    [0094] The composition may further comprise excipients such as preservatives, dyes, pigments, sequestrants, surfactants and antioxidants.

    [0095] One advantage of a composition with low levels of residual formaldehyde originating from the process of preparation of cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof is that it provides more formulation space to include other excipients which also have residual formaldehyde without the overall level of formaldehyde in any finished composition being such as to be a drawback. Such a composition can be a consumer product.

    [0096] The present case also provides a method of preparing a composition, the method comprising the step of mixing cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof with low levels of residual formaldehyde, as described herein, with one or more excipients, such as those used in consumer and industrial products, and such as those excipients discussed above.

    [0097] In a further aspect of the invention there is provided a consumer or industrial product comprising the cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof of the present invention. The consumer product of the invention may be a detergent, a cleansing composition, a shampoo, a softener, a softener sheet, a conditioner, a refresher, an air freshener, a deodorizing composition, a personal deodorant, a carrier for a catalyst, a drug delivery device, a medical device, an antiperspirant, a cosmetic product, a fine fragrance, a body mist, a candle, a hard surface cleaner, a cleansing wipe or mop, a soap, a styling gel, a humidity absorber, an air filtration device, a finishing product, a diaper or sanitary product.

    Other Preferences



    [0098] Each and every compatible combination of the embodiments described above is explicitly disclosed herein, as if each and every combination was individually and explicitly recited.

    [0099] Various further aspects and embodiments of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art in view of the present disclosure.

    [0100] "and/or" where used herein is to be taken as specific disclosure of each of the two specified features or components with or without the other. For example "A and/or B" is to be taken as specific disclosure of each of (i) A, (ii) B and (iii) A and B, just as if each is set out individually herein.

    [0101] Unless context dictates otherwise, the descriptions and definitions of the features set out above are not limited to any particular aspect or embodiment of the invention and apply equally to all aspects and embodiments which are described.

    [0102] Certain aspects and embodiments of the invention will now be illustrated by way of examples 5 to 8. Examples 1 to 4 are prior art methods.

    Experimental and Results



    [0103] The level of residual formaldehyde in the cucurbituril samples was determined by Intertek using HPLC with fluorescence detection and post column derivatization. The testing method followed EU Directive 82/434/EEC amendment 90/207/EEC.

    Example 1 Synthesis of cucurbit[n]urils in hydrochloric acid using paraformaldehyde



    [0104] Unsubstituted glycoluril (20 g) and hydrochloric acid (37 % w/v, 30 mL) were placed in a reaction flask and heated to 90°C. Paraformaldehyde (8.87 g) was added in portion-wise and the reaction mixture was then heated to 100 °C (internal) for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and added to methanol (150 mL) to produce a beige powder which was analysed by 1H NMR.

    [0105] Approximate Yields by 1H NMR (% of recovered product) cucurbit[5]uril 8%, cucurbit[6]uril 44%, cucurbit[7]uril 28%, cucurbit[8]uril 18%, cucurbit[9]uril 0%, cucurbit[10]uril 0% cucurbit[11]uril 0%.

    [0106] Residual formaldehyde by HPLC method was 682 ppm.

    Example 2 Synthesis of cucurbit[n]urils in hydrochloric acid using formalin



    [0107] Unsubstituted glycoluril (20 g) and hydrochloric acid (37 % w/v, 30 mL) were placed in a reaction flask and heated to 90 °C. Formalin (40% v/v, 21 mL) was added dropwise and the reaction mixture heated to 100 °C (internal) for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and added to methanol (150 mL) to produce a yellow powder which was analysed by 1H NMR.

    [0108] Approximate Yields by 1H NMR (% of recovered product) cucurbit[5]uril 8%, cucurbit[6]uril 38%, cucurbit[7]uril 38%, cucurbit[8]uril 11%, cucurbit[9]uril 0%, cucurbit[10]uril 0% cucurbit[11]uril 0%.

    [0109] Residual formaldehyde by HPLC method was 567 ppm.

    Example 3 Synthesis of cucurbit[n]urils in methanesulphonic acid (MSA) using paraformaldehyde



    [0110] Unsubstituted glycoluril (20 g) and methanesulphonic acid (neat, 82 mL) were placed in a reaction flask and heated to 90 °C. Paraformaldehyde (8.45 g) was added in portion-wise and the reaction mixture was then heated to 100 °C (internal) for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and added to methanol (410 ml) to produce a brown powder which was analysed by 1H NMR.

    [0111] Approximate Yields by 1H NMR (% of recovered product) cucurbit[5]uril 0%, cucurbit[6]uril 63%, cucurbit[7]uril 35%, cucurbit[8]uril 0%, cucurbit[9]uril 0%, cucurbit[10]uril 0% cucurbit[11]uril 0%.

    [0112] Residual formaldehyde by HPLC method was 1621 ppm.

    Example 4 Synthesis of cucurbit[n]urils in methanesulphonic acid using formalin



    [0113] Unsubstituted glycoluril (20 g) and methanesulphonic acid (neat, 82 mL) were placed in a reaction flask and heated to 90 °C. Formalin (40 %, 21 mL) was added in drop-wise and the reaction mixture was then heated to 100 °C (internal) for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and added to methanol (410 ml) to produce a dark beige powder which was analysed by 1H NMR.

    [0114] Approximate Yields by 1H NMR (% of recovered product) cucurbit[5]uril 6%, cucurbit[6]uril 48%, cucurbit[7]uril 36%, cucurbit[8]uril 8%, cucurbit[9]uril 0%, cucurbit[10]uril 0%, cucurbit[11]uril 0%.

    [0115] Residual formaldehyde by HPLC method was 820 ppm.

    Example 5 Synthesis of cucurbit[n]urils in methanesulphonic acid using Dimethoxymethane (methylal)



    [0116] Methanesulphonic acid (neat, 82 ml) was added to the reaction vessel. To this methylal (24.83 ml) was added to the reaction. Unsubstituted glycoluril (19.94 g) was added immediately afterwards in one portion and the reaction mixture was heated to 85 °C (internal) for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was added to methanol (250 ml) to produce a dark brown gummy paste which was analysed by 1H NMR.

    [0117] Approximate Yields by 1H NMR (% of recovered product) cuc urbit[5]uril 0%, cucurbit[6]uril 65%, cucurbit[7]uril 35%, cucurbit[8]uril 0%, cucurbit[9]uril 0%, cucurbit[10]uril 0%, cucurbit[11]uril 0%.

    [0118] Residual formaldehyde by HPLC method was 24 ppm.

    Example 6 Synthesis of cucurbit[n]urils in methanesulphonic acid using Diethoxymethane (Ethylal)



    [0119] Unsubstituted glycoluril (19.94 g) and methane sulphonic acid (neat, 82 mL) were placed in a reaction flask and heated to 80 °C. Ethylal (35.21 mL) was added in drop-wise and the reaction mixture was then heated to 100 °C (internal temp) for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and added to acetone (410 ml) to produce a brown powder which was analysed by 1H NMR.

    [0120] Approximate Yields by 1H NMR (% of recovered product) cucurbit[5]uril 8%, cucurbit[6]uril 42%, cucurbit[7]uril 43%, cucurbit[8]uril 7%, cucurbit[9]uril 0%, cucurbit[10]uril 0%, cucurbit[11]uril 0%.

    [0121] Residual formaldehyde by HPLC method was 34 ppm.

    Example 7 Synthesis of cucurbit[n]urils in methanesulphonic acid using Dipropoxymethane (Propylal)



    [0122] Unsubstituted glycoluril (19.94 g) and methane sulphonic acid (neat, 82 mL) were placed in a reaction flask and heated to 80 °C. Propylal (45 mL) was added in drop-wise and the reaction mixture was then heated to 100 °C (internal temp) for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and added to acetone (410 ml) to produce a beige powder which was analysed by 1H NMR.

    [0123] Approximate Yields by 1H NMR (% of recovered product) cucurbit[5]uril 0%, cucurbit[6]uril 58%, cucurbit[7]uril 42%, cucurbit[8]uril 0%, cucurbit[9]uril 0%, cucurbit[10]uril 0%, cucurbit[11]uril 0%.

    [0124] Residual formaldehyde by HPLC method was 5 ppm.

    Example 8 Synthesis of cucurbit[n]urils in methanesulphonic acid using Tetramethoxymethylglycoluril (TMMG)



    [0125] Unsubstituted glycoluril (19.94 g) and methane sulphonic acid (neat, 82 mL) were placed in a reaction flask and heated to 80 °C. TMMG (44.66 g) was added in drop-wise and the reaction mixture was then heated to 100 °C (internal temp) for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and added to methanol (410 ml) to produce a beige powder which was analysed by 1H NMR.

    [0126] Approximate Yields by 1H NMR (% of recovered product) cucurbit[5]uril 5%, cucurbit[6]uril 58%, cucurbit[7]uril 28%, cucurbit[8]uril 9%, cucurbit[9]uril 0%, cucurbit[10]uril 0%, cucurbit[11]uril 0%.

    [0127] Residual formaldehyde by HPLC method was 293 ppm.
    Table 1: Summary of Results
    ExampleResidual Formaldehyde content (ppm)
    1 682
    2 567
    3 1621
    4 820
    5 24
    6 34
    7 5
    8 293



    Claims

    1. Cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof comprising less than 300 ppm formaldehyde, preferably less than 200 ppm formaldehyde, less than 100 ppm formaldehyde, less than 50 ppm formaldehyde, less than 25 ppm formaldehyde, less than 10 ppm formaldehyde, or which is formaldehyde free, wherein the derivative thereof is

    wherein:
    n is an integer between 4 and 20;
    and for each glycoluril unit:

    each X is O, S or NR3, and

    -R1 and -R2 are each independently selected from -H and the following optionally substituted groups: -R3, -OH, -OR3, -COOH, -COOR3, -NH2, -NHR3 and -N(R3)2 where -R3 is independently selected from C1-20alkyl group, C6-20carboaryl group, and C5-20heteroaryl group, or where -R1 and/or -R2 is -N(R3)2, both -R3 together form a C5-7 heterocyclic ring; or together -R1 and -R2 are C4-6alkylene forming a C6-8carbocyclic ring together with the uracil frame.


     
    2. A composition comprising the cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof according to claim 1 and a suitable carrier, preferably wherein the cucurbituril is selected from the group consisting of CB[5], CB[6], CB[7], CB[8], derivatives thereof, and mixtures thereof.
     
    3. A composition comprising cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof, the composition further comprising no more than 300, preferably no more than 150, more preferably no more than 50, most preferably no more than 10 ppm formaldehyde originating from the cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof, wherein the derivative thereof is

    wherein:
    n is an integer between 4 and 20;
    and for each glycoluril unit:

    each X is O, S or NR3, and

    -R1 and -R2 are each independently selected from -H and the following optionally substituted groups: -R3, -OH, -OR3, -COOH, -COOR3, -NH2, -NHR3 and -N(R3)2 where -R3 is independently selected from C1-20alkyl group, C6-20carboaryl group, and C5-20heteroaryl group, or where -R1 and/or -R2 is -N(R3)2, both -R3 together form a C5-7 heterocyclic ring; or together -R1 and -R2 are C4-6alkylene forming a C6-8carbocyclic ring together with the uracil frame.


     
    4. Use of cucurbituril and/or one or more derivatives thereof as defined in claim 1 in a consumer or industrial product.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Cucurbituril und/oder eines oder mehrere Derivate davon, das weniger als 300 ppm Formaldehyd umfasst, vorzugsweise weniger als 200 ppm Formaldehyd, weniger als 100 ppm Formaldehyd" weniger als 50 ppm Formaldehyd" weniger als 25 ppm Formaldehyd, weniger als 10 ppm Formaldehyd, oder das formaldehydfrei ist, wobei das Derivat folgendes ist:

    wobei:
    n eine ganze Zahl von 4 bis 20 ist;
    und wobei für jede Glycoluril-Einheit:

    jedes X O, S oder NR3 ist, und

    -R1 und -R2 jeweils unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus -H und den folgenden optional substituierten Gruppen: -R3, -OH, -OR3, -COOH, -COOR3, -NH2, -NHR3 und -N(R3)2, wobei -R3 unabhängig ausgewählt ist aus einer C1-20-Alkylgruppe, einer C6-20-Carboarylgruppe und einer C5-20-Heteroarylgruppe, oder wobei -R1 und/oder -R2 -N(R3)2 ist, wobei beide -R3 gemeinsam einen C5-7 heterocyclischen Ring bilden; oder wobei -R1 und -R2 gemeinsam C4-6-Alkylen sind, das gemeinsam mit dem Uracil-Rahmen einen C6-8 carbocyclischen Ring bildet.


     
    2. Zusammensetzung, die Cucurbituril und/oder eines oder mehrere Derivate davon nach Anspruch 1 und einen geeigneten Träger umfasst, wobei das Cucurbituril vorzugsweise ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus CB[5], CB[6], CB[7], CB[8], Derivaten davon und Gemischen davon.
     
    3. Zusammensetzung, die Cucurbituril und/oder eines oder mehrere Derivate davon umfasst, wobei die Zusammensetzung ferner nicht mehr als 300 ppm, vorzugsweise nicht mehr als 150 ppm, darüber hinaus bevorzugt nicht mehr als 50 ppm und am meisten bevorzugt nicht mehr als 10 ppm Formaldehyd umfasst, das von Cucurbituril und/oder einem oder mehreren Derivaten davon stammt, wobei das Derivat folgendes ist:

    wobei
    n eine ganze Zahl von 4 bis 20 ist;
    und wobei für jede Glycoluril-Einheit:

    jedes X O, S oder NR3 ist, und

    -R1 und -R2 jeweils unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus -H und den folgenden optional substituierten Gruppen: -R3, -OH, -OR3, -COOH, -COOR3, -NH2, -NHR3 und -N(R3)2, wobei -R3 unabhängig ausgewählt ist aus einer C1-20-Alkylgruppe, einer C6-20-Carboarylgruppe und einer C5-20-Heteroarylgruppe, oder wobei -R1 und/oder -R2 -N(R3)2 ist, wobei beide -R3 gemeinsam einen C5-7 heterocyclischen Ring bilden; oder wobei -R1 und -R2 gemeinsam C4-6-Alkylen sind, das gemeinsam mit dem Uracil-Rahmen einen C6-8 carbocyclischen Ring bildet.


     
    4. Verwendung von Cucurbituril und/oder einem oder mehreren Derivaten davon nach Anspruch 1 in einem Konsumartikel oder einem Industrieprodukt.
     


    Revendications

    1. Cucurbituril et/ou un ou plusieurs de ses dérivés comprenant moins de 300 ppm de formaldéhyde, de préférence moins de 200 ppm de formaldéhyde, moins de 100 ppm de formaldéhyde, moins de 50 ppm de formaldéhyde, moins de 25 ppm de formaldéhyde, moins de 10 ppm de formaldéhyde, ou qui est exempt de formaldéhyde, le dérivé étant

    où n est un entier compris entre 4 et 20 ;
    et pour chaque unité de glycoluril :

    chaque X représente O, S ou NR3 ; et

    -R1 et -R2 sont choisis chacun indépendamment parmi -H et les groupes éventuellement substitués suivants : -R3, -OH, -OR3, -COOH, -COOR3, -NH2, -NHR3 et-N(R3)2, où -R3 est indépendamment choisi parmi un groupe alkyle en C1-20, un groupe carboaryle en C6-20, et un groupe hétéroaryle en C5-20, ou -R1 et/ou -R2 sont -N(R3)2, les deux -R3 ensemble forment un cycle hétérocyclique en C5-7 ; ou ensemble -R1 et -R2 sont un groupe alkylène en C4-6 formant un cycle hétérocyclique en C6-8 avec le cadre uracil.


     
    2. Composition comprenant du cucurbituril et/ou un ou plusieurs de ses dérivés selon la revendication 1 et un support approprié, de préférence le cucurbituril étant choisi dans le groupe constitué par CB[5], CB[6], CB[7], CB[8], leurs dérivés et leurs mélanges.
     
    3. Composition comprenant du cucurbituril et/ou un ou plusieurs de ses dérivés, la composition ne comprenant en outre pas plus de 300, de préférence pas plus de 150, de préférence encore pas plus de 50, idéalement pas plus de 10 ppm de formaldéhyde provenant du cucurbituril et/ou d'au moins un de ses dérivés, le dérivé étant

    où n est un entier compris entre 4 et 20 ;
    et pour chaque unité de glycoluril :

    chaque X représente O, S ou NR3 ; et

    -R1 et -R2 sont choisis chacun indépendamment parmi -H et les groupes éventuellement substitués suivants : -R3, -OH, -OR3, -COOH, -COOR3, -NH2, -NHR3 et-N(R3)2, où -R3 est indépendamment choisi parmi un groupe alkyle en C1-20, un groupe carboaryle en C6-20, et un groupe hétéroaryle en C5-20, ou -R1 et/ou -R2 sont -N(R3)2, les deux -R3 ensemble forment un cycle hétérocyclique en C5-7 ; ou ensemble -R1 et -R2 sont un groupe alkylène en C4-6 formant un cycle hétérocyclique en C6-8 avec le cadre uracil.


     
    4. Utilisation de cucurbituril et/ou d'au moins un de ses dérivés selon la revendication 1 dans un produit de consommation ou industriel.
     






    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description