(19)
(11)EP 3 361 257 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
06.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/19

(21)Application number: 17193573.7

(22)Date of filing:  27.09.2017
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01N 33/68  (2006.01)
C07K 14/705  (2006.01)
C07K 14/47  (2006.01)

(54)

METHOD AND KIT FOR DIAGNOSING ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE USING G72 PROTEIN AND SLC7A11 MRNA AS BIOMARKERS

VERFAHREN UND KIT ZUR DIAGNOSE VON MORBUS ALZHEIMER UNTER VERWENDUNG VON G72-PROTEIN UND SLC7A11-MRNA ALS BIOMARKER

PROCÉDÉ ET KIT DE DIAGNOSTIC DE LA MALADIE D'ALZHEIMER À L'AIDE DE LA PROTÉINE G72 ET DE L'ARNM SLC7A11 EN TANT QUE BIOMARQUEURS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 09.02.2017 US 201715428893

(43)Date of publication of application:
15.08.2018 Bulletin 2018/33

(73)Proprietors:
  • Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
    Kaohsiung City 83301 (TW)
  • China Medical University
    Taichung City (TW)

(72)Inventors:
  • LIN, Chieh-Hsin
    Pingtung City 90048 (TW)
  • LANE, Hsien-Yuan
    Taichung City 40447 (TW)

(74)Representative: Mewburn Ellis LLP 
Aurora Building Counterslip
Bristol BS1 6BX
Bristol BS1 6BX (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2014 171 413
US-A1- 2016 154 010
  
  • SELTZER B ET AL: "P4-219 Blood histamine and C-reactive protein levels are elevated in Alzheimer's disease: relation to markers of oxidative stress and free radical formation", NEUROBIOLOGY OF A, TARRYTOWN, NY, US, vol. 25, 1 July 2004 (2004-07-01), page S537, XP004626391, ISSN: 0197-4580, DOI: 10.1016/S0197-4580(04)81777-9
  • BENZEL ISABEL ET AL: "Investigation of G72 (DAOA) expression in the human brain", BMC PSYCHIATRY, BIOMED CENTRAL, LONDON, GB, vol. 8, no. 1, 11 December 2008 (2008-12-11), page 94, XP021049151, ISSN: 1471-244X, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-94
  • JORGE I. VÉLEZ ET AL: "A Mutation in DAOA Modifies the Age of Onset in PSEN1 E280A Alzheimer's Disease", NEURAL PLASTICITY, vol. 2016, 1 January 2016 (2016-01-01), pages 1-7, XP055433449, ISSN: 2090-5904, DOI: 10.1155/2016/9760314
  • LIN CHIEH-HSIN ET AL: "Benzoate, a D-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitor, for the Treatment of Early-Phase Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial", BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY, vol. 75, no. 9, 2014, pages 678-685, XP028867799, ISSN: 0006-3223, DOI: 10.1016/J.BIOPSYCH.2013.08.010
  • DIANA P. PRATA ET AL: "Effect of D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA; G72) on brain function during verbal fluency", HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, vol. 33, no. 1, 9 March 2011 (2011-03-09), pages 143-153, XP055433462, ISSN: 1065-9471, DOI: 10.1002/hbm.21198
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] This disclosure relates to a method and kit for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. Particularly, this disclosure relates to a method and kit for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease using two biomarkers, G72 protein and SLC7A11 mRNA.

[0002] The prevalence of dementia among the elderly population is increasing, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is the most common cause of dementia. Early detection of AD is critical for the effectiveness of a subsequent treatment of the same disease. Alzheimer's disease is usually diagnosed based on the person' s medical history, family medical history, and behavioral observations. The presence of characteristic neurological and neuropsychological features and the absence of alternative conditions are supportive in diagnosis. Advanced medical imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to help exclude other cerebral pathology or subtypes of dementia.

[0003] Medical organizations have created diagnostic criteria to ease and standardize the diagnostic process for practicing physicians. For example, the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (ADRDA, now known as the Alzheimer's Association) established the most commonly used NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for diagnosis of AD (McKhann G. et al. (1984), Neurology, 34:939-944).

[0004] However, the aforesaid diagnosis methods are time-consuming and rely on the physicians' experience. Therefore, it is necessary to search for biomarkers that can give rise to a quick, reliable and accurate diagnosis of AD.

[0005] Currently, most studies of AD biomarkers have mainly focused on known pathological substrates for the disease, such as amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which are respectively composed of the abnormally aggregated amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (pTau). Several studies have shown that the major species of amyloid-β peptide, i.e. a 42-amino acid peptide (Aβ1-42), is significantly decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AD, and that pTau is elevated in the CSF of patients with AD. Although the studies exploring use of these two biomarkers in the diagnosis of disease have been carried out, the results have not led to a useful, definitive method.

[0006] The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells. The NMDAR is activated when glutamate and glycine (or D-serine) are bound thereto. The activated NMDAR allows positively charged ions to flow through the cell membrane thereof. The NMDAR is critical for synaptic plasticity, memory and cognitive function. Attenuation of NMDAR-mediated neurotransmission results in loss of neuronal plasticity and cognitive deficits in the aging brain, which might account for clinical deterioration and brain atrophy.

[0007] There are several avenues to enhance NMDAR activation, and one of them is through inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), which is a flavoenzyme of peroxisomal enzyme responsible for degrading D-serine and D-alanine. The inhibition of DAAO thereby raises the level of D-amino acids which are neurotransmitters for the coagonist site of the NMDAR. The gene encoding D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA, also known as G72) is primate specific and is located on chromosome 13q32-q34. G72 protein may play an important role in the modulation of NMDA signaling. In a previous study, C.H. Lin et al. found that the peripheral G72 protein expression is distinctively higher in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy individuals, indicating that the peripheral expression of G72 protein may have the potential to be a diagnostic biomarker for schizophrenia (C.H. Lin et al. (2014), Molecular Psychiatry, 19:1-2).

[0008] The cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc- is a sodium-independent acidic amino acid transporter which mediates the uptake of cystine into cells in exchange for glutamate in a 1:1 ratio. System xc- is composed of a heavy chain subunit (4F2hc, SLC3A2) and a light chain subunit (xCT, SLC7A11). Cystine is reduced to cysteine intracellularly after being taken up by system xc-. Cysteine is the rate-limiting substrate for the synthesis of antioxidant glutathione (GSH) which is one of the most important antioxidants in the brain. System xc- also plays a critical role in the release of glutamate which is the most abundant amino acid neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain.

[0009] As far as the applicants are aware, the correlation of either G72 protein or System xc- with AD has yet to be understood. In order to explore a new biomarker for diagonosing AD, the applicants have conducted experiments and statistical analyses to determine the diagnostic accuracy of G72 protein and/or SLC7A11 mRNA in detection of AD. The applicants surprisingly found from experiments that even though G72 protein or SLC7A11 mRNA alone may be useful as a potential biomarker for the detection of AD, the combination of G72 protein and SLC7A11 mRNA can lead to an even more reliable diagnosis of AD.

[0010] US 2014/171413 A1 relates to "a method for diagnosis of schizophrenia, which comprises: detecting G72 gene product in a body fluid simple from a subject".

[0011] Benzel et al., BMC Psychiatry, 8 (1), 94 (2008) relates to an "Investigation of G72 (DAOA) expression in the human brain".

[0012] Velez et al., Neural Plasticity, Vol. 2016 Article ID 9760314 relates to the finding that "A mutation in DAOA modifies the age of onset in PSEN1 E280A Alzheimer' s Disease".

[0013] Lin et al., Biological Psychiatry, 75 (9), 678 - 685 (2014) relates to "Benzoate, a D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, for the treatment of early-phase Alzheimer Disease".

[0014] Prata et al., Human Brain Mapping, 33 (1), 143 - 153 (2011) relates to the "Effect of D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA; G72) on brain function during verbal fluency".

[0015] The present invention is as defined in the claims. This invention and other aspects of the present disclosure may be more fully understood by reference to the following description and the appended figures.

[0016] According to one aspect of the present disclosure, a method for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes the steps of: determining a biomarker level in a blood sample from a human subject suspected of having AD, the biomarker level being selected from the group consisting of a G72 protein level, an SLC7A11 mRNA expression level, and a combination thereof; comparing the biomarker level with a predetermined standard therefor; wherein an increase in the biomarker level relative to the predetermined standard therefor is indicative of AD in the human subject.

[0017] According to another aspect of the present disclosure, a kit for diagnosing AD is provided, and includes materials for determining a biomarker level in a blood sample from a human subject suspected of having AD, the biomarker level being selected from the group consisting of a G72 protein level, an SLC7A11 mRNA expression level, and a combination thereof; and instructions for using the kit.

[0018] For the purpose of this specification, it will be clearly understood that the word "comprising" means "including but not limited to", and that the word "comprises" has a corresponding meaning.

[0019] Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the meaning commonly understood by a person skilled in the art to which this disclosure belongs. One skilled in the art will recognize many methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein, which could be used in the practice of this disclosure. Indeed, this disclosure is in no way limited to the methods and materials described.

[0020] As used herein, the term "Alzheimer's disease" (AD) refers to a progressive mental deterioration manifested by memory loss, confusion and disorientation beginning in late midlife and typically resulting in death in five to ten years. Pathologically, AD can be characterized by thickening, conglutination, and distortion of the intracellular neurofibrils, neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques composed of granular or filamentous argentophilic masses with an amyloid core.

[0021] As used herein, the terms "diagnose", "diagnosis" or "diagnosing" refer to distinguishing or identifying a disease, syndrome or condition or distinguishing or identifying a person having a particular disease, syndrome or condition. In illustrative instances of the present disclosure, assays and algorithms are used to diagnose AD in a subject based on an analysis of a sample.

[0022] In an attempt to identify new biomarkers for AD, the applicants compared the G72 protein level and/or SLC7A11 mRNA expression level of the blood sample between the healthy subjects and the subjects identified as patients having AD. The applicants' study revealed that both the G72 protein level and SLC7A11 mRNA expression level were differentially expressed between the subjects in the AD and control groups, suggesting that the G72 protein or SLC7A11 mRNA can serve as a biomarker for the detection of AD. In addition, to the applicants' surprise, as compared with the sole biomarker expression level, the combination of the G72 protein level and the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level provide a better diagnostic ability to differentiate between the subjects in the AD and control groups, and thus can lead to an even more reliable diagnosis of AD.

[0023] Accordingly, the present disclosure provides a method for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD), which includes the steps of:

determining a biomarker level in a blood sample from a human subject suspected of having AD, the biomarker level being selected from the group consisting of a G72 protein level, an SLC7A11 mRNA expression level, and a combination thereof;

comparing the biomarker level with a predetermined standard therefor;

wherein an increase in the biomarker level relative to the predetermined standard therefor is indicative of AD in the human subject.



[0024] According to the present disclosure, the blood sample can be obtained anytime from the human subject, and may be a fasting or non-fasting blood sample. In one instance of the present disclosure, the blood sample is obtained in the morning. In another instance of the present disclosure, the blood sample is a fasting blood sample obtained between the hours of 7 AM and 9 AM.

[0025] The aforementioned method may further include a blood separation step. The blood separation step may be conducted to separate plasma or serum from the blood sample so as to determine the G72 protein level. Furthermore, the blood separation step may be conducted to separate white blood cells from the blood sample so as to determine the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level.

[0026] According to the present disclosure, the G72 protein level and the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level can be determined by any means that is known to those skilled in the art.

[0027] In certain instances, the G72 protein level can be determined by immunoassays. Exemplary immunoassays may include Western blot immunoassay, multiplex immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), fluorescent immunoassay (FIA), chemiluminescent immunoassay and immunonephelometry.

[0028] The G72 protein level may be determined using an antibody-based binding moiety which specifically binds to G72 protein. In an instance of this disclosure, the antibody-based binding moiety is an antibody.

[0029] "Antibody-based binding moiety" or "antibody" includes immunoglobulin molecules and immunologically active determinants of immunoglobulin molecules, e.g., molecules that contain an antigen-binding site that specifically binds to G72 protein. The term "antibody-based binding moiety" is intended to include whole antibodies of any isotype (e.g., IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, etc.), and fragments thereof that are also specifically reactive with G72 protein.

[0030] In this disclosure, the antibody-based binding moiety may include polyclonal, monoclonal or other purified preparations of antibodies and recombinant antibodies, and is further intended to include humanized antibodies, bi-specific antibodies, and chimeric molecules having at least one antigen-binding determinant derived from an antibody molecule.

[0031] In this disclosure, "antibody-based binding moiety" or "antibody" may include a capture antibody and a detecting antibody.

[0032] The term "capture antibody" as used herein is defined as an antibody, whether monoclonal, polyclonal or of an immunoreactive fragment, which is capable of binding to an antigen of interest, and thereby allows the recognition of the antigen by a subsequently applied antibody. The capture antibody can be used in either a heterogeneous (solid phase) or homogeneous (solution phase) assay. The capture antibody may be immobilized onto a solid phase.

[0033] The term "detecting antibody" as used herein is defined as an antibody having a detectable label that is specific for (i.e., binds, is bound by, or forms a complex with) one or more analytes of interest in a sample. The term also encompasses an antibody that is specific for one or more analytes of interest, wherein the antibody can be bound by another species that includes a detectable label. Examples of detectable labels include, but are not limited to, a radioactive label, a hapten label, a fluorescent label, a chemiluminescent label, an enzymatic label, a nucleotide (e.g., oligonucleotide) label, an epitope tag, and combinations thereof.

[0034] Examples of hapten labels may include biotin/streptavidin and digoxigenin (DIG).

[0035] Examples of epitope tags may include T7, c-Myc, HA, VSV-G, HSV, FLAG, V5 and HIS.

[0036] Antibodies can be fragmented using conventional techniques. The term "fragment(s) thereof" refers to segments of proteolytically-cleaved or recombinantly-prepared portions of an antibody molecule that are capable of selectively reacting with a certain protein.

[0037] Non-limiting examples of proteolytically-cleaved fragments and/or recombinantly-prepared portions include Fab, F(ab')2, Fab' , Fv, dabs and a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) containing a VL and VH domain joined by a peptide linker. The scFv's may be covalently or non-covalently linked to form antibodies having two or more binding sites.

[0038] According to the present disclosure, the G72 protein level is positively correlated to the intensity of the signal emitted from the detectably labeled antibody.

[0039] In one exemplary instance of the present disclsoure, the antibody-based binding moiety is detectably labeled by linking the antibody to an enzyme. The enzyme, in turn, when exposed to its substrate, will react with the substrate in such a manner as to produce a chemical moiety which can be detected, for example, by spectrophotometric, fluorometric or visual means. The enzymes which can be used to react with the detectable label of the antibodies of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, malate dehydrogenase, staphylococcal nuclease, delta-V-steroid isomerase, yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), alkaline phosphatase, asparaginase, glucose oxidase, β-galactosidase, ribonuclease, urease, catalase, glucose-VI-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucoamylase and acetylcholinesterase.

[0040] In certain instances, the antibody may also be labeled with a fluorescent compound. When the fluorescently labeled antibody is exposed to light of the proper wavelength, its presence can be detected due to fluorescence. Fluorescent compounds suitable for the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, CYE dyes, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), rhodamine, phycoerythrin, coriphosphine-O (CPO), phycocyanin (PE), allophycocyanin (APC), o-phthaldehyde, fluorescamine and tandem dyes.

[0041] Examples of tandem dyes include PE-Cy5 (PC5), PE-Cy7 (PC7) and PE-Texas Red.

[0042] In certain instances, the antibody may be detected by fluorescence emitting metals, such as 152Eu or other lanthanide series metals. These metals can be attached to the antibody by means of a metal-chelating group such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).

[0043] In certain instances, the antibody may be detected by coupling to a chemiluminescent. The presence of the chemiluminescent-antibody is then determined by detecting the presence of luminescence that arises during the course of a chemical reaction. Examples of chemiluminescent compounds include, but are not limited to, luminol, luciferin, isoluminol, theromatic acridinium ester, imidazole, acridinium salt and oxalate ester.

[0044] Detection may also be accomplished using any of a variety of other immunoassays. For example, by radioactively labeling an antibody, it is possible to detect the antibody through the use of radioimmunoassays. Means of detecting radioactive isotopes include, but are not limited to, gamma counter, scintillation counter and autoradiography. The antibody can be detected by radioactive isotopes. Examples of radioactive isotopes include, but are not limited to, 3H, 31p, 35S, 14C, and 125I.

[0045] According to the present disclosure, the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level may be determined using at least one of the following methodologies: polymerase chain reaction, real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), hybridization, probe hybridization and gene expression array. In one instance of the present disclosure, the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level is determined using quantitative RT-PCR.

[0046] According to the present disclosure, the term "predetermined standard" may refer to a G72 protein level, an SLC7A11 mRNA expression level, or a combination of the G72 protein level and the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level in a blood sample of a healthy individual known not to suffer from AD. The predetermined standard may be expressed as a range, a value or a cutoff value, and can be determined using a variety of methods known to those skilled in the art. It should be noted that the predetermined standard for the combination of the G72 protein level and the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level may be a combined range, a combined value, or a combined cut-off value of the predetermined standards of the G72 protein level and the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level.

[0047] The term "healthy individual" refers to an individual not having any symptoms associated with AD or not at risk of developing AD, i.e. an individual considered healthy after evaluation by a professional medical practitioner.

[0048] In order to assess the progression of AD or the effectiveness of a treatment for AD, a G72 protein level and an SLC7A11 mRNA expression level as detected in a previous examination may also be used as a reference for the human subject.

[0049] In one instance of the present disclosure, the predetermined standards for the G72 protein level and the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level are respectively determined by Western blot immunoassay and RT-qPCR, giving a standard value of 2.3285 ng/mL and a standard delta CT value of 12.185 (calculated by subtracting the average CT value of the selected housekeeping genes from the CT value of SLC7A11) as the cutoff values for a G72 protein level and an SLC7A11 mRNA expression level.

[0050] According to the present disclosure, the presence of AD may also be determined based on a combined cut-off value of the determined G72 protein level and the determined SLC7A11 mRNA expression level. In certain instances, the combined cut-off value may be calculated by an equation formulated using statistical analysis (such as discriminant function analysis, logistic regression analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and ridge regression analysis).

[0051] According to another aspect of the present disclosure, a kit for diagnosing AD is provided, and includes a material for determining a biomarker level in a blood sample from a human subject suspected of having AD, and instructions for using the kit in the aforesaid diagnostic method. The biomarker level is selected from the group consisting of a G72 protein level, an SLC7A11 mRNA expression level, and a combination thereof.

[0052] In certain instances, the material for determining the G72 protein level includes an antibody-based binding moiety which specifically binds to G72 protein. The antibody-based binding moiety suitable for the present disclosure is described above.

[0053] In certain instances, the material for determining the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level includes a primer or probe specific to a nucleic acid of SLC7A11 mRNA, for example, a full-length or fragment of SLC7A11 mRNA, or a cDNA derived SLC7A11 mRNA.

[0054] Detection of a specific nucleic acid using the primer described above may be performed by amplifying a sequence of a target gene using an amplification method such as PCR and identifying such amplification of the gene according to a conventional method known in the art. Also, detection of a specific nucleic acid using the probe described above may be performed by contacting the probe with a sample nucleic acid under desired conditions and identifying the existence of hybridized nucleic acid.

[0055] As used herein, the term "primer" refers to a nucleic acid sequence having a short free hydroxyl group and substantially means a short nucleic acid sequence capable of forming a base pair with a complementary template and functioning as a starting point for copying a template strand.

[0056] As used herein, the term "probe" refers to a nucleic acid fragment such as RNA or DNA, consisting of several to several hundred bases that can be specifically bound to mRNA or cDNA, and may be labeled to identify the existence of a specific mRNA or cDNA. The probe may be prepared in the form of an oligonucleotide probe, a single chain DNA probe, a double chain DNA probe, a RNA probe, etc., and be labeled by biotin, FITC, rhodamine, DIG, etc.

[0057] In addition, the probe may be labeled by a detectable material, for example, a radioactive label (for example, radioactive isotopes) providing a desired signal and having a sufficient half-life. The labeled probe may be hybridized to a nucleic acid on a solid support, as is known in the art.

Examples



[0058] The present disclosure will be described in more detail with reference to the following examples, which are given for the purpose of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure.

[0059] The experiments below were conducted using a protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in accordance with the current revision of the Declaration of Helsinki. After complete description of the experiments to the participants, written informed consent was obtained in line with IRB guidelines.

[0060] 239 human subjects participated. It should be noted that each of the participants had no history of significant cerebrovascular disease, a Hachinski Ischemic Score not greater than 4, and no major neurological, psychiatric or medical conditions other than AD. Moreover, each of the participants had no substance (including alcohol) abuse or dependence, no symptoms of delusion, hallucination or delirium, no severe visual or hearing loss, and was able to follow the protocol. In addition, to exclude potential confounding effects, it was ascertained that each of the participants was a non-smoker and had no DSM-IV diagnosis of substance (including alcohol) abuse.

[0061] Among all the 239 participants, 130 human subjects were identified as healthy volunteers, and are hereinafter referred to as the "control group". These subjects were aged ≥ 18 years, were free of any Axis I or II psychiatric disorders, were physically and neurologically healthy, and had laboratory assessments (including urine/blood routine, biochemical tests, and electrocardiography) within normal limits. The remaining 109 human subjects were identified as patients having AD, and are hereinafter referred to as the "AD group". These patients with AD (1) satisfied the criteria for probable AD as proposed by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) and had a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 1 or greater, and (2) were physically healthy and had laboratory assessments (including urine/blood routine, biochemical tests, and electrocardiography) within normal limits.

[0062] Out of the 130 control group subjects and 109 AD group subjects, 40 individuals from the control group and 70 patients from the AD group were selected and matched by age for further analysis. Table 1 shows the clinical characteristics (i.e. sex, age, and CDR score) of all the subjects ("age-unmatched"), as well as the subset of the subjects matched by age ("age-matched"). Since results were found to be similar irrespective of whether matching or not matching was applied, only the subset of subjects matched by age will be discussed in this example.
Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of Subjects
 Age-unmatchedAge-matched
Control GroupAD GroupControl GroupAD Group
# Subjects 130 109 40 70
Age a 43.1± 18.2 74.6± 7.9 65.9+ 13.0 70.1± 6.1
(Range) (19 - 88) (50 - 89) (45 - 88) (50 - 78)
Sex (F/M) 63 / 67 71 / 38 17 / 23 47 / 23
CDR score a 0 1.3± 0.6 0 1.2± 0.5
a shown as mean ± standard deviation

Example 1. Analysis of G72 Protein Level and SLC7A11 mRNA Expression Level for Diagnosis of AD


<Determination of G72 Protein Level in Plasma>



[0063] Blood sampling was performed between the hours of 7am and 9am after all the subjects had fasted for more than 8 hours.

[0064] 10 ml of peripheral venous blood was collected from each of the subjects in the control and AD groups into an EDTA-containing blood collection tube by personnel trained in phlebotomy using sterile technique. The tube was centrifuged at 1500 × g for 10 minutes at 4°C. The plasma thus obtained was quickly transferred into a different tube and immediately stored at -80°C until further analysis.

[0065] The G72 protein level in the plasma was determined with Western blot analysis. 100 µl of the plasma sample was processed by using ProteoPrep® Blue Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit (Sigma) to deplete the high abundant proteins in the plasma. The low-abundance protein fractions were collected and were each concentrated to 100 µl. Then, 10 µl of the respective concentrated fraction was mixed with a 4-fold amount of a sample buffer (containing 500 mM Tris-HCl (pH 6.8), 16% SDS, 80% glycerol, 400 mM DTT, and 0.08% bromophenol blue) . Protein separation was conducted on 12% SDS-PAGE. The separated proteins in the gel were transferred to a 0.45 µm polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane (Millipore) . The blotted PVDF membrane thus obtained was subjected to a blocking treatment by virtue of 5% nonfat dry milk in TBST (containing 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.6), 500 mM sodium chloride, and 0.1% Tween 20) for 1 hour at room temperature, and was then incubated with a goat anti-G72 antibody (G72(N15):sc-46118, Santa Cruz Biotechnology) diluted 1:1000 in TBST overnight at 4 °C . The membrane was washed 3 times (15 minutes each time) in TBST and was incubated for 2 hours with an HRP-linked anti-goat IgG secondary antibody (sc-2030, Santa Cruz Biotechnology) diluted 1:5000 in TBST. After another 3 washes in TBST, the blot was visualized with an ECL Advance Western Blotting Detection Kit (RPN2135, GE Healthcare) . The stained membrane was then photographed on ImageQuant LAS 4000 mini (GE Healthcare), and was quantified using ImageQuant™ TL 7.0 software (GE Healthcare) by measuring the relative intensity from each band and conducting normalization to the G72 recombinant protein (20 or 50 ng, kindly donated by Dr. Hao-Teng Chang from China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan) signals. The Western blot analysis was repeated twice.

<Determination of SLC7A11 mRNA Expression Level in White Blood Cells (WBC)>



[0066] 10 ml of peripheral venous blood was collected from each of the subjects in the control and AD groups into an EDTA-containing blood collection tube by personnel trained in phlebotomy using sterile technique. The tube was centrifuged at 1500 x g for 10 minutes at 4°C. Red blood cells (RBC) were lysed by adding 1 x RBC lysis buffer (Genepure Technology Co.) to the tube, and then WBC were obtained after centrifugation at 1500 x g for 10 minutes.

[0067] To investigate the gene expression of a light chain subunit of system xc- in WBC, the mRNA expression level of SLC7A11 in WBC was examined with quantitative real-time PCR.

[0068] RNA was isolated from the WBC obtained above using TRI Reagent (Molecular Research Center, Inc.) according to the protocol provided by the manufacturer. The RNA sample thus prepared was treated with DNase I to avoid DNA contamination. RNA concentration was determined by absorbance at 260 nm using an ND-1000 UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.), followed by storage at -80°C.

[0069] First-strand cDNA was then synthesized by the following steps. A 2.5 µg aliquot of the isolated RNA was incubated with 0.5 µg of a random hexamer and oligo-dT primers at 70°C for 5 minutes to briefly denature the RNA secondary structure, followed by rapid cooling on ice to facilitate the annealing process between the primer and the RNA. 1500 uM dNTP, 20U RNase inhibitor, 200U MMLV reverse transcriptase (Promega), and a reverse transcription buffer were added to the PCR tube containing the RNA and primers, for a final volume of 20 µl. The PCR tube was then incubated at 37°C for 90 minutes for extension, followed by heating at 70°C for 10 minutes so as to inactivate the reverse transcriptase. Synthesized first-strand cDNA was thus obtained.

[0070] After cDNA synthesis, SYBR Green Master Mix on Real-Time PCR Detection System was employed to measure the mRNA expression of SLC7A11.

[0071] Specifically, 2 µl of the synthesized cDNA sample (250 ng), 10 µl of Master mix (Roche), and each primer at a concentration of 600 nM (the primer pair for amplifying SLC7A11 is listed in Table 2) were added in a PCR tube, for a total of 20 µl reaction volume. The sample in the PCR tube was pre-incubated at 95°C for 10 minutes to activate the Hot-Start DNA polymerase, followed by 45 cycles of the following reactions: denaturation at 95°C for 15 seconds and primer annealing and DNA elongation at 58°C for 45 seconds. A melting curve program was run to verify the PCR product specificity. The RT-qPCR reaction was carried out twice. Negative controls were included to confirm that the sample was not cross-contaminated.

[0072] Three housekeeping genes were used as endogenous controls, including the genes of glyceradehyde-3-photosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (for which two primer pairs were used), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). The primer pairs of these housekeeping genes used in RT-qPCR are shown in Table 2. The average of the CT values of these housekeeping genes was used in the calculation of the relative mRNA expression level of SLC7A11 in the sample (ΔCT = CT, target - CT, housekeeping).
Table 2. Primer Pairs Used in RT-qPCR
Target Gene NamePrimerThe corresponding nucleotide residues in the target Gene / Sequence (5'→3')PCR Product Size (bp)
SLC7A11 (corresponding to NCBI accession no. NM_014331.3) F1 1269-1287 ccatgaacggtggtgtgtt (SEQ ID NO:1) 60
R1 1328-1310 gaccctctcgagacgcaac (SEQ ID NO:2)
GAPDH (corresponding to NCBI accession no. NM_002046.5) F2 1058-1076 ccactcctccacctttgac (SEQ ID NO:3) 102
R2 1159-1142 accctgttgctgtagcca (SEQ ID NO:4)
GAPDH (corresponding to NCBI accession no. NM_002046.5) F3 169-187 agccacatcgctcagacac (SEQ ID NO:5) 66
R3 234-216 gcccaatacgaccaaatcc (SEQ ID NO:6)
B2M (corresponding to NCBI accession no. NM_004048.2) F4 105-123 ttctggcctggaggctatc (SEQ ID NO:7) 86
R4 190-168 tcaggaaatttgactttccattc (SEQ ID NO:8)
HPRT (corresponding to NCBI accession no. NM_000194.2 F5 308-327 acgtcttgctcgagatgtga (SEQ ID NO:9) 102
R5 409-390 taatccagcaggtcagcaaa (SEQ ID NO:10)

<Statistical Analysis of G72 Protein Level and SLC7A11 mRNA Expression Level>



[0073] Baseline characteristics were calculated for the AD and control groups. Numeric data are presented as means ± standard deviation (SD). P-value between the AD and control groups was calculated based on t-test, and a probability value less than 0.05 (p<0.05) was considered to indicate statistical significance.

[0074] A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for G72 Protein, SLC7A11 mRNA and the combination thereof was applied by plotting the proportion of true-positive results (sensitivity) vs. the proportion of false-positive results (1 - specificity).

[0075] An equation (I) for the weighted value of G72 protein level and SLC7A11 mRNA expression level in combination as shown below was formulated using the logistic regression model, with G72 protein level and SLC7A11 mRNA expression level as the covariates:

  1. A=Weighted value
  2. B=G72 protein level (ng/µL)
  3. C = ΔCT value


[0076] An area under the ROC curve (AUC) for each biomarker was also calculated and used as an index to determine which biomarker had a good diagnostic ability to distinguish patients from healthy subjects (see Zweig M.H. (1993), Clin. Chem., 39:561-577). Interpretations of AUC value include: outstanding (AUC > 0.9), excellent (AUC = 0.8 ∼ 0.9), acceptable (AUC = 0.7 ∼ 0.8), poor (AUC = 0.6 ∼ 0.7), and no discrimination (AUC = 0.5).

Results:


G72 Protein as a Biomarker for Diagnosing AD



[0077] As shown in Table 3, regarding the matched cohort, the expression level of G72 protein in the plasma of the AD group was markedly higher than that of the control group. Specifically, the expression levels of G72 protein in the matched AD group and control group were 2.63 ± 1.20 ng/µL and 1.72 ± 0.71 ng/µL, respectively. These results indicate that the G72 protein in a plasma sample can serve as a biomarker for the detection of AD.

[0078] As shown in Table 4, the ROC analysis of the G72 expression level for the AD group vs. control group indicated an optimal cutoff value of 2.3285 ng/µL, suggesting that a G72 protein level in plasma which is equal to or greater than 2.3285 ng/µL may be indicative of AD. Findings also showed that the ROC curve analysis of G72 expression levels for the AD group vs. control group had good specificity (0.900).

[0079] In addition, the AUC for G72 protein levels in plasma is 0.726, suggesting an acceptable diagnostic ability to distinguish the subjects in the control group from those in the AD group.

[0080] Overall, these results indicate that using the G72 protein in plasma as the sole biomarker for AD is considered to provide an acceptable diagnostic ability to distinguish subjects in the control group from those in the AD group.

SLC7A11 mRNA as a Biomarker for Diagnosing AD



[0081] The ΔCT value indicative of the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level in WBC of the AD group was markedly higher than that of the control group (see Table 3). Specifically, the ΔCT values indicative of the expression levels of SLC7A11 mRNA in the matched AD group and control group were 13.82± 1.29 and 12.44± 1.37, respectively. These results indicate that the SLC7A11 mRNA in WBC samples can serve as a biomarker for the detection of AD.

[0082] Referring to Table 4, the ROC analysis of the ΔCT values of SLC7A11 mRNA expression levels for the AD group vs. control group indicated an optimal cutoff value of 12.185, suggesting that a ΔCT value of SLC7A11 mRNA expression level in WBC which is equal to or greater than 12.185 may be indicative of AD. Findings also showed that the ROC curve analysis of ΔCT values indicative of SLC7A11 mRNA expression levels for the AD group vs. control group had good sensitivity (0.929).

[0083] As shown in Table 4, the AUC for SLC7A11 mRNA expression levels in WBC is 0.764, suggesting an acceptable diagnostic ability to distinguish the subjects in the control group from those in the AD group.

[0084] Overall, similar to using only the G72 protein in plasma as the sole biomarker for AD, using the SLC7A11 mRNA in WBC as the sole biomarker for AD is also considered to provide an acceptable diagnostic ability to distinguish the subjects in the control group from those in the AD group.

Combination of G72 Protein Level in Plasma and SLC7A11 mRNA Expression Level in WBC for Diagnosing AD



[0085] Overall, the G72 protein level and the ΔCT value indicative of SLC7A11 mRNA expression level of the AD group were markedly higher than those of the control group (see Table 3). These results indicate that the plasma G72 protein level and WBC SLC7A11 mRNA expression level can be used in combination to detect AD.

[0086] As shown in Table 4, the ROC analysis of the G72 protein levels and the ΔCT values indicative of SLC7A11 mRNA expression levels in combination for the AD group vs. control group indicated an optimal cutoff value of 21.723, with good sensitivity (0.857) and modest specificity (0.675). These results suggest that the combination of the G72 protein level and the ΔCT value indicative of the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level, which has a cut-off value equal to or greater than 21.723, may be indicative of AD.

[0087] In addition, it can be seen that the sensitivity of the combination of the G72 protein level and the ΔCT value indicative of the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level (0.857) is greater than that of the G72 level (0.543) alone. Furthermore, the specificity of the combination of the G72 protein level and the ΔCT value indicative of the SLC7A11 mRNA expresson level (0.675) is greater than that of the ΔCT value indicative of the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level (0.45) alone.

[0088] In particular, the combination of the G72 protein level and the ΔCT value indicative of the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level (AUC=0.833) was higher in AUC than either the G72 protein level (AUC=0.726) or the ΔCT value indicative of the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level (AUC=0.764) alone. Such AUC findings reveal that the combination of the G72 protein level and the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level provide for a better diagnostic ability to differentiate between the subjects in the AD and control groups than either the G72 protein level or the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level alone. Thus, there is a synergic effect when using the two biomarkers in combination when distinguishing individuals with AD from those without AD.
Table 3. Expression levels of Plasma G72 protein and WBC SLC7A11 mRNA in the control group and AD group
ParameterControl GroupAD GroupP-value
G72 level (ng/µL) 1.72± 0.71 2.63± 1.20 <0.001
mRNA of SLC7A11 12.44± 1.37 13.82+ 1.29 <0.001
G72 + mRNA of SLC7A11§ 20.54± 4.03 26.59± 4.83 <0.001
shown as delta CT values of mRNA expressions of SLC7A11
§ shown as a weighted value calculated by the equation (I)
Table 4. ROC Curve Analysis and Multivariate Logistic Regression of Plasma G72 Protein and/or WBC mRNA of SLC7A11 Levels of Control vs. AD groups
 ROC curve analysis
Cut-offSensitivitySpecificityAUC
G72 >2.3285 54.3 90.0 0.726
mRNA of >12.185 92.9 45.0 0.764
SLC7A11 G72 + mRNA of SLC7A11†§ >21.723 85.7 67.5 0.833
shown as delta CT values of mRNA expressions of SLC7A11
§ shown as a weighted value calculated by the equation (I)

SEQUENCE LISTING



[0089] 

<110> Lin, Chieh-Hsin
Lane, Hsien-Yuan

<120> METHOD AND KIT FOR DIAGNOSING ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
USING G72 PROTEIN AND SLC7A11 mRNA AS BIOMARKERS

<130> PE-54434-AM

<160> 10

<170> PatentIn version 3.5

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agccacatcg ctcagacac   19

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gcccaatacg accaaatcc   19

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ttctggcctg gaggctatc   19

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<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> R4 primer for RT-qPCR of B2M

<400> 8
tcaggaaatt tgactttcca ttc   23

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<212> DNA
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
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acgtcttgct cgagatgtga   20

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<220>
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<400> 10
taatccagca ggtcagcaaa   20


SEQUENCE LISTING



[0090] 

<110> Lin, Chieh-Hsin
Lane, Hsien-Yuan

<120> METHOD AND KIT FOR DIAGNOSING ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE USING G72
PROTEIN AND SLC7A11 mRNA AS BIOMARKERS

<130> PE-55596-EU

<160> 10

<170> PatentIn version 3.5

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<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
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<220>
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<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> F5 primer for RT-qPCR of HPRT

<400> 9
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Claims

1. A method for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by:

determining a biomarker level in a blood sample from a human subject suspected of having AD, the biomarker level being selected from the group consisting of a G72 protein level, and a combination of the G72 protein level and a SLC7A11 mRNA expression level; and

comparing the biomarker level with a predetermined standard therefor;

wherein an increase in the biomarker level relative to the predetermined standard therefor is indicative of AD in the human subject.


 
2. The method according to Claim 1, further characterized by separating plasma from the blood sample, wherein the plasma is subjected to the determination of the G72 protein level.
 
3. The method according to Claim 1, further characterized by separating serum from the blood sample, wherein the serum is subjected to the determination of the G72 protein level.
 
4. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the G72 protein level is determined using an antibody-based binding moiety which specifically binds to G72 protein.
 
5. The method according to Claim 4, characterized in that the G72 protein level is determined using at least one of the following methodologies: Western blot immunoassay, multiplex immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay, immunoradiometric assay, fluorescent immunoassay, chemiluminescent immunoassay and immunonephelometry.
 
6. The method according to Claim 4, characterized in that the antibody-based binding moiety is labeled with a detectable label selected from the group consisting of a radioactive label, a hapten label, a fluorescent label, a chemiluminescent label, an enzymatic label and an epitope tag.
 
7. The method according to Claim 1, further characterized by separating white blood cells from the blood sample, wherein the white blood cells are subjected to the determination of the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level.
 
8. The method according to Claim 2, further characterized by separating white blood cells from the blood sample, wherein the white blood cells are subjected to the determination of the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level.
 
9. The method according to any one of Claims 1, 7, and 8, characterized in that the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level is determined using at least one of the following methodologies: polymerase chain reaction, real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), hybridization, probe hybridization and gene expression array.
 
10. The method according to Claim 1, characterized in that the predetermined standard for the G72 protein level is the G72 protein level in a blood sample from a healthy human subject known not to suffer from AD, and the predetermined standard for the combination of the G72 protein level and SLC7A11 mRNA expression level is based on the G72 protein level and the SLC7A11 mRNA expression level in a blood sample from a healthy human subject known not to suffer from AD.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zur Diagnose von Morbus Alzheimer (AD), das durch Folgendes gekennzeichnet ist:

das Bestimmen eines Biomarker-Spiegels in einer Blutprobe von einem menschlichen Individuum, bei dem AD vermutet wird, wobei der Biomarker-Spiegel aus der aus einem G72-Proteinspiegel und einer Kombination aus dem G72-Proteinspiegel und einem SLC7A11-mRNA-Expressionsspiegel bestehenden Gruppe ausgewählt ist; und

das Vergleichen des Biomarker-Spiegels mit einem vorbestimmten Standard dafür;

wobei eine Erhöhung des Biomarker-Spiegels in Bezug auf den vorbestimmten Standard dafür AD bei einem menschlichen Individuum anzeigt.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, das weiters durch das Abtrennen von Plasma aus der Blutprobe gekennzeichnet ist, wobei das Plasma der Bestimmung des G72-Proteinspiegels unterzogen wird.
 
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, das weiters durch das Abtrennen von Serum aus der Blutprobe gekennzeichnet ist, wobei das Serum der Bestimmung des G72-Proteinspiegels unterzogen wird.
 
4. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der G72-Proteinspiegel unter Verwendung einer Bindegruppierung auf Antikörperbasis, die spezifisch an das G72-Protein bindet, bestimmt wird.
 
5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der G72-Proteinspiegel unter Verwendung von zumindest einer der folgenden Methodiken bestimmt wird: Western-Blot-Immuntest, Multiplex-Immuntest, Enzym-gebundener Immunsorptionstest, Radioimmuntest, Immunradiometrietest, Fluoreszenz-Immuntest, Chemilumineszenz-Immuntest und Immunnephelometrie.
 
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Bindungsgruppierung auf Antikörperbasis mit einer detektierbaren Markierung markiert ist, die aus der aus einer radioaktiven Markierung, einer Hapten-Markierung, einer fluoreszierenden Markierung, einer chemilumineszierenden Markierung, einer Enzymmarkierung und einer Epitopmarkierung bestehenden Gruppe ausgewählt ist.
 
7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, das weiters durch das Abtrennen von weißen Blutzellen aus der Blutprobe gekennzeichnet ist, wobei die weißen Blutzellen der Bestimmung des SLC7A11-mRNA-Expressionsspiegels unterzogen werden.
 
8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, das weiters durch das Abtrennen von weißen Blutzellen aus der Blutprobe gekennzeichnet ist, wobei die weißen Blutzellen der Bestimmung des SLC7A11-mRNA-Expressionsspiegels unterzogen werden.
 
9. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1, 7 und 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der SLC7A11-mRNA-Expressionsspiegel unter Verwendung von zumindest einer der folgenden Methodiken bestimmt wird: Polymerasekettenreaktion, Echtzeit-Polymerasekettenreaktion (q-PCR), Reverse-Transkription-Polymerasekettenreaktion (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), Hybridisierung, Sondenhybridisierung und Genexpressionsarray.
 
10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der vorbestimmte Standard für den G72-Proteinspiegel der G72-Proteinspiegel in einer Blutprobe von einem gesunden menschlichen Individuum, von dem bekannt ist, dass es nicht an AD leidet, ist und der vorbestimmte Standard für die Kombination aus G72-Proteinspiegel und SLC7A11-mRNA-Expressionsspiegel auf dem G72-Proteinspiegel und SLC7A11-mRNA-Expressionsspiegel in einer Blutprobe von einem gesunden menschlichen Individuum, von dem bekannt ist, dass es nicht an AD leidet, basiert.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé de diagnostic de la maladie d'Alzheimer (AD), caractérisé par les étapes consistant à :

déterminer un niveau de biomarqueur dans un échantillon de sang d'un sujet humain soupçonné d'avoir l'AD, le niveau de biomarqueur étant sélectionné dans le groupe constitué d'un niveau de protéine G72 et d'une combinaison du niveau de protéine G72 et d'un niveau d'expression d'ARNm SLC7A11 ; et

comparer le niveau de biomarqueur avec une norme prédéterminé à cet effet ;

dans lequel une augmentation du niveau de biomarqueur par rapport à la norme prédéterminée à cet effet est révélatrice de l'AD chez le sujet humain.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en outre par la séparation du plasma à partir de l'échantillon de sang, dans lequel le plasma est soumis à la détermination du niveau de protéine G72.
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en outre par la séparation du sérum à partir de l'échantillon de sang, dans lequel le sérum est soumis à la détermination du niveau de protéine G72.
 
4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, caractérisé en ce que le niveau de protéine G72 est déterminé en utilisant un fragment de liaison à base d'anticorps qui se lie spécifiquement à la protéine G72.
 
5. Procédé selon la revendication 4, caractérisé en ce que le niveau de protéine G72 est déterminé en utilisant au moins l'une des méthodologies suivantes : immunodosage Western blot, immunodosage multiplex, dosage immunosorbant lié à une enzyme, radioimmunodosage, dosage immunoradiométrique, immunodosage fluorescent, immunodosage chimioluminescent et immunonéphélométrie.
 
6. Procédé selon la revendication 4, caractérisé en ce que le fragment de liaison à base d'anticorps est marqué avec un marqueur détectable choisi dans le groupe consistant en un marqueur radioactif, un marqueur haptène, un marqueur fluorescent, un marqueur chimioluminescent, un marqueur enzymatique et une étiquette épitope.
 
7. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en outre par la séparation de globules blancs à partir de l'échantillon de sang, dans lequel les globules blancs sont soumis à la détermination du niveau d'expression d'ARNm SLC7A11.
 
8. Procédé selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en outre par la séparation de globules blancs à partir de l'échantillon de sang, dans lequel les globules blancs sont soumis à la détermination du niveau d'expression d'ARNm SLC7A11.
 
9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1, 7 et 8, caractérisé en ce que le niveau d'expression d'ARNm SLC7A11 est déterminé en utilisant au moins l'une des méthodologies suivantes : réaction en chaîne par polymérase, réaction en chaîne par polymérase en temps réel (q-PCR), réaction en chaîne par polymérase à transcription inverse (RT-PCR), RT-PCR quantitative (RT-qPCR), hybridation, hybridation de sonde et réseau d'expression génique.
 
10. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la norme prédéterminée pour le niveau de protéine G72 est le niveau de protéine G72 dans un échantillon de sang provenant d'un sujet humain sain connu pour ne pas souffrir de l'AD, et la norme prédéterminée pour la combinaison de la protéine G72 et du niveau d'expression d'ARNm SLC7A11 est basée sur le niveau de protéine G72 et le niveau d'expression d'ARNm SLC7A11 dans un échantillon de sang provenant d'un sujet humain sain connu pour ne pas souffrir de l'AD.
 




REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description