(19)
(11)EP 3 368 666 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/37

(21)Application number: 16788127.5

(22)Date of filing:  28.10.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C12N 15/10(2006.01)
C12Q 1/68(2018.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2016/076148
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/072330 (04.05.2017 Gazette  2017/18)

(54)

METHODS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF OLIGONUCLEOTIDES

VERFAHREN ZUR IDENTIFIZIERUNG VON OLIGONUKLEOTIDEN

PROCÉDÉS POUR L'IDENTIFICATION D'OLIGONUCLÉOTIDES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 30.10.2015 DK 201500672

(43)Date of publication of application:
05.09.2018 Bulletin 2018/36

(73)Proprietor: Querdenker APS
5792 Aarslev (DK)

(72)Inventor:
  • MOELLER, Thorleif
    5792 Aarslev (DK)

(74)Representative: Budde Schou A/S 
Dronningens Tvaergade 30
1302 Copenhagen K
1302 Copenhagen K (DK)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2012/067901
WO-A2-2005/078122
WO-A2-2005/040396
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to manipulation of the information content of a plurality of oligonucleotides and to identification of new molecular activity. The disclosed methods are related to in vitro evolution methods such as SELEX, phage display, m RNA display, DNA-directed synthesis and to combinatorically prepared libraries of encoded compounds that cannot be evolved in the traditional sense.

    BACKGROUND



    [0002] There is a widespread interest in efficient screening of large numbers of compounds to identify candidate compounds with a given desired activity. In particular, the pharmaceutical industry invests massive efforts into the screening of large libraries of potential drug compounds to find compounds that affect the activity of pharmaceutically relevant targets. Screened compounds include both natural and synthetic compounds. Natural compounds originate from plants, microorganisms or other sources. Synthetic compounds are the result of tedious, organic chemical synthesis. Either way, it is not trivial to build and screen large collections of compounds.

    [0003] Traditionally, libraries are screened in physically separate assays, which mean that there are limitations as to the number of compounds that can be tested within reasonable time and cost limits, even using automated high throughput screens. It is evident that performing e.g. 1 million assays is a cumbersome task that requires numerous manipulations. To rationalise the screening process, assay volumes are reduced to a minimum with the risk of jeopardising the robustness of the process.

    [0004] Aiming to reduce the number of manipulations in the generation and screening of libraries, there has been great interest in the synthesis and screening of mixtures of compounds and within the last decade, a relatively simple way of generating very large libraries has been developed. Thus, using combinatorial chemistry, i.e. by synthesising all possible combinations of a set of smaller chemical structures, one-pot libraries of vast size can be generated. However, the screening of these large combinatorial libraries poses significant challenges, as the selection of the specific binders of a library against a particular target is usually accompanied by selection of non-specific binders, i.e. molecules that stick non-specifically the target, stick to the solid support on which the target is immobilised, stick to the tubes etc. This problem may be described as a signal-noise problem. Thus, the term signal-noise problem in the present context refers to the problem of identifying active compounds (the signal) among an excess of inactive compounds (the noise).

    [0005] One way of circumventing the signal-noise problem is based on genetic methods. The advantage of the genetic methods is that libraries can be evolved through iterated cycles of diversification (mutation), selection and amplification. Hence, the initial library needs only contain very tiny amounts of the individual library members, which in turn allow very large numbers of different library species, i.e. very large libraries. Moreover, the structure of active compounds can be decoded with little effort by DNA sequencing. The power of genetic methods for the screening of large libraries is now generally appreciated and has on numerous occasions been used to find new ligands. The major limitation is that only biological molecules can be screened, i.e. peptides that can be synthesised by the translational apparatus or oligonucleotides that can be copied by polymerases. Therefore various approaches have been suggested for the application of genetic screening methods for libraries composed of non-biological molecules.

    [0006] Liu et al. have suggested using DNA-templated synthesis as a means of evolving non-natural small molecules, and they are developing methods that can translate the amplifiable information in DNA into synthetic molecules (US 20030113738). Likewise WO 02/103008 describes methods to translate information in DNA into synthetic molecules.

    [0007] WO 00/23458 describes an approach to indirect DNA templated synthesis, wherein the template (DNA-tag) is used for physical separating library members according to the sequence of the DNA-tag.

    [0008] An early attempt to combine the genetic screening methods with chemically synthesised molecules was put forward in WO93/20242 by Lerner et al. They performed two alternating parallel syntheses such that a DNA tag is chemically linked to the structure being synthesised. In their method, each chemical step is encoded by the addition of an identifier codon, which means that individual steps of the synthesis can be decoded by sequencing the DNA tag. Using a split-mix protocol, a one-pot library of two-piece bifunctional molecules (also termed encoded molecules) can be build. However, a library of this type is not evolvable in the traditional sense because the tag does not specify the synthesis of the compounds, rather the tag only reports the synthesis.

    [0009] However, in WO93/20242 it is suggested that affinity selected library members have their retrogenetic tag amplified by PCR. DNA strands that are amplified can then be used to enrich for a subset of the library by hybridization with matching tags. The enriched library subset may then be affinity selected against the target and retrogenic tags again PCR amplified for another round of enrichment of a subset of the library. In this method the number of active library members does not increase during the rounds, because active library molecules cannot be amplified/synthesised by way of their tags. Instead it is attempted to remove the non-specific binders from the library as the process proceeds. For very large libraries, though, the amounts of active library members are very tiny, and extra manipulations needed to enrich a library subset before affinity selection seems unfavourable.

    [0010] In more recent publications (PCT/US2004/042964 and PCT/DK2005/000199), alternative approaches to the generation of libraries of encoded molecules have been described, which differ from WO 93/20242 in that ligation is used for synthesis of the DNA-tag instead of chemical synthesis.

    [0011] US25136474 describes a method of identifying molecular activity residing in aptamers (oligonucleotides). The object of the method is to identify aptamers, wherein fixed sequences for PCR do not contribute to the activity of the aptamer. Thus, a library of RNA molecules without fixed sequences is selected against a target, where after the selected RNA molecules are used to select complementary DNA strands by hybridization. The complementary DNA strands contain two fixed sequences of which one harbor a T7 promoter. The selected DNA strand is then PCR amplified where after the resulting serve as template in a T7 transcription reaction. During transcription the fixed sequence harboring the T7 promoter is lost. After transcription, the second fixed sequence is removed using RNase H digestion and a DNA primer complementary to the sequence that has to be removed. The resulting library of RNA molecules (devoid of fixed sequences) can then again be fractionated against the target.

    [0012] US23228619 describes a method, wherein PNA-tags are used as identifier for libraries of encoded molecules. The object of the method is to provide a method of identifying the sequence of PNA-tags corresponding to active encoded molecules. Thus, selected PNA-tags are used to select complementary DNA using hybridization. The selected DNA can then be further manipulated using standard molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing not available to PNA. Thus, the genetic information in PNA in transferred into a more useful form in DNA.

    [0013] None of the aforementioned references seem to have recognized that hybridization steps may be used in itself for evolving a library of oligonucleotides, preferably a library of oligonucleotides which are derived from a library of modified oligonucleotides that have been fractionated against a molecular target.

    [0014] The use of hybridization for evolution of a library of oligonucleotides derived from a library of modified oligonucleotides (in the present context also termed a reporter library) was outlined in PCT/DK/000325. When using hybridization as a driver for evolving a library of reporter sequences, it is important that means are provided which allow specific selection of hybridized sequences, as will be apparent from the specification of the present invention.

    [0015] WO 2005/078122 describe a method wherein a library of encoded molecules is selected against a target, where after the DNA-tag of selected molecules is amplified and subjected to a melting step followed by an annealing step. After annealing, perfectly annealed sequences (homoduplexes) are recovered and decoded to identify the identity of the encoded molecule interacting with the target. Recovery is usually conducted by eliminating or reducing the amount of heteroduplexes, i.e. complexes that are not perfectly annealed. It is claimed that several methods are available for reducing the amount of hetero-duplexes, including dHPLC and enzymatic degradation. In WO 2005/078122, all sequences can be amplified, because they comprise two fixed sequences that can be used as primer binding sites. Thus, separation of heteroduplexes from homoduplexes needs to be extremely efficient, as otherwise sequences from homoduplexes will be buried in sequences from heteroduplexes.

    [0016] Lao et al., 2006 (Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Apr 28;343(1):85-9. Epub 2006 Feb 28) describes multiplexing RT-PCR for the detection of multiple miRNA species in small samples. Lao et al., 2006 discloses a library of oligonucleotides comprising either 48 or 190 oligonucleotides species (reverse transcription primers). The oligonucleotides comprise a fixed region shared among all oligonucleotide species of the library and a region complementary to part of a microRNA. The library is hybridized into microRNA in purified human lung total RNA. Oligonucleotides hybridized to microRNA are then extended to the 3'end of the microRNA.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0017] The present invention provides a method for identification of the most abundant oligonucleotides among a library of oligonucleotide species comprising specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie using the steps of:
    Incubating a library of oligonucleotides comprising more than 106 oligonucleotide species under conditions of hybridisation, wherein the oligonucleotides of the library are not inherently capable of exponential amplification by PCR and comprise
    1. a. A coding sequence, which is characteristic of one oligonucleotide specie of the library and
      1. i. Only one fixed sequence, which is present in a plurality of oligonucleotides species of the library, said fixed sequence being located on the 5'side of the coding sequence
      2. ii. Extending the 3'end of one or more hybridised oligonucleotide species having only one fixed sequence, such that the extended region generates a second fixed region that can be used as new primer binding site
    2. b. Amplifying extended sequences by PCR using said new primer binding site and the fixed sequence mentioned in step a
    3. c. Optionally identifying the identity of amplified sequences thereby revealing the identity of hybridised oligonucleotide species in step a


    [0018] The presented method is particular useful in connection with libraries of oligonucleotides such as libraries of encoded molecules and libraries of non-natural oligonucleotides. In this connection, the presented method can be used to identify active library members. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, a library of oligonucleotides is fractionated (selected) against a molecular target, where after the methods of the invention are used to identify the library members that have affinity for the target.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION


    Figure legends:



    [0019] 

    Figures 1-16 show experimental results and are commented in the examples section.

    Figure 17 illustrate the principle of the method of amplifying hybridised sequences.

    Figure 18 illustrate the principle of a linear amplification phase.

    Figures 17-18 are meant to be non-limiting on the present invention and serve mainly to aid the understanding of the description.


    Oligonucleotides of the invention



    [0020] Genetic information in the present context is the information that is carried in DNA, RNA and other oligonucleotides.

    [0021] The term "plurality" as used in the present context, indicates a multitude of molecules. Thus a plurality of oligonucleotides is a multitude of oligonucleotides. The number of oligonucleotides may be anything from 2 to 1015. The oligonucleotides may all be identical or they may be different among each other.

    [0022] In preferred embodiments, a plurality refers to 101-102, 102-103, 103-104, 104-105, 105-106, 106-107, 107-108, 108-109, 109-1010, 1010-1011, 1011-1012, 1012-1013, 1013-1014, 1014-1015, 1015-1016, 1016-1017, 1017-1018, 1018-1019 and 1019-1020 molecules, respectively.

    [0023] In its broadest aspect, the plurality of oligonucleotides may be of any origin. They may for example be genomic DNA or RNA purified from cells.

    [0024] A preferred plurality of oligonucleotides of the method of the invention is a library of oligonucleotides. The various embodiments of such a library are described in the following section. Note, that all the embodiments of a library of oligonucleotides are meant to be combined with all other aspects and embodiments of the method of the invention. However, for practical reasons, all embodiments of a library will not be mentioned for every other aspect and embodiment of the method of the invention.
    In its broadest aspect, a library of oligonucleotides is a collection of oligonucleotides collected with the purpose of identifying candidate compounds with a particular activity or function.

    [0025] Candidate compounds may be an oligonucleotide (an aptamer) or it may be a compound identified by an oligonucleotide (an encoded compound). In one embodiment, the candidate compound may be the compound identified by the oligonucleotide and the encoded compound that together then forms a candidate compound.

    [0026] The terms "candidate" and "compound" are in the used interchangeably herein with the term "candidate compounds".

    [0027] When referring to one particular compound in the library, the term "specie" or "library member" may be used interchangeably. E.g. when referring to a library of oligonucleotides, a "specie" of the library or a "library member" is any oligonucleotide with a particular sequence. In other words, the lowest taxonomic class of the library is specie, which is also referred to as a library member.

    [0028] The terms do not imply anything with regards to number or concentration of the species or library members.

    [0029] In a preferred embodiment, the term specie refers to a particular encoded compound in a library of encoded compounds.

    [0030] In another preferred embodiment; the term specie refers to a particular aptamer in a library of aptamers.

    [0031] In preferred embodiments, the number of different species in a library is 101-102, 102-103, 103-104, 104-105, 105-106, 106-107, 107-108, 108-109, 109-1010, 1010-1011, 1011-1012, 1012-1013, 1013-1014, 1014-1015, 1015-1016, 1016-1017, 1017-1018, 1018-1019 and 1019-1020 molecules, respectively
    The term "genetic information of a library of oligonucleotides" refers to both the information carried by individual oligonucleotide species, in addition to the relative abundance of individual oligonucleotide species relatively to other oligonucleotide species and/or to the overall concentration of oligonucleotide species.

    [0032] In a preferred embodiment, oligonucleotides of a library of oligonucleotides have a defined length.

    [0033] Thus, in one embodiment, the length of the oligonucleotides is less than 1000 nucleotides.

    [0034] In other embodiments, the length of the oligonucleotides is less than 900, 800, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 180, 160, 140, 130, 120, 120, 110, 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50 and 40 nucleotides, respectively
    In one embodiment, the oligonucleotides of a library have the same length.

    [0035] In a preferred embodiment, oligonucleotides of the method of the invention are single-stranded.

    [0036] In another preferred embodiment, oligonucleotides of the method of the invention are double-stranded.

    [0037] The oligonucleotides of a library of oligonucleotides comprise a coding region.

    [0038] In a preferred embodiment, the oligonucleotides of a library of oligonucleotides comprise a coding region and a first fixed sequence.

    [0039] In another preferred embodiment, the oligonucleotides of a library of oligonucleotides comprise a coding region and a first and a second fixed sequence.

    [0040] In still another preferred embodiment, the oligonucleotides of a library of oligonucleotides comprise a first and a second fixed sequence and means for removing at least one of the fixed sequences.

    [0041] In a preferred embodiment, the means for removing a fixed sequence is a restriction site.

    [0042] In another embodiment, the fixed sequence comprises uracil nucleotides, which can be used to remove the fixed sequence by employing the active of uracil DNA glycosidase.

    [0043] When referring to a library of oligonucleotides, a fixed sequence is a sequence, which is present in a plurality of oligonucleotide species of the library.

    [0044] When referring to a library of oligonucleotides, a coding sequence is a sequence, which is characteristic of one particular oligonucleotide specie of the library. Thus, in a preferred embodiment relating to encoded compounds, the coding sequence comprises information that identifies the candidate compound attached to the identifier sequence.

    [0045] In some embodiments of the invention, the oligonucleotides comprise one or more non-natural nucleotides

    Libraries of aptamers



    [0046] In a preferred embodiment, the library of oligonucleotides is a library of aptamers (also herein referred to as aptamer sequences). Aptamers as referred to in the present context are oligonucleotides that are candidate compounds in addition to being carriers of genetic information. Aptamers may be double-stranded, but they are preferably single-stranded such that they can fold into a three-dimensional structure.

    [0047] In a preferred embodiment, the aptamers comprise non-natural nucleotides.

    [0048] Typically, in the art, aptamers are identified using iterated rounds of selection and amplification. However, functional aptamers comprising non-natural nucleotides cannot be identified in this way, because they are non-amplifiable, i.e. they cannot be replicated by a polymerase because of the presence of non-natural nucleotides. One advantage of the present invention is the possibility of identifying functional aptamers comprising non-natural nucleotides.

    [0049] Examples of non-natural nucleotides are LNA (locked oligonucleotides) monomers, PNA (peptide oligonucleotides) monomers, INA monomers (intercalating oligonucleotides), backbone modified monomers, etc. Preferred modifications are substitutions with amino acid side chains such as to create an oligonucleotide with the functional groups of a protein.

    [0050] Aptamers comprising non-natural nucleotides are of interest as they may be better candidate compounds, than aptamers of natural nucleotides. With respect to development of therapeutics, one advantage of may be better bio-stability. Another advantage may be more functional groups, i.e. instead of only four building blocks with their limited amount of functional groups; a wide array may be used. Preferred non-natural oligonucleotides of the method of the invention include any oligonucleotides modified or changed in any position, as long as they are still capable of specific hybridization.

    Libraries of identifier sequences



    [0051] In another preferred embodiment, the library of oligonucleotides is a library of identifier sequences. An identifier sequence is an oligonucleotide that identifies a candidate compound to which it is attached. Such bifunctional compounds comprising both an identifier sequence and a candidate compound are in the present context interchangeably termed encoded compounds and encoded molecules. Thus, a library of identifier sequences is also a library of encoded compounds.

    Non-natural identifier sequences



    [0052] Identifier sequences may comprise non-natural nucleotides and hence not be capable of replication by a polymerase. The use of non-natural nucleotides may be desirable and advantageous for synthetic reasons such as compatibility between synthesis of identifier sequence and encoded candidate compound.

    Director-encoded libraries



    [0053] Preferred libraries of encoded compounds are director-encoded libraries, wherein the identifier sequence carried by the encoded compound is both descriptive and directive, such that the identifier sequence can direct the synthesis of the compound.

    [0054] In a preferred embodiment, the director sequence is replicable by a polymerase, and hence the instructor-encoded library can undergo iterated rounds of selection and amplification and optionally also diversification.

    Director-encoded peptide libraries



    [0055] An example of a director-encoded library is a library of proteins or peptides that have been fused to the genetic information (the gene sequence) specifying the synthesis of the protein or peptide. Such libraries have been described as mRNA display libraries, ribosome display libraries and covalent display libraries and have in common that the genetic information in the identifier (director) is translated into a candidate compound by a process involving ribosomes, i.e. the class of candidate compounds is limited to peptides and proteins.

    Director-encoded synthetic libraries



    [0056] Still another preferred kind of director-encoded library is a library of synthetic compounds prepared by DNA-templated chemistry. In DNA-templated synthesis, the genetic information in DNA is translated into synthetic compounds. Translation may occur in a process where genetic information is directly translated into synthetic compounds as has been outlined in patent applications by Nuevolution A/S and Ensemble Discovery Inc (WO 02/103008 and US 20030113738). Also, a number of publications from the group of David Liu, Harvard, have outlined such techniques. Alternatively, hybridization may be used to separate the genetic information (identifier sequences) physically, thus directing an indirect DNA-templated synthesis, as has been outlined in a patent application from Pehr Harbury and coworkers (WO 00/23458). Either way, the result is a candidate compound attached to the genetic information (identifier sequence) that directed its synthesis. A potential advantage of instructor-encoded synthetic libraries is that they are not limited to peptides and proteins, as compared to libraries prepared using ribosomes for translation. However, the process of translating genetic information into synthetic compounds is still in its infancy and it may be difficult to actually access a chemical space, which is expanded and more useful as compared to the chemical space provided by peptides and proteins.

    Descriptor-encoded libraries



    [0057] Still another preferred kind of encoded library is a library of synthetic compounds, wherein the identifier sequence carried by the encoded compound is only descriptive, such that the identifier sequence only identifies the compound. Such libraries are herein termed descriptor-encoded libraries.

    [0058] They may be synthesized using a split-mix protocol as has been outlined for example by Lerner & Brenner (WO 93/20242). More recently, also Praecis Pharmaceuticals Inc. (PCT/US2004/042964) and Nuevolution A/S (PCT/DK2005/000199) have described such techniques in patent applications.

    [0059] Alternatively, the descriptor-encoded libraries may be synthesized using a convergent strategy, wherein the identifier sequence and candidate compound is synthesized separately and then linked. Obviously, the candidate compound need not necessarily be synthetic. It could also be purified from a natural source.

    [0060] Currently, libraries of descriptor-encoded libraries may have access to a wider chemical space of than what is presently possible for director-encoded libraries of synthetic compounds. The downside of libraries of descriptor-encoded libraries is that they cannot undergo iterated rounds of selection and amplification and optionally also diversification, because the identifier sequence cannot direct synthesis of the encoded compound. Thus, it may be difficult to identify active library members, because of a signal-noise problem. One advantage of the present invention is the improved possibility of identifying active library members in a descriptor-encoded library.

    Libraries of reporter sequences



    [0061] In still another preferred embodiment, the library of oligonucleotides is a library of reporter sequences.

    [0062] In one embodiment, the library of reporter sequences is derived from a library of aptamers.

    [0063] In another embodiment, the library of reporter sequences is derived from a library of encoded compounds.

    [0064] In further embodiments, the library of reporter sequences is derived from a descriptor any of the above described sub-categories of libraries of encoded compounds.

    [0065] In further embodiments, the library of reporter sequences is derived from another reporter library.

    Derived sequences



    [0066] The term "derive" should be interpreted broadly as providing a plurality of oligonucleotides with the same or similar information contents as the original plurality of oligonucleotides.

    [0067] Thus, an original oligonucleotide may be manipulated in any desirable ways such that the resulting oligonucleotide is derived from the original oligonucleotides. Likewise, a plurality of oligonucleotides may be manipulated in any desirable ways such that the resulting plurality of oligonucleotides is derived from the original plurality of oligonucleotides.

    [0068] The derived plurality of oligonucleotides may be the PCR-product of the original plurality of oligonucleotides. It may also be the ligation product or restriction product of the original plurality of oligonucleotides. It may also be the product of other enzymatic and chemical reactions. Moreover, a single-stranded oligonucleotide may be converted to a double-stranded oligonucleotide and a double-stranded oligonucleotide may be converted to a single-stranded oligonucleotide. Furthermore, a first single-stranded oligonucleotide may be converted to a second single-stranded oligonucleotide complementary to the first oligonucleotide.

    [0069] Deriving may also mean providing a plurality of oligonucleotides with the same or similar information contents as the top 50% of the oligonucleotide species of highest concentration and/or weight% in the starting material, such as the top 40%, 30%, 20%, 10%, 5%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, 0.001%, 0.0001% or 0.00001%, such as the top 0.000001% of the oligonucleotide species of highest concentration and/or weight% in the starting material.

    [0070] Deriving may comprise processes such as amplification and dilution. Moreover, deriving may comprise analysing the contents of the starting material and e.g. synthesising or mixing a library with the same or similar composition.

    [0071] When the original plurality of oligonucleotides is a plurality of non-natural oligonucleotides that are resistant to enzymatic manipulation such as e.g. amplification by a polymerase, a plurality of amplifiable oligonucleotides derived from said original non-amplifiable plurality of oligonucleotides may be prepared by hybridizing a plurality of oligonucleotides to the original plurality of oligonucleotides and selecting hybridized oligonucleotides are amplifiable.

    [0072] In this way, the information content of a plurality of non-natural oligonucleotides is transferred to another plurality oligonucleotide species which can be manipulated further using molecular biology techniques such as DNA sequencing, DNA amplification, cloning etc. The derived plurality of oligonucleotides, i.e. reporter sequences, can be evolved as will be apparent from the specification of the present invention.

    [0073] Thus, in one embodiment, a library of reporter sequences is a copy of the genetic information of an original library of oligonucleotides. The copy may be prepared enzymatically by using a polymerase. The copy may also be prepared by hybridisation of a plurality of oligonucleotides and selection of those oligonucleotides that have hybridised to the original library of oligonucleotides. As outlined above, this method of preparing a library of reporter sequences is preferred when the original library of oligonucleotides is resistant to enzymatic manipulation. This is e.g. the case the oligonucleotides of the original plurality of oligonucleotides comprises non-natural oligonucleotides that cannot be copied or amplified enzymatically.

    Fractionations



    [0074] In a preferred embodiment, the library of oligonucleotides has been fractionated according to activity. A preferred activity is affinity toward a molecular target, i.e. the method is used to identify ligands.

    [0075] Thus, in one embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridized oligonucleotide specie, the library of oligonucleotide species has been fractionated against a target. Preferred targets are biological molecules of therapeutic relevance, such that identified ligands are of potential therapeutic interest e.g. as drugs or lead compounds. Preferred targets are e.g. proteins such as receptors, interleukins, cytokines, antibodies etc. Also cellular nucleic acids such as microRNAs, rRNAs, tRNAs, mRNAs etc. may be used as target. If the target is a cellular nucleic acid, and the library is a library of encoded compounds, it is preferred that oligonucleotides of the library are double stranded, such that the oligonucleotides will not base pair with the target nucleic acid.

    [0076] Preferably, the target has been or can be immobilized.

    [0077] In the present context, the term fractionation and selection are used interchangeably.

    [0078] A preferred fractionation method comprises the steps of contacting the library with an immobilised target (or a target that can subsequently be immobilised) and one or more washing steps.

    [0079] In a fractionated library, library species having a particular activity are overrepresented or have been enriched relatively to library species without the particular activity.

    [0080] Preferred reporter libraries of the method of the invention, have been derived from libraries of oligonucleotides that have been fractionated.

    [0081] Selections and in particular those based on affinity, are well known to the skilled person. One advantage of such selections is that a library can be counter selected against other targets. Thus, if the desired candidate compounds should bind to target 1, but not target 2, the library would be selected against target 2 in a first selection. Then the eluate of that selection (the non-bound library species) would be selected against target 1 in a second selection. The library species binding to target 1 in the second selection would then be negative for binding activity against target 2. Hence, such selections allow selection for sub-type specificity, which is often desired for therapeutic lead compounds. I.e. the lead compounds should bind e.g. to one receptor, but not to another related receptor.

    [0082] Selections against non-biological targets are also contemplated. It is e.g. presumed that new high-affinity ligands identified by the presented methods will be of value in the field of nanotechnology.

    [0083] Highly specific selections (or fractionations) in which a high fold of enrichment is achieved can be done in various ways. Suitable conditions for contacting the library with the target vary and depend on the particular target and the particular library. Optimization of such conditions is well known to the skilled man.

    [0084] In addition to optimizing the conditions of contacting the library with the target, several other methods may be employed for improving the fold of enrichment (increasing the signal-noise ratio). One method is by specific elution. Thus, soluble target can be used for elution, which has the advantage that library species bound non-specifically to the solid support or the test tube is not eluted. Also, a known ligand of the target may be used for specific elution. This is particular favorable if candidate compounds are sought, which binds to the same pocket on the target as the known ligand.

    [0085] Still another method includes elution of the target from the solid support, thereby eluting candidate compounds bound to the target.

    [0086] Another preferred method relates to fractionation of libraries of encoded compounds. In this embodiment, the identifier sequence and the candidate compound is connected by a linker, said linker comprising a release group. The release group may be restriction site cleavable by a restriction enzyme. Another preferred release group is a photocleavable bond. In this embodiment, the library is fractionated against the target and after a number of washing steps; identifier sequences are eluted using the release group.
    Thus, sequences selected because of activity in the identifier sequence are not eluted. On the other hand, encoded compounds selected because of activity residing in the candidate compound will release the identifier sequence from the solid support if the release group is used. This will give an improved fold of selection.

    [0087] Still another method of improving the selection is by use of iterated selections of the same library. Thus, a first selection results in an enriched library. Then the enriched library is again selected against the target to give a further enriched library and so forth. A potential problem with these iterated selections is obviously that each selection round will be accompanied by a certain loss, which will limit the number of rounds applicable. In other words, this strategy requires a copy number of library species that will ensure the survival of the library species with specific activity.

    The signal-noise problem



    [0088] Regardless of the selection method used, a signal-noise problem may still be present, i.e. there will be too many library members who are not active or functional with regards to the desired activity, e.g. affinity against a particular target. The signal-noise problem will be especially prominent for large libraries with a low number of individual library members. Consider a theoretical example where a library comprising 10.000 copies of each of 1012 library members. This library may be selected such that only 108 molecules remains, in which active library members are buried. I.e. the total number has gone from 1016 to 108, which is a dramatic selection of 108. Even so, the task of identifying active library is still immense, as the library will roughly contain 10.000 non-active library members for each active library member. In other words, if identification is done by cloning, 10.000 clones will have to be sequenced to identify the active library members. And still it will not be possible to deduce that the particular sequence actually corresponds to an active library member, as it is still not known that the particular sequence is overrepresented among the clones.

    [0089] Consider further an example of a library comprising 100.000 copies of each of 1010 library members. This library may be selected such that only 107 molecules remains, in which active library members are buried. I.e. the total number has gone from 1015 to 107, which again is a dramatic selection of 108. Even so, the task of identifying active library is still cumbersome, as the library will roughly contain 100 non-active library members for each active library member. As outlined above, sequencing of 100 clones will identify the active library, but will not be possible to deduce that the particular sequence actually corresponds to an active library member, as it is still not known that the particular sequence is overrepresented among the clones. To get this information, 500 or 1000 clones will have to be sequenced.

    [0090] It is an object of the method of the present invention to allow identification of active library members, even if non-active library members outnumber them, i.e. the signal-noise does not allow facile identification as outlined above.

    Method of amplifying hybridized sequences



    [0091] The present invention provides methods of manipulating the information content of a plurality of oligonucleotides. E.g. methods are provided that allow identification of the most abundant oligonucleotides among a plurality of oligonucleotides. Moreover, the invention provides methods of identifying new molecular activity that may be of relevance for the development of new therapeutics or for the field of nanotechnology.

    [0092] The present invention provides a method for identification of the most abundant oligonucleotides among a library of oligonucleotide species comprising specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie using the steps of:
    1. a. Incubating a library of oligonucleotides comprising more than 106 oligonucleotide species under conditions of hybridisation, wherein the oligonucleotides of the library are not inherently capable of exponential amplification by PCR and comprise
      1. i. A coding sequence, which is characteristic of one oligonucleotide specie of the library and
      2. ii. Only one fixed sequence, which is present in a plurality of oligonucleotides species of the library, said fixed sequence being located on the 5'side of the coding sequence
    2. b. Extending the 3'end of one or more hybridised oligonucleotide species having only one fixed sequence, such that the extended region generates a second fixed region that can be used as new primer binding site
    3. c. Amplifying extended sequences by PCR using said new primer binding site and the fixed sequence mentioned in step a
    4. d. Optionally identifying the identity of amplified sequences thereby revealing the identity of hybridised oligonucleotide species in step a


    [0093] It is to be understood that the oligonucleotide specie of the above method is not a PCR primer. Note, that the sequence of a PCR primer is not amplified during PCR. This may be better understood by considering a typical PCR, where 20-pmol primer is used and hence 20 pmol of the primer sequence is present. This number will stay constant during PCR, as the number of primer sequences is the sum of free primers and extended primers (PCR-product).

    [0094] The principle of the method is shown in figure 17.

    [0095] In a preferred embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises a library of oligonucleotides.

    [0096] In a preferred embodiment, the library of oligonucleotides is a library of aptamers.

    [0097] In another preferred embodiment, the library of oligonucleotides is a library of encoded compounds.

    [0098] In still another embodiment, the library of oligonucleotides is a library of reporter sequences.

    [0099] Step d of the method can be done by cloning of the sequences of step c and DNA-sequencing of individual clones. The skilled man knows such methods.

    [0100] In one embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying hybridised sequences, step b is followed by a step of denaturation.

    [0101] In one embodiment, extension of the 3'end of a hybridised oligonucleotide is done by a heat stable polymerase, which is also used for PCR. In another embodiment, extension is done by a heat sensitive polymerase such as the Klenow fragment. The polymerase may have proofreading or may not have proofreading. A polymerase with proofreading may favour extension and amplification of hybridised sequences without mismatches.

    [0102] In another embodiment, one or more of the oligonucleotide species are RNA molecules and the polymerase used for extension of the 3'end is a primer dependent RNA polymerase or a reverse transcriptase.

    [0103] In one embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie, step c is followed by separation of extended oligonucleotide species from non extended oligonucleotide species. One preferred method for separation of extended oligonucleotide species from non-extended oligonucleotide species is digestion of single stranded DNA. Another preferred method is primer extension with a biotin containing primer hybridising to the newly formed primer binding site followed by purification using binding to streptavidin.

    [0104] In still another embodiment, step b is followed by a denaturation step before step c.

    [0105] In another embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie, step a is followed by a fractionations step to fractionate hybridized oligonucleotides from non-hybridized oligonucleotides. Preferably, the fractionations step is performed before step c.

    Amplification



    [0106] The basic idea of the method is that only oligonucleotides that have hybridised are capable of amplification.

    [0107] Amplification as used in the present context generally refers to any method of increasing the copy-number of the sequence of one or a plurality of oligonucleotides. When referring to an encoded compound, only the sequence of the identifier sequence is amplified and not the encoded compound.

    [0108] The amplification used in the method of the invention is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    [0109] To be amplifiable by exponential PCR, an oligonucleotide needs two fixed sequences that can be used as primer binding sites. In a preferred embodiment of the method, a second fixed sequence can only be formed if the oligonucleotide has hybridised to a complementary oligonucleotide. The principle is illustrated in figure 17.

    [0110] The term PCR amplification as used in the present context generally refers to exponential PCR amplification. If the reaction is carried out to amplify sequences linearly, it will be specifically mentioned as linear PCR amplification.

    [0111] In linear PCR amplification, the same primer-binding site is repeatedly used for the generation of a copy, i.e. a primer is annealed into the primer-binding site, the primer is extended, where after a new primer is annealed in to the same primer binding site for a next round of linear amplification.

    Hybridisation



    [0112] In one embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie, hybridisation and PCR is carried out in situ. One such example is detection of hybridisation to a microarray. Thus, hybridisation of one oligonucleotide specie or a plurality of oligonucleotide species to complementary counterparts on a microarray is followed by in-situ PCR.

    [0113] In one such embodiment, not all oligonucleotides species of the plurality of oligonucleotides species are represented on the microarray, as the goal of the method may be to confirm the presence of particular oligonucleotide species among the plurality of oligonucleotide species.

    [0114] In another embodiment of the method, hybridisation is carried out in solution. Thus, a plurality of oligonucleotides is present in solution and incubated under conditions of hybridisation. After hybridisation, the 3'end of hybridised oligonucleotides are extended to generate a second fixed sequence (i.e. a new primer binding site) in the same oligonucleotide species, where after these sequences are exponentially amplified, preferably by PCR. In this way, hybridised sequences are enriched relatively to non-hybridised sequences.

    [0115] Step a) of the method of specifically amplifying hybridised oligonucleotides is typically done such as to optimize specific hybridisation. Appropriate conditions depend on the type of oligonucleotides that are to hybridise, and generally longer oligonucleotides will require higher temperature and/or lower salt concentration. Also, formamide is often used to decrease the melting temperature of oligonucleotides. Generally, a temperature around the melting temperature is desired for specific hybridisation. Conditions for specific hybridisation are well known in the art. In the method, conditions need not necessary be optimised for specific hybridisation. In fact, the method can also employ conditions where a significant degree of faulty hybridisation occurs, as will be evident from the examples.

    [0116] Also, the time for hybridisation is a parameter adjustable to fulfil different needs. If e.g. it is desired to favour high abundant oligonucleotide species, the hybridisation time can be relatively short, i.e. such that only the most abundant oligonucleotide species will hybridise, whereas low abundant oligonucleotide species will not find complementary low abundant counterparts. In this case, the hybridisation reaction is kinetically controlled.

    [0117] On the other hand, the hybridisation reaction can be done to completion, such that all oligonucleotide species have hybridised to a complementary counterpart if a complementary counterpart is present.

    [0118] In one embodiment, the hybridisation reaction may be done immediately before PCR. In this embodiment, the hybridisation reaction may be done in the PCR reaction mix such that PCR is performed immediately following hybridisation. In fact, a typical PCR can be performed on the plurality of oligonucleotides, which will then hybridise during PCR.

    [0119] In another embodiment, a prolonged hybridisation time is used. Such prolonged hybridisation time may be 12 hours, 18 hours, 24 hours, 30 hours, 36 hours, and 42 hours such as 48 hours or 72 hours.

    Evolution of a reporter library



    [0120] In a preferred embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie, the amplified extended sequences of step c, or oligonucleotide species derived thereof, is comprised in a plurality of oligonucleotides used in a next round of steps a-c, such that an iterative process is initiated, wherein each repetition of steps a, b and c is optionally followed by step d.

    [0121] Figure 8A and 8B relating to example 2 shows how the sequence of a reporter library evolves for each round.

    [0122] By repetition of the steps a, b, and c, the plurality of oligonucleotide species or nucleic species derived thereof, may start to evolve. That is to mean that the information content of the plurality of oligonucleotide will change. E.g. some oligonucleotides species will increase in abundance relatively to others, whereas other oligonucleotide species will decrease relatively to others. The abundance may also be expressed relatively to the total abundance of oligonucleotide species. Thus, the information content, as used in relation to a plurality of oligonucleotides, contains not only the genetic information of individual oligonucleotide species, but also the abundance of individual oligonucleotide species relatively to the rest of the oligonucleotide species.

    [0123] The plurality of oligonucleotides that is evolving will in the present context also be termed a reporter library, as will be apparent from the description of reporter sequences earlier in the specification.

    [0124] While the information content of the reporter library changes as the rounds proceed, the last generation reporter library is still derived from the previous generation reporter libraries
    Evolution of a reporter library has been described in patent application PCT/DK2004/000325 (Selection and evolution of chemical libraries). A critical point of the technology described in the aforementioned application is the specific amplification of only hybridized sequences. If also non-hybridised oligonucleotides are amplified, the so-called information transfer will be blurred. In other words, 99% of the amplified information may stem from non-hybridised sequences, wherefore the resulting library will not reflect what happened in the hybridization reaction. It is an object of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie to solve this problem.

    [0125] In a preferred embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie, the iterative process comprises at least two repetitions of steps a, b and c and optionally step d. In other embodiments, the iterative process comprises respectively 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30 repetitions. The number of repetitions may depend on the how much it intended to evolve the plurality of oligonucleotides.

    [0126] In one embodiment, it is desirable to continue evolution of the reporter library until only 10 species remains. In other embodiments, it is desirable to continue evolution until the number of oligonucleotide species remaining is less than respectively 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 175, 200, 250 and 300.

    [0127] In another embodiment, is it is desirable to continue evolution of the reporter library until sequencing of 100 clones in step d) identifies less than 100 species. In other embodiments, it is desirable to continue evolution until the number of oligonucleotide species identified when sequencing 100 clones in step d) remaining is less than respectively 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 25, 20, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 specie.

    [0128] In still another embodiment, is it is desirable to continue evolution of the reporter library until sequencing of a number clones in step d) identifies less species than the number of clones sequenced. Thus, the number of species identified may be smaller by a factor of 100 as compared to the number of clones sequenced in step d), and in other embodiments smaller by a factor of respectively 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 25, 20, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3 and 2.

    [0129] Preferably, the remaining species is reporter sequences of the most abundant library members of the original library of oligonucleotides.

    [0130] Thus, if the original library of oligonucleotides had been fractionated for affinity against a molecular target, the remaining reporter sequences will identify the original oligonucleotides that bound specifically to the target.

    [0131] In one embodiment of the method, the library of reporter sequences is evolved, i.e. the relative ratios of the oligonucleotide species change for each repetition of the steps a, b and c, because kinetics of hybridisation will favour high-abundant oligonucleotide species in the hybridisation reaction, i.e. the hybridisation reaction is kinetically controlled.

    [0132] In another embodiment, the relative ratios of the most abundant oligonucleotide remain essentially unchanged, because the most abundant oligonucleotide species are hybridised to completion, i.e. the hybridisation reaction is not kinetically controlled for the most abundant oligonucleotides species. In this embodiment, the most abundant oligonucleotide species are defined by the hybridisation reaction and the time of hybridisation. Thus, in this embodiment, the most abundant oligonucleotide species are those, which are not kinetically controlled in their hybridisation reaction. This is contrary to the situation where the most abundant oligonucleotide species are predetermined, and the hybridisation reaction and the time of the hybridisation reaction adjusted accordingly. This latter described situation is difficult, because the actual abundance (or concentration) of library species is most often unknown.

    Estimating complexity



    [0133] The complexity of a plurality of oligonucleotides may be estimated e.g. by measurements of renaturation time. When referring to the complexity of a plurality of oligonucleotides, what is meant is the number of oligonucleotides species, the amount (or copynumber) of each oligonucleotide specie and in some embodiments, also the sequence similarity between the oligonucleotide species. An assessment of the complexity is useful for adjustments of hybridizations times and in determining whether a reporter library evolves and whether the process should be stopped.

    [0134] Thus, in one embodiment, the complexity of a plurality of oligonucleotides is estimated by renaturation measurements. In one such embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides is a reporter library, which is denatured, where after the denatured reporter library is incubated under conditions of hybridization. Measuring the change in absorption at 260 nm can then be used to follow renaturation. Such renaturation experiments are well known to the skilled man and has been used extensively e.g. in connection to estimating the complexity of the human genom.

    [0135] The complexity of the plurality of oligonucleotide species may also be measured drawing advantage of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie.

    [0136] In one embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotide species is a reporter library in the form of a PCR product. The reporter library is manipulated such that only hybridized sequences can be amplified by PCR. Such manipulation is typically done by removing primer binding sites from the reporter library. In one embodiment, the reporter library is split into two, where after the upstream primer binding site is removed from one subset of the library and the downstream primer binding site is removed from the other subset of the library. Restriction digestion is used for removing the primer binding site. After removing the primer binding sites, single-stranded oligonucleotides may be purified, where after the subsets are combined again. Alternatively, the double-stranded subsets are combined. Either way, only hybridized oligonucleotide species will be exponentially amplifiable by PCR. Thus, the plurality of oligonucleotide species is now incubated under conditions of hybridization and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) reaction is performed. Since the number of hybridized oligonucleotide species is a function of the time of hybridization and the complexity of the plurality of oligonucleotides, qPCR actually gives an estimate of the complexity of the plurality of oligonucleotides.

    [0137] Thus, in one embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie comprising, a qPCR is performed on at least a subset of the extended sequences of step to estimate the complexity of the plurality of oligonucleotide species.

    [0138] The qPCR may be the PCR of step c, or it may be a PCR performed in parallel.

    Removing a fixed sequence



    [0139] In a preferred embodiment of the method, the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises oligonucleotide species that are characterised by having only one fixed sequence, and thus are not inherently capable of exponential amplification by PCR. As the skilled man will appreciate, exponential amplification by PCR requires two fixed sequences.

    [0140] In another embodiment, the amplification product of step a, is enzymatically digested to remove a fixed sequence site before continuing with the next round. Such enzymatic digestion requires the presence of a restriction site between the fixed sequence and the hybridizing region. The purpose of removing the fixed sequence is to generate an oligonucleotide specie, which is only capable of amplification by exponential PCR if it is or has been hybridized to a complementary sequence.

    [0141] After digestion, the resulting oligonucleotide specie may be purified e.g. using HPLC or other means e.g. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) followed by elution from the gel. Still other means involve the use of biotin containing primers in the PCR. If one of the primers used for PCR contains a biotin in its 5'end, the resulting PCR product can be immobilized on streptavidin beads. Digestion of the PCR product on beads will then release oligonucleotide species with only one fixed sequence, as the other fixed sequence will be attached to the streptavidin beads. In another embodiment, a photocleavable biotin group is used. In this embodiment, the PCR product is immobilized on streptavidin beads. Then one fixed sequence is released from the streptavidin beads by restriction digestion. The resulting double-stranded oligonucleotide is then denatured to separate the non-biotin containing strand from the biotin containing strand. After washing off the non-biotin containing strand, the remaining strand can be eluted by photocleavage.

    [0142] A fixed sequence site may also be removed by other means, e.g. by incorporating uracil into fixed sequences, where after the uracil containing fixed sequence can be removed with Uracil DNA glycosidase. Incorporation of uracil may be done by using uracil containing primers in PCR. This method is particular suited in the embodiment with a preceding linear amplification phase.

    [0143] In one embodiment, a double-stranded oligonucleotide specie is used for the next round of hybridization.

    [0144] In another embodiment, a single-stranded oligonucleotide is used for the next round of hybridization.

    [0145] In a preferred embodiment, the fixed sequence does not engage in hybridization. In this embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides preferably does not contain sequences complementary to the fixed sequence.

    [0146] In still another preferred embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides is a mixture of oligonucleotide species with the fixed sequence on the 5'side of the coding region and on the 3'side of the coding region, respectively.

    Preceding linear amplification phase



    [0147] In another preferred embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie, step b is preceded by a phase of linear amplification.

    [0148] In this embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises oligonucleotide species with the fixed sequence on the 3'side of the coding region. Linear amplification of these oligonucleotide species results in oligonucleotide species that have a fixed sequence on the 5'side of the coding region. This principle is illustrated in fig. 18.

    Targeted amplification



    [0149] In another embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie, the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises a mixture of oligonucleotide species that are inherently amplifiable by exponential PCR and oligonucleotide species that are not inherently amplifiable by exponentially PCR. In this embodiment, PCR primers can be chosen such that only a subset of the oligonucleotides can be amplified. Thus, a first strand of a hybridised complex may be amplified, whereas the second strand is not. In this embodiment, the second strand may indeed contain two fixed sequences, but they are not used in PCR because the used primers do not fit both fixed sequences (the fixed sequences are not target for amplification). Preferably, the oligonucleotide species that are inherently non-amplifiable by exponential PCR are oligonucleotides species with only one fixed sequence. Preferably, exponential amplification is performed with primers chosen such as to only amplify hybridised oligonucleotides species that are not inherently exponentially amplifiable by PCR.

    Dilution



    [0150] In one particular embodiment of method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie, the amplification product of step c is diluted such as to lose sequences (oligonucleotide species) corresponding to non-hybridised oligonucleotides. Not to be bound by theory, this may be better understood with a theoretical example; consider a situation where 1 in 1.000 oligonucleotide species have hybridised. Hybridised sequences have then been amplified 106 fold, where after the ratio of hybridised sequences (or copies thereof) to non-hybridised sequences are 1000 to 1 (or 106 to 1000). Note that non-hybridised sequences have not been physically separated from hybridised sequences. If this plurality of sequences is now diluted e.g. 100 fold, 99 of 100 non-hybridised sequences are lost, without losing the hybridised sequences. Note that 99 of 100 of the hybridised sequences are of course lost, but since there is 1000 of each species, the specie will survive. Obviously, amplification before dilution may be omitted.

    [0151] In one embodiment, the ratio of hybridised sequences to non-hybridised sequences is assessed using quantitative PCR (qPCR), as outlined above for measurements of complexity of a plurality of oligonucleotides. Thus using qPCR the amount or number of template sequences (i.e. hybridised sequences) can be determined and this number can be held up against the total number of oligonucleotides present in the plurality of oligonucleotides to assess the fold of dilution that is to be used.

    [0152] Thus, the eliminating non-hybridised sequences can be done using the steps of:
    1. a) qPCR of hybridised sequences
    2. b) Assessing the ratio of hybridised sequences to non-hybridised sequences
    3. c) Using the information of step b to determine a fold of dilution
    4. d) Diluting the amplification product of qPCR
    5. e) Optionally amplifying the diluted amplification product of step d


    [0153] In one embodiment, a range of different dilutions of the plurality of oligonucleotides is used in step a).

    [0154] In another embodiment, dilution is used to secure that the hybridisation reaction is kinetically controlled. Thus, a series of dilutions may be prepared, and the lowest concentration resulting in amplification product in step c may be used for further steps.

    A first and a second library of oligonucleotides



    [0155] In a preferred embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises a first library of oligonucleotides and a second library of oligonucleotides.

    [0156] In one such embodiment, the first library of oligonucleotides is a library of reporter sequences and the second library is a library of aptamers.

    [0157] In another such embodiment, the first library of oligonucleotides is a library of reporter sequences and the second library is a library of encoded compounds.

    [0158] In another such embodiment, the first library of oligonucleotides is a library of reporter sequences and the second library is a library of reporter sequences.

    [0159] In another embodiment, the first library of reporter sequences are derived from a first library of oligonucleotides and the second library of reporter sequences are derived from a second library of oligonucleotides.

    [0160] The use of a first and a second library of oligonucleotides or a library of reporter sequences derived thereof may have several advantages. Consider e.g. a first and a second library that is fractionated against a biological target in separate fractionations. Not to be bound by theory, the principle may be illustrated with a theoretical example: Assume the libraries have a diversity of e.g. 1010, that the copy number of each library specie is 104 and that the library is enriched 105 fold. In other words a 105 -fold selection is performed. Thus, 9 in 10 of the library species that is not positively selected (because they do not have any affinity against the target) will be lost from the fractionated library, i.e. 1 in 10 library members with non-specific affinity are lost. This will be true for both the first and the second library. If the sequences of the first library and the sequences of the second library is then hybridised against each other, chances are that library species with non-specific activity will be lost. More specifically, if a particular library species survives fractionation of the first library, chances are 1 in 10 that the same library specie has also survived the fractionation of the second library. Consequently, by cross-hybridising a fractionated first and second library, only library species that have been fractionated in both fractionations will have a chance of finding a complementary sequence and hence stay in the reporter library. In addition to this stochastic principle of losing low abundant library members, also the kinetics of hybridisation may be used to disfavour low abundant library species (reporter sequences).

    [0161] A preferred embodiment draws use of a first and a second library for identification of aptamers that are typically identified by SELEX. In this embodiment, the first and the second library each comprise e.g. 1014 or 1015 species. The first and the second library are then selected separately against a molecular target, whereafter selected sequences are amplified by PCR to e.g. a copynumber of 106. In the cross-hybridisation reaction, only aptamers that bound specifically to the target will be able to find a counterpart and hence be comprised in the reporter library derived from the hybridised species of the cross-hybridisation reaction. In a preferred embodiment, only one copy of each specie is present in the first and the second library. The library size may be anything normally used for SELEX. In a preferred embodiment, the libraries only differ from a typical library used for SELEX in that they contain means for removing one fixed sequence.

    [0162] In another embodiment of the method of specifically amplifying hybridised oligonucleotide species, the first and second library of reporter sequences are derived from the two complementary strands of a PCR product, said PCR product being derived from a library of oligonucleotides. In this way, a first and a second library of reporter sequences can easily be prepared.

    Libraries of the method of the invention



    [0163] Libraries of oligonucleotides adapted for use in the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridized oligonucleotide specie have been described above in relation to the method of specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridized oligonucleotide specie

    [0164] In one embodiment, the library of oligonucleotides species is characterized by having only one primer binding site, and thus are not inherently capable of exponential amplification by PCR.

    [0165] In another embodiment, the library of oligonucleotides species is characterized in that the coding sequence is flanked by one primer binding site at its at its 5'end and wherein a restriction site is located between the primer binding site at the 5'end and the coding region.

    [0166] In the context of the present invention, the coding sequence is the sequence, which carries the genetic information characteristic of the particular library specie. Thus, the coding sequence may identify the candidate compound of an encoded compound, it may identify an aptamer or it may be a sequence derived thereof as present in a library of reporter sequences
    In another embodiment, the coding sequence of the encoded molecules is flanked by a uracil containing region, said uracil containing region facilitating removal of said region from the oligonucleotide specie from the coding sequence.

    EXAMPLES



    [0167] The examples are done with a model system using streptavidin as target molecule and a DNA oligonucleotide comprising a biotin group in a DNA oligonucleotide library as model library. Thus, the library comprising the biotin containing oligonucleotide represents a library of oligonucleotides comprising candidate compounds. This library is also termed the primary library in the examples. The corresponding reporter libraries are in the examples also termed secondary libraries. Moreover, oligonucleotides of the primary library are also termed primary molecules and primary oligonucleotides and likewise for oligonucleotides of the secondary library.

    [0168] Note that the primary library could in principle have been a library of any of the libraries of oligonucleotides described in the specification (encoded libraries, aptamer libraries and subsets thereof).

    Example 1



    [0169] Screening of 107, 108 and 109 libraries.

    [0170] In this example, model libraries comprising 107, 108 and 109 different DNA oligonucleotide species in equimolar amounts were screened for binding activity against streptavidin immobilized on sepharose. One particular oligonucleotide in the libraries contains a biotin-group at its 5'end and it is intended to demonstrate that the identity of this particular oligonucleotide can be found using the present invention. This particular oligonucleotide is also referred to as the "signal", as it is the oligonucleotide we would like to identify.

    [0171] The model libraries were prepared by mixing a degenerate oligonucleotide (with a total diversity of 107, 108 or 109) with the biotinylated oligonucleotide, such that the latter was present in equimolar amounts with individual sequences of the degenerate oligonucleotides. Thus, it is intended to demonstrate that the present invention can be used to find a signal within a huge excess of noise.

    [0172] Strictly speaking, we do not know whether other oligonucleotides than the biotin containing oligonucleotide have affinity toward the target, since it is well known that oligonucleotides can take up tertiary structures that bind protein targets with high-affinity and selectivity. As mentioned in the specification, such oligonucleotides are often termed aptamers.

    [0173] When evolving a reporter library by iterated hybridisations, a crucial point is that only hybridised oligonucleotides are amplified, and not oligonucleotides that may have been selected because of non-specific interactions with streptavidin beads, plastic tubes etc.

    [0174] Therefore we implemented a setup in which only hybridised oligonucleotides can be amplified, because each provide a fixed region for PCR-amplification, i.e. non-hybridised oligonucleotides cannot are not amplified because they lack the 3'-fixed region. This principle is also described in the specification.

    PCR primers:



    [0175] All oligonucleotides were synthesised using standard DNA oligonucleotide synthesis such as described in (Oligonucleotide Synthesis: A Practical Approach, M.J Gait) and can consequently be purchased from commercial suppliers such as DNA technology A/S, Forskerparken/Science Park Aarhus, Gustaw Wieds Vej 10A, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark, www.dna-technology.com

    Primary PCR primer, PCR-11:
    5' b GGGAGA CAAGAA TAACCT CAGC

    Secondary PCR primer, PCR-12:
    5' GCCTGT TGTGAG CCTCCT GTCGAA



    [0176] "b" (5' biotin phosphoramidite catalogue-nr. 10-5950-95 from Glen Research) indicates a biotin group, which will be incorporated in the coding strand of the PCR-product.

    [0177] The underlined sequence is the complementary of "5'GCTGAGG" which is recognised by the ss DNA restriction enzyme N.BbvC IA (NEB, R0631L, 10 U/µl) and cleaved between the nucleotides in bold. This restriction site is used to cleave off the 3'-fixed region of anticoding oligonucleotides.

    Step a) Providing the primary libraries



    [0178] Three model libraries were prepared using redundant positions during synthesis. The same signal oligonucleotides was used in all three model libraries and the same secondary signal oligonucleotides was used in all three secondary libraries.

    107 primary library:



    [0179] The primary libraries were prepared such as to contain about 107, 108 or 109 different sequences (i.e. oligonucleotides). This was accomplished using redundant positions during DNA synthesis. To achieve a library with 107 different sequences, 24 positions with a redundancy of 2 was used (224 = 1.7x107). Redundancies are described using the ambiguity table from International Union of Biochemistry (http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/misc/naseq.html):
    M= A or C; R= A or G; W= A or T; S= C or G; Y= C or T; K= G or T; V= A or C or G; H=A or C or T; D= A or G or T; B=G or Cor T; N=A or G or C or T.

    Primary signal oligo, PSO-Nhel:

    Primary noise oligo, PNO-10e7:

    (actual diversity: 224 = 1.7x107)



    [0180] "GCTAGC" is the sequence recognised by the ds DNA restriction enzyme Nhel (NEB, R0131L, 10 U/µl). This restriction site is used to monitor the evolution of the secondary library.

    10e8 primary library:



    [0181] 

    Primary signal oligo, PSO-Nhel:

    Primary noise oligo, PNO-10e8:

    (actual diversity: 227 = 1.3 x 108)


    10e9 primary library:



    [0182] 

    Primary signal oligo, PSO-Nhel:

    Primary noise oligo, PNO-10e9:

    (actual diversity: 230 = 1.1x109)


    Step b) Providing the secondary libraries


    10e7 secondary library



    [0183] 

    Secondary signal oligo, SSO-NheI:

    Secondary noise oligo, SNO-10e7:


    10e8 secondary library



    [0184] 

    Secondary signal oligo, SSO-Nhel:

    Secondary noise oligo, SNO-10e8:


    10e9 secondary library



    [0185] 

    Secondary signal oligo, SSO-Nhel:

    Secondary noise oligo, SNO-10e9:


    Step c-1) Hybridising oligonucleotide species of the first generation secondary library with oligonucleotide species of the primary library



    [0186] DNA-oligonucleotides were mixed with hybridisation buffer (180 µl 20xSSC + 60 µl 0.1% Triton X-100 + 76.8 µl H2O) according to the scheme below to create both the primary and secondary libraries in a total volume of 100 µl. i.e. the primary library is hybridised to the secondary library before selection against the target.
    1. A) 10e7 library:

      52.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e7

      2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-NheI

      2.4 µl 100 pM SSO-NheI

      2.4 µl 0.01% Triton

    2. B) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as A:

      52.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e7

      2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-NheI

      4.8 µl 0.01% Triton

    3. C) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as A:

      52.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e7

      2.4 µl 100 pM SSO-Nhel

      4.8 µl 0.01% Triton

    4. D) 10e8 library

      52.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e8

      3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Nhel

      3.1 µl 10 pM SSO-Nhel

      1 µl 0.01% Triton

    5. E) 10e9 library

      52.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e9

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e9

      3.6 µl 1 pM PSO-NheI

      3.6 µl 1 pM SSO-NheI



    [0187] Next, the libraries (tubes A to E) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C overnight (ON) with mixing in a table shaker for hybridisation.

    [0188] Step d-1) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library hybridised to the secondary library.

    [0189] 120 µl solid phase bound target suspension (app. 30% Streptavidin Sepharose High Performance beads in 20% EtOH, Amersham, 17-5113-01) was centrifuged to pellet the solid phase (sepharose beads). The supernatant was disposed and 600 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The solid phase was resuspended in 114 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 150 µl.
    25 µl equilibrated solid phase suspension was added to samples A-E and incubated at 65 °C for 20 minutes with mixing.

    [0190] step e-1) Selecting the oligonucleotide species of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule, thereby also selecting oligonucleotide species of the secondary library hybridised to selected primary molecules ("primary molecules" are oligonucleotides species of the primary library, also termed primary species and likewise for oligonucleotides of the secondary library).

    [0191] After incubation with the solid phase bound target, samples were centrifuged, the supernatant disposed, beads resuspended in 180 µl 10xwash buffer (1 M NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCI pH 8) containing 0.01% Triton X-100 and re-incubated at 65 °C for 20 minutes with mixing. For a second wash, the samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 180 µl 10xwash buffer. This was followed by a third wash where the samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 180 µl lxwash buffer. Next, the beads were pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed.

    Step f-1) Amplifying the hybridised oligonucleotides



    [0192] Residual biotin binding sides on the solid phase were blocked by addition of 1 µl 20 mM Biotin (Sigma, B-4501) and the total volume of the samples adjusted to 20 µl by addition of lxwash buffer (app. 8 µl). This was followed by incubation at room-temperature (RT; 25 °C) for 5 minutes with mixing.

    [0193] Samples A-E was then added 440 µl PCR mix containing:

    350 µl H20

    50 µl 10xbuffer (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    15 µl 50 mM MgCl2 (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    20 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each (Bioline, BIO-39025)

    5 µl polymerase (BIO-X-ACT long, Bioline, BIO-21050)



    [0194] As a negative PCR control, sample F, 2 µl lxwash buffer was added 44 µl PCR mix (as above).

    [0195] Samples A-F was incubated at 72 °C for 5 minutes, where after 20 µl 10 µM primer PCR-11 and 20 µl 10 µM primer PCR-12 were added to samples A-E and 2 µl of PCR-11 and PCR-12 to sample F. The samples were aliquoted into PCR tubes and amplification was performed using the following (standard PCR) program:
    Initial denaturation: 94 °C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94° C, 30 sec
    68° C, 60 sec
    72°C, 10 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0196] After amplification, beads were removed by spin-filtration (using Quantum Prep Mini Spin Columns, Bio-Rad, 732-6100).

    Step j) Monitoring the evolution of the secondary library



    [0197] 5 µl of samples A-F were added 1 µl NheI + 1 µl buffer 2 (NEB, B7002S) + 3 µl H2O and incubated at 37 °C for 3 hours. The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and together with a 25 bp DNA ladder (Promega, G4511) resolved on a 4% GTG (BioWhittaker (BMA), 50084) agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer, figure 1A.
    As negative control for restriction, 5 µl of samples A-F were added 1 µl buffer 2 + 4 µl H2O and incubated at 37 °C for 3 hours. The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and together with a 25 bp DNA ladder resolved on an agarose gel, figure 1B.
    Since no restriction digestion/cleavage was detected after round 1, we moved on to cleavage and purification of the anti-coding DNA strands of the PCR products to generate the second-generation secondary libraries.

    Step h): Preparing the second-generation secondary library for the next round



    [0198] The 3'-fixed region of the anticoding strand of the secondary library was liberated using N. Bbv C IA, where after the truncated anticoding strand containing the 5-fixed region and the anticoding region was gel-purified as described next.

    Cleavage of the anti-coding strand with the nicking enzyme N. Bbv C IA:



    [0199] Samples A-E were concentrated with EtOH precipitation by adding 3M NaAc pH 4.5 (0.1 times the sample volume) and 95% EtOH (2 times the sample volume), incubation at -80 °C for 20 minutes, centrifugation at 20.000g for 40 minutes, disposal of the supernatant and air drying of the pellet before dissolving the samples in 100 µl H2O by incubation at RT for 20 minutes with mixing. Next, the samples were desalted by gel-filtration on P30 columns (RNase-Free Micro Bio-Spin, Bio-Rad, 732-6251), where after the PCR products were digested by adding 15 µl buffer 2 (NEB, B7002S) + 5 µl N.BbvC IA + H2O up till 150 µl, followed by incubation at 37 °C ON. After digestion, the samples were added 1 µl glycogen (20 mg/ml, Roche, 901 393), EtOH precipitated and pellets dissolved in 40 µl H2O.

    Purification of nicked DNA under non-denaturing conditions:



    [0200] After addition of 20 µl formamide loading buffer (95% formamide, 20 mM EDTA, Bromophenol Blue) to samples A-E, nicked DNA was resolved from non-nicked DNA on a polyacrylamide gel (1xTBE, 8 M urea, 10% polyacrylamide, 0.25% bis-polyacrylamide, length: 15.5 cm, width: 14.5 cm and thickness: 0.1 cm) at low temperature. Appropriate size markers were included (25 pmol of an 80 nt.and an 60 nt. DNA oligonucleotide). After 5 hours at 300 volt, UV-shadowing was used to visualize DNA in the gel. The band (gel-piece) corresponding to nicked DNA was cut out of the gel, soaked in 800 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 and incubated at room temperature over night in a table shaker for passive elution of the DNA. After elution, acryl amide pieces were removed by spin-filtration.

    Binding of coding strands to streptavidin and elution of anti-coding strands:



    [0201] 25 µl equilibrated streptavidin sepharose prepared as described earlier (step d-1) was added to samples A-E, followed by incubation at RT for 45 minutes with mixing. To wash the beads, the samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed, beads resuspended in 180 µl lxwash buffer. Next, the samples were transferred to spin-filters and centrifuged 1 minute at 20,000g. The beads were then resuspended in 40 µl 100 mM NaOH and incubated at RT for 5 minutes. To collect the anti-coding DNA strands, the filters were centrifuged at 20.000g for 30 sec. 40 µl eluate was neutralized by adding 40 µl 100 mM HCl and 10 µl Tris-HCI pH 8, followed by addition of 1 µl glycogen, EtOH precipitation and dissolution in 5 µl H2O.

    Purification of anti-coding strands under denaturing conditions:



    [0202] After addition of 10 µl formamide loading buffer, samples A-E were incubated at 94°C for 5 minutes, and placed on ice before being loaded onto a polyacrylamide gel (1xTBE, 8M urea, 10% polyacrylamide, 0.25% bis-polyacrylamide, length: 25 cm, width: 24 cm and thickness: 0.1 cm) and run at high temperature (app 55 °C). Appropriate size markers were included. After 4½ hours at 700 volt, the gel was soaked for 10 minutes in 400 ml 1xTBE + 200 µl EtBr (2 mg/ml), which allowed visualization of DNA bands with UV-light. The bands corresponding to the anti-coding strands, devoid of the 3' fixed region were cut out of the gel, soaked in 400 µl 10xwash buffer, 0.01% Triton X-100 and incubated at RT ON with mixing for passive elution of the DNA. After elution, polyacrylamide pieces were removed by spin-filtration. Next, the samples were EtOH precipitated, dissolved in 50 µl 0.01% Triton X-100 and desalted by gel-filtration. Finally, 6 µl of the purified anti-coding strands were analysed on a 4% GTG agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer together with 0.5, 1 and 2 pmol of SNO-10e7. From the gel, 6 µl of the purified samples A-E were estimated to contain app 0.75 pmol anti-coding strands, ready to be used as second-generation secondary libraries in the next round of screening.

    Step i) Repetitions - Second round


    Step c-1) Hybridising oligonucleotide species of the second generation secondary library with oligonucleotide species of the primary library



    [0203] Second-generation secondary libraries, primary libraries and hybridisation buffer (330 µl 20xSSC + 110 µl 0.1% Triton X-100 + 312.4 µl H2O) were aliquoted into tubes A1-E2 according to the scheme below.

    A1) 10e7 library:

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-NheI

    8 µl sample A from previous round (app. 1 pmol)

    1.2 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    A2) 10e7 library, 10 x diluted secondary library:

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-NheI

    8 µl sample A from previous round 10x diluted in 0.01% Triton (app. 0.1 pmol)

    1.2 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    B1) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as A1 :

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-NheI

    8 µl sample B from previous round

    1.2 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    B2) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as A2:

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-Nhel

    8 µl sample B from previous round 10x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    1.2 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    C1) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as A1:

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    8 µl sample C from previous round

    3.6 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    C2) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as A2:

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    8 µl sample C from previous round 10x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    3.6 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    D1) 10e8 library:

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

    3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Nhel

    8 µl sample D from previous round

    0.5 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    D2) 10e8 library, 10x diluted secondary library:

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

    3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Nhel

    8 µl sample D from previous round 10x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    0.5 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    E1) 10e9 library:

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e9

    3.6 µl 1 pM PSO-Nhel

    8 µl sample E from previous round

    E2) 10e9 library, 10x diluted:

    68.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e9

    3.6 µl 1 pM PSO-Nhel

    8 µl sample E from previous round 10x diluted in 0.01% Triton



    [0204] As in round 1, the libraries (samples A1 to E2) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C ON with mixing in a table shaker for hybridisation.

    Step d-1) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library hybridised to the secondary library



    [0205] 240 µl solid phase bound target suspension was centrifuged to pellet the solid phase (sepharose beads). The supernatant was disposed and 1200 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The equilibrated solid phase bound target was then resuspended in 228 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 300 µl. 25 µl equilibrated solid phase suspension was added to samples A1-E2 from and incubated at 65 °C for 20 minutes with mixing.

    [0206] Step e-1) Selecting the primary oligonucleotides of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule, thereby also secondary oligonucleotides hybridised to selected primary oligonucleotides.

    [0207] After incubation with the solid phase, samples were centrifuged, the supernatant disposed, beads resuspended in 180 µl 10xwash buffer (1 M NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8) containing 0.01% Triton X-100 and re-incubated at 65 °C for 20 minutes with mixing. For second wash, the samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 180 µl 10xwash buffer. This was followed by a third wash where the samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 180 µl 1xwash buffer. Next, the beads were pelleted by centrifugation and supernatant disposed.

    Step f-1) Amplifying the hybridised oligonucleotides



    [0208] Residual biotin binding sides on the solid phase were blocked by addition of 1 µl 20 mM Biotin (Sigma, B-4501) and the total volume of the samples adjusted to 20 µl by addition of lxwash buffer (app. 8 µl). This was followed by incubation at room-temperature (RT; 25 °C) for 5 minutes with mixing.

    PCR amplification:



    [0209] 2 µl of samples A1-E2 were added 44 µl PCR mix containing:

    35 µl H20

    5 µl 10xbuffer

    1.5 µl 50 mM MgCl2

    2 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each

    0.5 µl polymerase



    [0210] As a negative PCR control, sample F, 2 µl lxwash buffer was added 44 µl PCR mix (as above).

    [0211] Samples A-F was incubated at 72 °C for 5 minutes, where after 2 µl 10 µM primer PCR-11 and 2 µl 10 µM primer PCR-12 were added to samples A-F.

    [0212] A positive restriction control, PCR marker, was prepared: 1 µl 10 nM PSO-NheI + 1 µl 10 nM SSO-NheI was added 44 µl PCR mix (as above) + 2 µl 10 µM primer PCR-11 and 2 µl 10 µM primer PCR-12 in a PCR tube.

    [0213] Amplification of samples A1-F and PCR marker was performed using the same program (standard PCR) as in the previous round, step f-1.

    [0214] After amplification, beads were removed by spin-filtration (using Quantum Prep Mini Spin Columns, Bio-Rad, 732-6100).

    Step j) Monitoring the evolution of the secondary library



    [0215] 5 µl PCR marker and samples A1-F were added 1 µl NheI + 1 µl buffer 2 + 3 µl H2O and incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours. The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and together with a 25 bp DNA ladder resolved on a 4% GTG (BioWhittaker (BMA), 50084) agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer, figure 2A.
    As negative control for restriction, 5 µl PCR marker and samples A1-F were added 1 µl buffer 2 + 4 µl H2O and incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours. The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and together with a 25 bp DNA ladder resolved on an agarose gel, figure 2B.
    Samples A1, B1, C1, D1 and E1 resulted in a clearly visible PCR product whereas samples A2, B2, C2, D2 and E2 resulted in a lesser visible or non-visible PCR product, in accordance with the lower concentrations of second-generation secondary library used. The restriction analysis indicates that after round 2, A1 has evolved as to contain about 50% (1/2) signal oligonucleotide from the original 1/1.7x107. D1 has evolved to contain about 5% (1/20) signal oligonucleotide from the original 1/1.3x108, which corresponds respectively to enrichments of approximately 8.5x106 and 6.5x106 after two rounds.

    Step h) Preparing the second-generation secondary library for the next round



    [0216] The process was continued with a third round, wherefore large scale PCR amplifications of selected (non-amplified) oligonucleotides from step f-1) was done, before purifying truncated anti-coding strands

    Large scale PCR amplification:



    [0217] Samples A1, B1, C1, D1 and E1 (18 µl) were each added 442 µl PCR mix containing:

    352 µl H2O

    50 µl 10xbuffer

    15 µl 50 mM MgCl2

    20 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each

    5 µl polymerase



    [0218] The samples were incubated at 72 °C for 5 minutes. Hereafter, 20 µl 10 µM primer PCR-11 and 20 µl 10 µM primer PCR-12 were added and the samples were aliquoted into PCR tubes.

    [0219] Amplification was performed using the standard PCR program, as in round 1, step f-1.

    [0220] After amplification, beads were removed by spin-filtration.

    Cleavage of the anti-coding strand with the nicking enzyme N. Bbv C IA:



    [0221] Sample A1-E1 were concentrated, desalted and digested as in step h, round 1, followed by EtOH precipitation and dissolution in 20 µl H2O.

    Purification of nicked DNA under non-denaturing conditions:



    [0222] After addition of 10 µl formamide loading buffer to samples A1-E1, nicked DNA was purified as in step h, round 1.

    Binding of coding strands to streptavidin and elution of anti-coding strand:



    [0223] As in step h, round 1.

    Purification of anti-coding strands under denaturing conditions



    [0224] As in step h, round 1.

    [0225] 10 µl of the purified A1-E1 samples (total vol. 50 µl) were analysed on a 4 % GTG agarose gel, using 1xTBE as running buffer, together with 0, 1 and 2 pmol of SNO-10e7. From the gel, 10 µl of A1 was estimated to contain app 0.2 pmol truncated anticoding strands whereas 10 µl of B1, C1, D1 or E1 contained app 2 pmol truncated anti-coding strands ready to be used as third-generation secondary libraries in the next round of screening.

    Step i) Repetitions - third round


    Step c-1) Hybridising oligonucleotide species of the third generation secondary library with oligonucleotide species of the primary library



    [0226] Third-generation secondary A1-E1 libraries, primary libraries and hybridisation buffer (330 µl 20xSSC + 110 µl 0.1% Triton X-100 + 345.4 µl H2O) were aliquoted into tubes A1-E2 according to the scheme below.

    A1) 10e7 library, 100 x diluted secondary library:

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-Nhel

    5 µl sample A1 from previous round 100x diluted in 0.01% Triton (app 1 fmol)

    1.2 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    A2) 10e7, 1000 x diluted secondary library:

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-Nhel

    5 µl sample A1 from previous round 1.000x diluted in 0.01% Triton (app 0.1 fmol)

    1.2 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    B1) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as A1 :

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-Nhel

    5 µl sample B1 from previous round 1.000x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    1.2 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    B2) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as A2:

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-Nhel

    5 µl sample B1 from previous round 10.000x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    1.2 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    C1) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as A1:

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    5 µl sample C1 from previous round 1.000x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    3.6 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    C2) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as A2:

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    5 µl sample C1 from previous round 10.000x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    3.6 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    D1) 10e8, 1000 x diluted secondary library::

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

    3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Nhel

    5 µl sample D1 from previous round 1.000x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    0.5 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    D2) 10e8 10000 x diluted secondary library:

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

    3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Nhel

    5 µl sample D1 from previous round 10.000x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    0.5 µl 0.1% Triton X-100

    E1) 10e9, 1000 x diluted secondary library:

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e9

    3.6 µl 1 pM PSO-Nhel

    5 µl sample E1 from previous round 1.000x diluted in 0.01% Triton

    E2) 10e9, 10000 x diluted secondary library:

    71.4 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e9

    3.6 µl 1 pM PSO-Nhel

    5 µl sample E1 from previous round 10.000x diluted in 0.01% Triton



    [0227] As in round 1 and 2, the libraries (samples A1 to E2) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C ON with mixing in a table shaker for hybridisation.

    Step d-1) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library hybridised to the secondary library



    [0228] As in the previous round, step d-1

    [0229] Step e-1) Selecting the primary oligonucleotides of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule, thereby also secondary oligonucleotides hybridised to selected primary oligonucleotides.

    [0230] As in the previous round, step e-1

    Step f-1) Amplifying the hybridised oligonucleotides



    [0231] As in the previous round, step f-1

    Step j) Monitoring the evolution of the secondary library



    [0232] 5 µl PCR marker and samples Al-F were added 1 µl NheI + 1 µl buffer 2 + 3 µl H20 and incubated at 37 °C for 3 hours. The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and together with a 25 bp DNA ladder resolved on an 4 % GTG agarose gel, figure 3A.
    As negative control for restriction, 5 µl of PCR marker and sample Al-F were added 1 µl buffer 2 + 4 µl H20 and incubated at 37 °C for 3 hours. The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and together with a 25 bp DNA ladder resolved on an agarose gel, figure 3B.

    [0233] Samples A1 and A2 had evolved to contain app. 90% signal (approximately 1,5x107 fold enrichment) and D1 to contain about 50% signal (approximately 6,5x107 fold enrichment). E1 or E2 had not yet evolved to a detectable level where digestion was visible. The experiment might have been continued with another round to see whether samples E (10e9 library) would eventually give a signal (visible digestion), but instead a new experiment was initiated.

    Exam pie 2



    [0234] Various questions may be asked to infer the generality of the use of a reporter library by hybridisation to detect e.g. the presence of a ligand such as an encoded molecule or an aptamer in a library of such molecules. First, is the system dependent on the very strong interaction displayed by the model system (biotin-streptavidin interaction) used? According to example 1, it does not appear so, as only mild washing conditions were used. However, in the present example also a weaker interaction is tested.

    [0235] Another question, is whether evolution of a reporter library is dependent on perfect or nearly perfect hybridisation for information transfer from the primary to the secondary library? These questions will be sought answered in the present example 2.

    [0236] In example 2, three different libraries were used and two variants of solid phase bound target was used; SoftLink™ Soft Release Avidin Resin (in short: SoftLink) and Tetralink™ Tetrameric Avidin Resin (in short: TetraLink). Tetralink has a very strong interaction with biotin with a dissociation constant (kd) of app 10-14 M, whereas Softlink has a relatively weak interaction reflected in a high dissociation constant of 10-7 M. Comparing the results of using the two targets should indicate whether the method is dependent on the extremely strong interaction typical for biotin and avidin/streptavidin. Moreover, the results may be compared to those in example 1 where streptavidin immobilized on sepharose is used as target.

    [0237] Two answer whether perfect hybridisation is a requirement for the method, we designed a library where sequences have a maximum of sequence identity. Thus, in the information transfer (hybridisation), the signal (and obviously also the noise oligonucleotides) may basepair to its perfect match (36/36 basepairs) or to secondary oligonucleotides containing 35 out of 36 correct positions, 34 out of 36 etc. At the given hybridisation conditions, we anticipate that many faulty hybridisations will be occurring, although with a bias against perfect hybridisation.

    PCR primers:



    [0238] 

    Primary PCR primer, PCR-11:
    5' b GGGAGA CAAGAA TAACCT CAGC

    Secondary PCR primer, PCR-12:
    5' GCCTGT TGTGAG CCTCCT GTCGAA



    [0239] "b" indicates a biotin group, which will be incorporated in the coding strand of the PCR-product.

    [0240] The underlined sequence is the complementary of "5'GCTGAGG" which is recognised by the ss DNA restriction enzyme N.BbvC IA (NEB, R0631L, 10 U/µl) and cleaved between the nucleotides in bold. This restriction site is used to cleave of the 3'-fixed region of anticoding Oligonucleotides.

    Primary PCR product extending primer, Ext1-PCR11:
    cacgac gttgta aaacga ca GGGAG ACAAG AATAA CCTCA

    Secondary PCR product extending primer, Ext2-PCR12:
    ggataa caattt cacaca ga GCCT GTTGT GAGCC TCCTG T

    Primary sequencing primer, Ext1 :
    cacgac gttgta aaacga ca

    Secondary sequencing primer, Ext2:
    ggataa caattt cacaca ga


    Step a) Providing the primary libraries



    [0241] As in example 1, redundant positions during DNA-oligonucleotide synthesis are used to build the libraries.

    10e6 library, SoftLink and TetraLink, BamHI marker:



    [0242] 

    Primary signal oligo, PSO-BamHI:

    Primary noise oligo, PNO-10e6:

    (actual diversity: 212 x 36 = 3 x 106)



    [0243] "GGATCC" is the sequence recognised by the ds DNA restriction enzyme BamHI (NEB, R0136L, 20 U/µl) which cleaves between the two nucleotides marked in bold type.

    10e7 library, TetraLink, max. identity, Pacl marker:



    [0244] 

    Primary signal oligo, PSO-PacI:

    Primary noise oligo, PNO-10e7:

    (actual diversity: 224 = 1.7 x 107)



    [0245] TTAATTAA" is the sequence recognised by the ds DNA restriction enzyme Pacl (NEB, R0547L, 10 U/µl) which cleaves between the two nucleotides marked in bold type. This restriction site is used to monitor the evolution of the secondary library.

    10e8 library, TetraLink, BamHI marker:



    [0246] 

    Primary signal oligo, PSO-BamHI:

    Primary noise oligo, PNO-10e8:

    (actual diversity: 227 = 1.3 x 108)


    Step b) Providing the secondary libraries


    10e6 library, SoftLink and TetraLink, BamHI marker:



    [0247] 

    Secondary signal oligo, SSO-BamHI:

    Secondary noise oligo, SNO-10e6:


    10e7 library, TetraLink, max. identity, Pacl marker:



    [0248] 

    Secondary signal oligo, SSO-PacI:

    Secondary noise oligo, SNO-10e7:


    10e8 library, TetraLink, BamHI marker:



    [0249] 

    Secondary signal oligo, SSO-BamHI:

    Secondary noise oligo, SNO-10e8:


    Step c-1) Hybridising secondary oligonucleotides of the first generation secondary library with primary oligonucleotides of the primary library



    [0250] DNA-oligonucleotides and hybridisation buffer (300 µl 20xSSC + 100 µl 0.1% Triton X-100 + 138 µl H20) were aliquoted into tubes A-H according to the scheme below.
    1. A) 10e6, SoftLink

      53.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e6

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM SSO-Bam HI

      1 µl 0.01% Triton

    2. B) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as A:

      53.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e6

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      3.6 µl 0.01% Triton

    3. C) 10e6, TetraLink:

      53.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e6

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM SSO-Bam HI

      1 µl 0.01% Triton

    4. D) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as C:

      53.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e6

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      3.6 µl 0.01% Triton

    5. E) 10e7, max identity

      53.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e7

      2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-PacI

      3.8 µl 0.01% Triton

    6. F) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as E:

      53.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e7

      6.2 µl 0.01% Triton

    7. G) 10e8, TetraLink:

      53.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e8

      3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Bam HI

      3.1 µl 10 pM SSO-Bam HI

    8. H) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as G:

      53.8 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

      20 µl 200 µM SNO-10e8

      3.1 µl 10 pM PSO Bam HI

      3.1 µl 0.01% Triton



    [0251] Next, the libraries (tubes A to H) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C overnight (ON) with mixing in a table shaker for hybridisation.

    [0252] Step d-1) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library hybridised to the secondary library.

    [0253] 60 µl solid phase bound target (app. 50% SoftLink Soft Release Avidin Resin in 20% EtOH, Promega, V2011) was centrifuged to pellet the solid phase. The supernatant was disposed and 600 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The solid phase was resuspended in 45 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 75 µl.
    140 µl solid phase bound target (app. 50% TetraLink Tetrameric Avidin Resin in 20% EtOH, Promega, V2591) was centrifuged to pellet the solid phase. The supernatant was disposed and 1400 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The solid phase was resuspended in 105 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 175 µl.

    [0254] 25 µl equilibrated solid phase was added to the samples (SoftLink to A and B, and TetraLink to samples C-H) followed by incubation at 65 °C for 60 minutes with mixing.

    step e-1) Selecting the primary oligonucleotides of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule, thereby also selecting secondary oligonucleotides hybridised to selected primary oligonucleotides



    [0255] After incubation with the solid phase bound target, samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed, beads resuspended in 180 µl 10xwash buffer (1 M NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCI pH 8) containing 0.01% Triton X-100 and re-incubated at 65 °C for 45 minutes with mixing. For the second wash, samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 180 µl 10xwash buffer. This was followed by a third wash where the samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 180 µl 1xwash buffer. Next, the beads were pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed.

    Step f-1) Amplifying the hybridised oligonucleotides



    [0256] Residual biotin binding sides on the solid phase were blocked by addition of 1 µl 20 mM Biotin (Sigma, B-4501) and the total volume of the samples adjusted to 20 µl by addition of 1xwash buffer (app. 8 µl). This was followed by incubation at room-temperature (RT; 25 °C) for 5 minutes with mixing.

    [0257] Samples A-H was added 440 µl PCR mix containing:

    350 µl H20

    50 µl 10xbuffer (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    15 µl 50 mM MgCl2 (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    20 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each (Bioline, BIO-39025)

    5 µl polymerase (BIO-X-ACT long, Bioline, BIO-21050)



    [0258] As a negative PCR control, sample I, 2 µl 1xwash buffer was added 44 µl PCR mix (as above).

    [0259] Samples A-I were incubated at 72 °C for 5 minutes. Hereafter, 20 µl 10 µM primer PCR11 and 20 µl 10 µM primer PCR12 were added to samples A-H and 2 µl of each primer to sample I. The samples were aliquoted into PCR tubes and amplification was performed using the following (standard PCR) program:
    Initial denaturation: 94 °C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94°C, 30 sec
    68°C, 60 sec
    72°C, 10 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0260] After amplification, the beads were removed by spin-filtration (Microporous 0.22 micron ultrafree-MC centrifugal filter units, Millipore, UFC3 0GV NB).

    Step j) Monitoring the evolution of the secondary library



    [0261] 5 µl of samples A-D, G-I and PCR marker 1 were each added 1 µl BamHI + 1 µl buffer H (Roche, 1417991)+ 3 µl H20. 5 µl of samples E and F were each added 1 µl PacI + 1 µl buffer 1 (New England Biolabs)+ 3 µl H20 The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and together with a 25 bp DNA ladder (Promega, G4511) resolved on a 4% GTG (BioWhittaker (BMA), 50084) agarose gel using 1xTBEas running buffer, figure 4A.
    As negative restriction controls, 5 µl of sample A-I were added 1 µl buffer H + 4 µl H20 and incubated at 37 °C for 1 hour. The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and together with a 25 bp DNA ladder resolved on an GTG agarose gel, figure 4B
    No restriction was detected after round 1. Hence we moved on to cleavage and purification of the anti-coding DNA strands of the PCR products to generate the second-generation secondary libraries for the next round of screening.

    Step h) Preparing the second-generation secondary library for the next round



    [0262] The 3'fixed region of the anticoding strand of the secondary library was cleaved off using N. Bbv C IA, where after the truncated anticoding strand containing the 5-fixed region and the anticoding region was gel-purified.

    [0263] Samples A-H were concentrated with an EtOH precipitation by adding 3M NaAc pH 4.5 (0.1 times the sample volume) and 95% EtOH (2 times the sample volume), incubation at -80 °C for 20 minutes, centrifugation at 20.000g for 40 minutes, disposal of the supernatant, air drying of the pellet before dissolution in 100 µl H2O by incubation at RT for 20 minutes with mixing. Next, the samples were desalted by gel-filtration on G25 columns (MicroSpin G-25 Columns, Amersham, 27-5325-01), where after the PCR products were digested by adding 15 µl buffer 2 (NEB, B7002S) + 5 µl N.BbvC IA + H2O up till 150 µl, followed by incubation at 37 °C ON. After digestion, the samples were added 1 µl glycogen (20 mg/ml, Roche, 901 393), EtOH precipitated and pellets dissolved in 15 µl H2O.

    Purification of nicked DNA under non-denaturing conditions:



    [0264] After addition of 7.5 µl formamide loading buffer (95% formamide, 20 mM EDTA, Bromophenol Blue) to samples A-H, nicked DNA was resolved from non-nicked DNA on a polyacrylamide gel (1xTBE, 6 M urea, 10% polyacrylamide, 0.25% bis-polyacrylamide, length: 15.5 cm, width: 14.5 cm and thickness: 0.1 cm) by running the gel at low temperature. Appropriate size markers were included. After 4.5 hours at 300 volt, the gel was soaked for 10 minutes in 400 ml 1xTBE + 200 µl EtBr (2 mg/ml), which allowed visualization of DNA bands with UV-light. The band (gel-piece) corresponding to nicked DNA was cut out of the gel, soaked in 400 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 and incubated at room temperature over night with mixing for passive elution of the DNA. After elution, acryl amide pieces were removed by spin-filtration.

    Binding of coding strands to streptavidin and elution of anti-coding strand:



    [0265] 180 µl solid phase suspension (app. 30% Streptavidin Sepharose High Performance beads in 20% EtOH, Amersham, 17-5113-01) was centrifuged to pellet the solid phase. The supernatant was disposed and 900 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The solid phase was resuspended in 171 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 225 µl.

    [0266] 25 µl equilibrated solid phase suspension was added to samples A-H, followed by incubation at RT for 30 minutes with mixing. To wash the beads, the samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed, beads resuspended in 180 µl 1xwash buffer. Next, the samples were transferred to spin-filters and centrifuged for 30 seconds at 1000g. The beads were then resuspended in 40 µl 100 mM NaOH and incubated at RT for 5 minutes. To collect the anti-coding DNA strands, the filters were centrifuged at 20.000g for 30 seconds. 40 µl eluate was neutralized by adding 40 µl 100 mM HCI and immediately followed by addition of 1 µl glycogen, EtOH precipitation and redissolution in 7.5 µl H2O.

    Purification of anti-coding strands under denaturing conditions:



    [0267] After addition of 15 µl formamide loading buffer, samples A-H were incubated at 94°C for 6 minutes with mixing, and placed on ice before loading on a polyacrylamide gel (1xTBE, 8M urea, 10% polyacrylamide, 0.25% bis-polyacrylamide, length: 25 cm, width: 24 cm and thickness: 0.1 cm) and run at high temperature (app 55 °C). Appropriate size markers were included. After 4½ hours at 700 volt, the gel was soaked for 10 minutes in 400 ml 1xTBE + 200 µl EtBr (2 mg/ml), which allowed visualization of DNA bands with UV-light. The bands corresponding to the anti-coding strands, devoid of the 3' fixed region were cut out of the gel, soaked in 400 µl 10xwash buffer, 0.01% Triton X-100 and incubated at RT ON with mixing for passive elution of the DNA. After elution, polyacrylamide pieces were removed by spin-filtration. Next, the samples were EtOH precipitated, dissolved in 50 µl 0.01% Triton X-100 and desalted by gel-filtration. Finally, 10 µl of the purified anti-coding A-E strands together with 0.5, 1 and 2 pmol of SNO-10e7 were analysed on a 4% GTG agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer.

    [0268] 10 µl of the purified samples A, B and D-H were estimated to contain app 0.8 pmol and C app 0.4 pmol anti-coding strands, ready to be used as second-generation secondary libraries in the next round of screening.

    Step i) Repetitions - Second round


    Step c-1) Hybridising secondary oligonucleotides of the second generation secondary library with primary oligonucleotides of the primary library



    [0269] Second-generation secondary A-H libraries, primary libraries and hybridisation buffer (300 µl 20xSSC + 100 µl 0.1% Triton X-100 + 119 µl H2O) were aliquoted into tubes A-H according to the scheme below.
    1. A) 10e6, SoftLink:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      25 µl sample A from previous round (app. 2 pmol)

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      0.5 µl 0.01% Triton

    2. B) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as A:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      25 µl sample B from previous round (app. 2 pmol)

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      0.5 µl 0.01% Triton

    3. C) 10e6, TetraLink:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      25 µl sample C from previous round (app. 1 pmol)

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      0.5 µl 0.01% Triton

    4. D) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as C:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      12.5 µl sample D from previous round (app. 1 pmol)

      12.5 µl H2O

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      0.5 µl 0.01% Triton

    5. E) 10e7, max identity:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

      12.5 µl sample E from previous round (app. 1 pmol)

      12.5 µl H2O

      2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-PacI

      0.7 µl 0.01% Triton

    6. F) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as E:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

      12.5 µl sample F from previous round (app. 1 pmol)

      12.5 µl H2O

      3.1 µl 0.01% Triton

    7. G) 10e8, TetraLink:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

      12.5 µl sample G from previous round (app. 1 pmol)

      12.5 µl H2O

      3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Bam HI

    8. H) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as G:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

      12.5 µl sample H from previous (app. 1 pmol)

      12.5 µl H2O

      3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Bam HI



    [0270] As in round 1, the libraries (tubes A to H) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C ON with mixing in a table shaker for hybridisation.

    Step d-1) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library hybridised to the secondary library



    [0271] The solid phase bound targets were equilibrated as described in the previous round to give a total of 75 µl SoftLink and 175 µl TetraLink.

    [0272] 25 µl equilibrated solid phase was added to the samples (SoftLink to A and B, and TetraLink to samples C-H) followed by incubation at 65 °C for 30 minutes with mixing.

    step e-1) Selecting the primary oligonucleotides of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule, thereby also selecting secondary oligonucleotides hybridised to selected primary oligonucleotides



    [0273] Selection was done as described in the previous round, step e-1

    Step f-1) Amplifying the oligonucleotides



    [0274] Residual biotin binding sides on the solid phase were blocked by addition of 1 µl 20 mM Biotin (Sigma, B-4501) and the total volume of the samples adjusted to 20 µl by addition of 1xwash buffer (app. 8 µl). This was followed by incubation at room-temperature (RT; 25 °C) for 5 minutes with mixing.

    Samples A-H and as a negative control, I, was PCR amplified as in the previous round (step f-1) in 500 µl and 50 µl reactions, respectively.



    [0275] After amplification, the beads were removed by spin-filtration (Microporous 0.22 micron ultrafree-MC centrifugal filter units, Millipore, UFC3 0GV NB).

    [0276] As positive restriction controls, 2 µl 10 nM PSO-BamHI + 2 µl 10 nM SSO-BamHI, termed PCR marker 1 and 2 µl 10 nM PSO-PacI + 2 µl 10 nM SSO-PacI, termed PCR marker 2 were each added to a PCR mix containing:

    70 µl H20

    10 µl 10xbuffer

    3 µl 50 mM MgCl2

    4 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each

    4 µl 10 µM primer PCR11

    4 µl 10 µM primer PCR12

    1 µl polymerase



    [0277] And subsequently amplified as samples A-I.

    Step j) Monitoring the evolution of the secondary library



    [0278] 5 µl of samples A-D, G-I and PCR marker 1 were each added 1 µl BamHI + 1 µl buffer H + 3 µl H20. 5 µl of samples E, F and PCR marker 2 were each added 1 µl PacI + 1 µl buffer 1 + 3 µl H20. The samples were incubated at 37 °C for 1 hour, then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and analysed on an 4% GTG agarose, figure 5A. Samples were loaded in the following order: samples A-I, PCR marker 1, PCR marker 2 and a 25 bp DNA ladder.

    [0279] As in the previous round, negative restriction controls was also prepared, figure 5B.

    [0280] The restriction analysis indicates that after round 2, A and C have evolved as to contain about 50% signal from the original 1/3x10e6, which corresponds to an enrichment of approximately 1,5x106.

    Step h) Preparing the third-generation secondary library for the next round



    [0281] To increase the amount of PCR-product before purification of anticoding strands, a second PCR was performed using the samples from the previous step f-1 as templates.

    [0282] 10 µl of 10,000 fold diluted samples A-H were added 490 µl PCR mix that contained:

    360 µl H20

    50 µl 10xbuffer

    15 µl 50 mM MgCl2

    20 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each

    20 µl 10 µM primer PCR11

    20 µl 10 µM primer PCR12

    5 µl polymerase (Bio-XACT)


    And subsequently amplified as in step f-1



    [0283] After amplification, anticoding strands without the 3'-fixed region of the resulting PCR product was purified as described in the previous round.

    [0284] After elution of the anticoding strand from the denaturing gel, samples were ethanol precipitated and finally dissolved in 25 µl 0.01% Triton X-100 and desalted by gel-filtration. Here after 10 µl of the purified A-H samples together with 0.5, 1 and 2 pmol of SNO-10e7 were analysed on an agarose gel.

    [0285] 10 µl of samples A-G were estimated to contain app 1.5 pmol anticoding strands, whereas 10 µl of sample H contained app 0.5 pmol anti-coding strands, ready to be used as third-generation secondary libraries in the next round of screening.

    Step i) Repetitions - Third round


    Step c-1) Hybridising secondary oligonucleotides of the third generation secondary library with primary oligonucleotides of the primary library



    [0286] Third-generation secondary libraries (samples A-H), primary libraries and hybridisation buffer (300 µl 20xSSC + 100 µl 0.1% Triton X-100 + 119 µl H2O) were aliquoted into tubes A-H according to the scheme below.
    1. A) 10e6, SoftLink:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      25 µl sample A from the previous round diluted to app 0.16 nM (app. 4 fmol)

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      0.5 µl 0.01% Triton

    2. B) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as A:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      25 µl sample B from the previous round diluted to app 0.16 nM (app. 4 fmol)

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      0.5 µl 0.01% Triton

    3. C) 10e6, TetraLink:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      25 µl sample C from the previous round diluted to app 0.16 nM (app. 4 fmol)

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      0.5 µl 0.01% Triton

    4. D) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as C:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e6

      25 µl sample D from the previous round diluted to app 0.16 nM (app. 4 fmol)

      2.6 µl 0.5 nM PSO-Bam HI

      0.5 µl 0.01% Triton

    5. E) 10e7, max identity:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

      25 µl sample E from the previous round diluted to app 0.04 nM (app. 1 fmol)

      2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-PacI

      0.7 µl 0.01% Triton

    6. F) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as E:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

      25 µl sample F from the previous round diluted to app 0.04 nM (app. 1 fmol)

      3.1 µl 0.01% Triton

    7. G) 10e8, TetraLink:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

      25 µl sample G from the previous round diluted to app 0.04 nM (app. 1 fmol)

      3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Bam HI

    8. H) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as G:

      51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

      25 µl sample H from the previous round diluted to app 0.04 nM (app. 1 fmol)

      3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Bam HI



    [0287] As in round 1 and 2, the libraries (tubes A to H) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C ON with mixing for hybridisation.

    Step d-1) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library hybridised to the secondary library



    [0288] The solid phase bound targets were equilibrated as described in the previous rounds to give a total of 75 µl SoftLink and 175 µl TetraLink.

    [0289] 25 µl equilibrated solid phase was added to the samples (SoftLink to A and B, and TetraLink to samples C-H) followed by incubation at 65 °C for 30 minutes with mixing.

    step e-1) Selecting the primary oligonucleotides of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule, thereby also selecting secondary oligonucleotides hybridised to selected primary oligonucleotides



    [0290] Selection was done as described in the previous rounds with three washing steps

    Step f-1) Selecting the primary oligonucleotides of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule, thereby also selecting secondary oligonucleotides hybridised to selected primary oligonucleotides



    [0291] As described in the previous rounds, residual binding sites on the solid phase was blocked, where after 20 µl of samples A-H and a negative control, I (2 µl 1xwash buffer), was amplified in 500 µl and 50 µl reactions, respectively.

    [0292] Because samples A-H all resulted in relatively little PCR product, a second PCR was performed as described in step h) of the previous round, where after the samples were gelfiltrated with buffer exchange into 0.01% triton X-100.

    Step j) Monitoring evolution of the secondary libraries by restriction analysis



    [0293] 5 µl samples A-D, G-I and PCR marker 1 were each added 1 µl BamHI + 1 µl buffer H + 3 µl H20; 5 µl samples E, F and PCR marker 2 were each added 1 µl PacI + 1 µl buffer 1 + 3 µl H20. The samples were incubated at 37 °C for 1 hour, then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on an 4% GTG agarose gel, figure 6A. Samples were loaded in the following order: samples A-I, PCR marker 1, PCR marker 2 and a 25 bp DNA ladder.
    A negative restriction control was also prepared as in the previous rounds, figure 6B.

    [0294] PCR-products of smaller size had appeared in some samples, but nonetheless it could be verified that A and C had evolved to contain approximately 90% signal and E and G to contain about 20% and 5%, respectively. The corresponding enrichment factors are approximately 2,7x106 (A and C), 3,4x106 (E) and 6,5x106 (G).

    [0295] A fourth round was performed with samples E-H.

    Step h) Preparing the second-generation secondary library for the next round



    [0296] The anticoding strands of samples E-H without the 3'-fixed region was purified as described in the previous rounds. After elution of the anticoding strand from the denaturing gel, samples were ethanol precipitated and finally dissolved in 25 µl 0.01% Triton X-100 and desalted by gel-filtration. Here after 10 µl of the purified E-H samples together with 0.5, 1 and 2 pmol of SNO-10e7 were analysed on a 4% GTG agarose gel.

    [0297] 10 µl of E-H were estimated to respectively contain app 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 pmol anti-coding strands ready to be used as fourth-generation secondary libraries in the next round of screening.

    Step i) Repetitions - Fourth round


    Step c-1) Hybridising secondary oligonucleotides of the fourth-generation secondary library with primary oligonucleotides of the primary library



    [0298] Fourth-generation secondary DNA-oligonucleotides (samples E-H), primary DNA-oligonucleotides and hybridisation buffer (300 µl 20xSSC + 100 µl 0.1% Triton X-100 + 119 µl H2O) were aliquoted into tubes E-H according to the scheme below.

    E) 10e7, max identity:

    51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    25 µl sample E from previous round diluted to app 0.05 nM (app. 1.25 fmol)

    2.4 µl 100 pM PSO-PacI

    0.7 µl 0.01% Triton

    F) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as E:

    51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e7

    25 µl sample F from previous round diluted to app 0.05 nM (app. 1.25 fmol)

    3.1 µl 0.01% Triton

    G) 10e8, TetraLink:

    51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

    25 µl sample G from previous round diluted to app 0.06 nM (app. 1.5 fm ol)

    3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Bam HI

    H) Negative control omitting signal in secondary library, otherwise as G:

    51.9 µl hybridisation buffer

    20 µl 200 µM PNO-10e8

    25 µl sample H from previous round diluted to app 0.06 nM (app.

    1.5 fmol)

    3.1 µl 10 pM PSO-Bam HI



    [0299] As in round 1, 2 and 3, the libraries (tubes E to H) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C ON with mixing for hybridisation.

    Step d-1) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library hybridised to the secondary library



    [0300] 175 µl TetraLink was equilibrated as described in the previous rounds and 25 µl was added to samples E-H followed by incubation at 65 °C for 30 minutes with mixing.

    step e-1) Selecting the primary oligonucleotides of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule, thereby also selecting secondary oligonucleotides hybridised to selected primary oligonucleotides



    [0301] Selection was done as described in the previous rounds with three washing steps

    Step f-1) Amplifying the oligonucleotides



    [0302] As described in the previous rounds; residual binding sites on the solid phase was blocked, where after 20 µl samples E-H and as a negative control, I (2 µl 1xwash buffer), was amplified in 500 µl and 50 µl reactions, respectively.

    Step j. Monitoring evolution of the libraries by restriction analysis



    [0303] 5 µl of samples G, H and I were each added 1 µl BamHI + 1 µl buffer H + 3 µl H20; 5 µl samples E and F were each added 1 µl PacI + 1 µl buffer 1 + 3 µl H20. The samples were incubated at 37 °C for 1 hour, then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel, figure 7A.

    [0304] Samples were loaded in the follwing order: samples E-I and a 25 bp DNA ladder.
    As in the previous rounds, a negative restriction control was also prepared, figure 7B.

    [0305] PCR by-products had again appeared. Nonetheless it can be seen that E and G had evolved to contain app. 90% and 80% signal, corresponding to enrichment factors of 1,5x107 and 108.

    DNA-sequencing of secondary libraries



    [0306] Evolution of the 107 and 108 libraries were further analysed by DNA-sequencing of the libraries
    To generate templates for sequencing, 48 µl PCR mix (560 µl H2O + 80 µl 10xBuf + 32 µl 5 mM dNTPs + 24 µl 50 mM MgCl2 + 32 µl 10 µM primer Ext1-PCR11 + 32 µl 10 µM primer Ext2-PCR12 + 8 µl XACT) was added to each of the following samples:

    1: Fourth round sample F, i.e. negative control without signal in primary 107 library:
    2 µl 100x diluted PCR-product F from round 4

    2: Reference sequence of the noise oligos in the 10e7 library
    1 µl 1 µM PNO-10e7 + 1 µl 1 µM SNO-10e7

    3: Sequence after 1' round selection of 10e7 library
    2 µl 10,000x diluted PCR E from round 1

    4: Sequence after 2' round selection of 10e7 library
    2 µl 10,000x diluted PCR E from round 2

    5: Sequence after 3' round selection of 10e7 library
    2 µl 100x diluted PCR E from round 3

    6: Sequence after 4' round selection of 10e7 library
    2 µl 100x diluted PCR E from round 4

    7: Reference sequence of the signal oligo in the 10e7 library
    1 µl 10 nM SSO-PacI + 1 µl 10 nM PSO-PacI

    8: Fourth round sample H, i.e. negative control without signal in primary 108 library:
    2 µl 100x diluted PCR H from round 4

    9: Reference sequence of the noise oligos in the 10e8 library
    1 µl 1 µM PNO-10e8 + 1 µl 1 µM SNO-10e8

    10: Sequence after 1' round selection of 10e8 library
    2 µl 10,000x diluted PCR G from round 1

    11: Sequence after 2' round selection of 10e8 library
    2 µl 10,000x diluted PCR G from round 2

    12: Sequence after 3' round selection of 10e8 library
    2 µl 100x diluted PCR G from round 3

    13: Sequence after 4' round selection of 10e8 library
    2 µl 100x diluted PCR G from round 4

    14: Reference sequence of the signal oligo in the 10e8 library
    1 µl 10 nM SSO-Bam HI + 1 µl 10 nM PSO-Bam HI



    [0307] Amplification was performed using the standard PCR program (see step f-1, round 1), except that the hybridisation temperature was 52 °C instead of 68 °C.

    [0308] 15 µl of each of the above PCR samples, 1-14, was added to 4 µl 30% glycerol and together with the 25 bp DNA ladder resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer. The PCR products (122 bp long) were cut out of the gel and purified with QIAEX II (QIAGEN, 20051) according to the manufacture's protocol.

    [0309] A 5'-labelled sequencing primer was prepared by incubating 7.5 µl 2 µM primer Ext2 + 7.5 µl γ 32P-ATP (10 mCi/ml, 5000 Ci/mmol; Amersham) + 19 µl H2O + 4 µl T4 polynucleotide kinase buffer + 2 µl T4 polynucleotide kinase (NEB, M0201L) at 37 °C for 30 minutes, followed by heat-inactivation of the enzyme by incubation at 70 °C for 10 minutes and finally purification of the primer by gel-filtration on G25 columns.

    [0310] For each of PCR-samples 1-14, a sequencing pre-mix was prepared that contained: 3 µl purified PCR-sample (app 0.1 pmol) + 3 µl G25 purified 5'-labelled primer (app 1 pmol) + 20.5 µl H2O + 3 µl cycling mix (500 mM Tris pH 8.9, 100 mM KCI, 25 mM MgCl2, 0.25% Tween 20) + 0.5 µl Taq polymerase. From each pre-mix, 6 µl was added to four PCR tubes containing 2 µl G, A, T or C termination-mix (G: 10 µM each of dGTP, dATP, dTTP and dCTP + 80 µM ddGTP; A: 10 µM each of dGTP, dATP, dTTP and dCTP + 600 µM ddATP; T: 10 µM each of dGTP, dATP, dTTP and dCTP + 900 µM ddTTP; C: 10 µM each of dGTP, dATP, dTTP and dCTP + 300 µM ddCTP).
    The resulting 14x 4 sequence samples were thermocycled in a PCR-machine using the following program:
    Initial denaturation: 94 °C, 2 min
    25 cycles: 94° C, 30 sec
    52°C, 30 sec
    72°C, 30 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 2 min


    [0311] After thermocycling, 6 µl formamide loading buffer was added to each tube, where after the samples (sequencing reactions) where resolved on denaturing PAGE:
    2 µl of the sequence reactions were loaded on a polyacrylamide (1xTBE, 7 M urea, 8% polyacrylamide, 0.3% bis-polyacrylamide) gel and run at high temperature. After 1.5 hours with 50 watt, the gel was transferred to Whatman paper and dried. The 32P labelled DNA was visualized with a phosphor imager scanner and the result is shown in figure 8A (samples 1-7) and 8B (samples 8-14). As clearly seen and in agreement with the restriction analyses performed, the signal oligonucleotide is not visible until after the third round of selection and after the fourth round the library primarily contains the signal oligonucleotide.

    Conclusion:



    [0312] Example 2 demonstrates that the method is not dependent on strong interactions, but can also be used for identification of relatively week interactions, as the interaction between biotin and Soft Link (kd 10-7 M). This is not entirely unexpected, as the strong interaction (kd 10-14 M) used in the other experiments is not used exploited in extensive washing procedures to give a high enrichment (strong selection). Thus, three relatively mild washes were employed, where one could have used a larger volume of wash buffer, more harsh buffer such as e.g. 100 mM NaOH and a larger number of washing steps. In conclusion, identification of both high and low-affinity compounds from libraries of encoded compounds and aptamer libraries should be possible using the method.

    [0313] Moreover, example 2 demonstrated that even when significant faulty hybridisation occurs, the method still works. This is a significant result, because it indicates that a plethora of tag-designs and hybridisation conditions may be used. The sequence content of tags may not necessarily be optimised to reduce faulty hybridisation (tag need not be orthogonal), the tag-length is relatively flexible, as should also hybridisation conditions be. Thus the method might be used advantageously for e.g. libraries not originally intended to be screened by Dosevo such as those prepared by e.g mRNA display, DNA-templated synthesis.'

    [0314] Finally, note that sequences had not been amplified before PCR. This is important if kinetics of hybridisation may in some way be limiting for the upper library size that can be screened using the method. Thus, if the same experiment had been performed with amplifiable oligonucleotides before hybridisation and selection, the libraries could in theory have been significantly larger. In other words, if PCR had been used to increase the copunumber of each individual library member e.g. 105 fold, the library could have been 105 larger.

    Example 3



    [0315] Screening of a 108 library with only one selection round against the target.

    [0316] In this experiment, two primary libraries were independently selected against the target, where after selected oligonucleotides were PCR-amplified. Amplified oligonucleotides of one primary library were then hybridised to amplified oligonucleotides of the other primary library. Hybridised oligonucleotides were then amplified to create the first generation secondary library.

    [0317] For the next round, a new primary selection might have been performed using either one of the primary libraries. However, in the present example only one "real" selection round of the primary library is done, where after the resulting reporter library is cross-hybridised several times, i.e. the anticoding strands of secondary library 1 are hybridised to coding strands of secondary library 2 and coding strands of secondary library 1 are hybridised to anticoding strands of secondary library 2 (or vice versa). This creates two new (and next generation) secondary libraries in which the fixed regions have been exchanged. Exchange of fixed sequences is done to facilitate amplification of only hybridised oligonucleotides.
    The process can now be repeated by hybridising coding strands of the first secondary library to anticoding strands of the second secondary library and anticoding strands of the first secondary library to coding strands of the second secondary library (or vice versa). The effect is signal amplification by cross-hybridisation. If desired, secondary libraries can at any time be hybridised to a primary library, which may be desirable to keep a selection pressure corresponding to good binders in the primary library.

    [0318] In principal, only one secondary library could have been employed (instead of two parallel secondary libraries), but in that case strands that had not been freed of their 3'-fixed region would interfere with information transfer, because they would be amplified regardless of whether they had hybridised.

    PCR-Primers:



    [0319] Four different fixed (two sets) regions for PCR-amplification was used. After each cross-hybridisation, the fixed regions was swapped to create two new sets of fixed regions. This was done to ensure efficient information transfer, as mentioned above.

    Set 1:

    Primary PCR primer 1, PCR-BamHI-1
    5' GGGATA TAGCAA TCCTAC GG

    Primary PCR primer biotin 1, PCR-BamHI-1-bt:
    5' b GGGATA TAGCAA TCCTAC GG

    Secondary PCR primer 1, PCR-EcoRI-1:
    5' GGAGTA GCAAAG TAGCGT GA

    Secondary PCR primer biotin 1, PCR-EcoRI-1-bt:
    5' b GGAGTA GCAAAG TAGCGT GA

    Set 2:

    Primary PCR primer 2, PCR-BamHI-2:
    5' GGCGTT TCTAAC AACGAA GG

    Primary PCR primer biotin 2, PCR-BamHI-2-bt:
    5' b GGCGTT TCTAAC AACGAA GG

    Secondary PCR primer 2, PCR-EcoRI-2:
    5' GGCGTG GACACC ATTTAT GA

    Secondary PCR primer biotin 2, PCR-EcoRI-2-bt:
    5' b GGCGTG GACACC ATTTAT GA


    Step a) Providing the primary libraries



    [0320] As in example 1, redundant positions during DNA-oligonucleotide synthesis were used to build the libraries.

    Primary library 1 :



    [0321] 

    Signal oligo 1, target-AvrII-1:

    ("GGATCC", "CCTAGG" and "GAATTC" are the sequences recognised by the ds DNA restriction enzymes BamHI (NEB, R0136L, 100 U/µl), AvrII (NEB, R0174L, 4 U/µl) and EcoRI (NEB, R01010L, 100 U/µl), respectively.

    Noise oligo 1, library-e8-1:


    Primary library 2:



    [0322] 

    Signal oligo 2, target-Avrll-2:

    Noise oligo 2, library-e8-2:

    (Actual redundancy: 227 = 1.3x108)


    First round


    Step b) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library



    [0323] Primary libraries and hybridisation buffer (150 µl 20xSSC + 50 µl 0.1% Triton X-100 + 84.5 µl H20) were aliquoted into tubes A-D according to the scheme below to give a total volume of 100 µl (6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100).
    1. A) Library-1:

      56.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      40 µl 100 µM library-e8-1

      3.1 µl 10 pM target-AvrII-1

    2. B) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as A:

      56.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      40 µl 100 µM library-e8-1

      3.1 µl 0.01% Triton X100

    3. C) Library-2:

      56.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      40 µl 100 µM library-e8-2

      3.1 µl 10 pM target-AvrII-2

    4. D) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as C:

      56.9 µl hybridisation buffer

      40 µl 100 µM library-e8-2

      3.1 µl 0.01% Triton X100



    [0324] Next, the libraries (sample A to D) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C for 10 minutes.
    As solid phase bound targets, streptavidin and avidin immobilised to two different solid supports were used. The use of two different solid phases (resins) could be favourable, because they may have a different background of non-specific binders. Streptavidin and avidin are very similar and both have a strong interaction with biotin. For this experiment, the idea is to mimic a situation where the same or similar targets have been immobilised on two different solid supports.

    Equilibration of the solid phase bound target:


    Solid phase I) 30% Streptavidin Sepharose High Performance beads in 20% EtOH, Amersham, 17-5113-01:



    [0325] 60 µl solid phase suspension was centrifuged to pellet the solid phase. The supernatant was disposed and 360 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The solid phase was resuspended in 42 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 60 µl.

    Solid phase II) 50% Tetrameric Avidin Resin in 20% EtOH, Promega, V2591:



    [0326] 36 µl solid phase suspension was centrifuged to pellet the solid phase, otherwise as I.

    [0327] 20 µl equilibrated solid phase I was added to samples A and B and 20 µl equilibrated solid phase II was added to samples C and D. Next, samples A-D were incubated at 65 °C for 30 minutes with mixing in a table shaker.

    Step c) Selecting the oligonucleotide species of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule



    [0328] After incubation with the solid phase bound target, samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed, beads resuspended in 300 µl 10xwash buffer (1 M NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8) containing 0.01% Triton X-100 and re-incubated at 65 °C for 30 minutes with mixing. Then the samples were centrifuged, the supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 300 µl 10xwash buffer. This was followed by a third wash where the samples were centrifuged, the supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 300 µl 1xwash buffer. Next, the beads were pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. Residual biotin binding sides on the solid phase were blocked by addition of 1 µl 20 mM Biotin (Sigma, B-4501) and the total volume of the samples adjusted to 20 µl by addition of app. 14 µl 1xwash buffer. This was followed by incubation at room-temperature for 5 minutes with mixing.

    Step d) Amplifying selected oligonucleotides to create 0th generation secondary libraries:



    [0329] 10 µl of samples A-D were added to two PCR mixes (I and II) each containing:

    360 µl H20

    50 µl 10xbuffer (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    15 µl 50 mM MgCl2 (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    20 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each (Bioline, BIO-39025)

    5 µl polymerase (BIO-X-ACT long, Bioline, BIO-21050)



    [0330] Next, primers were added as follows:

    AI and BI: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1-bt + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1

    AII and BII: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1-bt

    CI and DI: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2-bt + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2

    CII and DII: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2 + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2-bt



    [0331] As negative PCR controls, samples EI and EII, 1 µl 1xwash buffer was added to two PCR mixes each containing:

    36 µl H20

    5 µl 10xbuffer

    1.5 µl 50 mM MgCl2

    2 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each

    0.5 µl polymerase



    [0332] And primers added as follow:

    E-I: 2 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 + 2 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1

    E-II: 2 µl 10 µM PCR-Bam HI-2 + 2 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2



    [0333] As positive PCR controls, samples FI and FII, 1 µl 10 pM target-AvrII-1 (FI) and 1 µl 10 pM target-AvrII-2 (FII), respectively, were each added to a PCR mix containing:

    36 µl H20

    5 µl 10xbuffer

    1.5 µl 50 mM MgCl2

    2 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each

    0.5 µl polymerase



    [0334] And primers added as follow:

    F-I: 2 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 + 2 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1

    F-II: 2 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2 + 2 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2



    [0335] All samples were then aliquoted into PCR tubes and amplified using the following program:
    Initial denaturation: 94°C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94°C, 30 sec
    61°C, 60 sec
    72°C, 10 sec.
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0336] After amplification, beads were removed from samples AI-DII by spin-filtration (Ultrafree-MC filter microporous 0.22 micron, Millipore, UFC3 0GV NB).

    Step e) Monitoring the evolution of the secondary libraries



    [0337] The 0th generation secondary libraries represent an amplification of the information output (both noise and signal) from the primary selections. Using cross-hybridisation, the signal will be preferentially amplified to create later generation secondary libraries.

    [0338] 5 µl of samples AI, AII, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI, DII, EI, EII, FI and FII were added 2 µl AvrII + 1.6 µl buffer 2 (NEB, B7002S) + 7.4 µl H20 and incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.
    As negative restriction controls, identical samples but with 2 µl H2O instead of AvrII were incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.

    [0339] The samples were then added 4 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG (BioWhittaker (BMA), 50084) agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer.

    [0340] Figure 9A:+/- AvrII of samples AI, AII, BI, BII, CI and CII.
    Figure 9B:+/- AvrII of sample DI, DII, EI, EII, FI and FII.

    [0341] Restriction was only seen for the positive controls, FI and FII, wherefore the signal was amplified by cross-hybridisation of the 0th generation secondary libraries.

    Step f) Preparing secondary libraries for cross-hybridisation



    [0342] Secondary libraries was immobilised on streptavidin beads, digested with either EcoRI or Bam HI to release truncated oligonucleotides, devoid of 3'-fixed regions.

    Immobilisation of 0th generation secondary libraries:



    [0343] 200 µl 30% Streptavidin Sepharose High Performance beads in 20% EtOH were centrifuged to pellet the solid phase. The supernatant was disposed and 1200 µl 6x SSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The solid phase was resuspended in 140 µl 6x SSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 200 µl.
    Samples AI-DII (495 µl PCR-product) were added 200 µl 20x SSC + 20 µl equilibrated streptavidin beads. Next, samples AI-DII were incubated at RT for 30 minutes with mixing. In the first wash, samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed, beads resuspended in 300 µl 10xwash buffer, 0.01% Triton X-100 and re-incubated at RT for 30 minutes with mixing. For second wash, the samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 300 µl buffer R (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 8, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NaCl).

    Release of truncated oligonucleotides from streptavidin beads by restriction:



    [0344] Next, the beads were pelleted by centrifugation and supernatant disposed. The beads of samples AI, BI, CI and DI were resuspended in 96 µl of 1x Bam HI-buffer containing 1x BSA, while beads of AII, BII, CII and DII were resuspended in 96 µl of 1x EcoRI-buffer. Next, 4 µl of BamHI (100 U/µl) was added to samples AI, BI, CI and DI, and 4 µl of EcoRI (100 U/µl) to sample AII, BII, CII and DII, and samples incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours with gentle mixing.
    The supernatant containing truncated oligonucleotides of the restricted samples AI-DII were collected by spin-filtration; 1 min centrifugation at 1000g followed by a second elution with 100 µl buffer R and 30 sec. centrifugation at 20,000g and pooling of the two eluates. The samples were then extracted with 200 µl phenol, extracted with 200 µl chloroform and added 1 µl glycogen and ethanol precipitated by adding 20 µl 3M NaAc pH 4.5 and 400 µl 95% EtOH and, incubation at -80 °C 20 minutes, centrifugation at 0 °C, 20,000g for 40 minutes, disposal of the supernatant, and air drying of the pellet before dissolution in 50 µl 0.01% Triton X-100 by incubation at RT for 30 minutes with mixing. Next, the samples were desalted by gel-filtration on G25 columns (MicroSpin G-25 columns, Amersham, 27-5325-01). Finally, 5 µl of samples AI, AII, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI, DII, together with 2.5 and 5 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder, were analysed on a 4% GTG agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer (not shown). 15 µl of the purified samples AI, AII, DI, DII and 10 µl of the purified samples BI, BII, CI, CII were estimated to contain app 1 pmol.

    Step-g) Cross-hybridisation


    Cross-hybridisation of truncated (0th-generation) oligonucleotides:



    [0345] Cross-hybridisation was performed by adding truncated oligonucleotides to 25 µl hybridisation buffer (300 µl 5 M NaCl + 15 µl 1 M Tris pH 8 + 15 µl 1% Triton X-100 + 420 µl H2O) according to the scheme below.

    25 µl hybridisation buffer +


    AI+CII:



    [0346] 

    a-1: 15 µl 10x diluted AI (app 0.1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-1-NS) + 10 µl 10x diluted CII (app 0.1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-2-NS)

    a-2: 15 µl 100x diluted AI + 10 µl 100x diluted CII

    a-3: 15 µl 1,000x diluted AI + 10 µl 1,000x diluted CII


    BI+DII:



    [0347] 

    b-1: 10 µl 10x diluted BI (app 0.1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-1-N) + 15 µl 10x diluted DII (app 0.1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-2-N)

    b-2: 10 µl 100x diluted BI + 15 µl 100x diluted DII

    b-3: 10 µl 1,000x diluted BI + 15 µl 1,000x diluted DII


    CI+AII:



    [0348] 

    c-1: 10 µl 10x diluted CI (app 0.1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-2-NS) + 15 µl 10x diluted AII (app
    0.1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-1-NS)

    c-2: 10 µl 100x diluted CI + 15 µl 100x diluted AII

    c-3: 10 µl 1,000x diluted CI + 15 µl 1,000x diluted AII


    DI+BII:



    [0349] 

    d-1: 15 µl 10x diluted DI (app 0.1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-2-N) + 10 µl 10x diluted BII (app 0.1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-1-N)

    d-2: 15 µl 100x diluted DI + 10 µl 100x diluted BII

    d-3: 15 µl 1,000x diluted DI + 10 µl 1,000x diluted BII


    Controls:



    [0350] 

    e: 15 µl 10x diluted AI + 10 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    f: 10 µl 10x diluted BI + 15 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    g: 10 µl 10x diluted CII + 15 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    h: 15 µl 10x diluted DII + 10 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    i: 25 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    j: 10 µl 10x diluted CI + 15 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    k: 15 µl 10x diluted DI + 10 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    I: 15 µl 10x diluted AII + 10 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    m: 10 µl 10x diluted BII + 15 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    n: 25 µl 0.01% Triton X-100



    [0351] EcoRI-1, EcoRI-2, BamHI-1 and BamHI-2 indicate the different fixed sequences, N indicates negative controls without signal-oligo, NS indicates libraries with signal (noise+ signal), i.e. PCR-EcoRI-1-NS contains fixed region EcoRI-1 and both signal and noise oligos

    [0352] Next, the libraries (tubes a-1 to n) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C for 1h for cross-hybridisation.

    PCR-amplification:



    [0353] Two PCR mixes (I and II) were prepared each containing 432 µl H20 + 60 µl 10xbuffer + 18 µl 50 mM MgCl2 + 24 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each + 6 µl polym erase.

    [0354] 24 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1 + 24 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2 were added to mix I
    24 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2 + 24 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 were added to mix II.

    [0355] Each mix was then transferred to PCR tubes (11 x 49 µl), where after 1 µl of hybridisation mix a-1, a-2, a-3, b-1, b-2, b-3, e, f, g, h, i was added to PCR mix I (11 x 1µl) and 1 µl of hybridisation mix c-1, c-2, c-3, d-1, d-2, d-3, j, k, l, m, n was added to PCR mix II (11 x 1µl).

    [0356] Amplification was performed using the following program:
    Extension 72°C, 5 min
    Initial denaturation: 94°C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94°C, 30 sec
    61°C,60sec
    72°C, 10 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0357] After amplification, 5 µl of the PCR samples was added 2.5 µl H2O + 2.5 µl 30% glycerol and resolved together with a 25 bp DNA ladder on 4% GTG agarose gels using 1xTBE as running buffer.

    [0358] Using 0.1 and 0.01 pmol truncated Oligonucleotide for cross-hybridisation and subsequent amplification gave strong bands, while using 0.001 pmol gave only weak bands.

    Step h) Monitoring evolution of the secondary libraries by restriction analysis



    [0359] The following PCR samples were desalted with a G25 column: a-2, a-3, b-2, b-3, c-2, c-3, d-2 and d-3 and F-I and F-II (positive controls). 6 µl of the desalted samples were each added 6.4 µl H2O+ 2 µl AvrII, 1.6 µl buffer 2 and incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.
    As restriction controls, samples with 2 µl H2O instead of AvrII were incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.
    The samples were then added 4 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel.

    [0360] Figure 10A: +/- AvrII of a-2, a-3, b-2, b-3, c-2 and 3 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder.
    Figure 10B: +/- AvrII of c-3, d-2, d-3, F-I and F-II and 3 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder.

    [0361] Some of the bands were very faint. However, no restriction was seen for the samples, except for the controls. Therefore, the experiment was continued with another round.

    Step i) Repetitions - Second round


    Step f) Preparing Oligonucleotides for cross-hybridisation



    [0362] A second PCR-amplification on 1th generation secondary libraries from the previous step f was first performed to add capture groups (biotin) to the secondary libraries and to increase their amount.

    [0363] Eight PCR mixes (AI to DII) was prepared, each containing 350 µl H20 + 50 µl 10xbuffer + 15 µl 50 mM MgCl2 + 20 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each + 5 µl Bio-XACT polym erase.

    [0364] Then G25 desalted samples (PCR-products) from step f was added:

    AI and AII: 20 µl 10e4x diluted a-2

    BI and BII: 20 µl 10e4x diluted b-2

    CI and CII: 20 µl 10e4x diluted c-2

    DI and DII: 20 µl 10e4x diluted d-2



    [0365] Then primers:

    AI and BI: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1 + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2-bt

    All and BII: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1-bt + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2

    CI and DI: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2 + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1-bt

    CII and DII: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2-bt + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1



    [0366] And amplification was performed using the following program:
    Initial denaturation: 94°C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94° C, 30 sec
    61 °C, 60 sec
    72°C, 10 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0367] 5 µl PCR (AI, AII, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI and DII) was added 2.5 µl H2O and 2.5 µl of the 25 bp DNA ladder (app 1.2 pmol) was added 5 µl H2O, these were then added 2.5 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel to verify that PCR-products of the correct length had been generated. (data not shown).

    Immobilisation of amplified Oligonucleotides:



    [0368] Amplified Oligonucleotides was immobilised on equilibrated Streptavidin Sepharose as described in the previous round, step f

    Release of truncated Oligonucleotides from Streptavidin Sepharose by restriction:



    [0369] As described in the previous round, step f.

    [0370] 5 µl of the purified samples AI, AI, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI, DII together with 2.5 and 5 µl of the 25 bp DNA ladder were analysed on a 4% GTG agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer (data not shown).
    4 µl of the purified samples AI to DII were estimated to contain app 2 pmol.

    Step g) Cross-hybridisation



    [0371] Truncated 1st generation secondary libraries (samples AI-DII) and hybridisation buffer (300 µl 5 M NaCl + 15 µl 1 M Tris pH 8 + 15 µl 1% Triton X-100 + 570 µl H2O) were aliquoted according to the scheme below.

    30 µl hybridisation buffer +


    AI+CII:



    [0372] 

    a-1: 20 µl of 100x diluted AI (app 0.1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-1-S) + 100x diluted CII (app 0.1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-1-S)

    a-2: 20 µl of 1000x diluted AI + 1000x diluted CII

    a-3: 20 µl of 10,000x diluted AI + 10,000x diluted CII

    a-4: 20 µl of 100,000x diluted AI + 100,000x diluted CII


    BI + DII:



    [0373] 

    b-1: 20 µl of 100x diluted BI (PCR-EcoRI-1-N) + 100x diluted DII (PCR-Bam HI-1-N)

    b-2: 20 µl of 1000x diluted BI + 1000x diluted DII

    b-3: 20 µl of 10,000x diluted BI + 10,000x diluted DII

    b-4: 20 µl of 100,000x diluted BI + 100,000x diluted DII


    CI + AII:



    [0374] 

    c-1: 20 µl of 100x diluted CI (PCR-EcoRI-2-S) + 100x diluted All (PCR-BamHI-2-S)

    c-2: 20 µl of 1000x diluted CI + 1000x diluted All

    c-3: 20 µl of 10,000x diluted CI + 10,000x diluted All

    c-4: 20 µl of 100,000x diluted CI + 100,000x diluted All


    DI+BII:



    [0375] 

    d-1: 20 µl of 100x diluted DI (PCR-EcoRI-2-N) + 100x diluted BII (PCR-BamHI-2-N)

    d-2: 20 µl of 1000x diluted DI + 1000x diluted BII

    d-3: 20 µl of 10,000x diluted DI + 10,000x diluted BII

    d-4: 20 µl of 100,000x diluted DI + 100,000x diluted BII


    Controls:



    [0376] 

    e: 20 µl 100x diluted AI

    f: 20 µl 100x diluted CII

    g: 20 µl 100x diluted BI

    h: 20 µl 100x diluted DII

    i: 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    j: 20 µl 100x diluted CI

    k: 20 µl 100x diluted AII

    I: 20 µl 100x diluted DI

    m: 20 µl 100x diluted BII

    n: 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100



    [0377] Next, the libraries (tubes a-1 to n) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C for 1h.

    PCR-amplification:



    [0378] Two PCR mixes (I and II) were prepared each containing 504 µl H2O + 70 µl 10xbuffer + 21 µl 50 mM MgCl2 + 28 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each + 7 µl polym erase.

    [0379] 28 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1 + 28 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 were added to mix I
    28 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2 + 28 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2 were added to mix II

    [0380] Each mix was then transferred to PCR tubes (13 x 49 µl), where after 1 µl of hybridised samples a-1, a-2, a-3, a-4, b-1, b-2, b-3, b-4, e, f, g, h, i was added to PCR mix I and 1 µl of samples c-1, c-2, c-3, c-4, d-1, d-2, d-3, d-4, j, k, l, m, n was added to PCR mix II.

    [0381] Amplification was performed using the following program:
    Extension 72°C, 5 min
    Initial denaturation: 94°C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94° C, 30 sec
    61 °C, 60 sec
    72°C, 10 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0382] After amplification, 5 µl of the PCR samples was added 2.5 µl H2O + 2.5 µl 30% glycerol and resolved together with a 25 bp DNA ladder on 4% GTG agarose gels using 1xTBE as running buffer.

    [0383] Samples a-1, a-2, a-3, b-1, b-2, b-3, c-1, c-2, c-3, d-1, d-2 and d-3 all resulted in significant amount of a PCR product of the same length as the original library (data not shown).

    Step h) Monitoring evolution of the secondary libraries by restriction analysis



    [0384] The following PCR samples (2nd generation secondary libraries) were desalted with a G25 column: a2, a3, b2, b3, c2, c3, d2 and d3. 6 µl of the desalted samples and of a positive control, FI from the first round, were each added 2 µl AvrII, 1.6 µl buffer 2 and 6.4 µl and incubated at 37 °C ON.

    [0385] As restriction controls, samples with 2 µl H2O instead of AvrII were incubated at 37 °C ON.
    The samples were then added 4 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel.

    [0386] Figure 11A: +/- AvrII of a-2, a-3, b-2, b-3 and 3 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder.
    Figure 11B: +/- AvrII of c-2, c-3, d-2, d-3, FI and 3 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder.

    [0387] ON incubation lead to more than 90% cleavage of the positive control, FI, and approximately 20 % of a-2 and c-2 was cleaved. Thus, the signal oligonucleotide had (after two cross-hybridisations) evolved to constitute around 20% of the two 2nd generation secondary libraries compared to 1 in 1,3x108 in the original primary libraries, which corresponds to enrichments of app. 2,6 x 107 (data not shown).

    Step i) Repetitons - Third round


    Step f) Preparing oligonucleotides for cross-hybridisation



    [0388] A second PCR-amplification on 2nd generation secondary libraries from the previous step f) was first performed to add capture groups (biotin) to the secondary libraries and to increase their amount.

    [0389] Eight PCR mixes (AI to DII) was prepared, each containing 350 µl H2O + 50 µl 10xbuffer + 15 µl 50 mM MgCl2 + 20 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each + 5 µl polym erase.

    [0390] Then G25 desalted samples (PCR-products) from the previous step f was added:

    AI and AII: 20 µl 10e4x diluted a-2

    BI and BII: 20 µl 10e4x diluted b-2

    CI and CII: 20 µl 10e4x diluted c-2

    DI and DII: 20 µl 10e4x diluted d-2



    [0391] Then primers:

    AI and BI: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1 + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1-bt

    All and BII: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1-bt + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1

    CI and DI: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2 + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2-bt

    CII and DII: 20 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2-bt + 20 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2



    [0392] And amplification was performed using the following program:
    Initial denaturation: 94°C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94°C, 30 sec
    61°C, 60 sec
    72°C, 10 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0393] 5 µl PCR (AI, AII, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI and DII) was added 2.5 µl H2O and 2.5 µl of the 25 bp DNA ladder (app 1.2 pmol) was added 5 µl H2O, these were then added 2.5 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel gel to verify that PCR-products of the correct length had been generated. (data not shown).

    Immobilisation of amplified Oligonucleotides:



    [0394] Amplified Oligonucleotides was immobilised on equilibrated Streptavidin Sepharose as described in the first round, step f

    Release of truncated Oligonucleotides from Streptavidin Sepharose by restriction:



    [0395] As described in the first round, step f.

    [0396] 5 µl of the purified samples AI, AI, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI, DII together with 2.5 and 5 µl of the 25 bp DNA ladder were analysed on a 4% GTG agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer (data not shown).
    5 µl of the purified samples AI to DII were estimated to contain app 2 pmol.

    Step g) Cross-hybridisation



    [0397] Truncated 2nd generation secondary libraries (sample AI-DII) and hybridisation buffer (300 µl 5 M NaCl + 15 µl 1 M Tris pH 8 + 15 µl 1% Triton X-100 + 570 µl H2O) were aliquoted according to the scheme below.

    25 µl hybridisation buffer +


    AI+CII:



    [0398] 

    a-1: 25 µl of 1,000x diluted AI (app 0.01 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-1-S) + 1,000x diluted CII (app 0.01 pmol; PCR-BamHI-2-S)

    a-2: 25 µl of 10,000x diluted AI + 10,000x diluted CII

    a-3: 25 µl of 100,000x diluted AI + 100,000x diluted CII

    a-4: 25 µl of 1 ,000,000x diluted AI + 1 ,000,000x diluted CII


    BI+CII:



    [0399] 

    b-1: 25 µl of 1,000x diluted BI (PCR-EcoRI-1-N) + 1,000x diluted DII (PCR-BamHI-2-N)

    b-2: 25 µl of 10,000x diluted BI + 10,000x diluted DII

    b-3: 25 µl of 100,000x diluted BI + 100,000x diluted DII

    b-4: 25 µl of 1 ,000,000x diluted BI + 1 ,000,000x diluted DII


    CI+AII:



    [0400] 

    c-1: 25 µl of 1,000x diluted CI (PCR-EcoRI-2-S) + 1,000x diluted AII (PCR-Bam HI-1-S)

    c-2: 25 µl of 10,000x diluted CI + 10,000x diluted AII

    c-3: 25 µl of 100,000x diluted CI + 100,000x diluted AII

    c-4: 25 µl of 1,000,000x diluted CI + 1 ,000,000x diluted AII


    DI+BII:



    [0401] 

    d-1: 25 µl of 1,000x diluted DI (PCR-EcoRI-2-N) + 1,000x diluted BII (PCR-BamHI-1-N)

    d-2: 25 µl of 10,000x diluted DI + 10,000x diluted BII

    d-3: 25 µl of 100,000x diluted DI + 100,000x diluted BII

    d-4: 25 µl of 1,000,000x diluted DI + 1,000,000x diluted BII


    Controls:



    [0402] 

    e: 25 µl 1000x diluted AI

    f: 25 µl 1000x diluted CII

    g: 25 µl 1000x diluted BI

    h: 25 µl 1000x diluted DII

    i: 25 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    j: 25 µl 1000x diluted CI

    k: 25 µl 1000x diluted AII

    I: 25 µl 1000x diluted DI

    m: 25 µl 1000x diluted BII

    n: 25 µl 0.01% Triton X-100



    [0403] Next, the libraries (tubes a-1 to n) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C for 1h.

    PCR-amplification:



    [0404] Two PCR mixes (I and II) were prepared each containing 504 µl H2O + 70 µl 10xbuffer + 21 µl 50 mM MgCl2 + 28 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each + 7 µl polym erase.

    [0405] 28 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1 + 28 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2 were added to mix I
    28 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2 + 28 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 were added to mix II

    [0406] Each mix was then transferred to PCR tubes (13 x 49 µl), where after 1 µl of hybridised sample a-1, a-2, a-3, a-4, b-1, b-2, b-3, b-4, e, f, g, h, i was added to a PCR mix I and 1 µl of sample c-1, c-2, c-3, c-4, d-1, d-2, d-3, d-4, j, k, l, m, n was added to PCR mix II.

    [0407] Amplification was performed using the following program:
    Extension 72°C, 5 min
    Initial denaturation: 94°C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94°C, 30 sec
    61°C, 60 sec
    72°C, 10 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0408] After amplification, 5 µl of the PCR samples was added 2.5 µl H2O + 2.5 µl 30% glycerol and resolved together with a 25 bp DNA ladder on 4% GTG agarose gels using 1xTBE as running buffer (data not shown). Only a-1, a-2, a-3, b-1, b-2, c-1, c-2, c-3, d-1 and d-2 resulted in significant amounts of PCR product.

    Step h) Monitoring evolution of the secondary libraries by restriction analysis



    [0409] The following PCR samples (3rd generation secondary libraries) were desalted with a G25 column: a2, a3, b2, c2, c3 and d2. 6 µl of the desalted samples and 6 µl of a positive control, FI from the first round, were each added 2 µl AvrII, 1.6 µl buffer 2 and 6.4 µl H20 and incubated at 37 °C for 4h.
    As restriction controls, samples with 2 µl H2O instead of AvrII were incubated at 37 °C 4 hours.
    The samples were then added 4 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel.

    [0410] Figure 12A: +/- AvrII of a-2, a-3, b-2 and 3 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder.
    Figure 12B: +/- AvrII of c-2, c-3, d-2, FI and 3 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder.

    [0411] Approximately, 90% cleavage of the positive control, FI, was observed and also approximately 90% of a-2, a-3, c-2 and c-3 was cleaved. Thus, 3rd generation secondary libraries constituted almost solely of the signal oligonucleotide and consequently an enrichment of approximately 1,3x108 fold was obtained.

    Conclusion:



    [0412] The signal oligo was enriched from 1 in 10e8 to close to 1 in 1 (100%) by one selection against streptavidin followed by three successive rounds of PCR amplification, removal of one fixed region, hybridisation and extension. In other words, an oligonucleotide library was evolved from containing the signal sequence in a ratio of 1 in 10e8 to close to 1 in 1. Importantly, the control library without a signal oligo did not evolved to contain any signal detectable restriction digestion.

    Example 4


    Screening a 1010 library with a predetermined fold of selection



    [0413] In this example, a true selection of the primary library was not done. Instead the primary library was prepared such as to mimic a primary library that has already been selected. More specifically, the signal oligonucleotide was diluted into a 1010 library, but such as to be in 105 fold excess of the other species in the library, i.e. mimicking that a 105 fold selection had been done. Otherwise, the process was similar to example 3.

    [0414] DNA-oligonucleotides used for positive restriction control:

    HD1-PCR-1:
    5'GATGAT AGTAGT TCGTCG TCAC

    HD1-PCR-2:
    5'-biotin-GCAGCA ACTACT CATCAT GACT



    [0415] Stul-template:



    [0416] PCR- Primers:

    Set 1:

    Primary PCR primer 1, PCR-BamHI-1:
    5' GGGATA TAGCAA TCCTAC GG

    Primary PCR primer biotin 1, PCR-BamHI-1-bt:
    5' b GGGATA TAGCAA TCCTAC GG

    Secondary PCR primer 1, PCR-EcoRI-1:
    5' GGAGTA GCAAAG TAGCGT GA

    Secondary PCR primer biotin 1, PCR-EcoRI-1-bt:
    5' b GGAGTA GCAAAG TAGCGT GA

    Set 2:

    Primary PCR primer 2, PCR-BamHI-2:
    5' GGCGTT TCTAAC AACGAA GG

    Primary PCR primer biotin 2, PCR-BamHI-2-bt:
    5' b GGCGTT TCTAAC AACGAA GG

    Secondary PCR primer 2, PCR-EcoRI-2:
    5' GGCGTG GACACC ATTTAT GA

    Secondary PCR primer biotin 2, PCR-EcoRI-2-bt:
    5' b GGCGTG GACACC ATTTAT GA


    Step a) Providing the primary libraries



    [0417] As in example 1, redundant positions during DNA-oligonucleotide synthesis are used to build the libraries.

    Primary library 1 :



    [0418] 

    Signal oligo 1, target-StuI-1:

    ("GGATCC", "AGGCCT" and "GAATTC" are the sequences recognised by the ds DNA restriction enzymes BamHI (NEB, R0136L, 100 U/µl), Stul (NEB, R0187L, 10 U/µl) and EcoRI (NEB, R01010L, 100 U/µl), respectively.)

    Noise oligo 1, library-e10-1 :


    Primary library 2:



    [0419] 

    Signal oligo 2, target-Stul-2:

    Noise oligo 2, library-e10-2:

    (Actual redundancy: 224 x 36 = 1.2 x 1010)


    First round



    [0420] Step b+c) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library and selecting the oligonucleotides of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule

    [0421] As mentioned above, the primary libraries were not contacted with the target molecule. Instead primary libraries were prepared such as to mimic a primary library that had already been selected against the target to give a 105-fold enrichment:
    DNA oligonucleotides and 2x buffer (200 mM NaCl, 20 mM Tris pH 8, 0.01% Triton X-100) were aliquoted into tubes A-D according to the scheme below to give a total volume of 22 µl (100 mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris pH 8, 0.01% Triton X-100),
    1. A) Library-1:

      11 µl 2x buffer

      6 µl 10 nM library-e10-1

      5 µl 0.1 pM target-Stul-1

    2. B) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as A:

      11 µl 2x buffer

      6 µl 10 nM library-e10-1

      5 µl 0.01% Triton X100

    3. C) Library-2:

      11 µl 2x buffer

      6 µl 10 nM library-e10-2

      5 µl 0.1 pM target-Stul-2

    4. D) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as C:

      11 µl 2x buffer

      6 µl 10 nM library-e10-2

      5 µl 0.01% Triton X100



    [0422] Step d) Amplifying hybridised oligonucleotides to create 0th generation secondary libraries:
    8 PCR mixes were prepared each containing:

    396 µl H20

    55 µl 10xbuffer (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    16.5 µl 50 mM MgCl2 (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    22 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each (Bioline, BIO-39025)

    5.5 µl polymerase (BIO-X-ACT long, Bioline, BIO-21050)



    [0423] Next, primers were added as follows:

    A-I and B-I: 22 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1-bt + 22 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1

    A-II and B-II: 22 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 + 22 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1-bt

    C-I and D-I: 22 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2-bt + 22 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2

    C-II and D-II: 22 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2 + 22 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2-bt



    [0424] As negative PCR controls, 49 µl from each of the above PCR mixes was added 1 µl 1xwash buffer.
    The remaining 490 µl was added 10 µl of the samples A-D representing selected primary libraries (A to A-I and A-II, B to B-I and B-II, C to C-I and C-II, D to D-I and D-II) and transferred to 5 PCR-tubes (5x100 µl).

    [0425] As a positive PCR and restriction control, sample E, 6 µl 1 nM StuI-template was added to a PCR mix containing:

    31 µl H2O

    5 µl 10xbuffer

    1.5 µl 50 mM MgCl2

    2 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each

    2 µl 10 µM HD1-PCR-1

    2 µl 10 µM HD-PCR-2

    0.5 µl polymerase



    [0426] Amplification was done using the following program:
    Initial denaturation: 94 °C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94°C, 30 sec
    61°C, 60 sec
    72°C, 10 sec.
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0427] After amplification, the identical samples were pooled.

    Step e) Monitoring the evolution of the secondary libraries



    [0428] The 0th generation secondary libraries represent an amplification of the information output (both noise and signal) from the primary selections. Thus, the signal oligonucleotide should still be enriched 105 compared to noise oligonucleotides.

    [0429] 5 µl of negative PCR controls were added 2.5 µl H2O and 2.5 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder (Promega, #G4511) was added 5 µl H2O. The samples were added 2.5 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG (BioWhittaker (BMA), 50084) agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer. As expected, no PCR product was seen for any of the samples (data not shown) .

    [0430] 5 µl of samples AI, AII, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI, DII, E were added 1 µl StuI + 1 µl buffer 2 (NEB, B7002S) + 3 µl H20 and incubated at 37 °C for 3 hours.
    As negative restriction controls, identical samples but with 1 µl H2O instead of StuI were incubated at 37 °C for 3 hours.
    The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel.

    [0431] Figure 13A:+/- StuI of samples AI, AII, BI, BII and 25 bp DNA ladder (2.5 µl).
    Figure 13B:+/- StuI of samples CI, CII, DI, DII, E and 25 bp DNA ladder (2.5 µl).

    [0432] As expected, restriction was only seen for the positive control, E, wherefore the signal was amplified by across-hybridisation.

    Step f) Preparing secondary libraries for cross-hybridisation



    [0433] Secondary libraries was immobilised on streptavidin beads and digested with either EcoRI or BamHI to release truncated oligonucleotides, devoid of 3'-fixed regions.

    Immobilisation of 0th generation secondary libraries:



    [0434] 200 µl 30% Streptavidin Sepharose High Performance beads in 20% EtOH were centrifuged to pellet the solid phase. The supernatant was disposed and 1200 µl 6x SSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The solid phase was resuspended in 140 µl 6x SSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 200 µl.
    Samples AI-DII (app. 490 µl PCR-product) were added 200 µl 20x SSC + 20 µl equilibrated streptavidin beads. Next, samples AI-DII were incubated at RT for 30 minutes with mixing. Then the samples were transferred to spin-filters (2x 350 µl) and centrifuged at 2200 rpm for 3 minutes. In the first wash, samples were added 300 µl 10xwash buffer, 0.01% Triton X-100 and centrifuged at 2200 rpm for 3 minutes. For second wash, the samples were added 300 µl buffer R (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 8, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NaCl) and centrifuged at 2200 rpm for 3 minutes.

    Release of truncated oligonucleotides from streptavidin beads by restriction:



    [0435] Next, the beads of sample AI, BI, CI and DI were added 100 µl of 1x buffer BamHI containing 1 x BSA, while beads of AII, BII, CII and DII were added 100 µl of 1x buffer EcoRI. Finally, 4 µl of BamHI (100 U/µl) was added to sample AI, BI, CI and DI, and 4 µl of EcoRI (100 U/µl) to sample AII, BII, CII and DII, followed by incubation at 37 °C cabinet for 2 hours. The supernatant containing truncated Oligonucleotides of the restricted samples AI-DII were collected by centrifugation at 2200 rpm for 3 minutes, followed by a second elution with 100 µl buffer R and centrifugation at 13,000 rpm for 1 minute. The pooled eluates were then extracted with 100 µl phenol, extracted with 200 µl chloroform and added 1 µl glycogen and EtOH precipitated by adding 20 µl 3M NaAc pH 4.5 and 400 µl 95% EtOH and, incubation at -80 °C freezer for 20 minutes, centrifugation at 0 °C, 20000g for 40 minutes, disposal of the supernatant, air drying of the pellet before dissolution in 50 µl 0.01% Triton X-100 by incubation at RT for 30 minutes with mixing. Next, the samples were desalted by gel-filtration on G25 columns (MicroSpin G-25 columns, Amersham, 27-5325-01). Finally, 2.5 µl of the purified restricted samples AI, AI, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI, DII together with 2.5 and 5 µl of the 25 bp DNA ladder were analysed on a 4% GTG agarose gel.
    2 µl of the purified samples AI-DII were estimated to contain app 1 pmol.

    Step-g) Cross-hybridisation


    Selection by cross-hybridisation of upstream and downstream fragments from library-1 and library-2



    [0436] Truncated 0th generation secondary libraries and hybridisation buffer (360 µl 5 M NaCl + 18 µl 1 M Tris pH 8 + 18 µl 1% Triton X-100 + 204 µl H2O) were aliquoted according to the scheme below.

    20 µl hybridisation buffer + :


    AI+CII:



    [0437] 

    a-1: 20 µl 10x diluted AI (app 1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-1-NS) + 20 µl 10x diluted CII (app 1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-2-NS)

    a-2: 20 µl 100x diluted AI + 20 µl 100x diluted CII

    a-3: 20 µl 1000x diluted AI + 20 µl 1000x diluted CII

    a-4: 20 µl 10,000x diluted Al + 20 µl 10,000x diluted CII


    BI+DII:



    [0438] 

    b-1: 20 µl 10x diluted BI (app 1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-1-N) + 20 µl 10x diluted DII (app 1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-2-N)

    b-2: 20 µl 100x diluted BI + 20 µl 100x diluted DII

    b-3: 20 µl 1000x diluted BI + 20 µl 1000x diluted DII

    b-4: 20 µl 10,000x diluted BI + 20 µl 10,000x diluted DII


    CI+AII:



    [0439] 

    c-1: 20 µl 10x diluted CI (app 1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-2-S) + 20 µl 10x diluted AII (app 1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-1-S)

    c-2: 20 µl 100x diluted CI + 20 µl 100x diluted AII

    c-3: 20 µl 1000x diluted CI + 20 µl 1000x diluted AII

    c-4: 20 µl 10,000x diluted CI + 20 µl 10,000x diluted AII


    DI+BII:



    [0440] 

    d-1: 20 µl 10x diluted DI (app 1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-2-N) + 20 µl 10x diluted BII (app 1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-1-N)

    d-2: 20 µl 100x diluted DI + 20 µl 100x diluted BII

    d-3: 20 µl 1000x diluted DI + 20 µl 1000x diluted BII

    d-4: 20 µl 10,000x diluted DI + 20 µl 10,000x diluted BII


    Controls:



    [0441] 

    e: 20 µl 10x diluted AI + 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    f: 20 µl 10x diluted BI + 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    g: 20 µl 10x diluted CII + 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    h: 20 µl 10x diluted DII + 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    i: 40 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    j: 20 µl 10x diluted CI + 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    k: 20 µl 10x diluted DI + 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    l: 20 µl 10x diluted AII + 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    m: 20 µl 10x diluted BII + 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100

    n: 40 µl 0.01% Triton X-100



    [0442] EcoRI-1, EcoRI-2, BamHI-1 and BamHI-2 indicate the different fixed sequences, N indicates negative controls without signal-oligo, NS indicates libraries with signal (noise+ signal), i.e. PCR-EcoRI-1-NS contains fixed region EcoRI-1 and both signal and noise oligos

    [0443] Next, the libraries (tubes a-1 to n) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C for 1h.

    PCR-amplification:



    [0444] Two PCR mixes (I and II) were prepared each containing 540 µl H2O + 75 µl 10xbuffer + 22.5 µl 50 mM MgCl2 + 30 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each + 7.5 µl polym erase.

    [0445] 30 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1 + 30 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2 were added to mix I
    30 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2 + 30 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 were added to mix II

    [0446] Each mix was then transferred to PCR tubes (11 x 49 µl), where after 1 µl of hybridisation mix a-1, a-2, a-3, a-4, b-1, b-2, b-3, b-4, e, f, g, h, i was added to PCR mix I (13 x 1µl) and 1 µl of hybridisation mix c-1, c-2, c-3, c-4, d-1, d-2, d-3, d-4, j, k, l, m, n was added to one PCR mix II(13 x 1µl).

    [0447] Amplification was performed using the following program:
    Extension 72°C, 5 min
    Initial denaturation: 94°C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94°C, 30 sec
      61°C, 60 sec
      72°C, 10 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min

    Monitoring PCR amplification of the libraries



    [0448] After amplification, 5 µl of the PCR samples was added 2.5 µl H2O + 2.5 µl 30% glycerol and resolved together with a 25 bp DNA ladder on 4% GTG agarose gels using 1xTBE as running buffer.

    [0449] Using 1 pmol, 0.1 pmol and 0.01 pmol truncated oligonucleotide for cross-hybridisation and subsequent PCR amplification gave strong bands, while 0.001 pmol only gave weak bands (data not shown).

    Step h) Monitoring evolution of the secondary libraries by restriction analysis



    [0450] The following PCR samples were desalted with a G25 column: a-3, a-4, b-3, b-4, c-3, c-4, d-3 and d-4 and E (positive control).

    [0451] 5 µl of the desalted samples were each added 3 µl H2O + 1 µl StuI + 1 µl buffer 2 and incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.
    As restriction controls, samples with 2 µl H2O instead of StuI were incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.

    [0452] The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel in the following order:

    [0453] Figure 14A: +/- StuI of a-3, a-4, b-3 and b-4 (and 2.5 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder).
    Figure 14B: +/- StuI of c-3, c-4, d-3, d-4 and E (and 2.5 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder).

    Some of the bands were faint, but the following could be observed:



    [0454] The positive control, E, was cleaved 60-70%, whereas samples a-3, a-4, c-3 and c-4 was cleaved app. 50%. Thus, we infer that 1st generation secondary libraries constituted at least 1 signal oligonucleotide per 1 noise oligonucleotide, which corresponds to an enrichment of app. 6x109.
    In other words, if a 10e5 fold selection can be done on a library of 10e10 molecules (encoded compounds or aptamers), one round of cross-hybridisation should suffice for identification of the best binders of the library.

    Example 5



    [0455] Example 5 is similar to example 3, except that larger libraries were used.

    [0456] DNA-oligonucleotides used for positive restriction control:

    HD1-PCR-1 :
    5'GATGAT AGTAGT TCGTCG TCAC

    HD1-PCR-2:
    5'-biotin-GCAGCA ACTACT CATCAT GACT



    [0457] Stul-template:


    PCR-Primers:



    [0458] 

    Set 1:

    Primary PCR primer 1, PCR-BamHI-1:
    5' GGGATA TAGCAA TCCTAC GG

    Primary PCR primer biotin 1, PCR-BamHI-1-bt:
    5' b GGGATA TAGCAA TCCTAC GG

    Secondary PCR primer 1, PCR-EcoRI-1:
    5' GGAGTA GCAAAG TAGCGT GA

    Secondary PCR primer biotin 1, PCR-EcoRI-1-bt:
    5' b GGAGTA GCAAAG TAGCGT GA

    Set 2:

    Primary PCR primer 2, PCR-BamHI-2:
    5' GGCGTT TCTAAC AACGAA GG

    Primary PCR primer biotin 2, PCR-BamHI-2-bt:
    5' b GGCGTT TCTAAC AACGAA GG

    Secondary PCR primer 2, PCR-EcoRI-2:
    5' GGCGTG GACACC ATTTAT GA

    Secondary PCR primer biotin 2, PCR-EcoRI-2-bt:
    5' b GGCGTG GACACC ATTTAT GA


    Step a) Providing the primary libraries



    [0459] As in example 1, redundant positions during DNA-oligonucleotide synthesis are used to build the libraries.

    Primary library 1 :



    [0460] 

    Signal oligo 1, target-StuI-1:

    ("GGATCC", "AGGCCT" and "GAATTC" are the sequences recognised by the ds DNA restriction enzymes BamHI (NEB, R0136L, 100 U/µl), Stul (NEB, R0187L, 10 U/µl) and EcoRI (NEB, R01010L, 100 U/µl, respectively)

    Noise oligo 1, library-e10-1:


    Primary library 2:



    [0461] 

    Signal oligo 2, target-Stul-2:

    Noise oligo 2, library-e10-2:

    (Actual redundancy: 224 x 36 = 1.2 x 1010)


    First round


    Step b) Contacting the target molecule with at least a subset of the primary library



    [0462] Primary libraries, 20x SSC and 0.2% Triton X-100 were aliquoted into tubes A-D according to the scheme below to give a total volume of 100 µl (6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100).
    1. A) Library-1:

      30 µl 20x SSC

      5 µl 0.2% Triton X-100

      60 µl 200 µM library-e10-1

      5 µl 0.2 pM target-StuI-1

    2. B) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as A:

      30 µl 20x SSC

      5 µl 0.2% Triton X-100

      60 µl 200 µM library-e10-1

      5 µl 0.01% Triton X100

    3. C) Library-2:

      30 µl 20x SSC

      5 µl 0.2% Triton X-100

      60 µl 200 µM library-e10-2

      5 µl 0.2 pM target-Stul-2

    4. D) Negative control omitting signal in primary library, otherwise as C:

      30 µl 20x SSC

      5 µl 0.2% Triton X-100

      60 µl 200 µM library-e10-2

      5 µl 0.01% Triton X-100



    [0463] Next, the libraries (sample A to D) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C for 10 minutes.

    Equilibration of the solid phase bound target:


    Solid phase I) 30% Streptavidin Sepharose High Performance beads in 20% EtOH, Amersham, 17-5113-01:



    [0464] 60 µl solid phase suspension was centrifuged to pellet the solid phase. The supernatant was disposed and 360 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The solid phase was resuspended in 42 µl 6xSSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 60 µl.

    Solid phase II) 50% Tetrameric Avidin Resin in 20% EtOH, Promega, V2591:



    [0465] 36 µl solid phase suspension was centrifuged to pellet the solid phase, otherwise as I.

    [0466] 20 µl equilibrated solid phase I was added to samples A and B and 20 µl equilibrated solid phase II was added to samples C and D. Next, samples A-D were incubated at 65 °C for 60 minutes with mixing in a table shaker.

    Step c) Selecting the oligonucleotide species of the primary library that interact specifically with the target molecule



    [0467] After incubation with the solid phase bound target, samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed, beads resuspended in 300 µl 10xwash buffer (1 M NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8) containing 0.01% Triton X-100 and re-incubated at 65 °C for 30 minutes with mixing. Then the samples were centrifuged, the supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 300 µl 10xwash buffer. This was followed by a third wash where the samples were centrifuged, the supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 300 µl 1xwash buffer. Next, the beads were pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. Residual biotin binding sides on the solid phase were blocked by addition of 1 µl 20 mM Biotin (Sigma, B-4501) and the total volume of the samples adjusted to 22 µl by addition of app. 16 µl 1xwash buffer. This was followed by incubation at room-temperature for 5 minutes with mixing.

    Step d) Amplifying selected oligonucleotides to create 0th generation secondary libraries:



    [0468] 8 PCR mixes (AI to DII) were prepared each containing:

    396 µl H2O

    55 µl 10xbuffer (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    16.5 µl 50 mM MgCl2 (Bioline, BIO-21050)

    22 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each (Bioline, BIO-39025)

    5.5 µl polymerase (BIO-X-ACT long, Bioline, BIO-21050)



    [0469] Next, primers were added as follows:

    A-I and B-I: 22 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1-bt + 22 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1

    A-II and B-II: 22 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 + 22 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1-bt

    C-I and D-I: 22 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2-bt + 22 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2

    C-II and D-II: 22 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2 + 22 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2-bt



    [0470] As negative PCR controls, 49 µl was collected from each of the above PCR mix and each added 1 µl 1xwash buffer.

    [0471] The remaining 490 µl of the PCR mixes was added 10 µl of selected primary libraries (A to A-I and A-II, B to B-I and B-II, C to C-I and c-II, D to D-I and D-II) and transferred to PCRtubes (5x100µl).

    [0472] As a positive PCR and restriction control, sample E, 5 µl 0.2 pM Stul-template was added to a PCR mix containing:

    32 µl H2O

    5 µl 10xbuffer

    1.5 µl 50 mM MgCl2

    2 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each

    2 µl 10 µM HD1-PCR-1

    2 µl 10 µM HD-PCR-2

    0.5 µl polymerase



    [0473] Amplification was done using the following program:
    Initial denaturation: 94 °C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94°C, 30 sec
      61°C, 60 sec
      72°C, 10 sec.
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0474] After amplification, the beads were removed from sample AI-DII by spin-filtration (Ultrafree-MC filter microporous 0.22 micron, Millipore, UFC3 0GV NB) and 10 µl was kept as backup.

    Step e) Monitoring the evolution of the secondary libraries



    [0475] The 0th generation secondary libraries represent an amplification of the information output (both noise and signal) from the primary selections.

    [0476] 5 µl negative PCR controls were added 5 µl H2O and 3 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG (BioWhittaker (BMA), 50084) agarose gel. No PCR-products was observed for any of the samples (data not shown).

    [0477] 5 µl of samples AI, AII, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI, DII, E were added 1 µl StuI + 1 µl buffer 2 (NEB, B7002S) + 3 µl H2O and incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.
    As negative restriction controls, identical samples but with 1 µl H2O instead of StuI were incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.
    The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol and resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer.

    [0478] Figure 15A: +/- StuI of sample AI, AII, BI, BII and 25 bp DNA ladder (2.5 µl).
    Figure 15B:+/- StuI of sample CI, CII, DI, DII, E and 25 bp DNA ladder (2.5 µl).

    [0479] No restriction of samples AI-DII was detected after round 1, wherefore the signal was amplified by cross-hybridisation of 0th generation secondary libraries

    Step f) Preparing secondary libraries for cross-hybridisation



    [0480] Secondary libraries was immobilised on streptavidin beads, digested with either EcoRI or BamHI to release truncated Oligonucleotides, devoid of 3'-fixed regions.

    Immobilisation of 0th generation secondary libraries:



    [0481] 200 µl 30% Streptavidin Sepharose High Performance beads in 20% EtOH were centrifuged to pellet the solid phase. The supernatant was disposed and 1200 µl 6x SSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 added. After resuspension of the solid phase, it was again pelleted by centrifugation and the supernatant disposed. The solid phase was resuspended in 140 µl 6x SSC, 0.01% Triton X-100 to give a total volume of app. 200 µl.

    [0482] Samples AI-DII (495 µl PCR-product) were added 200 µl 20x SSC + 20 µl equilibrated streptavidin beads. Next, samples AI-DII were incubated at RT for 30 minutes with mixing. In the first wash, samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed, beads resuspended in 300 µl 10xwash buffer, 0.01% Triton X-100 and re-incubated at RT for 30 minutes with mixing. For second wash, the samples were centrifuged, supernatant disposed and beads resuspended in 300 µl buffer R (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 8, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NaCl).

    Release of truncated Oligonucleotides from streptavidin beads by restriction:



    [0483] Next, the beads were centrifuged at 2200 rpm for 3 minutes and the beads of sample AI, BI, CI and DI were added 100 µl of 1x buffer BamHI containing 1x BSA, while beads of All, BII, CII and DII were added 100 µl of 1x buffer EcoRI. Finally, 4 µl of BamHI (100 U/µl) was added to sample AI, BI, CI and DI, and 4 µl of EcoRI (100 U/µl) to sample AII, BII, CII and DII, the samples and samples incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.
    The supernatant containing truncated oligonucleotides of the restricted samples AI-DII were collected by spin-filtration; 1 min centrifugation at 1000g followed by a second elution with 100 µl buffer R and 30 sec. centrifugation at 13.000g and pooling of the two eluates. The samples were then extracted with 200 µl phenol, extracted with 200 µl chloroform and added 1 µl glycogen and ethanol precipitated by adding 20 µl 3M NaAc pH 4.5 and 400 µl 95% EtOH and, incubation at -80 °C 20 minutes, centrifugation at 0 °C, 20000g for 40 minutes, disposal of the supernatant, and air drying of the pellet before dissolution in 50 µl 0.01% Triton X-100 by incubation at RT for 30 minutes with mixing. Next, the samples were desalted by gel-filtration on G25 columns (MicroSpin G-25 columns, Amersham, 27-5325-01). Finally, 2,5 µl of samples AI, AII, BI, BII, CI, CII, DI, DII, together with 2.5 and 5 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder, were analysed on a 4% GTG agarose gel using 1xTBE as running buffer (data not shown). 20 µl of the purified samples AI-DII were estimated to contain app 1 pmol truncated Oligonucleotides.

    Step-g) Cross-hybridisation



    [0484] Cross-hybridisation was done by adding truncated oligonucleotides to 20 µl hybridisation buffer (360 µl 5 M NaCl + 18 µl 1 M Tris pH 8 + 18 µl 1% Triton X-100 + 204 µl H2O) according to the scheme below.

    20 µl hybridisation buffer + :


    AI+CII:



    [0485] 

    a-1: 20 µl AI (app 1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-1-NS) + 20 µl CII (app 1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-2-NS)

    a-2: 20 µl 10x diluted AI + 20 µl 10x diluted CII

    a-3: 20 µl 100x diluted AI + 20 µl 100x diluted CII

    a-4: 20 µl 1000x diluted AI + 20 µl 1000x diluted CII


    BI+DII:



    [0486] 

    b-1: 20 µl BI (app 1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-1-N) + 20 µl DII (app 1 pmol; PCR-Bam HI-2-N)

    b-2: 20 µl 10x diluted BI + 20 µl 10x diluted DII

    b-3: 20 µl 100x diluted BI + 20 µl 100x diluted DII

    b-4: 20 µl 1000x diluted BI + 20 µl 1000x diluted DII


    CI+AII:



    [0487] 

    c-1: 20 µl CI (app 1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-2-NS) + 20 µl AII (app 1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-1-NS)

    c-2: 20 µl 10x diluted CI + 20 µl 10x diluted AII

    c-3: 20 µl 100x diluted CI + 20 µl 100x diluted AII

    c-4: 20 µl 1000x diluted CI + 20 µl 1000x diluted AII


    DI+BII:



    [0488] 

    d-1: 20 µl DI (app 1 pmol; PCR-EcoRI-2-N) + 20 µl BII (app 1 pmol; PCR-BamHI-1-N)

    d-2: 20 µl 10x diluted DI + 20 µl 10x diluted BII

    d-3: 20 µl 100x diluted DI + 20 µl 100x diluted BII

    d-4: 20 µl 1000x diluted DI + 20 µl 1000x diluted BII


    Controls:



    [0489] 

    e: 20 µl AI + 20 µl H2O

    f: 20 µl BI + 20 µl H2O

    g: 20 µl CII + 20 µl H2O

    h: 20 µl DII + 20 µl H2O

    i: 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100 + 20 µl H2O

    j: 20 µl CI + 20 µl H2O

    k: 20 µl DI + 20 µl H2O

    l: 20 µl AII + 20 µl H2O

    m: 20 µl BII + 20 µl H2O

    n: 20 µl 0.01% Triton X-100 + 20 µl H2O



    [0490] EcoRI-1, EcoRI-2, BamHI-1 and BamHI-2 indicate the different fixed sequences, N indicates negative controls without signal-oligo, NS indicates libraries with signal (noise+ signal), i.e. PCR-EcoRI-1-NS contains fixed region EcoRI-1 and both signal and noise oligos

    [0491] Next, the libraries (tubes a-1 to n) were heated to 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by incubation at 65 °C for 1h.

    PCR-amplification:



    [0492] Two PCR mixes (I and II) were prepared each containing 540 µl H2O + 75 µl 10xbuffer + 22.5 µl 50 mM MgCl2 + 30 µl dNTPs, 5 mM each + 7.5 µl polym erase.

    [0493] 30 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-1 + 30 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-2 were added to mix I
    30 µl 10 µM PCR-EcoRI-2 + 30 µl 10 µM PCR-BamHI-1 were added to mix II

    [0494] Each mix was then transferred to PCR tubes (13 x 49 µl), where after 1 µl of hybridisation mix a-1, a-2, a-3, a-4, b-1, b-2, b-3, b-4, e, f, g, h, i was added to PCR mix I (13 x 1µl) and 1 µl of hybridisation mix c-1, c-2, c-3, c-4, d-1, d-2, d-3, d-4, j, k, l, m, n was added to PCR mix II (13 x 1µl).

    [0495] Amplification was performed using the following program:
    Extension 72°C, 5 min
    Initial denaturation: 94°C, 5 min
    30 cycles: 94°C, 30 sec
      61°C, 60 sec
      72°C, 10 sec
    Final extension: 72°C, 5 min


    [0496] After amplification, 5 µl of the PCR samples was added 2.5 µl H2O + 2.5 µl 30% glycerol and resolved together with a 25 bp DNA ladder on 4% GTG agarose gels using 1xTBE as running buffer
    Using 1 and 0.1 pmol truncated Oligonucleotides for cross- and subsequent amplification gage strong bands on the gel, whereas using 0.01 pmol gave only weak bands (data not shown).

    Step h) Monitoring evolution of the secondary libraries by restriction analysis



    [0497] The following PCR samples were desalted with a G25 column: a-2, b-2, c-2 and d-2 and E (positive control). 5 µl of the desalted samples 1-5 were each added 3 µl H2O + 1 µl StuI + 1 µl buffer 2 and incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.
    As restriction controls, identical samples except added 1 µl extra H2O instead of StuI were incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.
    The samples were then added 3 µl 30% glycerol resolved on a 4% GTG agarose gel.
    Figure 16: +/- AvrII of a-2, b-2, c-2, d-2 and E and 2.5 µl of a 25 bp DNA ladder.

    [0498] Digestion was only modest, but it could be seen that around 10-20% of a-2 and c-2 was cleaved by StuI. The positive control had been digested about 60-70% (note that the band contain a PCR by-product.). Thus, the signal had been enriched from 1 in 1,2x1010 to 1 in 5, i.e. an enrichment of approximately 2,4x109.


    Claims

    1. A method for identification of the most abundant oligonucleotides among a library of oligonucleotide species comprising specifically amplifying the sequence of a hybridised oligonucleotide specie using the steps of:

    a. Incubating a library of oligonucleotides comprising more than 106 oligonucleotide species under conditions of hybridisation, wherein the oligonucleotides of the library are not inherently capable of exponential amplification by PCR and comprise

    i. A coding sequence, which is characteristic of one oligonucleotide specie of the library and

    ii. Only one fixed sequence, which is present in a plurality of oligonucleotides species of the library, said fixed sequence being located on the 5'side of the coding sequence

    b. Extending the 3'end of one or more hybridised oligonucleotide species having only one fixed sequence, such that the extended region generates a second fixed region that can be used as new primer binding site

    c. Amplifying extended sequences by PCR using said new primer binding site and the fixed sequence mentioned in step a

    d. Optionally identifying the identity of amplified sequences thereby revealing the identity of hybridised oligonucleotide species in step a


     
    2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the amplified extended sequences of step c, or oligonucleotide species derived thereof, is comprised in a plurality of oligonucleotides used in a next round of steps a-c, such that an iterative process is initiated wherein each repetition of steps a, b and c is optionally followed by step d.
     
    3. A method according the any of the preceding claims, wherein the library of oligonucleotides has been fractionated according to affinity toward a molecular target or wherein the library of oligonucleotides is derived from a library of oligonucleotides that has been fractionated according to affinity toward a molecular target.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zur Identifizierung der häufigsten Oligonukleotide unter einer Bibliothek von Oligonukleotidspezies umfassend im Besonderen Vervielfältigung der Sequenz einer hybridisierten Oligonukleotidspezies unter Verwendung der Schritte:

    a. Inkubieren einer Bibliothek von Oligonukleotiden umfassend mehr als 106 Oligonukleotidspezies unter Hybridisierungsbedingungen, wobei die Oligonukleotide in der Bibliothek nicht von Natur aus dazu fähig sind durch PCR exponentiell zu vervielfältigen und folgende umfassen

    i. eine Kodiersequenz, die für eine Oligonukleotidspezies der Bibliothek kennzeichnend ist, und

    ii. nur eine feste Sequenz, die in einer Vielzahl von Oligonukleotidspezies der Bibliothek anwesend ist, wobei die feste Sequenz an der 5'-Seite der Kodiersequenz verortet ist

    b. Verlängerung des 3'-Endes einer oder mehr hybridisierten Oligonukleotidspezies mit nur einer festen Sequenz, so dass die verlängerte Region eine zweite feste Region erzeugt, die als neue Primerbindungsstelle verwendet werden kann

    c. Vervielfältigen von verlängerten Sequenzen durch PCR unter Anwendung der neuen Primerbindungsstelle und der in Schritt a genannten festen Sequenz

    d. wahlweise Identifizierung der Identität von vervielfältigten Sequenzen, wobei die Identität der hybridisierten Oligonukleotidspezies in Schritt a enthüllt wird.


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die vervielfältigten verlängerten Sequenzen von Schritt c, oder davon abgeleitete Oligonukleotidspezies, in einer Mehrheit von Oligonukleotiden beinhaltet sind, die in einer nächsten Runde von Schritt a-c verwendet wird, so dass ein iterativer Vorgang eingeleitet wird, worin jede Wiederholung von den Schritten a, b und c wahlweise von Schritt d gefolgt wird.
     
    3. Verfahren nach einem jeglichen der vorherstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Oligonukleotidbibliothek je nach Affinität gegenüber einem molekularen Target fraktioniert wurde, oder wobei die Oligonukleotidbibliothek von einer Oligonukleotidbibliothek abgeleitet ist, die je nach Affinität gegenüber einem molekularen Target fraktioniert wurde.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé pour l'identification des oligonucléotides les plus répandus parmi une banque d'espèces d'oligonucléotides comprenant spécifiquement l'amplification de la séquence d'une espèce d'oligonucléotide hybridée utilisant les étapes suivantes:

    a. L'incubation d'une banque d'oligonucléotides comprenant plus de 106 espèces d'oligonucléotides sous des conditions d'hybridation, où les oligonucléotides de la banque ne sont par nature pas capable d'amplification exponentielle par PCR et comprenant

    i. Une séquence codante qui est caractéristique d'une espèce d'oligonucléotide de la banque et

    ii. Uniquement une séquence fixe qui est présente dans une pluralité d'espèces d'oligonucléotides de la banque, ladite séquence fixe étant localisée sur le côté 5' de la séquence codante

    b. L'extension du sens 3' d'au moins une espèce d'oligonucléotide hybridée ayant uniquement une séquence fixe, de manière à ce que la région étendue génère une deuxième région fixe qui peut être utilisée comme nouveau site de liaison d'amorce

    c. L'amplification de séquences étendues par PCR utilisant ledit nouveau site de liaison d'amorce et la séqence fixe mentionnée dans l'etape a

    d. L'identification facultative de l'identité des séquences amplifiées, révélant ainsi l'identité des espèces d'oligonucléotides hybridées de l'étape a


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, où les séquences étendues amplifiées de l'etape c, ou des espèces d'oligonucléotides dérivées de celles-ci, sont comprises dans une pluralité d'oligonucléotides utilisées dans un prochain cycle d'étapes a à c, de manière à ce qu'un processus itératif est initié, dans lequel chaque répétition des étapes a, b et c est facultativement suivie par l'étape d.
     
    3. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la banque d'oligonucléotides a été fractionnée selon l'affinité vers une cible moléculaire, ou dans lequel la banque d'oligonucléotides est dérivée d'une banque d'oligonucléotides qui a été fractionnée selon l'affinité vers une cible moléculaire.
     




    Drawing






























































    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description