(19)
(11)EP 3 377 064 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 16819325.8

(22)Date of filing:  27.12.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 31/4985(2006.01)
A61K 9/20(2006.01)
A61P 11/14(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2016/082698
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/118584 (13.07.2017 Gazette  2017/28)

(54)

ORVEPITANT FOR THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC COUGH

ORVEPITANT ZUR BEHANDLUNG VON CHRONISCHEM HUSTEN

ORVEPITANT POUR LE TRAITEMENT DE LA TOUX CHRONIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 08.01.2016 US 201662276237 P
17.10.2016 US 201662408921 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
26.09.2018 Bulletin 2018/39

(73)Proprietor: NeRRe Therapeutics Limited
Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2FX (GB)

(72)Inventor:
  • TROWER, Mike
    Stevenage Hertfordshire SG1 2FX (GB)

(74)Representative: Murgitroyd & Company 
Scotland House 165-169 Scotland Street
Glasgow G5 8PL
Glasgow G5 8PL (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
  
  • M. MUNOZ ET AL: "NK-1 Receptor Antagonists: A New Paradigm in Pharmacological Therapy", CURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY : THE NEW INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR TIMELY IN-DEPTH REVIEWS IN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 18, no. 12, 1 April 2011 (2011-04-01) , pages 1820-1831, XP055219223, NL ISSN: 0929-8673, DOI: 10.2174/092986711795496746
  • A.Z EL-HASHIM ET AL: "Effect of a novel NK1 receptor selective antagonist (NKP608) on citric acid induced cough and airway obstruction", PULMORNARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, vol. 17, no. 1, 1 February 2004 (2004-02-01), pages 11-18, XP055350227, GB ISSN: 1094-5539, DOI: 10.1016/j.pupt.2003.08.002
  • BELVISI M G ET AL: "Cough - 7: Current and future drugs for the treatment of chronic cough", THORAX, BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, GB, vol. 59, no. 5, 1 May 2004 (2004-05-01), pages 438-440, XP002365291, ISSN: 0040-6376, DOI: 10.1136/THX.2003.013490
  • PAVORD I D ET AL: "Management of chronic cough", THE LANCET, THE LANCET PUBLISHING GROUP, GB, vol. 371, no. 9621, 19 April 2008 (2008-04-19), pages 1375-1384, XP022615778, ISSN: 0140-6736, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60596-6 [retrieved on 2008-04-17]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] This invention relates to the new use of the compound 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof and pharmaceutical compositions containing it for the treatment of chronic cough, particularly chronic cough due to or associated with interstitial lung diseases (IDLs), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), with lung tumours or with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] WO2003/066635 describes a number of diazabicycle derivatives as antagonists of tachykinin receptors, also known as substance P (SP) receptors or NK receptors and in particular NK-1 receptors,, including the 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (otherwise known as orvepitant).

[0003] Orvepitant, otherwise known as 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide has the following chemical structure (I).



[0004] Hereinafter any reference to orvepitant refers to the compound (I).

[0005] Orvepitant may also be known as:

CAS Index name
1-Piperidinecarboxamide, N-[(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl]-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-4-[(8aS)-hexahydro-6-oxopyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl]-N-methyl-, (2R,4S) and

IUPAC name:
(2R,4S)-N-{(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-2-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-N-methyl-4-[(8aS)-6-oxohexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide.



[0006] A preferred salt of the compound (I) is its hydrochloride salt which is otherwise known as orvepitant hydrochloride.

[0007] A further preferred salt of the compound (I) is its maleate salt which is otherwise known as orvepitant maleate.

[0008] WO2009/124996 describes a new crystalline form of orvepitant maleate namely anhydrous crystalline form (Form1).

[0009] The compound (I), pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof are described in the aforementioned specifications as antagonists of tachykinin receptors, also known as substance P (SP) receptors or NK receptors and in particular NK-1 receptors, both in vitro and in vivo and are thus of use in the treatment of conditions mediated by tachykinins, including SP and other neurokinins.

[0010] Particularly, the compound (I), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof are described as useful in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders.

[0011] We have now surprisingly found that the compound (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof are also useful in the treatment of chronic cough.

[0012] Refractory chronic cough also known as chronic refractory cough, chronic unexplained cough, chronic undiagnosed cough, chronic idiopathic cough, cough hypersensitivity syndrome, chronic intractable cough or chronic treatment-resistant cough is defined as a chronic cough of ≥8-weeks for which either no objective evidence of an underlying cause can be determined after routine clinical investigation or a cough that did not respond to standard treatment for the identified underlying cause.

[0013] Cough is a defensive reflex action of the respiratory system that is activated to clear the upper airways (Chung & Pavord, Lancet 2008; 371:1364-74). However, excessive coughing is the commonest reason for patients seeking medical care (Burt & Schappert, Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 2004; (157):1-70; Schappert & Burt, Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 2006; (159):1-66) and has a significant impact on patient quality of life (French et al., Archives of internal medicine 1998; 158(15):1657-61; French et al., Chest 2005; 127(6):1991-8).

[0014] Coughing is most commonly associated with viral upper respiratory tract infections, where this symptom usually resolves spontaneously within a 3 week period. Chronic coughing (in which persists in a troublesome form for more than eight weeks duration) however may affect up to 12% of the UK population (Ford et al., Thorax 2006; 61(11):975-9) and 18% of the US (Barbee et al., Chest. 1991; 99(1):20-6), afflicts women more often than men and generally has an onset from middle age (Ford et al., Thorax 2006; 61(11):975-9; Irwin et al., The American review of respiratory disease 1981; 123(4 Pt 1):413-7; Irwin et al., Chest 2006; 129(1 Suppl):1S-23S; Janson et al., The European respiratory journal: official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology 2001; 18(4):647-54).

[0015] A.Zel-Hashim et. al., Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, (2004, Vol17.no. 1, pages 11-18) discloses that the NK1 receptor selective antagonist NKP608 is a potent inhibitor of citric acid induced acute cough in guinea pigs.

[0016] Chronic coughing may be associated with many conditions including interstitial lung diseases (also called parenchymal diseases) such as: emphysema, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis; airway diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic postnasal drip, eosinophilic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic infections such as: bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis; lung tumours such as: bronchogenic carcinoma, alveolar cell carcinoma, benign airway tumours, mediastinal tumours; cardiovascular disease such as: left ventricular failure, pulmonary infarction, aortic aneurysm; other diseases such as: reflux oesophagitis, recurrent aspiration, endobronchial sutures, postnasal drip syndrome or rhinosinusitis; drug related such as: administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (Chung & Pavord, Lancet 2008; 371:1364-74).

[0017] Chronic coughing has been shown to have significant physical, social and psychological consequences (Birring et al., Thorax 2003; 58(4):339-43; French et al., Chest 2002; 121(4):1123-31). Patients often suffer complications such as chest and abdominal pains, retching and vomiting, urinary incontinence and even cough syncope. Many are embarrassed and stigmatised by this symptom and therefore avoid public places and social gatherings. Depression scores in this patient population have been found to be comparable to those seen in other serious chronic illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis and sickle cell disease (Dicpinigaitis et al., Chest 2006; 130(6):1839-43).

[0018] Clinicians cannot identify a treatable cause for chronic cough in about 40% of patients (Haque et al., Chest 2005; 127(5):1710-3); as a result the treatment options for these chronic treatment-refractory cough patients are very limited (Gibson & Vertigan, BMJ. 2015;351:h5590). To date the only drug therapies that have been shown to be effective in randomised controlled trials in this patient group are morphine (Morice et al., American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2007; 175(4):312-5) and gabapentin (Ryan et al., Lancet. 2012; 380(9853):1583-9). Other studies have suggested treatments such as amitriptyline and pregabalin (Halum et al., The Laryngoscope 2009; 119(9):1844-7) may be of help, but all these available pharmacological treatment choices are frequently associated with intolerable side effects such as drowsiness, tiredness, gastrointestinal disturbances, and some of these agents, such as for example morphine, are also addictive.

[0019] Thus there is an urgent need to identify new, effective and well-tolerated therapies for this debilitating condition to alleviate patient suffering.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0020] The invention is as defined in the appended claims.

[0021] The solution provided by the present invention is the use of the 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (otherwise known as orvepitant) having the following chemical structure (I)

or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof in the treatment of chronic cough.

[0022] In a first aspect thereof, the invention provides the use of 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of chronic cough.

[0023] In a further aspect thereof, the invention provides 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in the treatment of chronic cough.

[0024] In a yet further aspect, the invention provides a method of treatment of chronic cough. which comprises administering to a human in need thereof an effective amount 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl) -4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide(orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0025] In another aspect the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough.

[0026] In one embodiment, the maleate salt of orvepitant is utilized in the treatment of chronic cough.

[0027] In a further embodiment, orvepitant maleate Form 1 is utilized in the treatment of chronic cough.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0028] 

Figure 1. Objectively measured daytime cough frequency (absolute values). Legend: Baseline = Week 0. Week 4 is end to treatment period. Week 8 is the Follow-up visit.

Figure 2. Objectively measured daytime cough frequency (% values). Legend: %CFB = Percent Change from Baseline (Week 0). Week 4 is end of treatment period. Week 8 is the Follow-up visit.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0029] The present invention relates to the use of 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or a solvate thereof for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of chronic cough.

[0030] 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (otherwise known as orvepitant) has the following chemical structure (I).



[0031] The compound (I) or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts may be prepared by the processes described in International patent applications no. WO2003/066635, WO2009/124996 and WO2007/048642.

[0032] Specifically, the Examples 9a and 11 of WO2003/066635 describe the synthesis of the compound (I) as free base and as hydrochloride salt respectively. Specific crystalline forms of hydrochloride salt namely anhydrous and dihydrate crystalline forms are described in the Examples 11a and 11b respectively. Example 11c describes the synthesis of the compound (I) as a maleate salt. Examples 2-8 of WO2009/124996 describe the synthesis of the maleate salt of the compound (I) as anhydrous crystalline form (Form1).

[0033] Orvepitant maleate Form 1 is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) pattern expressed in terms of 2 theta angles and obtained with a diffractometer using copper KaX-radiation, wherein the XRD pattern comprises 2 theta angle peaks at essentially at 7.3±0.1, 7.5±0.1, 10.9±0.1, 12.7±0.1, 16.5±0.1 degrees, which correspond respectively to d-spacings at 12.2,11.8, 8.1, 7.0 and 5.4 Angstroms (Å).

[0034] Example 1 of WO2007/048642 discloses a process for preparing an intermediate in the synthesis of the compound (I).

[0035] It will be appreciated that for use in medicine, the salts of the compound (I) should be pharmaceutically acceptable. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts will be apparent to those skilled in the art and include for example acid addition salts formed with pharmaceutically acceptable organic or inorganic acids. Examples of salts include hydrochloride, hydrobromide, sulphate, alkyl- or arylsulphonate e.g. methanesulphonate otherwise known as mesylates or p-toluenesulphonate (otherwise known as tosylate), phosphate, acetates, citrate, succinate, tartrate, fumarate and maleate.

[0036] One such pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound (I) for use according to the present invention is the maleate salt (orvepitant maleate).

[0037] Certain salts of the compound (I) may exist in stereoisomeric forms (e.g. they may contain one or more asymmetric carbon atoms). The individual stereoisomers (enantiomers and diastereomers) and mixtures of these are included within the scope of the present invention. Likewise, it is understood that salts of the compound (I) may exist in tautomeric forms and these are also included within the scope of the present invention.

[0038] The compound (I) may form acid addition salts with one or more equivalents of the acid. The present invention may employ all possible stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric forms thereof in the formulations of the invention.

[0039] The compound (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof may exist in the form of a solvate.

[0040] It will be appreciated that many organic compounds can form complexes with solvents in which they are reacted or from which they are precipitated or crystallised. These complexes are known as "solvates". For example, a complex with water is known as a "hydrate". Solvents with high boiling points and/or solvents with a high propensity to form hydrogen bonds such as water, ethanol, iso-propyl alcohol, and N-methyl pyrrolidinone may be used to form solvates. Methods for the identification of solvates include, but are not limited to, NMR and microanalysis.

[0041] The compound (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof may exist in different polymorphic forms.

[0042] Polymorphism is defined as the ability of an element or compound to crystallise in more than one distinct crystalline phase. Thus, polymorphs are distinct solids sharing the same molecular formula, however since the properties of any solid depends on its structure, different polymorphs may exhibit distinct physical properties such as different solubility profiles, different melting points, different dissolution profiles, different thermal and/or photostability, different shelf life, different suspension properties and different physiological absorption rate. Inclusion of a solvent in the crystalline solid leads to solvates, and in the case of water as a solvent, hydrates.

[0043] Included within the compound (I) are all solvates (including hydrates) and polymorphs of the compound (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[0044] The compound (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof has now been determined to be useful in the treatment of chronic cough.

[0045] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound for use according to the present invention is 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide maleate (orvepitant maleate).

[0046] In one embodiment of the invention, the compound for use according to the present invention is 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide maleate as anhydrous crystalline form (Form 1) (orvepitant maleate Form 1).

DEFINITIONS



[0047] All numbers expressing quantities, percentages or proportions, and other numerical values used in the specification and claims, are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term "about."

[0048] It should be understood that the terms "a" and "an" as used herein refer to "one or more" of the enumerated components. It will be clear to one of ordinary skill in the art that the use of the singular includes the plural unless specifically stated otherwise.

[0049] As used herein, the terms "treatment," "treating," and the like, refer to obtaining a desired pharmacologic, physiologic, dermatologic or cosmetic effect. The effect may be prophylactic in terms of completely or partially preventing a condition or disease or disorder or symptom thereof and/or may be therapeutic in terms of a partial or complete cure for a condition or disease or disorder and/or adverse symptom or effect attributable to the condition or disease or disorder.

[0050] "Treatment," thus, for example, covers any treatment of a condition or disease in a mammal, particularly in a human, and includes: (a) preventing the condition or disease, disorder or symptom thereof from occurring in a subject which may be predisposed to the condition or disease or disorder but has not yet been diagnosed as having it; (b) inhibiting the condition or disease, disorder or symptom thereof, such as, arresting its development; and (c) relieving, alleviating or ameliorating the condition or disease or disorder or symptom thereof, such as, for example, causing regression of the condition or disease or disorder or symptom thereof.

[0051] As used herein, the term "effective amount" means that amount of a drug or pharmaceutical agent that will elicit the biological or medical response of a tissue, system, animal or human that is being sought, for instance, by a researcher, clinician or veterinarian.

[0052] The term "chronic cough" refers to cough which persists in a troublesome form for more than eight weeks as defined in treatment guidelines from the British Thoracic Society (Morice et al., Thorax. 2006 Sep;61 Suppl 1:i1-24) and the American College of Physicians (Irwin et al., Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1 Suppl):1S-23S).

[0053] As used herein, the term "refractory chronic cough" refers to cough which persists in a troublesome form for more than eight weeks and for which there is either no objective evidence of an underlying cause as determined after routine clinical investigation or a cough that did not respond to standard treatment for the identified underlying cause (Gibson & Vertigan, BMJ. 2015;351:h5590).

[0054] As used herein, the term "chronic refractory cough" is interchangeable with the terms "refractory chronic cough", "chronic unexplained cough", "chronic undiagnosed cough", "chronic idiopathic cough", "cough hypersensitivity syndrome", or "chronic treatment-resistant cough" and is intended to have the same meaning.

[0055] As used herein, "pharmaceutically acceptable excipient" or "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" mean a pharmaceutically acceptable material, composition or vehicle involved in giving form or consistency to the pharmaceutical composition. Each excipient must be compatible with the other ingredients of the pharmaceutical composition when commingled such that interactions which would substantially reduce the efficacy of the compound of the invention when administered to a patient and interactions which would result in pharmaceutical compositions that are not pharmaceutically acceptable are avoided. In addition, each excipient must of course be pharmaceutically-acceptable e.g. of sufficiently high purity.

[0056] The term "combination" as used herein refers to either a fixed combination in one dosage unit form, or non-fixed combination.

[0057] The term "fixed combination" means that the active ingredients, e.g. a compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a combination partner, are both administered to a patient simultaneously in the form of a single entity or dosage.

[0058] The term "non-fixed combination" means that the active ingredients, e.g. a compound (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and a combination partner, (e.g. another drug as explained below, also referred to as "therapeutic agent" or "co-agent") are both administered to a patient as separate entities either simultaneously, concurrently or sequentially with no, specific time limits, wherein such administration provides therapeutically effective levels of the two compounds in the body of the patient. The latter also applies to cocktail therapy, e.g., the administration of three or more active ingredients.

[0059] The terms "co-administration" or "combined administration" or the like as utilized herein are meant to encompass administration of the compound (I) and the selected combination partner to a single subject in need thereof (e.g. a patient), and are intended to include treatment regimens in which the agents are not necessarily administered by the same route of administration or at the same time.

[0060] The patient to be treated using the invention described herein is preferably a human.

[0061] In one embodiment of the present invention, chronic cough is refractory chronic cough. Chronic cough is a common symptom in people who develop interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) (Brown, 2006; 129(1 Suppl):180S-185S).

[0062] The term interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), also known as diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), refers to a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs).

[0063] The interstitium is a lace-like network of tissue that extends throughout both lungs. The interstitium provides support to the lungs' microscopic air sacs (alveoli). Tiny blood vessels travel through the interstitium, allowing gas exchange between blood and the air in the lungs. Normally, the interstitium is so thin it cannot be seen on chest X-rays or computerised tomography (CT) scans.

[0064] All forms of ILD cause thickening of the interstitium. The thickening can be due to inflammation, scarring, or extra fluid (edema). Some forms of ILD are short-lived; others are chronic and irreversible.

[0065] ILDs include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a chronic, progressive form of fibrosis (scarring) of the interstitium. Cough is estimated to be present in 84% of patients with IPF, is more prevalent in patients who have never smoked or who have more advanced disease and is an independent predictor of disease progression (Ryerson et al., Respirology 2011;16:969-75). IPF is a progressive and usually fatal course with a medium survival of 2-3 years following diagnosis; its cause is unknown. Patients with IPF are usually between 50 to 70 years old and the incidence is lower in women (7.4 cases per 100,000 per year) than men (10.7 cases per 100,000 per year). The incidence, prevalence and death increase with age. At present, no pharmacological therapy is able to cure the disease and most treatment strategies have been based on eliminating or suppressing the inflammatory component though the condition responds poorly to immunosuppressive therapies. Recently however two drugs with anti-fibrotic activity, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been shown in placebo controlled clinical trials to slow, but not halt disease progression.

[0066] ILDs may also include:
  • Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IPP) such as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome (CPFE);
  • Environmental and occupational diseases that are due to hypersensitivity for example: pneumoconiosis such as asbestosis, silicosis, and due to coal dust, beryllium, hard metal dust exposure, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis for example 'bird fancier's lung, radiation fibrosis syndrome, or due to exposure to bacteria and molds such as mycoplasma pneumonia;
  • Multi-system diseases that are associated with autoimmune diseases for example: connective tissue diseases such as systemic sclerosis, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Wegener's granulomatosis; certain muscle diseases such as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and the anti-synthetase syndrome, or as a result of drug reactions for example with amiodarone, methotrexate and bleomycin;
  • Rare lung diseases for example: pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, pulmonary histiocytosis, pulmonary eosinophilia and idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, tuberose sclerosis (lymphangioleiomyomatosis);
  • Genetic or inherited diseases for example: familial pulmonary fibrosis (FPF) or familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP);
  • Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome following lung transplantation.


[0067] Treatment of chronic cough in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) remains problematic for both patients and physicians, and it may be associated with severe breathlessness. In such cases, palliative therapy using conventional anti-tussive agents such as opiate-derived preparations often proves to be of limited benefit.

[0068] Thus, according to a further embodiment of the present invention, chronic cough is due to or associated with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs).

[0069] In another embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with sarcoidosis, emphysema or IPF.

[0070] In another embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with sarcoidosis.

[0071] In another embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with emphysema.

[0072] In another embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with pulmonary fibrosis.

[0073] In another embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with IPF.

[0074] Chronic cough is also a common symptom in people who develop airway diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic postnasal drip, eosinophilic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic infections such as: bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis; lung tumours such as: bronchogenic carcinoma, alveolar cell carcinoma, benign airway tumours, mediastinal tumours; cardiovascular disease such as: left ventricular failure, pulmonary infarction, aortic aneurysm; other diseases such as: reflux oesophagitis, recurrent aspiration, endobronchial sutures, postnasal drip syndrome or rhinosinusitis; drug related such as: administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: other diseases such as: reflux oesophagitis, recurrent aspiration, endobronchial sutures, postnasal drip syndrome or rhinosinusitis; drug related such as: administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

[0075] Thus, according to a further embodiment of the present invention, chronic cough is due to or associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic postnasal drip, eosinophilic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

[0076] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic postnasal drip, eosinophilic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

[0077] Thus, according to a further embodiment of the present invention, chronic cough is due to or associated with chronic infections such as bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, or cystic fibrosis.

[0078] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with chronic infections such as bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, or cystic fibrosis.

[0079] Thus, according to a further embodiment of the present invention, chronic cough is due to or associated with lung tumours such as bronchogenic carcinoma, alveolar cell carcinoma, benign airway tumours, mediastinal tumours.

[0080] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with lung tumours such as bronchogenic carcinoma, alveolar cell carcinoma, benign airway tumours, mediastinal tumours.

[0081] Thus, according to a further embodiment of the present invention, chronic cough is due to or associated with a cardiovascular disease such as left ventricular failure, pulmonary infarction, or aortic aneurysm.

[0082] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for usein the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with cardiovascular disease such as left ventricular failure, pulmonary infarction, aortic aneurysm.

[0083] Thus, according to a further embodiment of the present invention, chronic cough is due to or associated with reflux oesophagitis, recurrent aspiration, endobronchial sutures, postnasal drip syndrome or rhinosinusitis.

[0084] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides the compound of formula (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with reflux oesophagitis, recurrent aspiration, endobronchial sutures, postnasal drip syndrome or rhinosinusitis.

[0085] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with sarcoidosis, emphysema or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, with asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic postnasal drip, eosinophilic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), with chronic infections such as bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, with lung tumours such as bronchogenic carcinoma, alveolar cell carcinoma, benign airway tumours, mediastinal tumours, with cardiovascular disease such as left ventricular failure, pulmonary infarction or aortic aneurysm.

[0086] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl )-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough due to or associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) or with lung tumours such as bronchogenic carcinoma, alveolar cell carcinoma, benign airway tumours, mediastinal tumours or with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

[0087] In one embodiment, the human is a paediatric patient.

[0088] Pharmaceutical compositions for use in accordance with the present invention may be formulated in a conventional manner for use in human and veterinary medicine using one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients.

[0089] Thus, the compound (I) and its pharmaceutically acceptable salts may be formulated for oral, buccal, parenteral, topical (including ophthalmic and nasal), depot or rectal administration or in a form suitable for administration by inhalation or insufflation (either through the mouth or nose).

[0090] For oral administration, the pharmaceutical compositions may take the form of, for example, tablets or capsules prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients such as binding agents (e.g. pregelatinised maize starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose); fillers (e.g. lactose, microcrystalline cellulose or calcium hydrogen phosphate); lubricants (e.g. magnesium stearate, talc or silica); disintegrants (e.g. potato starch or sodium starch glycolate); or wetting agents (e.g. sodium lauryl sulphate). The tablets may be coated by methods well known in the art. Liquid preparations for oral administration may take the form of, for example, solutions, syrups or suspensions, or they may be presented as a dry product for constitution with water or other suitable vehicle before use. Such liquid preparations may be prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutically acceptable additives such as suspending agents (e.g. sorbitol syrup, cellulose derivatives or hydrogenated edible fats); emulsifying agents (e.g. lecithin or acacia); non-aqueous vehicles (e.g. almond oil, oily esters, ethyl alcohol or fractionated vegetable oils); and preservatives (e.g. methyl or propyl-p-hydroxybenzoates or sorbic acid). The preparations may also contain buffer salts, flavouring, colouring and sweetening agents as appropriate.

[0091] Preparations for oral administration may be suitably formulated to give controlled release of the active compound.

[0092] For buccal administration the composition may take the form of tablets or formulated in conventional manner.

[0093] The compound (I) or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts may be formulated for parenteral administration by bolus injection or continuous infusion. Formulations for injection may be presented in unit dosage form e.g. in ampoules or in multi-dose containers, with an added preservative. The compositions may take such forms as suspensions, solutions or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, and may contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilising and/or dispersing agents. Alternatively, the active ingredient may be in powder form for constitution with a suitable vehicle, e.g. sterile pyrogen-free water, before use.

[0094] The compound (I) or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be formulated for dermal administration.

[0095] Dermal administration may include topical application or transdermal administration. Transdermal application can be accomplished by suitable patches, emulsions, ointments, solutions, suspensions, pastes, foams, aerosols, lotions, creams or gels as is generally known in the art, specifically designed for the transdermal delivery of active agents, optionally in the presence of specific permeability enhancers. Topical compositions can likewise take one or more of these forms. One or more active compounds may be present in association with one or more non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable auxiliaries such as excipients, adjuvants (e.g. buffers), carriers, inert solid diluents, suspending agents, preservatives, fillers, stabilizers, anti-oxidants, food additives, bioavailability enhancers, coating materials, granulating and disintegrating agents, binding agents etc., and, if desired, other active ingredients.

[0096] The pharmaceutical composition may be formulated, for example, for immediate release, sustained release, pulsed release, two or more step release, or depot or any other kind of release.

[0097] The manufacture of the pharmaceutical compositions according to the present subject matter may be performed according to methods known in the art and will be explained in further detail below. Commonly known and used pharmaceutically acceptable auxiliaries as well as further suitable diluents, flavorings, sweetening agents, coloring agents etc. may be used, depending on the intended mode of administration as well as particular characteristics of the active compound to be used, such as solubility, bioavailability etc.

[0098] Any non-toxic, inert, and effective topical, oral, etc. pharmaceutically acceptable carrier may be used to formulate the compositions described herein. Well-known carriers used to formulate other topical therapeutic compositions for administration to humans are useful in these compositions. Examples of these components that are well known to those of skill in the art are described in The Merck Index, Thirteenth Edition, Budavari et al., Eds., Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, N.J. (2001); the CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association) International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, Tenth Edition (2004); and the "Inactive Ingredient Guide", U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Office of Management, January 1996. Examples of such useful cosmetically acceptable excipients, carriers and diluents include distilled water, physiological saline, Ringer's solution, dextrose solution, Hank's solution, and DMSO, which are among those suitable for use herein.

[0099] These additional other inactive components, as well as effective formulations and administration procedures, are well known in the art and are described in standard textbooks, such as Goodman and Gillman's: The Pharmacological Bases of Therapeutics, 8th Ed., Gilman et al. Eds. Pergamon Press (1990) and Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th Ed., Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa. (1990).

[0100] In an embodiment, the present topical compositions are formulated in a serum, a gel cream, a lotion, a cream, an ointment, a gel, an aerosol, a foam, a foamable liquid, a solution (solubilized system), a paste, a suspension, a dispersion, an emulsion, a skin cleanser, a milk, a mask, a solid stick, a bar (such as a soap bar), an encapsulated formulation, a microencapsulated formulation, microspheres or nanospheres or vesicular dispersions, or other cosmetically acceptable topical dosage form. In the case of vesicular dispersions, the vesicles may be composed of lipids, which can be of the ionic or nonionic type, or a mixture thereof.

[0101] The formulation can comprise one or more of an aqueous formulation and/or an anhydrous formulation.

[0102] In another embodiment, the present topical cosmetic composition in accordance with the subject matter described herein can comprise or consist of an anhydrous formulation, an aqueous formulation, or an emulsion.

[0103] For intranasal administration, the compound (I) or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts may be formulated as solutions for administration via a suitable metered or unitary dose device or alternatively as a powder mix with a suitable carrier for administration using a suitable delivery device.

[0104] A proposed dose of the compound (I) is approximately 0.5 to 30 mg per day. Preferably, it is 1 to 30 mg per day, more preferably 2.5 to 30 mg per day.

[0105] In one embodiment, the dose of the compound (I) is 10 mg per day, 20 mg per day or 30 mg per day.

[0106] It will be appreciated that it may be necessary to make routine variations to the dosage, depending on the age and condition of the patient and the precise dosage will be ultimately at the discretion of the attendant physician or veterinarian. The dosage will also depend on the route of administration.

[0107] If desired, other therapeutic agents can be employed in conjunction with those provided in the above-described compositions. The amount of active ingredients that may be combined with the carrier materials to produce a single dosage form will vary depending upon the host treated, the nature of the disease, disorder, or condition, and the nature of the active ingredients.

[0108] The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be given in a single dose or multiple doses daily.

[0109] In one embodiment, the compound (I) and its pharmaceutically acceptable salts is administered orally once daily.

[0110] In an embodiment, the present compositions may be topically applied once or multiple times per day. In an embodiment, the present compositions are topically applied from one to four times daily. For example, starting with once daily and progressing to more frequent applications, if needed, is one strategy.

[0111] In an embodiment, the present compositions are topically applied from one to six times daily, for example, in the morning, at noon, in the afternoon, and/or in the evening.

[0112] It is understood, however, that a specific dose level for any particular patient will vary depending upon a variety of factors, including the activity of the specific active agent; the age, body weight, general health, sex and diet of the patient; the time of administration; the rate of excretion; possible drug combinations; the severity of the particular condition being treated; and the form of administration. One of ordinary skill in the art would appreciate the variability of such factors and would be able to establish specific dose levels using no more than routine experimentation.

[0113] Pharmacokinetic parameters such as bioavailability, absorption rate constant, apparent volume of distribution, unbound fraction, total clearance, fraction excreted unchanged, first-pass metabolism, elimination rate constant, half-life, and mean residence time are well known in the art.

[0114] The optimal formulations can be determined by one skilled in the art depending upon considerations such as the particular ingredients and the desired dosage. See, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th ed. (1990, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, PA 18042), pp. 1435-1712, and "Harry's Cosmeticology", 8th ed. (2000, Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New York, N.Y. 10016). Such formulations may influence the physical state, stability, rate of in vivo release, and rate of in vivo clearance.

[0115] In particular, the ability to formulate compositions capable of long term storage, without premixing or compounding requirements prior to application, are also contemplated. Specifically, the present compositions remain unexpectedly stable in storage for periods including between about 3 months and about 3 years, about 3 months and about 2.5 years, between about 3 months and about 2 years, between about 3 months and about 20 months, and alternately any time period between about 6 months and about 18 months.

[0116] Thus, in another aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for use in the treatment of chronic cough.

[0117] In another embodiment, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) maleate, for use in the treatment of chronic cough.

[0118] In another embodiment, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) maleate as anhydrous crystalline form (Form1) for use in the treatment of chronic cough.

[0119] In another embodiment, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) maleate, for use in the treatment of refractory chronic cough.

[0120] In a further embodiment, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for use in the treatment of refractory chronic cough.

[0121] In another embodiment, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide(orvepitant)maleate as anhydrous crystalline form (Form1) for use in the treatment of refractory chronic cough.

[0122] It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the compound (I) or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof according to the invention may advantageously be used in combination with one or more other therapeutic agents, for instance with leukotriene receptor antagonists such as montelukast and zafirlukast; voltage-gated sodium channel blockers such as lidocaine, GSK-2339345, benzonatate and CNV1014802; dual N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and sigma-1 agonist such as dextromethorphan; NMDA receptor antagonists such as memantine; opioids such as codeine and morphine; GABA analogues for example gabapentin and pregabalin; GABA-B receptor agonist such as baclofen; norepinephrine; serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as amytripyline; Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP)-1 agonists such as SCH486757; P2X3 purinergic receptor antagonists such as AF-219 and AF-130; Histamine-1 receptor antagonists such as chlorpheniramine, azelastine, mizolastine, loratadine and cetirizine; anticholinergic drugs such as caramiphen edisylate; secretolytic/mucolytic agents such as ambroxol, DWJ-1340 and HOB-048; Vanilloid-1 (TRPV-1) receptor antagonists such as PAC-14028, VR-611 and XEND-0501; Vanilloid-4 (TRPV-4) receptor antagonists such as GSK2193874 and GSK2798745; TRPM8 agonists such as menthol; homocysteine analogs such as erdosteine; corticosteroids such as budesonide and fluticasone; TRPA1 receptor antagonists such as HC-030031 and GRC-17536; β2-Agonists such as salbutamol; muscarinic receptor antagonists such as ipratropium bromide; proton pump inhibitors such as ranitidine and omeprazole; BK K+ channel inhibitors such as theophylline; mast cell stabilisers such as disodium cromoglycate; phosphodiesterase-(PDE)-4 inhibitors for example apremilast; cannabinoid receptor agonists such as CP55940 and JWH133; NK-1 and/or NK-2 or/and NK-3 antagonists or inhibitors of their cognate ligands NK-A and NK-B, inhibitors of SP for example anti-SP antibody; those of uncharacterised or unknown mechanism including levodropropizine, chlophedianol, carbetapentane (also known as pentoxyverine), levocloperastine, moguisteine, AG-1321001, CCP-01/05/06/07/08, AGPPC-709 and LPCN-1087.

[0123] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a combination which comprises (a) 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and (b) a second drug substance and optionally one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipient(s) for the treatment of chronic cough.

[0124] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a combination which comprises (a) 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and (b) a second drug substance and optionally one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipient(s) for the treatment of chronic refractory cough.

[0125] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides a combination of the compound(I)(orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof with a second drug substance which is selected from a leukotriene receptor antagonist, voltage-gated sodium channel blockers, dual N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and sigma-1 agonists, NMDA receptor antagonists, opioids, GABA analogues, GABA-B receptor agonist, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake, Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP)-1, P2X3 purinergic receptorantagonists, Histamine-1 receptor antagonists, anticholinergic drugs, secretolytic/mucolytic agents, Vanilloid-1 (TRPV-1) receptor antagonists, Vanilloid-4 (TRPV-4) receptor antagonists, homocysteine analogs, corticosteroids TRPA1 receptor antagonists, β2-Agonists; muscarinic receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, BK K+ channel inhibitors, mast cell stabilisers, phosphodiesterase-(PDE)-4 inhibitors, cannabinoid receptor agonists, NK-1 and/or NK-2 or/and NK-3 antagonists or inhibitors of their cognate ligands NK-A and NK-B, inhibitors of SP and optionally one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipient(s) for the treatment of chronic cough.

[0126] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides a combination of the compound(I) (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof with a second drug substance which is selected from a leukotriene receptor antagonist, voltage-gated sodium channel blockers, dual N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and sigma-1 agonists, NMDA receptor antagonists, opioids, GABA analogues, GABA-B receptor agonist, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake, Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP)-1, P2X3 purinergic receptor antagonists, Histamine-1 receptor antagonists, anticholinergic drugs, secretolytic/mucolytic agents, Vanilloid-1 (TRPV-1) receptor antagonists, Vanilloid-4 (TRPV-4) receptor antagonists, homocysteine analogs, corticosteroids TRPA1 receptor antagonists, β2-Agonists; muscarinic receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, BK K+ channel inhibitors, mast-cell stabilisers, phosphodiesterase-(PDE)-4 inhibitors; cannabinoid receptor agonists, NK-1 and/or NK-2 or/and NK-3 antagonists or inhibitors of their cognate ligands NK-A and NK-B, inhibitors of SP and optionally one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipient(s) for the treatment of chronic refractory cough.

[0127] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides a combination of the compound(I) (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof with a second drug substance which is selected from is selected from P2X3 purinergic receptor antagonists such as AF-219 or AF-130 or mast cell stabilisers such as disodium cromoglicate or GABA analogues such as gabapentin or pregabalin or opioids such as codeine and morphine, and optionally one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipient(s) for the treatment of chronic refractory cough.

[0128] AF-219 corresponds to compound 5-(2,4-diamino-pyrimidin-5-yloxy)-4-isopropyl-2-methoxy-benzenesulfonamide.

[0129] In one embodiment the maleate salt of orvepitant is utilized in a combination with a second drug substance as above described.

[0130] In a further embodiment, orvepitant maleate Form 1 is utilized in in a combination with a second drug substance as above described.

[0131] In one embodiment the maleate salt of orvepitant is utilized in a combination with a second drug substance as above described.

[0132] In a further embodiment, orvepitant maleate Form 1 is utilized in in a combination with a second drug substance as above described.

[0133] The following examples illustrate the invention without limiting the scope thereof.

EXAMPLES


Clinical Studies


Study Design for Chronic Refractory Cough



[0134] Orvepitant maleate Form 1 was evaluated in an open-label pilot study to determine the efficacy of multiple dosing in male and female patients with a diagnosis of chronic treatment-refractory cough for over 3 months. The study was a single-arm (30 mg orvepitant maleate Form 1 once daily), 4-week study with a 4 week follow-up. There were five scheduled clinic visits; Screening visit, Baseline visit, Week 1 visit, Week 4 visit (end of treatment period) and a Week 8 Follow-up visit.

[0135] The following instruments were used to assess efficacy:
  • Subjects were fitted with an ambulatory cough monitor (ACM) to record objective cough frequency over 24 hours at Screening, Weeks 1, 4 and 8
  • Cough-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (CQLQ): Subjects were asked to complete this questionnaire at Screening, Weeks 1, 4 and 8
  • Global Rating of Change for Cough Frequency & Severity Scale: Subjects were asked to complete this scale at Weeks 1, 4 and 8
  • Cough Severity VAS: Subjects were issued with diaries for daily recording of Cough Severity VAS scores
13 subjects were enrolled into the study and provided data on cough frequency, Cough QOL, Global Rating of Change for Cough Frequency and Severity, and Cough Severity VAS, but one of the 13 subjects had data missing on cough frequency (day and night) at week 4.

[0136] The primary endpoint was change in objective daytime cough frequency at the end of the treatment period at Week 4 compared to Baseline.

Results



[0137] Statistically significant improvements were seen in both objective and subjective measures of cough frequency and severity in this pilot study as well as in the Cough Quality of Life and Global Rate of Change assessments.

Primary Endpoint:



[0138] As illustrated in Figures 1 and 2 a significant reduction (-18.9 coughs/hr (-26%) mean change from Baseline), as derived from a negative binomial regression model, was observed for the primary endpoint of change in daytime objective cough frequency at Week 4 compared to Baseline (p<0.001).

Secondary Endpoints



[0139] Daytime Objective Cough Frequency: As provided in Figures 1 and 2 there was a significant reduction in daytime objective cough frequency at Week 1 (-27.0 coughs/hr (-38%) mean change from Baseline) and Week 8 (-20.4 coughs/hr (-28%) mean change from Baseline) (p=0.001 and p=0.02 respectively) but no significant change in daytime objective cough frequency at Week 8 compared to Week 4 (p=0.86).

[0140] Night-time Objective Cough Frequency: There was a significant reduction (-3.1 coughs/hr (-66%) mean change from Baseline) in night-time objective cough frequency at Week 8 compared to baseline (p=0.017), however there was no significant reduction in mean night-time objective cough frequency at Weeks 1 and 4 compared to Baseline, or between Weeks 4 and 8 (p=0.19, p=0.65, p=0.10 respectively).

[0141] Cough Quality of Life: The results of the CQLQ showed a significant reduction in the Overall score at Weeks 1, 4 and 8 compared to Baseline (mean changes of -4.0, -4.4 and -3.4; p<0.001, p=0.005 and p=0.033 respectively) and no significant difference in Overall score between Weeks 4 and 8 (p=0.52). Significant changes from Baseline were seen in most domains at either Week 1 or Week 4, with significant changes from Baseline seen at Weeks 1, 4 and 8 for both the Psychosocial and Extreme Physical domains. No significant changes were seen for the Emotional domain. There were no significant changes observed from Week 4 to Week 8 for any of the domains.

[0142] Global Rate of Change: More subjects felt better in terms of cough frequency at Week 1 (n=9) and Week 4 (n=7) compared to Baseline, than felt the same (n=4 and n=5 respectively). The median improvement score at both Weeks 1 and 4 was 3 (somewhat better). No subjects felt worse at Week 1 and Week 4. By Week 8, the number of subjects feeling better had reduced (n=3), with more feeling the same (n=7) and some feeling worse (n=3). Statistical significance was seen when using marginal homogeneity tests to compare the "better/ same / worse" Week 8 results with Weeks 1 and 4 (p=0.02 and p=0.05 respectively), with fewer subjects feeling better at Week 8. More subjects felt better in terms of cough severity at Week 1 (n=8) compared to Baseline, than felt the same (n=5). The median improvement score was 4 (moderately better) at Week 1, and 3 (somewhat better) at Week 4. No subjects felt worse at either Week 1 or Week 4. By Week 8, the number of subjects feeling better had reduced (n=4), with more feeling the same (n=6) and some feeling worse (n=3). Statistical significance was seen when comparing the Week 8 results with Week 1 (p=0.05), with fewer subjects feeling better at Week 8. Adhoc analyses showed evidence of a relationship between objective and subjective ratings for changes in cough. Subjects who rated symptoms of cough frequency and cough severity as 'better', tended to have a greater decrease in daytime hourly cough rates than those who rated their symptoms as the same/worse. There was no apparent relationship with night-time hourly cough rates.

[0143] Cough Severity Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A significant decrease from Baseline in daytime cough severity, as measured by the cough severity VAS, was observed by Week 2 of study (-39% average change from Baseline, p=0.002) and continued until Week 6 of study (-14% average change from Baseline, p=0.001). Likewise there was a significant decrease from Baseline in night-time cough severity by Week 1 of study (-14% average change from Baseline, p=0.01) which remained until Week 6 of study (-18% average change from Baseline, p=0.017).

Clinical studies in patients with IPF associated chronic cough



[0144] Orvepitant maleate Form 1 is evaluated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study in patients with IPF associated cough; breathlessness is assessed.

[0145] The study is a two-arm trial with 30 mg orvepitant maleate Form 1 and placebo administered once daily for 2-weeks with a 2-week follow-up. There are 25 subjects in each arm. There are 4 scheduled clinic visits; Screening visit, Baseline visit, Week 2 visit (end of treatment period) and a Week 4 Follow-up visit.

[0146] The following instruments are used to assess efficacy:
  • Subjects are fitted with an ambulatory cough monitor (ACM) to record objective cough frequency over 24 hours at Screening (Baseline value) and Week 2
  • Cough-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire: Subjects are asked to complete this questionnaire at Screening, Baseline, Weeks 2 and 4
  • Global Rating of Change for Cough Frequency & Severity Scale: Subjects are asked to complete this scale at Weeks 2 and 4
  • Cough Severity VAS: Subjects are issued with diaries for daily recording of Cough Severity VAS scores
  • Breathlessness scales. University of San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire and Borg CR10 Scale. Subjects are asked to complete this questionnaire at Screening, Baseline, Weeks 2 and 4


[0147] The primary endpoint is change in objective daytime cough frequency at the end of the treatment period at Week 2 compared to Baseline.

Clinical studies in patients with chronic cough due to lung tumours:



[0148] Orvepitant maleate Form 1 is evaluated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study in patients with chronic cough due to lung tumours.

[0149] The study is a two-arm trial with 30 mg orvepitant maleate Form 1 and placebo administered once daily for 2-weeks with a 2-week follow-up. There are 25 subjects in each arm. There are 4 scheduled clinic visits; Screening visit, Baseline visit, Week 2 visit (end of treatment period) and a Week 4 Follow-up visit.

[0150] The following instruments are used to assess efficacy:

Subjects are fitted with an ambulatory cough monitor (ACM) to record objective cough frequency over 24 hours at Screening (Baseline value) and Week 2

Manchester Cough in Lung Cancer Scale Score (MCLCS) - quality of life score for lung cancer patients: Subjects are asked to complete this questionnaire at Screening, Baseline, Weeks 2 and 4

Global Rating of Change for Cough Frequency & Severity Scale: Subjects are asked to complete this scale at Weeks 2 and 4

Cough Severity VAS: Subjects are issued with diaries for daily recording of Cough Severity VAS scores

Breathlessness scales. University of San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire or/and Borg CR10 Scale or/ and Cancer Dyspnea Scale. Subjects are asked to complete this questionnaire at Screening, Baseline, Weeks 2 and 4.



[0151] The primary endpoint is change in objective daytime cough frequency at the end of the treatment period at Week 2 compared to Baseline.

Pharmaceutical compositions



[0152] Orvepitant maleate Form 1 will normally, but not necessarily, be formulated into pharmaceutical compositions prior to administration to a patient. In one aspect, the invention is directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising orvepitant maleate Form 1.

[0153] Tablets of orvepitant maleate Form 1 have been formulated as white to off-white, film-coated round tablets containing 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 50 mg, and 60 mg of orvepitant which provide an immediate release of the active ingredient for oral administration.

[0154] The list of excipients and quantitative composition of tablets are reported in Tables 1-3 below.
Table 1 Composition of Tablets Orvepitant Maleate Form 1
ComponentQuantity (mg/tablet)Function
 10 mg30 mg50 mg60 mg 
Tablet core     
Orvepitant maleate Form1 11.851 35.542 59.233 71.094 Active
Microcrystalline cellulose 60.00 149.22 60.00 79.39 Filler
Lactose monohydrate 201.90 95.54 154.52 122.12 Filler
Croscarmellose sodium 9.00 5.92 9.00 11.85 Disintegrant
Hypromellose 15.00 10.78 15.00 12.55 Binder
Magnesium stearate 2.25 3.00 2.25 3.00 Lubricant
Purified water5 qs qs qs qs Granulating fluid
Total unit dose 300.00 300.00 300.00 300.00 -
Coat     
Opadry® White OY-S-28876 9.00 9.0 9.00 9.0 Coating agent
Purified water5 qs qs qs qs Suspending agent
1. Corresponding to 10.0 mg as orvepitant
2. Corresponding to 30.0 mg as orvepitant
3. Corresponding to 50.0 mg as orvepitant
4. Corresponding to 60.0 mg as orvepitant
5. Removed during processing. Does not appear in the final product.
Table 2. Orvepitant maleate Form 1 30% w/w granulate
Material and SpecificationMaster Unit Formula Quantity (% w/w)
Orvepitant maleate 30.00*
Hypromellose 2910 5.00
Lactose monohydrate 33.50
Microcrystalline cellulose 30.00
Croscarmellose Sodium 1.50
*corresponding to 25.32%w/w as free base
Table 3 Composition of Orvepitant Maleate Form 1 Tablets
ComponentQuantity (mg/tablet)Function
10 mg20 mg30 mg 
Tablet core    
Orvepitant maleate1 granule of Table 2 (30.00% w/w) 39.492 78.993 118.484 Active
Lactose monohydrate 188.51 149.01 109.52 Filler
Microcrystalline cellulose 60.00 60.00 60.00 Filler
         
Croscarmellose sodium 9.00 9.00 9.00 Disintegrant
Magnesium stearate5 3.00 3.00 3.00 Lubricant
Purified water6 qs qs qs Granulating fluid
Total unit dose 300.00 300.00 300.00 -
Coat    
Opadry® White OY-S-288767 9.07 9.07 9.07 Coating agent
Purified water6 qs qs qs Suspending agent
1. The actual quantity of orvepitant maleate Form 1 may be adjusted based on the purity of the input drug substance.
2. Corresponding to 10.0 mg as orvepitant
3. Corresponding to 20.0 mg as orvepitant
4. Corresponding to 30.0 mg as orvepitant
5. Vegetable origin.
6. Removed during processing. Does not appear in the final product.
7. The weight of film coat applied per tablet may vary depending on the efficiency of the process, but is typically 3% w/w of tablet core weight.


[0155] Orvepitant maleate tablets, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 50 mg and 60 mg were manufactured using wet granulation, dry blending, tablet compression and film coating processes.

[0156] Orvepitant maleate as drug substance, lactose monohydrate, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose and croscarmellose sodium were sieved and dry mixed into the high shear mixer granulator for approximately 5 minutes. The granulation water was sprayed onto the drug substance, lactose monohydrate, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose and croscarmellose sodium dry blend. The wet granule was dried approximately at 65ºC into a fluid bed dryer for approximately 45 minutes (< 2% LOD), milled using a conical mill (screen size 813 µm) and blended into a bin blender with lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose and croscarmellose sodium for approximately 20 minutes. Magnesium stearate was added for lubrication into the bin blender and the mixture was blended for approximately 3 minutes.

[0157] The blend was compressed using a suitable rotary tablet compression machine to obtain uncoated tablets. Opadry® White OY-S-28876 was charged into a mixing vessel with purified water and the film coating suspension prepared with stirring. The tablets were film coated into a suitable pan coater (approximately 3% weight gain).

[0158] The above description fully discloses the invention including preferred embodiments thereof. Modifications and improvements of the embodiments specifically disclosed herein are within the scope of the following claims. Without further elaboration, it is believed that one skilled in the art can, using the preceding description, utilize the present invention to its fullest extent. Therefore, the Examples herein are to be construed as merely illustrative and not a limitation of the scope of the present invention in any way.


Claims

1. 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R) -(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in the treatment of chronic cough.
 
2. Orvepitant or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 1, wherein the chronic cough is chronic refractory cough.
 
3. Orvepitant or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the chronic cough is due to or associated with sarcoidosis, emphysema or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
 
4. Orvepitant or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the chronic cough is due to or associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic postnasal drip, eosinophilic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
 
5. Orvepitant or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the chronic cough is due to or associated with chronic infections such as bronchiectasis, tuberculosis or cystic fibrosis.
 
6. Orvepitant or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the chronic cough is due to or associated with lung tumours such as bronchogenic carcinoma, alveolar cell carcinoma, benign airway tumours or mediastinal tumours.
 
7. Orvepitant or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the chronic cough is due to or associated with cardiovascular disease such as left ventricular failure, pulmonary infarction or aortic aneurysm.
 
8. Orvepitant or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the chronic cough is due to or associated with reflux oesophagitis, recurrent aspiration, endobronchial sutures, postnasal drip syndrome or rhinosinusitis.
 
9. Orvepitant or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of orvepitant is maleate.
 
10. Orvepitant maleate for use according to claim 9, wherein orvepitant maleate is orvepitant maleate Form 1.
 
11. 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a] - pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in combination with one or more therapeutic agents, selected from P2X3 purinergic receptor antagonists, muscarinic receptor antagonists or beta-2 adrenoceptor agonists; for use in the treatment of chronic cough.
 
12. A combination for use according to claim 11, wherein chronic cough is chronic refractory cough.
 
13. A combination for use according to claim 11 or 12, wherein P2X3 purinergic receptor antagonists are 5-(2,4-diamino-pyrimidin-5-yloxy)-4-isopropyl-2-methoxy-benzenesulfonamide (AF-219) or AF-130.
 
14. A combination for use according to claim 11 or 12, wherein the beta-2 adrenoceptor agonist is salbutamol.
 
15. A combination for use according to claim 11 or 12, wherein the muscarinic receptor antagonist is ipratropium bromide.
 
16. A combination for use according according to any one of claims 11-15, wherein the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of orvepitant is maleate.
 
17. A combination for use according to claim 16, wherein ovepitant maleate is anydrous crystalline Form 1.
 
18. A pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients for use in the treatment of chronic cough.
 
19. A pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients for use according to claim 18, wherein the chronic cough is chronic refractory cough.
 
20. A pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients for use according to claim 18 or 19, wherein the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of orvepitant is maleate.
 
21. A pharmaceutical composition comprising 2-(R)-(4-Fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamide (orvepitant) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients for use according to claim 20, wherein orvepitant maleate is anydrous crystalline Form 1.
 


Ansprüche

1. 2-(R)-(4-Fluor-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo-[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidin-1-carbonsäure-[1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluormethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamid (Orvepitant) oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung von chronischem Husten.
 
2. Orvepitant oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei der chronische Husten chronischer refraktärer Husten ist.
 
3. Orvepitant oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der chronische Husten auf Sarkoidose, Emphysem oder idiopathische pulmonale Fibrose (IPF) zurückzuführen ist oder damit im Zusammenhang steht.
 
4. Orvepitant oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der chronische Husten auf Asthma, chronische Bronchitis, chronisches sinubronchiales Syndrom, eosinophile Bronchitis oder chronisch obstruktive Lungenerkrankung (COPD) zurückzuführen ist oder damit im Zusammenhang steht.
 
5. Orvepitant oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der chronische Husten auf chronische Infektionen wie Bronchiektasie, Tuberkulose oder Mukoviszidose zurückzuführen ist oder damit im Zusammenhang steht.
 
6. Orvepitant oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der chronische Husten auf Lungentumore wie bronchogenes Karzinom, Alveolarzellkarzinom, gutartige Atemwegstumore oder Mediastinaltumore zurückzuführen ist oder damit im Zusammenhang steht.
 
7. Orvepitant oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der chronische Husten auf kardiovaskuläre Erkrankung wie Linksherzinsuffizienz, Lungeninfarkt oder Aortenaneurysma zurückzuführen ist oder damit im Zusammenhang steht.
 
8. Orvepitant oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der chronische Husten auf Refluxösophagitis, wiederkehrende Aspiration, endobronchiale Nähte, sinubronchiales Syndrom oder Rhinosinusitis zurückzuführen ist oder damit im Zusammenhang steht.
 
9. Orvepitant oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon zur Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, wobei das pharmazeutisch annehmbare Salz von Orvepitant Maleat ist.
 
10. Orvepitantmaleat zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 9, wobei Orvepitantmaleat Orvepitantmaleat Form 1 ist.
 
11. 2-(R)-(4-Fluor-2-methyl-phenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo-[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidin-1-carbonsäure-[1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluormethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamid (Orvepitant) oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon in Kombination mit einem oder mehreren therapeutischen Mitteln, ausgewählt aus Antagonisten des purinergischen Rezeptors P2X3, Antagonisten des muskarinischen Rezeptors oder Antagonisten des Beta-2-Adrenozeptors; zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung von chronischem Husten.
 
12. Eine Kombination zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 11, wobei chronischer Husten chronischer refraktärer Husten ist.
 
13. Kombination zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 11 oder 12, wobei Antagonisten des purinergischen Rezeptors P2X3 5-(2,4-Diamino-pyrimidin-5-yloxy)-4-isopropyl-2-methoxy-benzolsulfonamid (AF-219) oder AF-130 sind.
 
14. Kombination zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 11 oder 12, wobei der Antagonist des Beta-2-Adrenozeptors Salbutamol ist.
 
15. Kombination zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 11 oder 12, wobei der Antagonist des muskarinischen Rezeptors Ipratropiumbromid ist.
 
16. Kombination zur Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 11-15, wobei das pharmazeutisch annehmbare Salz von Orvepitant Maleat ist.
 
17. Kombination zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 16, wobei Orvepitantmaleat die wasserfreie kristalline Form 1 ist.
 
18. Eine pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, beinhaltend 2-(R)-(4-Fluor-2-methylphenyl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo-[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidin-1-carbonsäure-[1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluormethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamid (Orvepitant) oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon und einen oder mehrere pharmazeutisch annehmbare Träger oder Hilfsstoffe, zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung von chronischem Husten.
 
19. Eine pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, beinhaltend 2-(R)-(4-Fluor-2-methylphenyl)-4-(S)-(((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo-[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidin-1-carbonsäure-[1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluormethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamid (Orvepitant) oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz und einen oder mehrere pharmazeutisch annehmbare Träger oder Hilfsstoffe, zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 18, wobei der chronische Husten chronischer refraktärer Husten ist.
 
20. Eine pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, beinhaltend 2-(R)-(4-Fluor-2-methylphenyl)-4-(S)-(((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo-[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidin-1-carbonsäure-[1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluormethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamid (Orvepitant) oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz und einen oder mehrere pharmazeutisch annehmbare Träger oder Hilfsstoffe, zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 18 oder 19, wobei das pharmazeutisch annehmbare Salz von Orvepitant Maleat ist.
 
21. Eine pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, beinhaltend 2-(R)-(4-Fluor-2-methylphenyl)-4-(S)-(((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo-[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-piperidin-1-carbonsäure-[1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluormethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-methylamid (Orvepitant) oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz und einen oder mehrere pharmazeutisch annehmbare Träger oder Hilfsstoffe, zur Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 20, wobei Orvepitantmaleat die wasserfreie kristalline Form 1 ist.
 


Revendications

1. [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluorométhyl-phényl)-éthyl]-méthylamide d'acide 2-(R)-(4-fluoro-2-méthyl-phényl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-pipéridine-1-carboxylique (orvepitant) ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation dans le traitement de la toux chronique.
 
2. Orvepitant ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la toux chronique est la toux réfractaire chronique.
 
3. Orvepitant ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la toux chronique est due ou associée à la sarcoïdose, l'emphysème ou la fibrose pulmonaire idiopathique (FPI).
 
4. Orvepitant ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la toux chronique est due ou associée à l'asthme, la bronchite chronique, l'écoulement post-nasal chronique, la bronchite éosinophilique ou la maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique (MPOC).
 
5. Orvepitant ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la toux chronique est due ou associée à des infections chroniques telles que la bronchectasie, la tuberculose ou la fibrose kystique.
 
6. Orvepitant ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la toux chronique est due ou associée à des tumeurs du poumon telles que le carcinome bronchique, le carcinome des cellules alvéolaires, des tumeurs bénignes des voies aériennes ou des tumeurs médiastinales bénignes.
 
7. Orvepitant ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la toux chronique est due ou associée à une maladie cardiovasculaire telle que l'insuffisance ventriculaire gauche, l'infarctus pulmonaire ou l'anévrisme aortique.
 
8. Orvepitant ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la toux chronique est due ou associée à l'oesophagite de reflux, l'aspiration récurrente, des sutures endobronchiques, le syndrome d'écoulement post-nasal ou la rhino-sinusite.
 
9. Orvepitant ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, le sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable d'orvepitant étant le maléate.
 
10. Maléate d'orvepitant pour une utilisation selon la revendication 9, le maléate d'orvepitant étant la Forme 1 du maléate d'orvepitant.
 
11. [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluorométhyl-phényl)-éthyl]-méthylamide d'acide 2-(R)-(4-fluoro-2-méthyl-phényl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-pipéridine-1-carboxylique (orvepitant) ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci en combinaison avec un ou plusieurs agents thérapeutiques, sélectionnés parmi des antagonistes du récepteur purinergique P2X3, des antagonistes des récepteurs muscariniques ou des agonistes de l'adrénocepteur bêta-2 ; pour une utilisation dans le traitement de la toux chronique.
 
12. Une combinaison pour une utilisation selon la revendication 11, dans laquelle la toux chronique est la toux réfractaire chronique.
 
13. Une combinaison pour une utilisation selon la revendication 11 ou selon la revendication 12, dans laquelle les antagonistes du récepteur purinergique P2X3 sont le 5-(2,4-diamino-pyrimidin-5-yloxy)-4-isopropyl-2-méthoxy-benzènesulfonamide (AF-219) ou l'AF-130.
 
14. Une combinaison pour une utilisation selon la revendication 11 ou selon la revendication 12, dans laquelle l'agoniste de l'adrénocepteur bêta-2 est le salbutamol.
 
15. Une combinaison pour une utilisation selon la revendication 11 ou selon la revendication 12, dans laquelle l'antagoniste des récepteurs muscariniques est le bromure d'ipratropium.
 
16. Une combinaison pour une utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 15, dans laquelle le sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable d'orvepitant est le maléate.
 
17. Une combinaison pour une utilisation selon la revendication 16, dans laquelle le maléate d'orvepitant est la Forme cristalline anhydre 1.
 
18. Une composition pharmaceutique comprenant du [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluorométhyl-phényl)-éthyl]-méthylamide d'acide 2-(R)-(4-fluoro-2-méthyl-phényl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-pipéridine-1-carboxylique (orvepitant) ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci et un ou plusieurs véhicules ou excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables pour une utilisation dans le traitement de la toux chronique.
 
19. Une composition pharmaceutique comprenant du [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluorométhyl-phényl)-éthyl]-méthylamide d'acide 2-(R)-(4-fluoro-2-méthyl-phényl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-pipéridine-1-carboxylique (orvepitant) ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable et un ou plusieurs véhicules ou excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables pour une utilisation selon la revendication 18, dans laquelle la toux chronique est la toux réfractaire chronique.
 
20. Une composition pharmaceutique comprenant du [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluorométhyl-phényl)-éthyl]-méthylamide d'acide 2-(R)-(4-fluoro-2-méthyl-phényl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-pipéridine-1-carboxylique (orvepitant) ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable et un ou plusieurs véhicules ou excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables pour une utilisation selon la revendication 18 ou selon la revendication 19, dans laquelle le sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable d'orvepitant est le maléate.
 
21. Une composition pharmaceutique comprenant du [1-(R)-(3,5-bis-trifluorométhyl-phényl)-éthyl]-méthylamide d'acide 2-(R)-(4-fluoro-2-méthyl-phényl)-4-(S)-((8aS)-6-oxo-hexahydro-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-pyrazin-2-yl)-pipéridine-1-carboxylique (orvepitant) ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable et un ou plusieurs véhicules ou excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables pour une utilisation selon la revendication 20 dans laquelle le maléate d'orvepitant est la Forme cristalline anhydre 1.
 




Drawing








Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description