(19)
(11)EP 3 386 994 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
11.12.2019 Bulletin 2019/50

(21)Application number: 16808705.4

(22)Date of filing:  12.12.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C07F 9/177(2006.01)
A61P 31/04(2006.01)
A61K 31/6615(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2016/080545
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/098033 (15.06.2017 Gazette  2017/24)

(54)

4,6-DI-(O-THIOPHOSPHATE)-INOSITOL-1,2,3,5-TETRA-O-SULFATE FOR C. DIFFICILE INFECTION

4,6-DI-(O-THIOPHOSPHAT)-INOSITOL-1,2,3,5-TETRA-O-SULFAT FÜR INFEKTIONEN MIT C. DIFFICILE

4,6-DI- (O-THIOPHOSPHATE) -INOSITOL-1,2,3,5-TETRA-O-SULFATE POUR INFECTION C. DIFFICILE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 11.12.2015 EP 15199681
07.04.2016 EP 16164300

(43)Date of publication of application:
17.10.2018 Bulletin 2018/42

(73)Proprietor: ETH Zürich
8092 Zürich (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • IVARSSON, Mattias
    8005 Zürich (CH)
  • LEROUX, Jean-Christophe
    8053 Zürich (CH)
  • CASTAGNER, Bastien
    Montreal Québec H2J 387 (CA)

(74)Representative: Schulz Junghans Patentanwälte PartGmbB 
Großbeerenstraße 71
10963 Berlin
10963 Berlin (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 0 269 105
US-B2- 9 200 015
WO-A1-2013/045107
  
  • ESTELLE DURANTIE ET AL: "New Paradigms for the Chiral Synthesis of Inositol Phosphates", CHEMBIOCHEM - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL BIOLOGY., vol. 16, no. 7, 12 March 2015 (2015-03-12) , pages 1030-1032, XP055289967, DE ISSN: 1439-4227, DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201500071
  • E DURANTIE: "Chemical Synthesis of Biomolecules Analogs: Inositol Phosphate/Sulfate Hybrids And Fluorinated Carbohydrates", DISS. ETH NO. 22532, 1 January 2015 (2015-01-01), pages 1-84, XP055333064, ETH Zürich
  • Thomas S. Elliott ET AL: "The use of phosphate bioisosteres in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology", MedChemComm, vol. 3, no. 7, 1 January 2012 (2012-01-01) , page 735, XP055569563, United Kingdom ISSN: 2040-2503, DOI: 10.1039/c2md20079a
  • M R Hamblin ET AL: "myo -Inositol phosphorothioates, phosphatase-resistant analogues of myo -inositol phosphates. Synthesis of dl- myo -inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and dl- myo -inositol 1,4-bisphosphorothioate", BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 246, no. 3, 15 September 1987 (1987-09-15), pages 771-774, XP055569564, GB ISSN: 0264-6021, DOI: 10.1042/bj2460771
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to 4,6-di-(O-thiophosphate)-inositol-1,2,3,5-tetra-O-sulfate and its use as an enteric activator of Clostridium difficile toxin in prevention and therapy of the toxic symptoms associated with C. difficile infection.

Background of the invention



[0002] Infections with Clostridium difficile can lead to severe, even life-threatening diarrhoea. The symptoms are caused by two toxins synthesized by C. difficile, TcdA and TcdB. The toxins can enter the cells lining the colon, where they are activated by cytosolic inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and exert their toxic function. One suggested therapeutic intervention is to activate the toxins in the extracellular space of the colon lumen. The activated toxins are no longer able to enter the colon cells, and within the colon lumen they cannot exert their toxic function. Thus, activation of the toxins within the colon lumen renders the toxins harmless for the affected patient.

[0003] IP6 cannot be used for therapeutic intervention, because it precipitates due to the high calcium concentration in the colon lumen.

[0004] WO2013045107A1 shows PEG-modified inositol phosphate compounds and mixed inositol phosphate-sulfate compounds and their use in activation of C. difficile toxin activation. The activity of the compounds shown therein is promising, however improvements upon the results related therein would be of advantage. Thus, the problem underlying the present invention is to provide activators of C. difficile toxin that exhibit stronger activity at high calcium concentration.

[0005] CHEMBIOCHEM - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL BIOLOGY, vol. 16, no. 7, 12 March 2015, pages 1030-1032 discloses "New Paradigms for the Chiral Synthesis of Inositol Phosphates".

[0006] DISS. ETH NO. 22532, 2015, pages 1-84 discloses "Chemical Synthesis of Biomolecules Analogs: Inositol Phosphate/Sulfate Hybrids And Fluorinated Carbohydrates".

[0007] MedChemComm, vol. 3, no. 7, 2012, page 735 discloses "The use of phosphate bioisosteres in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology".

[0008] BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL, vol. 246, no. 3, 1987, pages 771-774 discloses "myo-Inositol phosphorothioates, phosphatase-resistant analogues of myo -inositol phosphates. Synthesis of dl-myo -inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and dl-myo -inositol 1,4-bisphosphorothioate".

[0009] US9200015 B2 discloses derivative compounds of inositol hexakisphosphate effective to treat a Clostridium difficile infection and to neutralize the bacterial toxins produced by the same.

[0010] EP0269105 A2 discloses derivatives of cyclohexane for pharmaceutical applications.

[0011] This problem is solved by the subject matter of the independent claims.

Description of the invention



[0012] During an investigation of the compound class first shown in WO2013045107A1, it was surprisingly found that a small subset of mixed inositol tetrakissulfate bisthiophosphate compounds is far superior in effect to previously investigated mixed sulfate-phosphate compounds (see Fig. 1).

[0013] According to a first aspect of the invention, a compound characterized by the general formula (I)

is provided, wherein two out of six X are OPSO22- and the remaining X are OSO3-.

[0014] The straight lines in formula I are meant to indicate that the stereochemistry of the individual ring carbon atoms is undefined. The formula is meant to encompass any diastereomer.

[0015] In certain embodiments, the compound is characterized by the general formula (IIa) or (IIb)



[0016] According to a second aspect of the invention, the compound as specified by formulae (I), (II), (IIa) or (IIb) is provided for use as a medicament in the therapy or prevention of a disease.

[0017] According to a third aspect of the invention, the compound as specified by formulae (I), (IIa) or (IIb) is provided for use in the therapy or prevention of C. difficile infection, or in the therapy or prevention of symptoms associated with C. difficile infection.

[0018] The compounds according to the invention do not need to penetrate mammalian or bacterial membranes to be active. In addition, the compounds according to the invention are unlikely to put selective pressure on the C. difficile bacteria, thus avoiding problems related to resistance.

[0019] According to a fourth aspect of the invention, a dosage form comprising the compound as specified by formulae (I), (IIa) or (IIb) is provided, particularly for use in the therapy or prevention of C. difficile infection, or in the therapy or prevention of symptoms associated with C. difficile infection.

[0020] In certain embodiments, the dosage form is a peroral formulation, particularly a tablet, capsule, lozenge, powder, solution or syrup.

[0021] According to an alternative aspect of the invention, the compound as specified in the above aspects of the invention is provided as a medicament, particularly a medicament formulated for use in the prevention or therapy of symptoms associated with C. difficile infection.

[0022] In certain embodiments, the medicament comprises the compound as specified in the above aspects of the invention alone or together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients or carriers.

[0023] The medicament may be administered alone or in combination with one or more therapeutic agents, particularly in combination with an antibacterial drug, more particularly in combination with an antibacterial drug selected from the group comprising (by way of non-limiting examples) metronidazole, vancomycin or fidaxomicin.

[0024] According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a method of treatment or prevention of symptoms associated with C. difficile infection is provided, comprising the administration of the compound as specified by formulae (I), (IIa) or (IIb) to a subject in need thereof. Administration may be effected by any of the aforementioned means.

[0025] The compound may be given to a patient already diagnosed with C. difficile infection, or to a patient being suspected of suffering from C. difficile infection. Alternatively, the compound may be used as a prophylactic for patients that are at risk of contracting the infection, such as patients under treatment with antibacterial drugs in hospital settings.

[0026] According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a method of treatment of C. difficile infection is provided, comprising the administration of an antibacterial drug, particularly metronidazole, vancomycin or fidaxomicin in combination with the compound as specified by formulae (I), (IIa) or (IIb) to a subject in need thereof.

Short description of the figures



[0027] 

Fig. 1 shows the extent of cleavage of TcdB in the presence and absence of Ca2+ (10 mM) for IP6, IP2S4 and activator compound IT2S4 (IIa).

Fig. 2 shows 1H-NMR and 31P-NMR of compound (IIa).

Fig. 3 shows the extent of TcdB cleavage in presence of 10 mM CaCl2 for inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), inositol hexasulphate (IS6), and two mixed phosphate-sulfate compounds.


Examples


Example 1: Synthesis of compound (IIa)



[0028] The synthesis followed the sequence depicted in the scheme below:

PTSA: p-toluenesulfonic acid; DMF: dimethylformamide; TBDMSCI: tert-butyldimethylsilyl chloride; DCM: dichlormethane; S8: elemental sulphur; pyr.: pyridine; TMSBr: trimethylsilyl bromide, TFA: trifluoroacetic acid

Phosphorylation



[0029] The known 2-tertbutyldimethylsilyl inositol orthoformate was co-evaporated 3x with toluene and dissolved in dichlormethane (DCM). 1H-tetrazole (4 eq.) followed by phosphoramidite (8 eq.) were added to the reaction and stirred overnight. Pyridine, followed by crushed sulphur flakes (20 eq.) were added to the reaction and stirred overnight. The resulting crude mixture was diluted with DCM and washed with saturated NaHCO3, dried with Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The product was purified by flash chromatography with DCM in toluene.
1H-NMR (400 MHz; CDCl3): δ 7.35-7.29 (m, 4H), 7.15 (dd, J = 6.6, 2.1 Hz, 2H), 7.07-7.04 (m, 2H), 5.54 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, 1H), 5.45-5.41 (m, 2H), 5.30-4.97 (m, 8H), 4.51-4.49 (m, 1H), 4.33-4.32 (m, 2H), 4.27 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 0.93 (s, 9H), 0.13 (s, 6H);
31P-NMR (162 MHz; CDCl3): δ 70.1

Deprotection



[0030] The following deprotection conditions are in analogy to the synthesis published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society [JACS 2005, 127, 5288].

[0031] Starting material (50mg) was treated with thiophenol (300 µl), m-cresol (300 µl), trifluoroacetic acid (1.8 ml). Then added TMSBrOH slowly (360 µl). Stirred 2 h at room temperature. Evaporated twice from toluene. Diluted with DCM, and ca. 5 ml water. Neutralized with 1N NaOH. Poured aqueous layer (slightly cloudy) directly on SolEx C18 cartridge (Thermofisher, 1 g, 6 ml). Eluted with water. In some cases some aromatic impurities were found but would precipitate over time in water and could be filtered-off.
1H-NMR (500 MHz; D2O): δ 4.36 (q, J = 9.6 Hz, 2H), 4.02 (t, J = 2.7 Hz, 1H), 3.64 (dd, J = 9.7, 2.8 Hz, 2H), 3.50 (t, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H).
31P-NMR (203 MHz; D2O): δ 45.7

Sulfation



[0032] The sulfation reaction of the thiophosphate has to be performed carefully because the thiophosphate is eventually converted to the phosphate under the reaction conditions. We thus monitored the sulfation carefully and saw that the reaction was complete after ca. 30 min. and that no decomposition could be observed in this time. Thus, sulphurtrioxide dimethylformamide (SO3-DMF) complex (12 eq.) was added to a suspension of inositol phosphate in DMF and the reaction was stirred 35 min. The reaction was quenched by adding 1N NaOH, until ca. pH 8 followed by ca. 3 ml methanol (MeOH) to precipitate salts. The solid was purified by Sephadex LH-20 column, eluting with water.
1H-NMR (500 MHz; D2O): δ 5.06 (s, 1H), 5.04-4.98 (m, 4H), 4.79-4.76 (m, 1H).
31P-NMR (203 MHz; D2O): δ 44.5
1H-NMR and 31P-NMR results are shown in Fig. 2.

Example 2: Comparison of cleavage efficiency



[0033] IP6, activator compound (IIa) and IP2S4 were compared with regard to the extent of cleavage of TcdB (Fig. 1). The compound to be tested was added at 1 mM to 150 ng toxin B in presence or absence of 10 mM Ca2+ in 100 mM Tris pH7.4 and incubated for 3 h at 37°C. Cleaved protein fragments were separated by SDS-PAGE and visualized by silver staining. The extent of cleavage was quantified from protein band intensities using the ImageJ software package. Signals were normalized to cleavage of positive and negative controls. The results show that the di-thiophosphate-tetra-sulfate inositols are surprisingly superior even in comparison to di-phosphate-tetra-sulfate inositols, which in turn are significantly superior to the inositolhexasulfate and inositol hexaphosphate previously published (Fig. 3 and comparative example 3).

Example 3 (comparative): P2S4 inositol, IP6 and IS6 cleavage efficiency



[0034] Samples were prepared and processed as described in example 2. Error bars show s.d.; Asterisk indicates statistical difference compared to IP2S4 (P < 0.05); n = 3.

Methods:



[0035] Analogue solubility measurements by ICP-MS. 100 mM solutions of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) analogues with or without 10 mM CaCl2 were prepared in 10 mM tris pH 7.4 and incubated with agitation for 2 h at 37 °C. The solutions were immediately filtered through 0.2 mm nylon filters equilibrated to 37 °C. The phosphorous content in each filtrate was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The values obtained were divided by the number of phosphates in each IP6 analogue to determine the concentration of the compound in the solutions.

[0036] Free calcium ion quantification. A fresh 1 mM solution of murexide (Merck, Germany) was prepared in 10 mM tris pH 7.4. For each IP6 analogue, samples containing 0.5 mM analogue, murexide and CaCl2 in 50 mL 10 mM tris were prepared in triplicate. After 5 min incubation at room temperature, the samples were centrifuged at 20'000 g for 2 min and the upper 40 mL of the supernatant transferred to a 384-well plate. Samples without IP6 analogue containing CaCl2 ranging from 1 mM to 20 mM, and 20 mM were also prepared and used for calibrating each experiment. The absorbance was measured at 474 nm and 544 nm and the data analyzed as reported by Ohnishi.[Anal. Biochem. 85, 165 (1978)] The experiment was repeated in triplicate.

[0037] Cleavage assays with holotoxin. 1 mM IP6 analogues were equilibrated with 10 mM CaCl2 in 100 mM tris pH 7.4 for 15 min at 37 °C before addition of 150 ng TcdB (TgcBiomics, Germany) in a total volume of 20 mL. A negative control (no IP6, 10 mM CaCl2) and a positive control (1 mM IP6) were also included on every gel. The reaction mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C and then placed on ice. Laemmli sample buffer (5X) was added to stop the reactions and 10 mM EDTA was added to the samples containing CaCl2 before heating at 95 °C for 3 minutes. The cleavage products were visualized by SDS-PAGE (using 15-well 8 % acrylamide Precise™ Tris-Glycine gels, ThermoScientific, USA) followed by silver staining according to a modified Vorum protocol [Proteomics 1, 1359 (2001)] with the thiosulphate sensitization step extended to 10 min. The linearity of the staining protocol was verified with serial dilutions of TcdB starting at 160 ng/lane down to 20 ng/lane. The band intensities were quantified as described for the cleavage assays with recombinant toxin. The experiment was done in triplicate.


Claims

1. A compound characterized by the general formula (I)

wherein two out of six X are OPSO22- and the remaining X are OSO3-.
 
2. The compound according to claim 1, characterized by the formula (IIa) or (IIb)


 
3. A compound according to claim 1 or 2 for use as a medicament.
 
4. The compound according to claim 1 or 2 for use in the therapy or prevention of C. difficile infection or in the prevention or therapy of symptoms associated with C. difficile infection.
 
5. A dosage form comprising the compound according to claim 1 or 2.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verbindung, gekennzeichnet durch die allgemeine Formel (I)

wobei zwei von sechs X OPSO22- und die restlichen X OSO3- sind.
 
2. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, gekennzeichnet durch die Formel (IIa) oder (IIb)


 
3. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2 zur Verwendung als Medikament.
 
4. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2 zur Verwendung bei der Therapie oder Prävention von Infektionen mit C. difficile oder bei der Prävention oder Therapie von Symptomen im Zusammenhang mit einer Infektion mit C. difficile.
 
5. Darreichungsform, umfassend die Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2.
 


Revendications

1. Composé caractérisé par la formule générale (I) :

dans laquelle deux des six X sont OPSO22- et les X restants sont OSO3-.
 
2. Composé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé par la formule (IIa) ou (IIb) :


 
3. Composé selon l'une des revendications 1 ou 2 pour une utilisation en tant que médicament.
 
4. Composé selon l'une des revendications 1 ou 2 pour une utilisation dans la thérapie ou la prévention d'une infection à C. difficile ou dans la prévention ou la thérapie de symptômes associés à une infection à C. difficile.
 
5. Forme posologique comprenant le composé selon l'une des revendications 1 ou 2.
 




Drawing

















Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description