(19)
(11)EP 3 389 691 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
06.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/19

(21)Application number: 16822406.1

(22)Date of filing:  15.12.2016
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61K 38/12  (2006.01)
C07K 7/64  (2006.01)
A61K 51/08  (2006.01)
A61K 51/04  (2006.01)
C07K 7/50  (2006.01)
C07K 14/005  (2006.01)
A61K 47/50  (2017.01)
A61P 31/20  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2016/081117
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/102906 (22.06.2017 Gazette  2017/25)

(54)

CYCLIC NTCP-TARGETING PEPTIDES AND THEIR USES AS ENTRY INHIBITORS

CYCLISCHE, AUF NTCP GERICHTETE PEPTIDE UND DEREN VERWENDUNGEN ALS EINTRITTSINHIBITOREN

PEPTIDES CIBLANT LES NTCP CYCLIQUES ET LEURS UTILISATIONS EN TANT QU'INHIBITEURS D'ENTRÉES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 16.12.2015 EP 15200494

(43)Date of publication of application:
24.10.2018 Bulletin 2018/43

(73)Proprietor: Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
69117 Heidelberg (DE)

(72)Inventors:
  • URBAN, Stephan
    67434 Neustadt/Weinstrasse (DE)
  • NI, Yi
    69214 Eppelheim (DE)
  • MIER, Walter
    64625 Bensheim (DE)

(74)Representative: Grahn, Sibylla Maria 
Boehmert & Boehmert Anwaltspartnerschaft mbB Pettenkoferstrasse 22
80336 München
80336 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2009/092612
WO-A1-2012/107579
  
  • STEPHAN URBAN ET AL: "Strategies to Inhibit Entry of HBV and HDV Into Hepatocytes", GASTROENTEROLOGY, vol. 147, no. 1, 1 July 2014 (2014-07-01), - 25 April 2014 (2014-04-25), pages 48-64, XP055175233, ISSN: 0016-5085, DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.04.030 cited in the application
  • BROWN S E ET AL: "Determination of the affinity of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen in human sera", JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS, ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V.,AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 72, no. 1, 3 August 1984 (1984-08-03) , pages 41-48, XP025425108, ISSN: 0022-1759, DOI: 10.1016/0022-1759(84)90431-9 [retrieved on 1984-08-03]
  • DANIELLE A GUARRACINO: "Wheel of Fortune - Cyclic Peptides Hit the Mimetic Jackpot: Current Syntheses, Uses and Roles for Cyclic Peptide Mimetics", CURRENT CHEMICAL BIOLOGY, vol. 9, no. 1, 1 April 2015 (2015-04-01), pages 36-52, XP055252227, DOI: 10.2174/2212796809666150911201950
  • MICHELLE A CAMERINO ET AL: "Computer-assisted design of cyclic peptides and peptidomimetics", CHIMICA OGGI., vol. 26, no. 5, 1 September 2008 (2008-09-01), pages 46-51, XP055252262, IT ISSN: 0392-839X, DOI: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/2 32716656_Computer-assisted_design_of_cycli c_peptides_and_peptidomimetics
  • LEVENGOOD M R ET AL: "Use of lantibiotic synthetases for the preparation of bioactive constrained peptides", BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, PERGAMON, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 18, no. 10, 15 May 2008 (2008-05-15), pages 3025-3028, XP022669491, ISSN: 0960-894X, DOI: 10.1016/J.BMCL.2008.01.062 [retrieved on 2008-01-19]
  • MASAHARU SOMIYA ET AL: "Intracellular trafficking of bio-nanocapsule-liposome complex: Identification of fusogenic activity in the pre-S1 region of hepatitis B virus surface antigen L protein", JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE., vol. 212, 12 June 2015 (2015-06-12), - 1 August 2015 (2015-08-01), pages 10-18, XP055257568, NL ISSN: 0168-3659, DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.06.012
  • Do-Hyoung Kim ET AL: "An anti-viral peptide derived from the preS1 surface protein of hepatitis B virus", BMB Reports, 30 September 2008 (2008-09-30), pages 640-644, XP055257576, DOI: 10.5483/BMBRep.2008.41.9.640 Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://www.bmbreports.org/jbmb/jbmb_fi les/[41-9]0809300832_(640-644)BMB105(08-10 6).pdf [retrieved on 2016-03-11]
  • R C Kennedy ET AL: "Inhibition of a common human anti-hepatitis B surface antigen idiotype by a cyclic synthetic peptide", Journal of Virology, 1 May 1983 (1983-05-01), pages 653-655, XP055257546, UNITED STATES Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl es/PMC255172/pdf/jvirol00146-0329.pdf [retrieved on 2016-03-11]
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to cyclic NTCP targeting peptides which are preS-derived peptides of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The present invention further relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising at least one cyclic peptide. The present invention further relates to medical uses of said cyclic peptides and the pharmaceutical compositions, such as in the diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of a liver disease or condition, and/or in the inhibition of HBV and/or HDV infection.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Today, about 2 billion people carry serological markers of HBV. About 400 million of them are chronically infected with HBV. According to the center of disease control (CDC) 15-25% of chronically HBV infected people are prone to develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within a decade if they do not receive appropriate treatment (Shephard et al., 2006). HBV-related HCC has a poor prognosis and HBV has therefore been classified by the world health organization (WHO) as the most important naturally occurring human carcinogen. Despite the existence of a prophylactic vaccine, the number of infections will rise in the upcoming decades due to the increasing world population and the limitation of prophylaxis in the poor countries.

[0003] HBV is primarily transmitted via the parenteral route. 90-95% of the acutely infected, immune competent individuals clear the virus, thereby gaining life-long immune protection. About 5-10% of infected people develop chronic Hepatitis B (300,000-500,000 persons in Germany). In contrast, in high endemic areas, particularly Central Africa and Eastern Asia, the main mode of transmission is perinatal from mother to child. Unfortunately, infection of not fully immunocompetent children results in a 90-98% chronic course of the disease. Hepatitis B-related HCC is therefore the most common malignancy in many of these countries.

[0004] Currently approved therapeutic regiments for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections either address replication steps of the viral genome after an already established infection (Lamivudine, Adefovir, Entecavir, Tenofovir) or act as modulators of the immune system (interferon alpha). Unfortunately, only 10-25% of the patients preserve a sustained virological response upon such therapies. It is therefore of utmost importance to develop novel therapeutics that target so far unaffected replication steps (e.g. virus entry) that may help to eliminate the virus and cure infection.
Despite of the availability of a prophylactic vaccine and reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors, the number of HBV-infected people and the number of HBV-related deaths worldwide (presently about 500,000 per year) is increasing. About two thirds of primary liver cancers are attributable to persistent HBV infection (Chan & Sung, 2006).

[0005] Specific inhibition of virus entry is an attractive therapeutic concept to control and eventually eliminate acute and chronic infections by different viruses. Entry inhibition has curative potential as it has recently been demonstrated in a mouse model for HCV infection (Mailly et al., 2014)

[0006] The human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnaviridae. Hepadnaviruses are the smallest enveloped DNA viruses which replicate via reverse transcription of a pgRNA intermediate. During assembly the nucleocapsid acquires three viral envelope proteins termed large (L), middle (M) and small (S). They are encoded in one open reading frame and share the S-domain which is required for membrane anchoring. In addition to the S-domain, M contains an N-terminal hydrophilic extension of 55 amino acids (preS2), while L is further extended by 107, 117 or 118 amino acids (genotype-dependent) termed preS1 (Urban et al., 2014). The hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a satellite virusoid utilizing the HBV envelope proteins for entry into hepatocytes. The myristoylated preS1-domain of L is known to play the key role in HBV and HDV infectivity.

[0007] The inventors have previously identified HBV L-protein derived lipopeptides that block HBV and HDV infection of PHH and HepaRG cells (Gripon et al., 2005, Schulze et al., 2010, WO 2009/092611 A1). They are derived from the N-terminal 47 amino acids of the preS1-domain of HBV genotype D (HBVpreS/2-48myr) and include the naturally occurring modification with myristic acid.

[0008] In WO 2009/092612 and WO 2012/107579, the inventors describe hydrophobic modified preS-derived peptides of HBV and their use as vehicles for the specific delivery of compounds to the liver.

[0009] The inventors have furthermore previously identified the receptor responsible for the binding of these HBV L-protein derived lipopeptides, namely sodium taurocholate co-transportingpolypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1). (WO 20014/072526, WO 2014/072524 and WO 2015/014830). See also Ni et al. (2014) and Yan et al. (2012).

[0010] Brown et al. (1984) describe determining the affinitx of antibosies to HBV surface antigen in human sera. Guarracino (2015) describes cyclic peptides and syntheses, uses and roles for cyclic peptide mimetics. Camerino et al. (2008) describe computer-assisted design of cyclic peptides and peptidomimetics. Smiya et al. (2015) describe about the identification of fusogenic activity in the preS1 region of HBV surface antigen L protein. Kim et al. (2008) disclose an anti-viral peptide derived from the preS1 surface protein of HBV. Kennedy et al. (1983) describe inhibiting a common human anti-Hepatitis B surface antigen idiotype by a cyclic synthetic peptide.

[0011] The present invention aims to improve the methods and means for the inhibition of NTCP as a HBV and HDV receptor and NTCP-mediated transport of natural substrates and xenobiotics.

[0012] It is, thus, an objective of the present invention to provide improved means and methods for the diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of liver diseases, such as liver diseases related to NTCP-mediated transport.

[0013] The present invention further aims to improve the methods and means for the inhibition, prevention and/or treatment of HBV-infection and other HBV-related diseases as present in the prior art and it is, thus, an objective of the present invention to provide improved methods and means which allow for a targeted and effective inhibition, prevention and/or treatment of HBV infection and related diseases.

[0014] It is a further objective of the present invention to provide improved means and methods for the inhibition, prevention and/or treatment of HDV infection and HDV-related diseases.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0015] The present invention solves the objects as claimed in the claims.

[0016] According to the present invention this object is solved by providing a cyclic peptide of the general formula Ia

        cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]     (Ia)

wherein

P is the amino acid sequence NPLGFXaaP (SEQ. ID NO: 1), with Xaa being F or L,

X is an amino acid sequence having a length of m amino acids,
wherein m is 0 or at least 1;

Y is an amino sequence having a length of n amino acids,

wherein n is 0 or at least 1;

and wherein m + n is 0 to 42;

and carrying at least one hydrophobic modification at amino acid side chain(s) of X and/or P, wherein said cyclic peptide is not cyclized within the amino acid sequence of P of SEQ ID NO. 1 and not via amino acid side chains of P,
wherein the hydrophobic modification is an acylation or addition of hydrophobic moieties,
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0017] According to the present invention this object is solved by providing a pharmaceutical composition comprising
  1. (i) at least one cyclic peptide of the present invention,
  2. (ii) optionally, a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and/or excipient.


[0018] According to the present invention this object is solved by providing the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in medicine.

[0019] According to the present invention this object is solved by providing the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in the treatment for the inhibition of HBV and/or HDV infection.

[0020] According to the present invention this object is solved by providing the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in the prevention of a primary HBV and/or HDV infection.

[0021] According to the present invention this object is solved by providing the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use as in vitro HBV and/or HDV entry inhibitors

[0022] According to the present invention this object is solved by providing the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in the diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of a liver disease or condition.

[0023] According to the present invention this object is solved by providing the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in the diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of a cardiovascular disease (CVD).

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION



[0024] Before the present invention is described in more detail below, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the particular methodology, protocols and reagents described herein as these may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention which will be limited only by the appended claims. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meanings as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0025] Concentrations, amounts, and other numerical data may be expressed or presented herein in a range format. It is to be understood that such a range format is used merely for convenience and brevity and thus should be interpreted flexibly to include not only the numerical values explicitly recited as the limits of the range, but also to include all the individual numerical values or sub-ranges encompassed within that range as if each numerical value and sub-range is explicitly recited. As an illustration, a numerical range of "7 to 49" should be interpreted to include not only the explicitly recited values of 4 to 19, but also include individual values and sub-ranges within the indicated range. Thus, included in this numerical range are individual values such as 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 ... 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, and sub-ranges such as from 7 to 10, from 10 to 15, from 15 to 25, from 28 to 39, from 35 to 47, from 35 to 49 etc. This same principle applies to ranges reciting only one numerical value, such as "at least 1 or "at least one amino acid". Furthermore, such an interpretation should apply regardless of the breadth of the range or the characteristics being described.

Cyclic NTCP targeting peptides



[0026] As outlined above, the present invention provides cyclic peptides.

[0027] Said cyclic peptides are preS-derived peptides of hepatitis B virus (HBV).

[0028] A cyclic peptide of the present invention has the general formula Ia

        cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]     (Ia)

wherein

P is the amino acid sequence NPLGFXaaP (SEQ. ID NO: 1), with Xaa being F or L,

X is an amino acid sequence having a length of m amino acids,
wherein m is 0 or at least 1;

Y is an amino sequence having a length of n amino acids,

wherein n is 0 or at least 1;

and wherein m + n is 0 to 42;

and carrying at least one hydrophobic modification at amino acid side chain(s) of X and/or P, wherein said cyclic peptide is not cyclized within the amino acid sequence of P of SEQ ID NO. 1 and not via amino acid side chains of P,
wherein the hydrophobic modification is an acylation or addition of hydrophobic moieties, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0029] Preferably, m = 0 to 8 and/or n = 0 to 34, provided that m + n is 0 or at least 1.

[0030] In an embodiment with
m + n = 0, the peptide has a length of / contains 7 amino acids (namely P);
m + n = 1, the peptide has a length of / contains 8 amino acids;
m + n = 2, the peptide has a length of / contains 9 amino acids;
m + n = 3, the peptide has a length of / contains 10 amino acids;
m + n = 4, the peptide has a length of / contains 11 amino acids;
m + n = 5, the peptide has a length of / contains 12 amino acids;
m + n = 6, the peptide has a length of / contains 13 amino acids;
m + n = 7, the peptide has a length of / contains 14 amino acids;
m + n = 8, the peptide has a length of / contains 15 amino acids;
m + n = 15, the peptide has a length of / contains 22 amino acids;
m + n = 40, the peptide has a length of / contains 47 amino acids;
m + n = 42, the peptide has a length of / contains 49 amino acids.

- Cyclization



[0031] The cyclic peptides of the present invention can be cyclized in different ways, preferably
  1. (a) via thiol oxidation (disulfide bridge formation) of two cysteines (C) comprised in the peptide,
    such as via a C at or near the N-terminus and a C at or near the C-terminus (of the peptide sequence before cyclization);
  2. (b) amide condensation of two amino acid side chains (lactam),
    such as via a lysine (K) side chain and an aspartic acid (D) side chain,
    such as
    via a K side chain at or near the N-terminus and a D side chain at or near the C-terminus (of the peptide sequence before cyclization);
  3. (c) via head-to-tail cyclization, such as
    via a lysine (K) at the N-terminus and the C-terminus (of the peptide sequence before cyclization),
    via the N-terminus, i.e. the amino group of the N-terminal amino acid and the C-terminus, i.e. carboxyl group of the C-terminal amino acid (of the peptide sequence before cyclization),
  4. (d) via backbone cyclization, and/or
  5. (e) via thioether formation.


[0032] According to the invention, the cyclic peptides of the present invention do not comprise peptides which are cyclized within the amino acid sequence of P (i.e. within the pharmacophore of 7 amino acids, of SEQ ID NO. 1 (NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = F or L)). i.e. via amino acid side chains of P.

[0033] However, the P sequence can be cyclized via head-to-tail cyclization.

[0034] For example, in one embodiment, the cyclic peptide comprises P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = F, i.e. NPLGFFP (SEQ. ID NO: 2), and m and n are each 0. The peptide is cyclized via head-to-tail cyclization via the N-terminus, i.e. the amino group of the N-terminal asparagine (N) and the C-terminus, i.e. carboxyl group of the C-terminal amino acid proline (P).

[0035] In one embodiment the cyclic peptide comprises P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = F, i.e. NPLGFFP (SEQ. ID NO: 2), and X = Cys and Y = Cys, m and n are each 1. The peptide can be cyclized via thiol oxidation (disulfide bridge formation) of the two cysteines (C).

[0036] In one embodiment the cyclic peptide comprises P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = F, i.e. NPLGFFP (SEQ. ID NO: 2), and X = Cys and Y = Asp-Cys, m = 1 and n = 2. The peptide can be cyclized via thiol oxidation (disulfide bridge formation) of the two cysteines (C).

[0037] In one embodiment the cyclic peptide comprises P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = F, i.e. NPLGFFP (SEQ. ID NO: 2), and X = Cys and Y = His-Asp-Cys, m = 1 and n = 3. The peptide can be cyclized via thiol oxidation (disulfide bridge formation) of the two cysteines (C).

[0038] In one embodiment the cyclic peptide comprises P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = F, i.e. NPLGFFP (SEQ. ID NO: 2), and X = Cys-Pro and Y = Asp-Cys, m = 2 and n = 2. The peptide can be cyclized via thiol oxidation (disulfide bridge formation) of the two cysteines (C).

[0039] In one embodiment the cyclic peptide comprises P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = F, i.e. NPLGFFP (SEQ. ID NO: 2), and X = Cys-Pro and Y = His-Asp-Cys, m = 2 and n = 3. The peptide can be cyclized via thiol oxidation (disulfide bridge formation) of the two cysteines (C).

[0040] In one embodiment the cyclic peptide comprises the Myrcludex B sequence with P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = F, i.e. NPLGFFP (SEQ. ID NO: 2), and m = 7 and n = 33. The peptide can be cyclized via head-to-tail cyclization via the N-terminus, i.e. the amino group of the N-terminal glycine (G) and the C-terminus, i.e. carboxyl group of the C-terminal amino acid glycine (G).

[0041] In one embodiment the cyclic peptide comprises the Myrcludex B sequence with P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = F, i.e. NPLGFFP (SEQ. ID NO: 2), and two additional cysteines, such that m = 8 and n = 34. The peptide can be cyclized via thiol oxidation (disulfide bridge formation) of the two cysteines (C).

[0042] In other embodiments, the cyclic peptides comprise P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = L, i.e. NPLGFLP (SEQ. ID NO: 3), respectively, as well as optionally the further additional amino acids, as described above.

- Hydrophobic modification



[0043] According to the invention, the cyclic peptide of the present invention is hydrophobically modified, i.e. it carries at least one covalently attached hydrophobic modification.

[0044] The position of the hydrophobic modification(s) can vary within the peptide sequence. Preferably, the hydrophobic modification(s) is/are at amino acid side chain(s) of X and/or Y.

[0045] In one embodiment, the hydrophobic modification(s) is/are at amino acid side chain(s) of P.

[0046] According to the invention, the hydrophobic modification is an acylation or addition of hydrophobic moieties,
preferably an acylation with C8 to C22 fatty acids ,
such as myristoyl (C14), palmitoyl (C16) or stearoyl (C18),
more preferably myristoyl (C14),
or the hydrophobic moiety or moieties is selected from cholesterol, phospholipids, glycolipids, glycerol esters, steroids, ceramids.

[0047] The cyclic peptides of the invention can carry more than one hydrophobic modification, such as two, three, four or more, which can be the same or different.

[0048] For example, a cyclic peptide of the invention carries one myristoyl group (C14) and one stearoyl (C18) group.

[0049] Preferably, the cyclic peptides of the invention carry one or two hydrophobic modification(s).

[0050] General formula Ia can also be shown as



[0051] The cyclic peptide with general formula Ia can be obtained via head-to-tail cyclization, such as
  • via thiol oxidation (disulfide bridge formation) of two cysteines (C) comprised in the peptide ,
    namely a cysteine at the N-terminus and a cysteine at or near the C-terminus (of the peptide sequence before cyclization)
  • via a lysine (K) at the N-terminus or the N-terminus itself and the C-terminus (of the peptide sequence before cyclization).


[0052] For example, a cyclic peptide with general formula Ia can be:

        H-cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]

such as

wherein H is the hydrophobic modification, preferably myristoyl (C14).

[0053] For example

        myr-cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]


- NTCP targeting



[0054] The cyclic peptides of the present invention are preferably suitable to target NTCP (gene name SLC10A1), the sodium taurocholate cotransporter polypeptide.

[0055] The human sodium taurocholate cotransporter polypeptide NTCP/SLC10A1 is a HBV preS1-specific receptor which plays a key role in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection, as it was recently identified by the inventors (see e.g. WO 2014/072526, WO 2014/072524 and WO 2015/014830). Expression of this receptor or of certain non-human counterparts allows to transform cells that were previously unable to specifically bind HBV and/or HDV and/or non-susceptible to HBV and/or HDV infection into cells that are HBV and/or HDV binding-competent and/or susceptible to HBV and/or HDV infection. Cells that became susceptible to HBV and/or HDV infection after differentiation (HepaRG cells) show a significantly increased susceptibility upon expression of NTCP.

[0056] NTCP is an integral transmembrane protein, not expressed in HepG2, HuH7, induced in HepaRG cells after DMSO treatment (Kotani et al., 2012) and down-modulated in primary hepatocytes during de-differentiation (Doring et al., 2012).

[0057] As used herein, "targeting NTCP" or "NTCP targeting" refers to the specific binding of the cyclic peptides of the present invention to the NTCP receptor on respective liver cells/hepatocytes, preferably within a host (subject or patient) but also in some animals that express a binding competent NTCP although they do not support infection (e.g. mouse, rat, dog).

[0058] In one embodiment, the NTCP-mediated transport of bile acids is decreased or blocked by the cyclic peptides of the present invention (in case when NTCP is saturated with cyclic peptide(s).
The HBV/HDV receptor function of NTCP is, however, already blocked, even though NTCP is not saturated with the cyclic peptide(s) indicating different pharmacological doses required for virus inhibition or the inhibition of substrate transport.

- Accessory domain(s)



[0059] The disclosure also describes a cyclic peptide of the present invention further comprises (accessory) domain(s).

[0060] Such accessory domain(s) increase the functionality of the cyclic peptides of the invention. For example, said accessory domain(s) provide epitopes that provoke antibody responses with additional neutralizing potential for HBV and HDV.
For example, introduction of the well characterized amino acid sequence motif 19-LDPAFG-24.

[0061] Such accessory domain(s) can be part of the cyclic peptide or can be acyclic.

[0062] For example, the cyclic peptide contains amino acid residues 8 to 16 of the preS sequence and in addition e.g. amino acid residues 20 to 26 or 20 to 48 of the preS sequence as accessory domain.

[0063] The accessory domain can be linked / attached to an amino acid side chain of X and/or Y, such as a lysine side chain.

[0064] Preferably, the cyclic peptide of the present invention comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence selected from the group of
(wherein P, SEQ ID NO. 1 is underlined and the accessory domain is italic)
- amino acid residues 9 to 15 (SEQ. ID NO: 2)
HBVpreS9-15 NPLGFFP
and e.g. additional amino acids, such as comprising a N-terminal and a C-terminal cysteine (in the peptide sequence before cyclization)
X = Cys, Y = Cys, m = 1 and n =1
Cys-preS9-15-Cys C-NPLGFFP-C (SEQ. ID NO: 4)
such as a C-terminal D-Tyr
Cys-HBVpreS9-15-Cys-D-Tyr C-NPLGFFP-C-y (SEQ. ID NO: 5)

- amino acid residues 9 to 16
HBVpreS9-16 NPLGFFPD (SEQ. ID NO: 6)
and e.g. additional amino acids,
such as comprising a N-terminal and a C-terminal cysteine (in the peptide sequence before cyclization)
X = Cys, Y = Asp-Cys, m = 1 and n =2
Cys-HBVpreS9-16-Cys C-NPLGFFPD-C (SEQ. ID NO: 7)
such as a C-terminal D-Tyr
Cys-HBVpreS9-16-Cys-D-Tyr C-NPLGFFPD-C-y (SEQ. ID NO: 8)

- amino acid residues 8 to 16
HBVpreS8-16 PNPLGFFPD (SEQ. ID NO: 9)
and e.g. additional amino acids,
such as comprising a N-terminal and a C-terminal cysteine (in the peptide sequence before cyclization)
X = Cys-Pro, Y = Asp-Cys, m = 2 and n =2
Cys-HBVpreS8-16-Cys C-PNPLGFFPD-C (SEQ. ID NO: 10)
such as a C-terminal D-Tyr
Cys-HBVpreS8-16-Cys-D-Tyr C-PNPLGFFPD-C-y (SEQ. ID NO: 11)

- amino acid residues 9 to 17
HBVpreS9-17 NPLGFFPDH (SEQ. ID NO: 12)
and e.g. additional amino acids,
such as comprising a N-terminal and a C-terminal cysteine (in the peptide sequence before cyclization)
X = Cys, Y = Asp-His-Cys, m = 1 and n =3
Cys-HBVpreS9-17-Cys C-NPLGFFPDH-C (SEQ. ID NO: 13)
such as a C-terminal D-Tyr
Cys-HBVpreS9-17-Cys-D-Tyr C-NPLGFFPDH-C-y (SEQ. ID NO: 14)

- amino acid residues 8 to 17
HBVpreS8-17 PNPLGFFPDH (SEQ. ID NO: 15)
and e.g. additional amino acids,
such as comprising a N-terminal and a C-terminal cysteine (in the peptide sequence before cyclization)
X = Cys-Pro, Y = Asp-His-Cys, m = 2 and n =3
Cys-HBVpreS8-17-Cys C-PNPLGFFPDH-C (SEQ. ID NO: 16)
such as a C-terminal D-Tyr
Cys-HBVpreS8-17-Cys-D-Tyr C-PNPLGFFPDH-C-y (SEQ. ID NO: 17)

- amino acid residues 2 to 21
HBVpreS2-21 GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP (SEQ. ID NO: 18)
and e.g. additional amino acids,
such as comprising a N-terminal and a C-terminal cysteine (in the peptide sequence before cyclization)
X = CGTNLSVP, Y = DHQLDPC, m = 8 and n =7
Cys-HBVpreS2-21-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP-C (SEQ. ID NO: 19)
such as a C-terminal D-Tyr
Cys-HBVpreS2-21-Cys-D-Tyr C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP-C-y (SEQ. ID NO: 20)

- amino acid residues 2 to 48 of genotype C
HBVpreS2-48 GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG (SEQ. ID NO: 21)
and e.g. additional amino acids,
such as comprising a N-terminal and a C-terminal cysteine (in the peptide sequence before cyclization)
X = CGTNLSVP, Y = DHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVGC,
m = 8 and n =34
Cys-HBVpreS2-48-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG-C (SEQ. ID NO: 22)
such as a C-terminal D-Tyr
Cys-HBVpreS2-48-Cys-D-Tyr C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG-C-y (SEQ. ID NO: 23)
- amino acid residues of Myrcludex B
GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG (SEQ. ID NO: 24)
and e.g. additional amino acids,
such as comprising a N-terminal and a C-terminal cysteine (in the peptide sequence before cyclization)
X = CGTNLSVP, Y = DHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVGC,
m = 8 and n =34
Cys-Myrcludex B-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG-C (SEQ. ID NO: 25)
such as a C-terminal D-Tyr
Cys- Myrcludex B-Cys-D-Tyr C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG-C-y (SEQ. ID NO: 26)

[0065] Examples of preferred cyclic peptides of the present invention are:
cyclo [NPLGFFP] (SEQ. ID NO: 2)
cyclo [NPLGFFPD] (SEQ. ID NO: 6)
cyclo[PNPLGFFPD] (SEQ. ID NO: 9)
cyclo [NPLGFFPDH] (SEQ. ID NO: 12)
cyclo[PNPLGFFPDH] (SEQ. ID NO: 15)
cyclo [GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP] (SEQ. ID NO: 18)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] (SEQ. ID NO: 21)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG] (SEQ. ID NO: 24)
or



[0066] Preferably the above comprise a C-terminal D-amino acid, such as D-tyrosine, e.g.





[0067] Examples of preferred cyclic peptides of the present invention, with an N-terminal hydrophobic modification (e.g. myristoylation) are:
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS9-15] (SEQ. ID NO: 2)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFP]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS9-16] (SEQ. ID NO: 6)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFPD]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS8-16] (SEQ. ID NO: 9)
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFFPD]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS9-17] (SEQ. ID NO: 12)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFPDH]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS8-17] (SEQ. ID NO: 15)
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFFPDH]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS2-21] (SEQ. ID NO: 18)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS2-48] (SEQ. ID NO: 21)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS2-48] = cyclic Myrcludex B (SEQ. ID NO: 24)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG]  


[0068] In other embodiments, the cyclic peptides comprise P NPLGFXaaP with Xaa = L, i.e. NPLGFLP (SEQ ID NO. 3).

[0069] Respective examples of preferred cyclic peptides of the present invention are:
cyclo [NPLGFLP] (SEQ ID NO. 3)
cyclo [NPLGFLPD] (SEQ ID NO. 27)
cyclo [PNPLGFLPD] (SEQ ID NO. 28)
cyclo [NPLGFLPDH] (SEQ ID NO. 29)
cyclo [PNPLGFLPDH] (SEQ ID NO. 30)
cyclo [GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDP] (SEQ ID NO. 31)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] (SEQ ID NO. 32)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG] (SEQ ID NO. 33)


[0070] In one embodiment, a cyclic peptide of the present invention comprises a further moiety or moieties.

[0071] Such further moiety or moieties can be
  • drug(s) or their respective prodrug(s);
  • tag(s);
  • label(s),
    such as fluorescent dye(s), radioisotope(s) and contrast agent(s);
  • recombinant virus(s);
  • carrier or depot(s) for drug(s), prodrug(s) or label(s);
  • immunogenic epitope(s);
  • hormones;
  • inhibitor(s);
  • toxins.


[0072] Such further moiety or moieties are preferably covalently attached, such as via a linker, spacer and/or anchor group(s),
e.g. a cleavable linker.

[0073] Preferred radioisotopes are 131I, 125I, 99mTc, 18F, 68Ga, 111In, 90Y, 177Lu.

[0074] In one embodiment, amino acid residue lysine can be attached/coupled to DOTA[68Ga] (i.e. K(DOTA[68Ga]).

[0075] Preferred fluorescent dyes are Alexa dyes, derivatives of rhodamine and fluorescein, Cy-dyes.

[0076] In one embodiment, amino acid residue lysine can be attached/coupled to the fluorescent dye Atto 488 (i.e. K(Atto488).



[0077] Preferred contrast agents are Gadolinium (Gd) complexes, supramagnetic iron (Fe) complexes and particles, compounds containing atoms of high atomic number, i.e. iodine for computer tomography (CT), microbubbles and carriers such as liposomes that contain these contrast agents.

[0078] In one embodiment, the cyclic peptide comprises an inhibitor, such as a capsid inhibitor, preferably covalently attached.
Such inhibitors have been shown to interfere with HBV infection through destabilization HBV genome containing nucleocapsids and therefore interfer with a post-entry step by e.g. disturb intracellular nucleocapsid trafficking and maturation of nucleocapsids (Wang et al., 2015; Cho et al., 2013; Stray et al., 2006)

[0079] The cyclic peptide and the capsid inhibitor can act as a combination inhibitor which
  1. (i) addresses and inhibits NTCP, as well as
  2. (ii) interferes with virus replication via targeting the liver by interaction with NTCP and subsequent affecting the nucleocapsid with its second active domain.


[0080] The envelope of HBV encloses three proteins termed L (large), M (middle) and S (small). They share the C-terminal S-domain with four transmembrane regions. The M- and L-protein carry additional N-terminal extensions of 55 and, genotype-dependent, 107 or 118 amino acids (preS2- and preS1).

[0081] Thus, the expression "preS-derived" peptide of HBV according to the present invention refers to a peptide with an amino acid sequence that corresponds to the N-terminal extensions of the L-protein of HBV, preS1, preferably to a consensus sequence of the species and genotypes A to H as well as of woolly monkey (WMHBV), chimpanzee and gorilla hepatitis B viruses, but it also refers to variants thereof, such as N-terminally and/or C-terminally truncated variants, amino acid substitution variants.

[0082] A peptide or amino acid sequence (a) preferably refers to a peptide with an amino acid sequence that corresponds to or is based on the N-terminal extensions of the L-protein of HBV, preS1, preferably of genotypes A to H as well as of woolly monkey (WMHBV), orangutan, chimpanzee and gorilla hepatitis B viruses and the recently described bat hepatitis B virus, but it also refers to variants thereof, preferably C-terminally truncated variants, amino acid substitution variants.

[0083] As an indispensible or essential sequence, the amino acid residues being important for the binding of the cyclic peptides of the present invention, as set out in P = SEQ ID NO: 1 (NPLGFXaaP) are present in the peptide/amino acid sequence of the cyclic peptides of the invention.

[0084] In particular, the peptides are based on the following sequences (amino acids in single letter code; essential domain or pharmacophore underlined).

[0085] Essential domain / pharmacopohore (SEQ ID NO: 1):
NPLGFXP (wherein X or Xaa is an arbitrary amino acid, preferably F or L, more preferably F)

























[0086] There also exists a HBV preS consensus sequence (for amino acid positions (-11) to 48)



[0087] Furthermore, the peptide or amino acid sequences are preferably L-amino acid sequences, but can also comprise D-amino acids or are D-amino acid sequences.

[0088] Furthermore, the peptide or amino acid sequences can also comprise unnatural amino acids, which are preferably used for cyclization.

- Synthesis of the cyclic peptides



[0089] The peptides of this invention can be prepared by a variety of procedures readily known to those skilled in the art, in general by synthetic chemical procedures.

[0090] Synthetic chemical procedures include more particularly the solid phase sequential and block synthesis (Erickson & Merrifield, 1976). The solid phase sequential procedure can be performed using established automated methods such as by use of an automated peptide synthesizer. In this procedure an α-amino protected amino acid is bound to a resin support. The resin support employed can be any suitable resin conventionally employed in the art for the solid phase preparation of (poly)peptides, preferably polystyrene which has been copolymerized with polyoxyethylen to provide sites for ester formation with the initially introduced o-amino protected amino acid. This optimized method, applied by the inventors, has been explicitly described (see e.g. Gausepohl et al., 1989). The amino acids are introduced one by one (step-wise). Each synthesis cycle corresponding to the introduction of one amino acid includes a deprotection step, successive washing steps, a coupling step with activation of the amino acid, and subsequent washing steps. Each of these steps is followed by a filtration. The reactive agents for coupling are the classical reactive agents for (poly)peptide synthesis such as dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, hydroxybenzotriazole, benzotriazil-1-yl-oxytris (dimethylamino) phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, and diphenylphosphorylazide. After synthesis of the polypeptide on the resin, the polypeptide is separated from the resin by a treatment with a strong acid such as trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of anisol, ethanedithiol or 2-methylindole. The compound is then purified by the classical techniques of purification, in particular by means of HPLC.

[0091] The peptides of the present invention may also be obtained by coupling (poly)peptide fragments that are selectively protected, this coupling being effected e.g. in a solution.

[0092] For synthesis of Myrcludex B, see also Schieck et al., 2010.

Peptide cyclisation strategies



[0093] Generally, covalent peptide cyclisation can be achieved by the formation of any chemical bond. The main strategies followed are cyclisation by the formation of disulfide bonds or amide bonds. The general aspects of peptide cyclization have been comprehensively reviewed by White and Yudin (2011).

[0094] For peptide cyclisation, first the linear peptide is synthesized (in most cases by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS)).

[0095] As described by White and Yudin (2011) amide bond formation - the head to tail cyclization requires the availability of a carboxylic acid moiety with an appropriate convergent protecting group, i.e. a carbamate linked to an allylic ester (an Alloc group). The cyclisation is achieved either on the solid support or in solution using activation agents such as HBTU. In case of peptides linked by disulfide bonds, the cyclization requires the availability of two thiol groups with an appropriate convergent protecting groups such as Trityl- protecting groups. The cyclisation is achieved by oxidation using agents such as hydrogen peroxide or milder conditions as available by air oxidation.

Pharmaceutical compositions



[0096] As discussed above, the present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition.

[0097] The pharmaceutical compositions according to the present invention comprise
  1. (i) at least one cyclic peptide of the present invention,
  2. (ii) optionally, a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and/or excipient.


[0098] The pharmaceutical compositions according to the present invention are very well suited for all the uses and methods described herein.

[0099] As outlined above, the present invention provides a vaccine composition comprising at least one cyclic peptide of the present invention and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and/or excipient containing/comprising the immunogenic epitope(s).

[0100] The vaccine compositions according to the present invention are very well suited for the uses and methods described herein.

[0101] A "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient" refers to any vehicle wherein or with which the pharmaceutical or vaccine compositions according to the invention may be formulated. It includes a saline solution such as phosphate buffer saline. In general, a diluent or carrier is selected on the basis of the mode and route of administration, and standard pharmaceutical practice.

[0102] In a preferred embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions according to the present invention are formulated for oral administration and, thus, comprise suitable pharmaceutically acceptable carrier(s) and/or excipient(s) for oral administration.

[0103] Examples for pharmaceutically acceptable carrier(s) and/or excipient(s) are also liposomes.

Medical applications



[0104] As discussed above, the present invention provides the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in medicine.

[0105] Thus, the cyclic peptide(s) of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition(s) according to the invention are suitable and, thus, provided for the diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of diseases.

[0106] As discussed above, the present invention provides the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in the treatment for the inhibition of HBV and/or HDV infection.

[0107] As discussed above, the present invention provides the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in the prevention of a primary HBV and/or HDV infection.

[0108] As discussed above, the present invention provides the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use as in vitro HBV and/or HDV entry inhibitors

[0109] Preferably, HBV infection of any genotype of HBV is inhibited or prevented.

[0110] Preferably, the entry inhibition is via targeting of the sodium taurocholate cotransporter polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1), "NTCP targeting".

[0111] As discussed above, in one embodiment, the cyclic peptide and the capsid inhibitor can act as a combination inhibitor which
  1. (i) addresses and inhibits NTCP, as well as
  2. (ii) interferes with virus replication via targeting the liver by interaction with NTCP and subsequent affecting the nucleocapsid with its second active domain.


[0112] As discussed above, the present invention provides the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in the diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of a liver disease or condition.

[0113] In one embodiment, the liver disease or condition is selected from hepatitis, cirrhosis, haemochromatosis, preferably hepatitis caused by hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H virus or concomitant hepatitis caused by viruses,

[0114] In one embodiment, the liver disease or disorder is a disease which involves a liver stadium of a virus or a non-viral pathogen, such as a tropical disease, malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Morbus Wilson.

[0115] In one embodiment, the liver disease or disorder is a liver tumor, preferably hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

[0116] In one embodiment, the liver disease or disorder is a post-transplantation complication after liver transplantation related to bile salt accumulation within the biliary pathway / a post-transplantation-related liver dysfunction.

[0117] In one embodiment, the liver disease or condition is related to sodium taurocholate cotransporter polypeptide (NTCP)-mediated transport of compounds into hepatocytes, or necessitates a delivery of a compound, such as a drug or label, to the site or location of the disease or condition.

[0118] Preferably, said liver disease or condition is a liver involved metabolic disease selected from
intrahepatic cholestasis,
poisoning of the liver (by liver toxins) / hepatotoxicity,
drug-induced cholestatic liver disease,
hyperlipidemia,
posthepatic cholestasis,
metabolic syndrome,
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),
glycogen storage diseases,

[0119] Preferably, the compounds which are transported into hepatocytes via NTCP are preferably bile acids, steroids, conjugated and non-conjugated thyroid hormones, liver toxins, compounds that are covalently bound to taurocholate, bromosulphophthalein, drugs.

[0120] The inventors have identified and described the sodium taurocholate cotransporter polypeptide (NTCP) as target and for use in the prevention and/or treatment of certain liver diseases or conditions, such as liver diseases or conditions that are related to NTCP-mediated transport of compounds (such as bile acids etc.) into hepatocytes, preferably liver involved metabolic diseases (e.g. intrahepatic cholestasis, poisoning of the liver (by liver toxins) / hepatotoxicity, drug-induced cholestatic liver disease, hyperlipidemia, etc.) and cardiovascular diseases. See WO 2014/072524 and PCT/EP2014/066262, which are enclosed herewith in their entirety.

[0121] A "liver involved metabolic disease" when used herein refers to metabolic disorders including visceral obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia which are influenced by the liver metabolism of lipids and bile acids.

[0122] In general, "cholestasis" is a condition where bile constituents cannot be secreted from hepatocytes into the biliary tree or where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum, resulting in hepatocyte bile acid accumulation within hepatocytes.

[0123] "Cholestasis" or "intrahepatic cholestasis" when used herein refers to intrahepatic toxic effects of hepatocyte bile acid accumulation related to an insufficient expression and/or activity of bile salt pumps (like BSEP or MRP) in the canalicular membrane.

[0124] "Posthepatic cholestasis" when used herein refers to a cholestatic liver disease due to obstruction of the large bile ducts.

[0125] "Poisoning of the liver" or "hepatotoxicity" or "toxic liver disease" when used herein refer to toxic effects of drugs independent of bile acid accumulation. These drugs penetrate the hepatocytes via the NTCP-mediated transport and cause several direct toxic effects, by damaging the mitochondria or by activating enzymes in the cytochrome P-450 system leading to oxidative stress.

[0126] "Drug-induced cholestatic liver disease" when used herein refers to inhibition of the export of bile acids from hepatocytes due to drug effects on bile salt export pump (BSEP).
Drug-induced cholestasis may be caused by several drugs which inhibit BSEP, such as rifampicin, cyclosporine A, rifamycin SV, bosentan, troglitazone, erythromycin estolate, and glibenclamide (Fattinger et al., 2001; Funk et al., 2001; Funk et al., 2001; Stieger et al., 2000; Dawson et al., 2012; Morgan et al., 2010; Ogimura et al., 2011). BSEP is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters (BSEP is also identified as ABCB11) and it is involved in the process of exporting bile acids out of hepatocytes, thus reducing their toxicity to these cells. The above mentioned drugs cause the toxic effects of excess bile acid accumulation because the excretion of bile acid via BSEP is disabled. Inhibition of NTCP-mediated bile acid uptake via the lipopeptide-based compound (such as MyrB) and NTCP counterbalances BSEP inhibition, and thereby prevents hepatotoxicity or is suitable for treatment and/or diagnosis.

[0127] "Hyperlipidemia" (or hyperlipoproteinemia, or hyperlipidemia) involves abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood.
Hyperlipidemias are divided in primary and secondary subtypes. Primary hyperlipidemia is usually due to genetic causes (such as a mutation in a receptor protein), while secondary hyperlipidemia arises due to other underlying causes such as diabetes. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are common in the general population, and are regarded as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to their influence on atherosclerosis.

[0128] "Hypercholesterolemia" (or hypercholesterolaemia) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. It is a form of "hyperlipidemia".

[0129] "Hyperlipidemia" when used herein preferably refers to hypercholesterolemia which includes elevated LDL cholesterol, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, clogged arteries leading to high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart attacks and strokes.

[0130] "Metabolic syndrome" refers to a disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, particularly heart failure, and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is also known as metabolic syndrome X, cardiometabolic syndrome, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Reaven's syndrome, and CHAOS.

[0131] "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease" (NAFLD) refers to one cause of a fatty liver, occurring when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver not due to excessive alcohol use. It is related to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most extreme form of NAFLD, and is regarded as a major cause of cirrhosis of the liver of unknown cause.

[0132] Preferably, the NTCP-mediated transport is decreased or blocked by the cyclic peptides of the present invention.

[0133] As discussed above, in one embodiment, the cyclic peptide and the capsid inhibitor can act as a combination inhibitor which
  1. (i) addresses and inhibits NTCP, as well as
  2. (ii) interferes with virus replication via targeting the liver by interaction with NTCP and subsequent affecting the nucleocapsid with its second active domain.


[0134] As discussed above, the present invention provides the cyclic peptide of the present invention or the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention for use in the diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of a cardiovascular disease (CVD).

[0135] Preferably the cardiovascular disease comprises the control or modification of the cholesterol level or cholesterol uptake,
wherein the cholesterol level or uptake is preferably controlled or modified by decreasing or blocking the NCTP-mediated bile salt transport (by the cyclic peptide).

[0136] The cholesterol level or uptake is controlled or modified by decreasing or blocking the NCTP-mediated bile salt transport by the cyclic peptide of the present invention.

[0137] Said uses comprises the control or modification of the cholesterol level or cholesterol uptake, wherein the cholesterol level or uptake is controlled or modified by decreasing or blocking the NCTP-mediated bile salt transport by the cyclic peptide of the present invention.

[0138] Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major cause of morbidity and death in the western world. High levels of cholesterol have been associated with CVD as one of the risc factors. Of particular importance clinically is the abnormal deposition of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins in the coronary arteries. Such deposition, eventually leading to atherosclerosis, is the leading contributory factor in diseases of the coronary arteries. In this case the management of CVD is critical dependent on lipid-lowering therapies. Different classes of drugs are available for this purpose, such as statins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, bile acid resins, fibrates and nicotinic acid that act by reducing the levels of cholesterol by distinct pathways (Schmitz & Langmann, 2006). These drugs have several side effects and depend on the relative levels of the metabolizing enzymes and transporters that act on cardiovascular drugs.

[0139] The main control of cholesterol metabolism is caused by bile acid as an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. The levels of bile acid and cholesterol are linked by the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and absorption. The synthesis of the bile acids is the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals, because the end products of cholesterol utilization are the bile acids. The major pathway for the synthesis of the bile acids is initiated via hydroxylation of cholesterol at the 7 position via the action of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1).
That means that the synthesis of bile acids is one of the predominant mechanisms for the excretion of excess cholesterol. Under physiological conditions this regulation is insufficient to compensate for an excess intake of cholesterol. However, if bile acid uptake into hepatocytes is blocked, the excretion of cholesterol in the form of bile acids will be sufficient to compensate for an excess dietary intake of cholesterol. Blocking bile acid uptake via the lipopeptide-based compound according to the invention and NTCP leads to intracellular deficiency of bile acid which is compensated by increased cholesterol metabolism and absorption.

[0140] Thus, according to the invention, the cyclic peptides of the present invention are suitable for lipid-lowering therapies to prevent CVD.

Route of administration



[0141] Preferably, the route of administration of cyclic peptides or pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention is selected from oral, subcutaneous, intravenous, nasal, intramuscular, transdermal, inhalative, by suppository.

[0142] A preferred route of administration or application is orally.

[0143] A preferred embodiment for nasal administration or application is a nasal spray.

Therapeutically effective amount



[0144] The cyclic peptides or the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are provided such that they comprise a therapeutically effective amount of said cyclic peptide(s) or of said pharmaceutical composition(s).

[0145] A "therapeutically effective amount" of a cyclic peptide or a pharmaceutical composition of this invention refers to the amount that is sufficient to inhibit NTCP receptor function. Furthermore, said "therapeutically effective amount" depends on the respective application and desired outcome of inhibition, treatment or vaccination.

[0146] Different therapeutically effective amounts are necessary for
  1. (i) antiviral use or entry inhibition (such as 0.01 to 0.5 mg per patient, preferably 0.1 to 1 mg/patient)
    compared to
  2. (ii) uses which require a saturation of NTCP, such as for inhibition of NTCP-mediated transport of e.g. bile acids, drugs etc. (such as 1 mg per patient or 1-2 mg/patient).


[0147] In one embodiment, said "therapeutically effective amount" of a cyclic peptide or a pharmaceutical composition of this invention refers to the amount that is sufficient to inhibit a HBV and/or HDV infection; prevent a primary HBV and/or HDV infection; treat hepatitis B and/or D and/or vaccinate and/or inhibit entry of HBV and/or HDV in vivo.

[0148] A preferred therapeutically effective amount is in the range of 10 µg to 1 mg per kg body weight, preferably 10 µg to 100 µg.

[0149] Preferably, the therapeutically effective amount is in the range of from about 0.01 mg to about 50 mg per patient and per day, preferably from about 1 mg to about 20 mg per patient per day or is applied to a patient in a dose ranging from 100 nmol per kg to 2µmol per kg per day / or is applied to a patient in a dose ranging from 10 pmol per kg to 20µmol per kg body weight.

[0150] In case of an IC50 value of the cyclic peptide used of about 10 nM, a preferred therapeutically effective amount is about 100 µg per kg body weight or in the range of 1 to 5 mg per patient. The preferred therapeutically effective amount in the range of 1 to 5 mg per patient can be administered once a day or in other embodiments only once every 2-3 days.

[0151] The skilled artisan will be able to determine suitable therapeutically effective amounts.

[0152] The following examples and drawings illustrate the present invention without, however, limiting the same thereto.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0153] 

Figure 1 Myrcludex B and derivatives

Figure 2 A covalently bridged cyclic derivative of Myrcludex B shows inhibitory potential.

  1. A, The sequence and structure of the covalently bridged cyclic derivative of Myrcludex B (Myr-2-48 Cyc).
  2. B, The inhibitory activity of Myr-2-48 Cyc is comparable to other Myrcludex B derivatives, such as a linear Myrcludex B derivative with myristoyl group within the peptide sequence (2-Myr-48) and a linear preS-derives peptide 2-21 with a C-terminal myristoyl group (2-21-Myr).

Figure 3 Further cyclic Myrcludex B derivates

Figure 4 Further cyclic Myrcludex B derivates

  1. A, Overview of synthesized cysteine cyclized peptides and control peptides
  2. B,Experimental setup for testing of peptides:
    HepG2 NTCP cells were seeded in 24 well plates. When cells reached 60-70% confluency, they were subjected to HBV infection or TC uptake assay. Cell supernatant was collected from day 5 to 7 for HBeAg measurement and cells were fixed with 4% PFA at day 7 for immunofluorescence with an anti-HBc antibody.

Figure 5 Coronary PET images 40-60 minutes post injection of68Gallium labeled peptides.

  1. A, myr-CNPLGFFPDCK(DOTA[68Ga])
  2. B, Liver blocked with cold Myrcludex B 1 µg/g bodyweight 30 minutes prior to injection with myr-CNPLGFFPDCK(DOTA[68Ga])
  3. C, Myr-K(DOTA[68Ga])HBVpres3-48y (WT peptide)
  4. D, Myr-K(DOTA[68Ga])HBVpres3-48y Ala11-15 (Binding incompetent control peptide) See also Slijepcevic et al., 2015.

Figure 6 3H-Taurocholate uptake in HepG3 NTCP cells comparison of different cyclic peptides with Myrcludex B

Figure 7 3H-Taurocholate uptake in HepG3 NTCP cells: IC 50 values and curves of different cyclic peptides with Myrcludex B

Figure 8 HBV infection inhibition assay on HepG2 NTCP cells.
with Myrcludex B (GMP grade), Myrcludex B-y (selfmade) and (+H) cyclic peptide.

  1. A,IC 50 curves and values.
  2. B, Absolute values of HBeAg measurement of supernatants diluted 1:2


EXAMPLES


Example 1 Materials & Methods


Abbreviations:



[0154] 
COMU
(1-Cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylidenaminooxy)dimethylamino-morpholino-carbenium-hexafluorophosphate
DCM
Dichloromethane
DIPEA
N,N-diisopropylethylamine
DMF
Dimethylformamide
DOTA
1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid
Fmoc
Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride
Ga
Gallium
HATU
1-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate
HBeAg
Hepatitis B Virus Early Antigen
HBcAg
Hepatitis B Core Antigen
HBTU
2-(1H-benzotriazol-1 -yl)-1,1,3,3 -tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate
HBV
Hepatitis B Virus
HPLC
High performance liquid chromatography
LC/MS
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
NHS
N-Hydroxysuccinimide
NMP
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
NTCP
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide
PBS
Phosphate buffered saline
PET
Positron emission tomography
PFA
Paraformaldehyde
TC
Taurocholate
TFA
Trifluoro acetic acid
TIS
Triisopropylsilane

1. Peptide synthesis


1.1 Disulfide bridge peptide


Solid phase peptide synthesis



[0155] Peptides were synthesized on solid phase (Tentagel R RAM resin, capacity 0.22 mmol/g, Rapp Polymere, Tübingen, Germany) using Fmoc/tBu chemistry in peptide synthesizer (Applied Biosystems 443A, Foster City, CA, USA). Before beginning peptide synthesis the resin (0.05 mmol) was preswollen in DCM. Fmoc-protected amino acids were used in a 10-fold excess (0.5mmol) and activated with HBTU/ DIPEA in NMP.
See also Schieck et al., 2010.

Myristoylation



[0156] Peptide on the solid support was swollen in DCM and washed with NMP. Myristic acid (4 eq.) and HATU or COMU (4 eq.) were dissolved in NMP and 10 eq. DIPEA were added. The mixture was added to the resin and was incubated for 30 min. Afterwards the resin was washed three times with NMP, three times with DCM and dried.

Deprotection and cleavage from resin



[0157] The peptide was cleaved and deprotected with TFA/TIS/H2O (95:2.5:2.5). The deprotected peptide was precipitated with diethyl ether, pelleted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 5 min) and washed twice with fresh diethyl ether. The peptide was dried.

[0158] MyrB:
Myr- GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG-amide [SEQ ID NO. 24]

Disulfide bridge formation



[0159] 5 mg of raw peptide were dissolved in 5 ml 80% acetic acid. 1mg of iodine in glacial acetic acid was slowly dropped into the peptide solution. 10 µl of saturated ascorbic acid solution were added. The solvent was evaporated and the peptide redissolved in 1:1 acetonitril: H2O and purified with preparative HPLC. The success of the reaction was confirmed by LC/MS.

Coupling of fluorescent dye/compounds



[0160] Peptides were dissolved in DMF and reacted with NHS-ester-activated compounds (2 eq.) and DIPEA (10 eq.). The reaction was controlled with HPLC.

1.2 Aminoproline-Peptide



[0161] 200 mg (0.32 mmol) 2-Chlorotrityl chloride resin was charged with 41 mg (0.1 mmol) Fmoc-Glu(OAll)-OH and 52 mg (68 µL; 0.4 mmol) DIPEA in 2 mL Dichloromethane. After capping with methanol the resin was subjected to automated peptide synthesis (ABI 433A). 109 mg (0.25 mmol) Fmoc-L-Pro(4-NH-Alloc)-OH (2S,4S) were coupled at the desired amino acid position by COMU-activation. Solid phase cyclization was achieved by 110 mg (86 mL; 0.4 mmol) DPPA and 77 mg (102 µL; 0.6 mmol) in 2 mL NMP after linear assembly as well as catalytic allyl-deprotection with 5 mg tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) and 30 mg borane dimethylamine complex. The cyclic peptide was cleaved and deprotected by 95:2.5:2.5 TFA/water/TIS and purified by HPLC; occasionally a portion of the raw peptide was modified with DOTA or fluorescent dye active esters prior to purification

2. 68Ga-Labeling and PET imaging



[0162] Ca. 1 mL of [68Ga]Ga3+ eluate (ca. 600-800 MBq) was added to a mixture of 20 µL of a 1mM solution of compound xy in DMSO and 10 µL of saturated solution of ascorbic acid in water. The pH of the resulting mixture was adjusted to 3.5-4.0 by careful addition of a 2.5 M sodium acetate solution in water. Complexation was achieved by heating to over 95°C for 5-10 minutes under constant stirring. The product was isolated by solid phase extraction with ethanol followed by evaporation. The residue was taken up in 1% bovine serum albumin solution and an appropriate amount (ca. 20-50 MBq) was used for the individual experiment in a volume not exceeding 100 µl. Mice were anesthetized with 1% sevoflurane (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany) and images were recorded using an Inveon small animal positron emission tomographic (PET) scanner (Siemens, Knoxville, TN) up to 60 minutes postinjection.

3. 3H-taurocholate uptake assay



[0163] HepG2 NTCP cells seeded in a 24 well format were preincubated with the indicated peptide for 30 min at 37°C in culture medium. 150 µM taurocholate (containing 450 cpm/fmol 3H taurocholate) were added to each well and the cells were incubated an additional 15 minutes at 37°C. Uptake was stopped by removal of the cell culture medium and addition of ice cold PBS. The cells were washed three times with cold PBS and lysed (0.2 M NaOH, 0.05% SDS). Cell lysates were mixed with Ultima Gold liquid scintillation solution (Perkin Elmer, Rodgau, Germany) and the radioactivity measured in a liquid scintillation counter (Packard Instruments, Frankfurt, Germany).

4. HBV infection inhibition assay



[0164] HepG2 NTCP cells seeded in a 24 well format were preincubated with the indicated peptide at indicated concentrations for 30 min at 37°C in culture medium. The cells were subsequently infected with HBV (GE 1.8x108) overnight in cell culture medium containing 4% PEG for 16 h at 37°C in the presence of the peptides followed by a washing step with PBS. The medium was changed every two days and supernatant collected from day 5 to 7 post infection for HBeAg measurement.

[0165] The features disclosed in the foregoing description, in the claims and/or in the accompanying drawings may, both separately and in any combination thereof, be material for realizing the invention in diverse forms thereof.

REFERENCES



[0166] 

Brown SE, Howard CR, Zuckerman AJ, Steward MW. Determination of the affinity of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen in human sera. J Immunol Methods. 1984;72(1):41-8.

Camerino MA, Chalmers DK, Thompson PE. Computer-assisted design of cyclic peptides and peptidomimetics. Peptides 26(5): 46-51 (2008).

Chan, HL. & Sung, JJ. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. Semin Liver Dis 26, 153-161 (2006).

Cho MH, Song JS, Kim HJ, Park SG, Jung G. Structure-based design and biochemical evaluation of sulfanilamide derivatives as hepatitis B virus capsid assembly inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2013;28:916-925.

Dawson S, et al. (2012) In vitro inhibition of the bile salt export pump correlates with risk of cholestatic drug-induced liver injury in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 40: 130-138.

Doring B, Lutteke T, Geyer J, Petzinger E. The SLC10 carrier family: transport functions and molecular structure. Curr Top Membr 2012;70:105-168.

Fattinger K, Funk C, Pantze M, et al. The endothelin antagonist bosentan inhibits the canalicular bile salt export pump: a potential mechanism for hepatic adverse reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001; 69:223-31.

Funk C, Pantze M, Jehle L, et al. Troglitazone-induced intrahepatic cholestasis by an interference with the hepatobiliary export of bile acids in male and female rats. Correlation with the gender difference in troglitazone sulfate formation and the inhibition of the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) by troglitazone and troglitazone sulfate. Toxicology. 2001; 167:83-98.

Funk C, Ponelle C, Scheuermann G, et al. Cholestatic potential of troglitazone as a possible factor contributing to troglitazone-induced hepatotoxicity: in vivo and in vitro interaction at the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) in the rat. Mol Pharmacol. 2001; 59:627-35.

Gausepohl, H. et al.. Int. J. Prot. Pept. Res. 34, 287-294 (1989).

Gripon P, Cannie I, Urban S. Efficient inhibition of hepatitis B virus infection by acylated peptides derived from the large viral surface protein. J Virol 2005;79:1613-1622.

Guarracino DA. Wheel of fortune - cyclic peptides hit the mimetic jackpot: current syntheses, uses and roles of cyclic peptide mimetics. Curr. Chem. Biol., 2015, 9: 36-52.

Kennedy RC, Dreesman GR, Sparrow JT, Culwell AR, Sanchez Y, Ionescu-Matiu I, Hollinger FB, Melnick JL. Inhibition of a common human anti-hepatitis B surface antigen idiotype by a cyclic synthetic peptide. J Virol. 1983;46(2):653-5.

Kim DH, Ni Y, Lee SH, Urban S, Han KH. An anti-viral peptide derived from the preS1 surface protein of hepatitis B virus. BMB Rep. 2008;41(9):640-4.

Kotani N, Maeda K, Debori Y, Camus S, Li R, Chesne C, Sugiyama Y. Expression and Transport Function of Drug Uptake Transporters in Differentiated HepaRG Cells. Mol Pharm 2012;9(12):3434-41.

Lempp FA, Urban S. Inhibitors of hepatitis B virus attachment and entry. Intervirology 2014;57:151-157.

Levengood MR, van der Donk WA. Use of lantibiotic synthetases for the preparation of bioactive constrained peptides. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18(10):3025-8.

Mailly L, Xiao F, Lupberger J, Wilson GK, Aubert P, Duong FH, Calabrese D, Leboeuf C, Fofana I, Thumann C, Bandiera S, Lütgehetmann M, Volz T, Davis C, Harris HJ, Mee CJ, Girardi E, Chane-Woon-Ming B, Ericsson M, Fletcher N, Bartenschlager R, Pessaux P, Vercauteren K, Meuleman P, Villa P, Kaderali L, Pfeffer S, Heim MH, Neunlist M, Zeisel MB, Dandri M, McKeating JA, Robinet E, Baumert TF. Clearance of persistent hepatitis C virus infection in humanized mice using a claudin-1-targeting monoclonal antibody. Nat Biotechnol. 2015;33(5):549-54. doi: 10.1038/nbt.3179. Epub 2015 Mar 23.

Meier A, Mehrle S, Weiss TS, Mier W, Urban S. The myristoylated preS1-domain of the Hepatitis B Virus L-protein mediates specific binding to differentiated hepatocytes. Hepatology 2012; 58:31-42.

Mitchell AR, Erickson BW, Ryabtsev MN, Hodges RS, and Merrifield RB, Tert-butoxycarbonylaminoacyl-4-(oxymethyl)-phenylacetamidomethyl-resin, a more acid-resistant support for solid-phase peptide synthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 1976;98(23):7357-62.

Morgan RE, et al. (2010) Interference with bile salt export pump function is a susceptibility factor for human liver injury in drug development. Toxicol Sci 118: 485-500.

Müller T, Mehrle S, Schieck A, Haberkorn U, Urban S, Mier W. Liver imaging with a novel hepatitis B surface protein derived SPECT-tracer. Mol Pharm. 2013;10(6):2230-6.

Ni Y, Lempp FA, Mehrle S, Nkongolo S, Kaufman C, Falth M, Stindt J, et al. Hepatitis B and D Viruses Exploit Sodium Taurocholate Co-transporting Polypeptide for Species-Specific Entry into Hepatocytes. Gastroenterology 2014;146:1070-1083.

Ogimura E, et al. (2011) Bile salt export pump inhibitors are associated with bile acid-dependent drug-induced toxicity in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 416: 313-317.

Schieck A, Müller T, Schulze A, Haberkorn U, Urban S and Mier W. Solid-Phase Synthesis of the Lipopeptide Myr-HBVpreS/2-78, a Hepatitis B Virus Entry Inhibitor. Molecules 2010, 15(7), 4773-4783.

Schieck A, Schulze A, Gahler C, Muller T, Haberkorn U, Alexandrov A, Urban S, Mier W. Hepatitis B virus hepatotropism is mediated by specific receptor recognition in the liver and not restricted to susceptible hosts. Hepatology 2013; 58(1): 43-53. [Epub ahead of print: 2013. Jan 4.]

Schulze A, Schieck A, Ni Y, Mier W, Urban S. Fine mapping of pre-S sequence requirements for hepatitis B virus large envelope protein-mediated receptor interaction. J Virol 2010;84:1989-2000.

Shepard, C.W., Simard, E.P., Finelli, L., Fiore, A.E. & Bell, B.P. Hepatitis B virus infection: epidemiology and vaccination. Epidemiol Rev 28, 112-125 (2006).

Slijepcevic, D., Kaufman, C., Wichers, C.G.K., Gilglioni, E.H., Lempp, F.A., Duijst, S., de Waart, D.R., Oude Elferink, R.P.J., Mier, W., Stieger, B., Beuers, U., Urban, S., van de Graaf, S.F.J., 2015. Impaired uptake of conjugated bile acids and hepatitis b virus pres1-binding in na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide knockout mice. Hepatology 62, 207-219.

Somiya M, Sasaki Y, Matsuzaki T, Liu Q, Iijima M, Yoshimoto N, Niimi T, Maturana AD, Kuroda S. Intracellular trafficking of bio-nanocapsule-liposome complex: Identification of fusogenic activity in the pre-Sl region of hepatitis B virus surface antigen L protein. J Control Release. 2015;212:10-8.

Stieger B, Fattinger K, Madon J, et al. Drug- and estrogen-induced cholestasis through inhibition of the hepatocellular bile salt export pump (Bsep) of rat liver. Gastroenterology. 2000; 118:422- 30.

Stray SJ, Zlotnick A. BAY 41-4109 has multiple effects on Hepatitis B virus capsid assembly. J Mol Recognit 2006;19:542-548.

Urban S, Future Virol. 2008, 3(3), 253-264.

Urban S, Bartenschlager R, Kubitz R, Zoulim F. Strategies to Inhibit Entry of HBV and HDV into Hepatocytes. Gastroenterology 2014;147(1):48-64.

Wang YJ, Lu D, Xu YB, Xing WQ, Tong XK, Wang GF, et al. A Novel Pyridazinone Derivative Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Inducing Genome-Free Capsid Formation. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 2015;59:7061-7072.

White CJ and Yudin AK. Contemporary strategies for peptide macrocyclization, Nature Chemistry 2011; 3, 509-524.

Yan H, Zhong G, Xu G, He W, Jing Z, Gao Z, Huang Y, et al. Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide is a functional receptor for human hepatitis B and D virus. elife. 2012;1:e00049.

Zoulim, F. Antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis B. Antiviral Res 71, 206-215 (2006).


SEQUENCE LISTING



[0167] 

<110> Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg

<120> Cyclic NTCP-targeting peptides and their uses as entry inhibitors

<130> U30632WO

<160> 46

<170> PatentIn version 3.5

<210> 1
<211> 7
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Essential domain or pharmacophore, amino acid sequence P, with Xaa = F or L

<220>
<221> misc_feature
<222> (6)..(6)
<223> Xaa can be any naturally occurring amino acid

<400> 1

<210> 2
<211> 7
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 2

<210> 3
<211> 7
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Essential domain or pharmacophore, amino acid sequence P with Xaa = L

<400> 3

<210> 4
<211> 9
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-preS9-15-Cys

<400> 4

<210> 5
<211> 10
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS9-15-Cys-D-Tyr

<400> 5

<210> 6
<211> 8
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 6

<210> 7
<211> 10
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS9-16-Cys

<400> 7

<210> 8
<211> 11
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS9-16-Cys-D-Tyr

<400> 8

<210> 9
<211> 9
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 9

<210> 10
<211> 11
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS8-16-Cys

<400> 10

<210> 11
<211> 12
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS8-16-Cys-D-Tyr

<400> 11

<210> 12
<211> 9
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 12

<210> 13
<211> 11
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS9-17-Cys

<400> 13

<210> 14
<211> 12
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS9-17-Cys-D-Tyr

<400> 14

<210> 15
<211> 10
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 15

<210> 16
<211> 12
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS8-17-Cys

<400> 16

<210> 17
<211> 13
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS8-17-Cys-D-Tyr

<400> 17

<210> 18
<211> 20
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 18



<210> 19
<211> 22
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS2-21-Cys

<400> 19

<210> 20
<211> 23
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS2-21-Cys-D-Tyr

<400> 20

<210> 21
<211> 47
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 21

<210> 22
<211> 49
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS2-48-Cys

<400> 22

<210> 23
<211> 50
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-HBVpreS2-48-Cys-D-Tyr

<400> 23

<210> 24
<211> 47
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> amino acid residues of Myrcludex B

<400> 24



<210> 25
<211> 49
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys-Myrcludex B-Cys

<400> 25

<210> 26
<211> 50
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> Cys- Myrcludex B-Cys-D-Tyr

<400> 26

<210> 27
<211> 8
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> HBVpreS9-16 with Xaa = L

<400> 27

<210> 28
<211> 9
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> HBVpreS8-16 with Xaa = L

<400> 28

<210> 29
<211> 9
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> HBVpreS9-17 with Xaa = L

<400> 29

<210> 30
<211> 10
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> HBVpreS8-17 with Xaa = L

<400> 30

<210> 31
<211> 20
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> HBVpreS2-21 with Xaa = L

<400> 31

<210> 32
<211> 47
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> HBVpreS2-48 with Xaa = L

<400> 32

<210> 33
<211> 47
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> amino acid residues of Myrcludex B with Xaa = L

<400> 33

<210> 34
<211> 119
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 34



<210> 35
<211> 119
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 35



<210> 36
<211> 119
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 36

<210> 37
<211> 108
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 37



<210> 38
<211> 107
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 38

<210> 39
<211> 118
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 39



<210> 40
<211> 119
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 40



<210> 41
<211> 118
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 41

<210> 42
<211> 108
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 42



<210> 43
<211> 119
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 43

<210> 44
<211> 108
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 44



<210> 45
<211> 105
<212> PRT
<213> Hepatitis B virus

<400> 45

<210> 46
<211> 59
<212> PRT
<213> Artificial Sequence

<220>
<223> HBV preS consensus sequence (for amino acid positions (-11) to 48)

<400> 46




Claims

1. A cyclic peptide of the general formula Ia

        cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]     (Ia)

wherein

P is the amino acid sequence NPLGFXaaP (SEQ. ID NO: 1), with Xaa being F or L,

X is an amino acid sequence having a length of m amino acids,
wherein m is 0 or at least 1;

Y is an amino sequence having a length of n amino acids,

wherein n is 0 or at least 1;

and wherein m + n is 0 to 42;

and carrying at least one hydrophobic modification at amino acid side chain(s) of X and/or P, wherein said cyclic peptide is not cyclized within the amino acid sequence of P of SEQ ID NO. 1 and not via amino acid side chains of P,
wherein the hydrophobic modification is an acylation or addition of hydrophobic moieties,
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.


 
2. The cyclic peptide of claim 1, wherein the hydrophobic modification is an acylation with C8 to C22 fatty acids, such as myristoyl (C14), palmitoyl (C16) or stearoyl (C18), preferably myristoyl (C14),
or the hydrophobic moiety or moieties is selected from cholesterol, phospholipids, glycolipids, glycerol esters, steroids, ceramids.
 
3. The cyclic peptide of claim 1 or 2, wherein the peptide is cyclized

(a) via thiol oxidation (disulfide bridge formation) of two cysteines (C) comprised in the peptide,

(b) amide condensation of two amino acid side chains (lactam),

(c) via head-to-tail cyclization,

(d) via backbone cyclization, and/or

(e) via thioether formation.


 
4. The cyclic peptide of any one of the preceding claims, wherein m = 0 to 8 and/or n = 0 to 34, provided that m + n is at least 1.
 
5. The cyclic peptide of any one of the preceding claims, having the formula

        H-cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]

wherein H is the hydrophobic modification.
 
6. The cyclic peptide of any of the preceding claims, wherein the peptide comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence selected from the group of
HBVpreS9-15 NPLGFFP (SEQ ID NO. 2)
Cys-HBVpreS9-15-Cys C-NPLGFFP-C (SEQ ID NO. 4)
HBVpreS9-16 NPLGFFPD (SEQ ID NO. 6)
Cys-HBVpreS9-16-Cys C-NPLGFFPD-C (SEQ ID NO. 7)
HBVpreS8-16 PNPLGFFPD (SEQ ID NO. 9)
Cys-HBVpreS8-16-Cys C-PNPLGFFPD-C (SEQ ID NO. 10)
HBVpreS9-17 NPLGFFPDH (SEQ ID NO. 12)
Cys-HBVpreS9-17-Cys C-NPLGFFPDH-C (SEQ ID NO. 13)
HBVpreS8-17 PNPLGFFPDH (SEQ ID NO. 15)
Cys-HBVpreS8-17-Cys C-PNPLGFFPDH-C (SEQ ID NO. 16)
HBVpreS2-21 GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP (SEQ ID NO. 18)
Cys-HBVpreS2-21-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP-C (SEQ ID NO. 19)
HBVpreS2-48 GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG (SEQID NO.21)
Cys-HBVpreS2-48-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG-C (SEQ ID NO. 22)
Myrcludex B GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG (SEQ ID NO. 24)
Cys-Myrcludex B-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG-C (SEQ ID NO. 25)
such as
cyclo [NPLGFFP] (SEQ. ID NO: 2)
cyclo [NPLGFFPD] (SEQ. ID NO: 6)
cyclo[PNPLGFFPD] (SEQ. ID NO: 9)
cyclo [NPLGFFPDH] (SEQ. ID NO: 12)
cyclo[PNPLGFFPDH] (SEQ. ID NO: 15)
cyclo [GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP] (SEQ. ID NO: 18)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] (SEQ. ID NO: 21)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG] (SEQ. ID NO: 24)
   
cyclo [NPLGFLP] (SEQ ID NO. 3)
cyclo [NPLGFLPD] (SEQ ID NO. 27)
cyclo [PNPLGFLPD] (SEQ ID NO. 28)
cyclo [NPLGFLPDH] (SEQ ID NO. 29)
cyclo [PNPLGFLPDH] (SEQ ID NO. 30)
cyclo [GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDP] (SEQ ID NO. 31)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] (SEQ ID NO. 32)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG] (SEQ ID NO. 33).

 
7. The cyclic peptide of any of the preceding claims, wherein the peptide comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence selected from the group of
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS9-15] (SEQ. ID NO: 2)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFP]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS9-16] (SEQ. ID NO: 6)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFPD]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS8-16] (SEQ. ID NO: 9)
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFFPD]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS9-17] (SEQ. ID NO: 12)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFPDH]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpreS8-17] (SEQ. ID NO: 15)
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFFPDH]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS2-21] (SEQ. ID NO: 18)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS2-48] (SEQ. ID NO: 21)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS2-48] = cyclic Myrcludex B (SEQ. ID NO: 24)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG]  
e.g.
myr-cyclo[NPLGFLP]
myr-cyclo[NPLGFLPD]
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFLPD]
myr-cyclo[NPLGFLPDH]
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFLPDH]
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDP] myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG].
 
8. The cyclic peptide of any of the preceding claims, comprising a further moiety or moieties,
such as
drug(s) or their respective prodrug(s);
tag(s);
label(s), such as fluorescent dye(s), radioisotope(s) and contrast agent(s);
recombinant virus(s);
carrier or depot(s) for drug(s), prodrug(s) or label(s);
immunogenic epitope(s);
hormones;
inhibitor(s);
toxins.
preferably covalently attached, such as via a linker, spacer and/or anchor group(s), e.g. a cleavable linker,
and/or comprising an inhibitor, such as a capsid inhibitor.
 
9. Pharmaceutical composition comprising

(i) at least one cyclic peptide of any of claims 1 to 8,

(ii) optionally, a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and/or excipient.


 
10. The cyclic peptide of any of claims 1 to 8 or the pharmaceutical composition of claim 9 for use as in vitro HBV and/or HDV entry inhibitors.
 
11. The cyclic peptide of any of claims 1 to 8 or the pharmaceutical composition of claim 9 for use in medicine.
 
12. The cyclic peptide or the pharmaceutical composition for use according to claim 11, wherein said use comprises

- treatment for the inhibition of HBV and/or HDV infection,

- the prevention of a primary HBV and/or HDV infection,

preferably via NTCP targeting.
wherein, preferably, HBV infection of any genotype of HBV is inhibited or prevented.
 
13. The cyclic peptide of any of claims 1 to 8 or the pharmaceutical composition of claim 9 for use in the diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of a liver disease or condition, wherein preferably the liver disease or condition is selected from hepatitis, cirrhosis, haemochromatosis, preferably hepatitis caused by hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H virus or concomitant hepatitis caused by viruses,
and/or wherein preferably the liver disease or disorder is a disease which involves a liver stadium of a virus or a non-viral pathogen, such as a tropical disease, malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Morbus Wilson,
and/or wherein preferably the liver disease or disorder is a liver tumor, preferably hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),
and/or wherein preferably the liver disease or disorder is a post-transplantation complication after liver transplantation related to bile salt accumulation within the biliary pathway,
and/or wherein preferably the liver disease or condition is related to sodium taurocholate cotransporter polypeptide (NTCP)-mediated transport of compounds into hepatocytes,
or necessitates a delivery of a compound, such as a drug or label, to the site or location of the disease or condition,
and preferably is a liver involved metabolic disease selected from
intrahepatic cholestasis,

poisoning of the liver by liver toxins / hepatotoxicity,

drug-induced cholestatic liver disease,

hyperlipidemia,

posthepatic cholestasis,

metabolic syndrome,

non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),

glycogen storage diseases,

and wherein the compounds which are transported into hepatocytes via NTCP are preferably bile acids, steroids, conjugated and non-conjugated thyroid hormones, liver toxins, compounds that are covalently bound to taurocholate, bromosulphophthalein, drugs.
 
14. The cyclic peptide of any of claims 1 to 8 or the pharmaceutical composition of claim 9 for use in the diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment of a cardiovascular disease (CVD), preferably comprising the control or modification of the cholesterol level or cholesterol uptake,
wherein the cholesterol level or uptake is preferably controlled or modified by decreasing or blocking the NCTP-mediated bile salt transport by the cyclic peptide.
 
15. The cyclic peptide or pharmaceutical composition for use according to any one of claims 11 to 14, wherein the cyclic peptide is administered in a therapeutically effective amount, preferably in the range of from about 0.01 mg to about 50 mg per patient, preferably from about 1 mg to about 20 mg per patient,
or is applied to a patient in a dose ranging from 10 pmol per kg to 20µmοl per kg body weight.
 
16. The cyclic peptide or pharmaceutical composition for use according to any one of claims 11 to 14, wherein the route of administration is selected from oral, subcutaneous, intravenous, nasal, intramuscular, transdermal, inhalative, by suppository.
 


Ansprüche

1. Zyklisches Peptid der allgemeinen Formel Ia

        cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]     (Ia)

wobei

P die Aminosäuresequenz NPLGFXaaP (SEQ ID Nr. 1) ist, wobei Xaa F oder L ist,

X eine Aminosäuresequenz ist, die eine Länge von m Aminosäuren hat,
wobei m 0 oder mindestens 1 ist;

Y eine Aminosäuresequenz ist, die eine Länge von n Aminosäuren hat,

wobei n 0 oder mindestens 1 ist;

und wobei m + n 0 bis 42 ist;

und wobei es mindestens eine hydrophobe Modifikation an einer Aminosäureseitenkette (Aminosäureseitenketten) von X und/oder P trägt, wobei das zyklische Peptid nicht innerhalb der Aminosäuresequenz von P mit SEQ ID Nr. 1 und nicht über Aminosäureseitenketten von P zyklisiert ist,
wobei die hydrophobe Modifikation eine Acylierung oder eine Hinzufügung von hydrophoben Gruppen ist,
oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon.


 
2. Zyklisches Peptid nach Anspruch 1, wobei die hydrophobe Modifikation eine Acylierung mit C8- bis C22-Fettsäuren, wie Myristoyl (C14), Palmitoyl (C16) oder Stearoyl (C18), bevorzugt Myristoyl (C14), ist,
oder die hydrophobe(n) Gruppe oder Gruppen ausgewählt ist (sind) aus Cholesterin, Phospholipiden, Glycolipiden, Glycerinestern, Steroiden, Ceramiden.
 
3. Zyklisches Peptid nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das Peptid zyklisiert ist

(a) über eine Thiol-Oxidation (Disulfidbrückenbildung) von zwei in dem Peptid umfassten Cysteinen (C),

(b) Amidkondensation von zwei Aminosäureseitenketten (Lactam),

(c) über eine Kopf-an-Schwanz-Zyklisierung,

(d) über eine Rückgrat-Zyklisierung, und/oder

(e) über eine Thioetherbildung.


 
4. Zyklisches Peptid nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, wobei m = 0 bis 8 und/oder n = 0 bis 34, unter der Voraussetzung, dass m + n mindestens 1 ist.
 
5. Zyklisches Peptid nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche mit der Formel

        H-cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]

wobei H die hydrophobe Modifikation ist.
 
6. Zyklisches Peptid nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Peptid eine Aminosäuresequenz umfasst oder aus einer Aminosäuresequenz besteht, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe von
HBVpreS9-15 NPLGFFP (SEQ ID Nr. 2)
Cys-HBVpreS9-15-Cys C-NPLGFFP-C (SEQ ID Nr. 4)
HBVpreS9-16 NPLGFFPD (SEQ ID Nr. 6)
Cys-HBVpreS9-16-Cys C-NPLGFFPD-C (SEQ ID Nr. 7)
HBVpreS8-16 PNPLGFFPD (SEQ ID Nr. 9)
Cys-HBVpreS8-16-Cys C-PNPLGFFPD-C (SEQ ID Nr. 10)
HBVpreS9-17 NPLGFFPDH (SEQ ID Nr. 12)
Cys-HBVpreS9-17-Cys C-NPLGFFPDH-C (SEQ ID Nr. 13)
HBVpreS8-17 PNPLGFFPDH (SEQ ID Nr. 15)
Cys-HBVpreS8-17-Cys C-PNPLGFFPDH-C (SEQ ID Nr. 16)
HBVpreS2-21 GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP (SEQ ID Nr. 18)
Cys-HBVpreS2-21-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP-C (SEQ ID Nr. 19)
HBVpreS2-48 GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG (SEQ ID Nr. 21)
Cys-HBVpreS2-48-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG-C (SEQ ID Nr. 22)
Myrcludex B GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG (SEQ ID Nr. 24)
Cys-Myrcludex B-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG-C (SEQ ID Nr. 25)
wie beispielsweise
cyclo [NPLGFFP] (SEQ ID Nr. 2)
cyclo [NPLGFFPD] (SEQ ID Nr. 6)
cyclo [PNPLGFFPD] (SEQ ID Nr. 9)
cyclo [NPLGFFPDH] (SEQ ID Nr. 12)
cyclo[PNPLGFFPDH] (SEQ ID Nr. 15)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP] (SEQ ID Nr. 18)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] (SEQ ID Nr. 21)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG] (SEQ ID Nr. 24)
cyclo [NPLGFLP] (SEQ ID Nr. 3)
cyclo [NPLGFLPD] (SEQ ID Nr. 27)
cyclo [PNPLGFLPD] (SEQ ID Nr. 28)
cyclo [NPLGFLPDH] (SEQ ID Nr. 29)
cyclo [PNPLGFLPDH] (SEQ ID Nr. 30)
cyclo [GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDP] (SEQ ID Nr. 31)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] (SEQ ID Nr. 32)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG] (SEQ ID Nr. 33)

 
7. Zyklisches Peptid nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Peptid eine Aminosäuresequenz umfasst oder aus einer Aminosäuresequenz besteht, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe von
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS9-15] (SEQ ID Nr. 2)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFP]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS9-16] (SEQ ID Nr. 6)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFPD]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS8-16] (SEQ ID Nr. 9)
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFFPD]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS9-17] (SEQ ID Nr. 12)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFPDH]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS8-17] (SEQ ID Nr. 15)
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFFPDH]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS2-21] (SEQ ID Nr. 18)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS2-48] (SEQ ID Nr. 21)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpreS2-48] = zyklisches Myrcludex B (SEQ ID Nr. 24)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG]  
z. B.
myr-cyclo[NPLGFLP]
myr-cyclo[NPLGFLPD]
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFLPD]
myr-cyclo[NPLGFLPDH]
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFLPDH]
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDP] myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG].
 
8. Zyklisches Peptid nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, umfassend eine weitere Gruppe oder Gruppen
wie beispielsweise
ein Medikament(e) oder seine (ihre) entsprechende(n) Prodrug(s);
eine Marke(n);
eine Markierung(en), wie beispielsweise ein Fluoreszenzfarbstoff(e), Radioisotop(e) und Kontrastmittel;
ein rekombinantes Virus (rekombinante Viren);
Träger oder Depot(s) für ein Medikament(e), eine Prodrug(s) oder eine Markierung(en);
ein immunogenes Epitop (immunogene Epitope);
Hormone;
ein Inhibitor(en);
Toxine.
bevorzugt kovalent gebunden, wie beispielsweise über einen Linker, Abstandshalter und/oder eine Ankergruppe(n), z.B. einen spaltbaren Linker,
und/oder umfassend einen Inhibitor, wie beispielsweise einen Kapsidinhibitor.
 
9. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend

(i) mindestens ein zyklisches Peptid nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8,

(ii) wahlweise, einen pharmazeutisch akzeptablen Träger und/oder Hilfsstoff.


 
10. Zyklisches Peptid nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 9 zur Verwendung als in vitro-HBV- und/oder -HDV-Eintrittsinhibitoren.
 
11. Zyklisches Peptid nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 9 zur Verwendung in der Medizin.
 
12. Zyklisches Peptid oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 11, wobei die Verwendung umfasst

- Behandlung zur Hemmung einer HBV- und/oder HDV-Infektion,

- die Verhinderung einer primären HBV- und/oder HDV-Infektion,
bevorzugt über NTCP-Targeting,
wobei, bevorzugt, eine HBV-Infektion eines beliebigen Genotyps von HBV gehemmt oder verhindert wird.


 
13. Zyklisches Peptid nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 9 zur Verwendung bei der Diagnose, Verhinderung und/oder Behandlung einer Lebererkrankung oder eines Leberzustands,
wobei, bevorzugt, die Lebererkrankung oder der Leberzustand ausgewählt ist aus Hepatitis, Zirrhose, Hämochromatose, bevorzugt eine durch einen Hepatitis-A-, -B-, -C-, -D-, -E-, -F-, - G- und -H-Virus verursachte Hepatitis oder durch Viren verursachte begleitende Hepatitis,
und/oder wobei, bevorzugt, die Lebererkrankung oder -störung eine Erkrankung ist, die ein Leberstadium eines Virus oder eines nicht-viralen Erregers, beispielsweise eine Tropenkrankheit, Malaria, Schistosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Morbus Wilson, umfasst,
und/oder wobei, bevorzugt, die Lebererkrankung oder -störung ein Lebertumor, bevorzugt ein hepatozelluläres Karzinom (HCC), ist,
und/oder wobei, bevorzugt, die Lebererkrankung oder -störung eine Posttransplantationskomplikation nach einer Lebertransplantation ist, die mit einer Akkumulierung von Gallensalz innerhalb des Gallenwegs verbunden ist,
und/oder wobei, bevorzugt, die Lebererkrankung oder der Leberzustand mit einem Natrium-Taurocholat-Cotransporter-Polypeptid (NTCP) -vermittelten Transport von Verbindungen in Hepatozyten verbunden ist,
oder eine Verabreichung einer Verbindung, beispielsweise eines Medikaments oder einer Markierung, an die Stelle oder den Ort der Erkrankung oder des Zustands erfordert, und, bevorzugt, eine Leber-involvierte Stoffwechselerkrankung ist, ausgewählt aus intrahepatischer Cholestase,

Vergiftung der Leber durch Lebertoxine / Hepatotoxizität,

medikamenteninduzierter cholestatischer Lebererkrankung,

Hyperlipidämie,

posthepatischer Cholestase,

metabolischem Syndrom,

nichtalkoholischer Fettleberkrankheit (NAFLD),

Glykogenspeicher-Erkrankungen,

und wobei die Verbindungen, die über NTCP in Hepatozyten transportiert werden, bevorzugt Gallensäuren, Steroide, konjugierte und nicht-konjugierte Schilddrüsenhormone, Lebertoxine, kovalent an Taurocholat, Bromsulfophthalein, Medikamente gebundene Verbindungen sind.
 
14. Zyklisches Peptid nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 9 zur Verwendung bei der Diagnose, Verhinderung und/oder Behandlung einer kardiovaskulären Erkrankung (CVD),
bevorzugt umfassend das Kontrollieren oder Modifizieren des Cholesterinspiegels oder der Cholesterinaufnahme,
wobei der Cholesterinspiegel oder die Cholesterinaufnahme bevorzugt durch Verringern oder Blockieren des NCTP-vermittelten Gallensalztransports durch das zyklische Peptid kontrolliert oder modifiziert wird.
 
15. Zyklisches Peptid oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 11 bis 14, wobei das zyklische Peptid in einer therapeutisch wirksamen Menge, bevorzugt in dem Bereich von etwa 0,01 mg bis etwa 50 mg pro Patient, bevorzugt von etwa 1 mg bis etwa 20 mg pro Patient, verabreicht wird,
oder in einer Dosis in einem Bereich von 10 pmol pro kg bis 20µmol pro kg Körpergewicht an einen Patienten verabreicht wird.
 
16. Zyklisches Peptid oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 11 bis 14, wobei der Verabreichungsweg ausgewählt ist aus oral, subkutan, intravenös, nasal, intramuskulär, transdermal, inhalativ, durch Zäpfchen.
 


Revendications

1. Peptide cyclique possédant la formule générale la

        cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]     (Ia)

dans laquelle

P est la séquence d'acides aminés NPLGFXaaP (SEQ ID NO: 1), Xaa étant F ou L,

X est une séquence d'acides aminés possédant une longueur de m acides aminés,
dans laquelle m est 0 ou au moins 1 ;

Y est une séquence d'acides aminés possédant une longueur de n acides aminés,

dans laquelle n est 0 ou au moins 1 ;

et dans laquelle m + n est 0 à 42 ;

et comportant au moins une modification hydrophobe au niveau de la/des chaîne(s) latérale(s) d'acides aminés de X et/ou P,
où ledit peptide cyclique n'est pas cyclisé au sein de la séquence d'acides aminés de P de SEQ ID NO: 1 et non via les chaînes latérales d'acides aminés de P, dans lequel la modification hydrophobe est une acylation ou une addition de fragments hydrophobes,
ou un sel de celui-ci pharmaceutiquement acceptable.


 
2. Peptide cyclique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la modification hydrophobe est une acylation avec des acides gras en C8 à C22, tel que myristoyle (C14), palmitoyle (C16) ou stéaroyle (C18), de préférence myristoyle (C14),
ou le fragment ou les fragments hydrophobe(s) est/sont sélectionné(s) parmi le cholestérol, des phospholipides, des glycolipides, des esters de glycérol, des stéroïdes, des céramides.
 
3. Peptide cyclique selon la revendication 1 ou 2, où le peptide est cyclisé

(a) via une oxydation de thiol (formation de pont disulfure) de deux cystéines (C) comprises dans le peptide,

(b) via une condensation d'amide de deux chaînes latérales d'acides aminés (lactame),

(c) via une cyclisation tête-à-queue,

(d) via une cyclisation de squelette, et/ou

(e) via une formation de thioéther.


 
4. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel m = 0 à 8 et/ou n = 0 à 34, à condition que m + n soit au moins 1.
 
5. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, possédant la formule

        H-cyclo[(X)m-P-(Y)n]

dans laquelle H est la modification hydrophobe.
 
6. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, où le peptide comprend ou consiste en une séquence d'acides aminés sélectionnée dans le groupe consistant en
HBVpréS9-15 NPLGFFP (SEQ ID NO: 2)
Cys-HBVpréS9-15-Cys C-NPLGFFP-C (SEQ ID NO: 4)
HBVpréS9-16 NPLGFFPD (SEQ ID NO: 6)
Cys-HBVpréS9-16-Cys C-NPLGFFPD-C (SEQ ID NO: 7)
HBVpréS8-16 PNPLGFFPD (SEQ ID NO: 9)
Cys-HBVpréS8-16-Cys C-PNPLGFFPD-C (SEQ ID NO: 10)
HBVpréS9-17 NPLGFFPDH (SEQ ID NO: 12)
Cys-HBVpréS9-17-Cys C-NPLGFFPDH-C (SEQ ID NO: 13)
HBVpréS8-17 PNPLGFFPDH (SEQ ID NO: 15)
Cys-HBVpréS8-17-Cys C-PNPLGFFPDH-C (SEQ ID NO: 16)
HBVpréS2-21 GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP (SEQ ID NO: 18)
Cys-HBVpréS2-21-Cys C-GTMLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP-C (SEQ ID NO: 19)
HBVpréS2-48 GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG (SEQ ID NO: 21)
Cys-H BVpréS2-48-Cys C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG-C (SEQ ID NO: 22)
     
Myrcludex B GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG (SEQ ID NO: 24)
Cys-Myrcludex   B-Cys
  C-GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG-C (SEQ ID NO: 25)
tel que
cyclo[NPLGFFP] (SEQ ID NO: 2)
cyclo[NPLGFFPD] (SEQ ID NO: 6)
cyclo[PNPLGFFPD] (SEQ ID NO: 9)
cyclo(NPLGFFPDH] (SEQ ID NO: 12)
cyclo[PNPLGFFPDH] (SEQ ID NO: 15)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP] (SEQ ID NO: 18)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] (SEQ ID NO: 21)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG] (SEQ ID NO: 24)
   
cyclo[NPLGFLP] (SEQ ID NO: 3)
cyclo[NPLGFLPD] (SEQ ID NO: 27)
cyclo[PNPLGFLPD] (SEQ ID NO: 28)
cyclo[NPLGFLPDH] (SEQ ID NO: 29)
cyclo[PNPLGFLPDH] (SEQ ID NO: 30)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDP] (SEQ ID NO: 31)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] (SEQ ID NO: 32)
cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG] (SEQ ID NO: 33).

 
7. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, où le peptide comprend ou consiste en une séquence d'acides aminés sélectionnée dans le groupe consistant en
Myr-cyclo [HBVpréS9-15] (SEQ ID NO: 2)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFP]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpréS9-16] (SEQ ID NO: 6)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFPD]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpréS8-16] (SEQ ID NO: 9)
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFFPD]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpréS9-17] (SEQ ID NO: 12)
myr-cyclo[NPLGFFPDH]  
Myr-cyclo [HBVpréS8-17] (SEQ ID NO: 15)
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFFPDH]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpréS2-21] (SEQ ID NO: 18)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDP]  
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpréS2-48] (SEQ ID NO: 21)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG]
Myr-cyclo-[HBVpréS2-48] = Myrcludex B cyclique (SEQ ID NO: 24)
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFFPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDVJDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG]
par exemple
myr-cyclo[NPLGFLP]
myr-cyclo[NPLGFLPD]
myr-cyclo(PNPLGFLPD]
myr-cyclo[NPLGFLPDH]
myr-cyclo[PNPLGFLPDH]
myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDP] myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANQVG] myr-cyclo[GTNLSVPNPLGFLPDHQLDPAFGANSNNPDWDFNPNKDHWPEANKVG].
 
8. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant en outre un fragment ou des fragments
tel(s) que
un/des médicament(s) ou leur(s) promédicament(s) respectif(s) ;
un/des marqueur(s) ;
une/des étiquette(s), telle(s) que un/des colorant(s) fluorescent(s), un/des radio-isotope(s) et un/des agent(s) de contraste ;
un/des virus recombinant(s) ;
un véhicule ou une/des formulation(s) dépôt pour un/des médicament(s), promédicament(s) ou étiquette(s) ;
un/des épitope(s) immunogène(s) ;
des hormones ;
un/des inhibiteur(s) ;
des toxines
de préférence attaché(s) de façon covalente, tel que via un segment de liaison, un espaceur et/ou un/des groupe(s) d'ancrage, par exemple un segment de liaison clivable,
et/ou comprenant un inhibiteur, tel qu'un inhibiteur de capside.
 
9. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant

(i) au moins un peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8,

(ii) facultativement, un véhicule et/ou excipient pharmaceutiquement acceptable.


 
10. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 ou composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 9 destiné(e) à être utilisé(e) en tant qu'inhibiteurs d'entrée du VHB et/ou VHD in vitro.
 
11. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 ou composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 9 destiné(e) à être utilisé(e) en médecine.
 
12. Peptide cyclique ou composition pharmaceutique destiné(e) à être utilisé(e) selon la revendication 11,
où ladite utilisation comprend

- un traitement pour l'inhibition d'une infection par le VHB et/ou VHD,

- la prévention d'une infection primaire par le VHB et/ou VHD,

de préférence via un ciblage du NTCP,
dans lequel, de préférence, une infection par le VHB d'un quelconque génotype du VHB est inhibée ou empêchée.
 
13. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 ou composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 9 destiné(e) à être utilisé(e) dans le diagnostic, la prévention et/ou le traitement d'une maladie ou d'une affection hépatique,
dans lequel/laquelle de préférence la maladie ou l'affection hépatique est sélectionnée parmi l'hépatite, la cirrhose, l'hémochromatose, de préférence l'hépatite provoquée par le virus de l'hépatite A, B, C, D, E, F, G et H ou une hépatite concomitante provoquée par des virus,
et/ou dans lequel/laquelle de préférence la maladie ou l'affection hépatique est une maladie qui implique un stade hépatique d'un virus ou d'un agent pathogène non viral, comme une maladie tropicale, la malaria, le schistosomiase, la leishmaniose, la maladie de Wilson,
et/ou dans lequel/laquelle de préférence la maladie ou l'affection hépatique est une tumeur hépatique, de préférence un carcinome hépatocellulaire (CHC),
et/ou dans lequel/laquelle de préférence la maladie ou l'affection hépatique est une complication post-transplantation après une transplantation hépatique associée à une accumulation de sels biliaires dans les voies biliaires,
et/ou dans lequel/laquelle de préférence la maladie ou l'affection hépatique est associée à un transport de composés médié par le polypeptide co-transporteur du taurocholate de sodium (NTCP) dans les hépatocytes, ou nécessite une délivrance d'un composé, tel qu'un médicament ou une étiquette, au site ou à l'emplacement de la maladie ou de l'affection,
et de préférence est une maladie métabolique impliquant le foie sélectionnée parmi

la cholestase intrahépatique,

une intoxication du foie par des toxines hépatiques/une hépatotoxicité,

une maladie hépatique cholestatique induite par un médicament, l'hyperlipidémie,

la cholestase post-hépatique,

le syndrome métabolique,

la stéatose hépatique non alcoolique (NAFLD),

des maladies de stockage du glycogène,

et dans lequel/laquelle les composés qui sont transportés dans les hépatocytes via le NTCP sont de préférence des acides biliaires, des stéroïdes, des hormones thyroïdiennes conjuguées et non conjuguées, des toxines hépatiques, des composés qui sont liés de façon covalente au taurocholate, à la bromosulfophtaléine, à des médicaments.
 
14. Peptide cyclique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 ou composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 9 destiné(e) à être utilisé(e) dans le diagnostic, la prévention et/ou le traitement d'une maladie cardiovasculaire (MCV), de préférence comprenant le contrôle ou la modification du taux de cholestérol ou de l'absorption du cholestérol,
dans lequel/laquelle le taux ou l'absorption du cholestérol est de préférence contrôlé(e) ou modifié(e) en réduisant ou en bloquant le transport des sels biliaires médié par le NCTP par le peptide cyclique.
 
15. Peptide cyclique ou composition pharmaceutique destiné(e) à être utilisé(e) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 14, où le peptide cyclique est administré en une quantité thérapeutiquement efficace, de préférence dans la plage comprise entre environ 0,01 mg et environ 50 mg par patient, de préférence entre environ 1 mg et environ 20 mg par patient,
ou est appliqué(e) à un patient à une dose comprise entre 10 pmol par kg et 20 µmol par kg de poids corporel.
 
16. Peptide cyclique ou composition pharmaceutique destiné(e) à être utilisé(e) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 14, où la voie d'administration est sélectionnée parmi la voie orale, sous-cutanée, intraveineuse, nasale, intramusculaire, transdermique, par inhalation, par suppositoire.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description