(19)
(11)EP 3 405 801 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/31

(21)Application number: 17701660.7

(22)Date of filing:  19.01.2017
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
G01R 29/08(2006.01)
G01S 7/36(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2017/051033
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/125465 (27.07.2017 Gazette  2017/30)

(54)

ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE INDICATOR AND RELATED METHOD

ELEKTROMAGNETISCHER INTERFERENZINDIKATOR UND ENTSPRECHENDES VERFAHREN

INDICATEUR D'INTERFÉRENCES ÉLECTROMAGNÉTIQUES ET PROCÉDÉ ASSOCIÉ


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 21.01.2016 GB 201601134

(43)Date of publication of application:
28.11.2018 Bulletin 2018/48

(73)Proprietor: Qinetiq Limited
Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 0LX (GB)

(72)Inventors:
  • HOAD, Richard
    Malvern Worcestershire WR14 3PS (GB)
  • HERKE, David Louis
    Malvern Worcestershire WR14 3PS (GB)

(74)Representative: QINETIQ IP 
QinetiQ Limited Intellectual Property Malvern Technology Centre St Andrews Road
Malvern, Worcestershire, WR14 3PS
Malvern, Worcestershire, WR14 3PS (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 237 055
WO-A1-96/41203
WO-A2-2011/047377
US-A1- 2012 326 933
EP-A2- 0 713 714
WO-A1-03/083495
US-A1- 2007 298 724
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to a system and process for detecting radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) and for indicating when the strength of the EMI exceeds a predetermined level. The system comprises a number of detector devices which can communicate to a central computer terminal over a wired or wireless link. In particular, the detector device is capable of detecting EMI, having frequencies, energies and other signal parameters liable to interfere with the function of electrical/electronic equipment. The EMI detection system offers a low cost solution with low running costs.

    [0002] Electrical/electronic equipment can be susceptible to EMI. Intense electromagnetic fields and pulses can induce electrical currents and voltages in electrical/electronic equipment, causing the equipment to malfunction or to become permanently damaged. Business practices which rely heavily on electrical/electronic equipment such as Information Communications Technology (ICT), e.g. financial institutions (banks, stock markets), aviation (aircraft and air traffic control), security equipment, and utilities (telephone exchanges, power grid controllers) are particularly at risk. The electromagnetic disturbance causing the equipment upset or damage is often termed as electromagnetic interference or EMI. This is not to be confused with the more common usage of the term "interference", which implies disturbances to radio signals that may cause degradation in performance of radio receivers. In this text, the term EMI refers to Electromagnetic signals which cause a departure in normal operating function of electrical/electronic equipment.

    [0003] Electromagnetic interference sources may be classed as intentional or unintentional. Intentional EMI is the deliberate generation of EM energy aimed at causing disruption, upset or malfunction to electrical/electronic equipment. Unintentional EMI can occur naturally or accidentally, but the effects on electrical/electronic equipment can be similar. Examples of potential sources of unintentional EMI are the natural EM phenomena of lightning and electro-static discharge (ESD) or man-made sources such as Radio Frequency (RF) transmitters.

    [0004] Either type of EMI, intentional or unintentional, can be further described as narrowband or broadband. Broadband, sometimes referred to as ultra-wide band, interference is normally generated by very short pulses, typically of a few hundred picoseconds to a few nanoseconds duration. These pulses have a wide bandwidth, typically 25 -100 % of the centre frequency, and the frequency range of broadband interference can instantaneously cover hundreds of MHz to a few GHz. Narrowband interference, has a nominal bandwidth of 1% of the centre frequency. Narrowband interference generally has much higher average power content, whereas broadband signals tend to have high instantaneous peak power content.

    [0005] Electrical and electronic equipment is also susceptible to single EM events, for example, from an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) generated by a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) device or lightning (LEMP). EMP radiation is usually characterized as having both lower frequency content and wider bandwidth than conventional continuous interferers, typically 10 kHzto 150 MHz, symptomatic of a longer pulse width, typically a few hundred nanoseconds, but is generally of much higher energy. All of the interferers described above are considered to pose a threat to electrical/electronic equipment found, for example, in most business practices.

    [0006] The extensive use and ever-increasing dependence by society on electrical/ electronic equipment for data processing or communications makes their susceptibility to EMI of particular concern. Traditional countermeasures for protecting electrical/electronic equipment involve enclosing the equipment within an electrically conductive shield and using filtering on cable connections. Whilst shielding and filtering can provide an effective guard against EMI, the use of shielding and filtering on every piece of electrical/electronic equipment owned by a particular business can prove prohibitively expensive, particularly as most commercial available electrical equipment is not provided with the required degree of protection. Shielding can also add considerable weight to the system, which clearly hinders portability. Housing the equipment and any cables within a fully enclosed electrically conductive room offers an alternative solution. However, not all electrical equipment owned by a particular business can be conveniently protected in this manner. Consequently, such room sized enclosures are generally used only to protect critical equipment. Enclosures of this type are clearly unsuitable for protecting portable electrical/electronic equipment.

    [0007] As shielding every piece of electrical/electronic equipment and cabling can prove expensive and inconvenient, an alternative approach is simply to provide an indicator of disruptive levels of EMI and therefore to allow a user to take their own evasive action, e.g. moving the electrical equipment further from the EMI source, erecting a shield, powering down the equipment. There may be situations in which the user is not concerned with protecting the electrical equipment, but instead wishes only to know when they are experiencing EMI so that measures can be taken. An electromagnetic disturbance to electronics can be extremely difficult to discern, particularly as most electrical equipment crashes or similar disruptions are often attributed to a software or hardware fault. It is therefore desirable to have a device which will provide an indication when EMI capable of disrupting electrical/electronic equipment is detected.

    [0008] Present devices for sounding an alarm upon detecting EMI, e.g. RFleak detectors and Electromagnetic Field personal monitors, are generally designed to detect emissions from consumer electronics, such as microwave ovens, and do not cover the range of frequencies or pulse characteristics necessary for detecting ultra-wide bandwidth, short pulse narrowband, or single event EMI.

    [0009] WO 03/083495 (QinetiQ) describes an EMI indicator for detecting electromagnetic radiation comprising a loop antenna detector for receiving EM radiation having bandwidth of at least 10 MHz to 7 GHz and LED and buzzer as indicating means for generating a warning when strength of EM radiation approaches levels capable of disrupting a personal computer.

    [0010] There is a need to provide further EMI detector devices and systems with enhanced capabilities and / or efficiencies for detecting and differentiating types of EMI, especially pulsed (wideband) EMI, whether intentional or unintentional, and for indicating when the strength of such EMI exceeds predetermined threshold levels. It is accordingly an object of this invention to provide such devices, systems and processes. In particular, it is an object of this invention to provide a low cost device suitable for detecting and monitoring EMI whose characteristics have the potential for and whose intensity approaches a level required for disrupting the operation of typical electrical/electronic equipment.

    [0011] Accordingly, the present invention provides an invention according to the appended claims. Advantages of the invention will be understood from the further description and examples as follows. The present invention provides means for detecting EMI and indicating that EMI poses a threat to electrical/electronic equipment. Systems and indicators according to the present invention can comprise a single detector or many detectors which can be communicated with and controlled by a central terminal using wired or wireless means.

    [0012] The controller may take any suitable form, for example may be a processor, for example a Central Processing Unit (CPU) or plural processors.

    [0013] Detectors of the present invention also allow a wide range of location settings, power source options and settings optimisations. Computer systems according to the invention offer the further advantages of remote control and interrogation.

    [0014] According to analysis of current EMI threats the detection system of the present invention has a bandwidth of at least 30 MHz to 6 GHz. Accordingly the detector incorporates an antenna (or antenna(s)), a receiver with receiver protection and associated control electronics. Suitably all potentially EMI susceptible parts of the detector are housed in a shielded enclosure.

    [0015] Preferably the antenna area is scalable to accommodate new threats outside of existing bandwidths. To achieve the ultra-wideband response required of the antenna one preferred solution is a spiral such as a broad band inverted spiral or a centre-fed inverse log spiral.

    [0016] So that the antenna has a wide as possible 'viewing' angle the antenna can be printed on a flexible printed circuit board. This board can suitably be shaped to optimize the detection angle or beamwidth, for example curved (in azimuth or elevation) or hemispherical shape. The antenna conductive element can be made from a copper alloy, though other suitable metals can be used for example silver and gold. In some preferred embodiments the antenna design has a large conductor area such that it provides screening or partial screening to the device electronics which is physically located behind the antenna.

    [0017] The detector functionality allows discrimination of average: continuous wave (CW), characteristic of narrowband EMI and peak (or pulse) EMI, characteristic of wideband and ultra-wideband EMI. The detector incorporates a way of reducing false alarms by comparing the EMI signal voltage with a pre-set threshold voltage. This is achieved, for example using an algorithm which is derived from a threat and effects database and sets the threshold via three mechanisms;
    1. a) defining a value of a fixed hardware attenuator used between the antenna and the receiver;
    2. b) defining a value for a software controlled potentiometer used to fine tune the threshold, said threshold setting programmed into the unit via input of a coded level, said coded level is stored in volatile memory such that once power to the detector is lost and the battery back-up exhausted the software coded threshold is re-set;
    3. c) defining the pulse response time of the peak detector.


    [0018] The detector and/or the central terminal provide a means of indicating that EMI events have been detected. For the detector units the indicator can comprise visual indications via light emitting diodes. Other suitable visual indicators can be used. Audible indicators can be used e.g. a buzzer. Alternatively, the central terminal incorporates a software program which responds to the output signal from the detector devices communicated to the computer system via wired or wireless means and provides indication of EMI events through software via a Graphical User Interface (GUI).

    [0019] A non-volatile memory store is used for the storage of 'EMI event' and detector system status data. An 'EMI event' corresponds to a detection of single, narrowband or wideband EMI occurrences over a pre-determined threshold level. The event data is time stamped so that the EMI event(s) can be subsequently time correlated with faults experienced with co-located electrical equipment. Accurate timing is achieved by deriving a clock signal from an on-board Real Time Clock circuit which is calibrated via an externally derived GPS/GNSS timing signal. The storage of event data provides the ability to allow a diagnostic/forensic approach to characterize and distinguish relevant EMI threats.

    [0020] The detector also has the ability to provide detailed real-time surveys over a selectable period and interval, as well as storing a record of survey events or events above the pre-set threshold level on a non-volatile memory device. Comparing survey data with EMI event data also facilitates the minimizing of false alarms.

    [0021] In a further aspect, the invention provides a method of providing power-down protection of electrical/electronic equipment from EMI through connection/control via the central terminal. The invention also offers other benefits such as low cost of production and running costs.

    [0022] Particular advantages of the invention will be understood from the further description and examples as follows. Embodiments of the present invention will now be described byway of example only and with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

    Figure 1 is a diagram of EMI detection and indicator system comprising remote detector units (RDU) wirelessly connected to a central terminal, which can be located offsite from the detector units. Any number of remote detection units can be connected to the terminal. The RDU provide visual indicators (1) of EMI events and system status. The central terminal also provides visual indicators through software via a graphic user interface (GUI).

    Figure 2 is a diagram of a remote detection unit indicating key sub system functions discussed herein.

    Figure 3 is a representation of a device with an inverted log spiral antenna curved in Azimuth (the dark colour is the conductive surface and the light colour is the dielectric surface).



    [0023] As shown in Figure 1, the Central terminal provides two way command, control and data recovery functions. It can be located offsite (away from the location of the remote detection units) and communicates with one or more remote detector units (RDU) (1) via a detachable wired data link or wireless data link in two formats; ZigBee for short range (less than 200 m) or GPRS SMS text messaging for longer range (Worldwide). The RDU provide visual indications of EMI events and system status. The Central Terminal can be a standard off the shelf computer system with a ZigBee and GPRS modem and loaded with bespoke software to provide command, control and data recovery functions. The central terminal also provides visual indications of EMI events. Two way wireless communications between the Central Terminal and 'n' RDU's, providing RDU programming uplink or EMI event or system status downlink from RDU's. Two way wireless communications modes (2) are possible (GPRS and ZigBee). A wired (USB) link is also provided for engineering purposes.

    [0024] As shown in Figure 2, the detector incorporates an antenna, or antenna(s) operating in receive mode to transduce radiated EMI into a voltage suitable for processing by a receiver. The antenna receiver combination provides an approximately flat voltage output over the frequency range 30 MHz to 6 GHz. The antenna receiver combination responds to pulse widths as short as typically 100 picoseconds. The antenna can be low cost - manufactured from readily available flexible, conformable, printed circuit board (PCB) material. The design can be etched onto the substrate using standard printed circuit board fabrication techniques. It can be installed in an arc to increase the viewing angle/beam width of the antenna and can be formed into other shapes such as a hemisphere.
    As shown in Figure 3, one preferred antenna design is an inverted log-spiral which provides a large conductive/metallic surface area such that the antenna provides a degree of screening for items located behind the antenna. The design of the antenna according to the present invention can be visually pleasing.

    [0025] The antenna can be scalable in two dimensions (area) to enable specific threat frequencies to be covered if for example any new threats emerge in the future which are outside of the present bandwidth of the antenna.

    [0026] Receiver protection, as shown in Figure 2, provides protection for the receiver front end within the defined limits prior to commissioning the detector unit for use. Receiver protection utilises in series EMI attenuation and adjustable attenuation control. The magnitude of attenuation used is dependent on that required to bring the dynamic range of the receiver within that required by the detection algorithm. The first element of the receiver protection chain is sacrificial, meaning that, in the event of very high intensity EMI impinging on the detector device, the first element of the attenuation will fail first and create an open circuit condition.

    [0027] The receiver responds to EMI signals (after propagation through the antenna and protection element) and converts the EMI signal to an output signal level that is related to the magnitude of the signal level on a logarithmic basis. This means that a small change in the input signal level creates a large change in the output signal level. The dynamic range of the receiver is at least 50dB. The receiver interfaces to the peak detection / average detection element.

    [0028] An RF threshold detector circuit comprises two channels. One channel provides detection of the instantaneous 'average' EMI environment (characteristic of continuous wave (CW) or narrowband EMI); the other provides peak detection of EMI (characteristic of wideband and ultra-wideband EMI) with a pulse width response of typically 100 picoseconds.

    [0029] The Peak / Average Detection, Set Threshold, element detects the EMI signals, enables the setting of threshold levels; peak / average RF levels, and waveform duration. There are a wide variety of potential EMI threat signals. In order to keep track of threat EMI signals a database describing key threat signal parameters (modulation, and output magnitude) can be built and used. This 'threat' database can be usefully assembled using data from a variety of sources.

    [0030] In addition to the 'threat database' an 'effects database' can also be produced based on data from a variety of sources. Algorithm are produced from analysis of both the 'threat' database and the 'effects' database to calibrate the Peak / Average Detection threshold of the detector. Both the threat and effects database can be regularly updated with new threat or effects data. The algorithm is suitably implemented into the detector using three mechanisms; a) a fixed hardware attenuator is used between the antenna and the receiver. The value of the attenuator is defined by the algorithm; b) a software controlled potentiometer is used to fine tune the threshold. The software threshold setting is programmed into the unit via input of a coded level. The coded level is stored in volatile memory such that once power to the detector is lost (and the battery back-up is exhausted) the software coded threshold is reset, and c) The response time of the peak detector is calibrated against the response time indicated by the algorithm. The Peak / Average Detection interfaces to the EMI Detector controller or central processing unit (CPU).

    [0031] The CPU controls the functioning of the EMI Detector system to ensure EMI events are captured; peak / average RF amplitude levels and event durations are measured and stored in both the CPU memory and the event store. The CPU interfaces to: the Non-volatile memory store; peak / average detectors; a wired programming port; and wireless network interface port(s). The CPU embedded software enables the CPU to perform the control functions, assignment of event data to the non-volatile event data storage device, and to monitor system status.

    [0032] The EMI event data (magnitude of EMI above the threshold level, time of event, and data of event) is stored securely in a non-volatile memory which is intended for use as potential evidence of event data of a standard suitable for use in legal proceedings.

    [0033] The CPU is able to manage the storage of peak or average events simultaneously or separately at a selectable threshold level. The threshold level and the operation mode of the detector (peak, average or both) is programmable via a wired or wireless interface. The event data is time stamped using a real time clock and stored in memory and to a non-volatile memory device. The memory device is physically protected within a shielded enclosure to facilitate an anti-tamper design enabling the flash memory to be used for evidential purposes.

    [0034] In some cases it is anticipated that detectors are required to be located in an environment where EMI events are commonly or routinely experienced. For example, locations where EMI events such as those generated by arcs, corona, partial discharge and circuit breaker transients are very common, particularly for example High Voltage Sub-station sites. In order to deal with and discriminate these common, routine or 'ambient' EMI events from significant EMI events, the detector can be equipped with an ambient survey mode allowing full characterization of the ambient environment over a user determined survey period. Further, it has been found to be useful to correlate 'events' recorded by the detector with an actual functional disturbance of the site critical electrical/electronic equipment.

    [0035] A Tamper Detection Device enables the EMI detector system to alert the user that it has been tampered with by unauthorized persons, i.e. an unauthorized attempt to gain access to the EMI detector and to determine whether the detector has been moved from its installed location. The tamper detection device can be based on a GPS/GNSS location signal. The Power source for the detector primarily comprises of a Mains Power / Charger Module which provides the primary power source. An internal Back-up Power Source providing an internal back-up function is also provided to maintain the operation of the EMI detection device during a mains power outage.. The detection device is fitted within an EMI shielded and filtered enclosure to protect the detection electronics. The EMI shielded enclosure provides visual indication of the detector device 'status (on/off)', 'events detected', 'survey mode active', 'and GPRS active'. The shielded enclosure is in turn fitted within a plastic enclosure to provide an environmental barrier and to provide an appropriate method of fixing and mounting.

    [0036] According to the invention, choices on the physical location of the detector(s) on the relevant site can be accommodated including whether to include external power sources. Given the uncertainty of the magnitude of factors influencing the propagation of any threat from outside of the facility to inside, the setting of appropriate threshold to reflect a disturbance observed by the detector outside of the facility as an EMI 'threat' event can be challenging. One preferred strategy for the optimum siting of detectors is to locate them as close to the critical equipment as possible and preferably aligned to the most likely direction that the threat could emanate from.

    [0037] Additionally, positioning the detector away from electrically noisy electrical/electronic equipment is preferred to allow better sensitivity and therefore a greater chance of detecting EMI.


    Claims

    1. An electromagnetic interference (EMI) indicator comprising an ultra-wideband detector, the ultra-wideband detector comprising:

    a broadband inverted spiral antenna for receiving EMI, the antenna having receiver protection; a logarithmic receiver configured to convert the EMI signal into a direct voltage proportional to the magnitude of the EMI signal; and

    a peak/average detector and controller connected to the output of the receiver configured to generate a signal when the direct voltage developed in the detector exceeds a pre-set threshold voltage,

    wherein the detector provides a means of indicating that EMI events have been detected.


     
    2. An indicator according to claim 1, wherein the antenna has a large conductive area to provide screening, and is optionally printed on a flexible printed circuit board.
     
    3. An indicator according to any preceding claim, wherein the antenna is an inverted logarithmic spiral antenna.
     
    4. An indicator according to any preceding claim, wherein the antenna has a curved or hemispherical shape in azimuth or elevation.
     
    5. An indicator according to any preceding claim, wherein the receiver protection is provided by attenuators, the magnitude of the attenuation optionally being a component part of a detection threshold algorithm, or by an element with a sacrificial failure mode for providing an open circuit to protect the receiver.
     
    6. An indicator according to any preceding claim, wherein the peak/average detector includes a software programmed variable potentiometer for controlling the pre-set reference voltage (threshold) derived from databases.
     
    7. An indicator according to any preceding claim, wherein the indicator further comprises one or more output ports for transmitting/receiving data from a computer system via wired or wireless means.
     
    8. An indicator according to any preceding claim, wherein Peak/Average discrimination is achieved, enabling the discrimination of EMI signals with high peak power (characteristic of ultra-wideband waveforms) and EMI signals of high instantaneous average power content (characteristic of narrowband and CW waveforms).
     
    9. An indicator according to any preceding claim, further comprising a non-volatile memory store enabling EMI events recorded by the detector to be time correlated with other events, such as upset/malfunction of electrical/electronic systems, and said non-volatile memory store is tamper protected enabling the data to be forensically examined and used for evidential means.
     
    10. An indicator according to any preceding claim, wherein the threshold is calibrated using an algorithm produced from analysis of a threat database and an effects database.
     
    11. An indicator according to claim 10, wherein the algorithm is implemented using three mechanisms:

    a) a fixed hardware attenuator is used between the antenna and the receiver, the value of the attenuator being defined by the algorithm;

    b) a software controlled potentiometer is used to fine tune the threshold, and

    c) the response time of the peak detector is calibrated against the response time indicated by the algorithm.


     
    12. A method of identifying and/or protecting electrical/electronic equipment from EMI, comprising the use of an indicator according to any preceding claim, wherein the indicator is connectable additionally or alternatively to an automated power-down control of the electrical/electronic equipment.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Indikator für elektromagnetische Interferenz (electromagnetic interference, EMI), umfassend einen Ultrabreitband-Detektor, der Ultrabreitband-Detektor umfassend:

    eine invertierte Breitbandspiralantenne zum Empfangen von EMI, wobei die Antenne einen Empfängerschutz aufweist;

    einen logarithmischen Empfänger, der konfiguriert ist, um das EMI-Signal in eine Gleichspannung die proportional zu der Größe des EMI-Signals ist, umzuwandeln; und

    einen Spitzen-/Mittelwertdetektor und -regler, die mit dem Ausgang des Empfängers verbunden sind, der konfiguriert ist, um ein Signal zu erzeugen, wenn die in dem Detektor entwickelte Gleichspannung eine voreingestellte Schwellenwertspannung überschreitet, wobei der Detektor eine Einrichtung bereitstellt, um anzugeben, dass EMI-Ereignisse erfasst worden sind.


     
    2. Indikator nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Antenne eine große leitende Fläche aufweist, um Abschirmung bereitzustellen, und optional auf eine flexible Leiterplatte gedruckt ist.
     
    3. Indikator nach einem vorherigen Anspruch, wobei die Antenne eine invertierte logarithmische Spiralantenne ist.
     
    4. Indikator nach einem vorherigen Anspruch, wobei die Antenne eine gekrümmte oder halbkugelförmige Form in Azimut oder Höhe aufweist.
     
    5. Indikator nach einem vorherigen Anspruch, wobei der Empfängerschutz durch Dämpfungsglieder, wobei die Größe der Dämpfung optional ein Bestandteil eines Erfassungsschwellenwert-Algorithmus ist, oder durch ein Element mit einem Opferausfallmodus zum Bereitstellen eines offenen Stromkreises zum Schutz des Empfängers bereitgestellt wird.
     
    6. Indikator nach einem vorherigen Anspruch, wobei der Spitzen-/Mittelwertdetektor ein softwareprogrammiertes variables Potentiometer zum Steuern der voreingestellten Referenzspannung (Schwellwert) beinhaltet, die aus Datenbanken abgeleitet ist.
     
    7. Indikator nach einem vorherigen Anspruch, wobei der Indikator weiterhin einen oder mehrere Ausgangsanschlüsse zum Übertragen/Empfangen von Daten von einem Computersystem über verdrahtete oder drahtlose Einrichtungen umfasst.
     
    8. Indikator nach einem vorherigen Anspruch, wobei eine Spitzen-/Mittelwert-Differenzierung erreicht wird, was die Differenzierung von EMI-Signalen mit hoher Spitzenleistung (charakteristisch für Ultrabreitband-Wellenformen) und EMI-Signalen mit hohem momentanen mittleren Leistungsanteil (charakteristisch für Schmalband- und CW-Wellenformen) ermöglicht.
     
    9. Indikator nach einem vorherigen Anspruch, ferner umfassend einen nichtflüchtigen Speicher, der es ermöglicht, EMI-Ereignisse, die von dem Detektor aufgezeichnet wurden, zeitlich mit anderen Ereignissen zu korrelieren, wie beispielsweise Störung/Fehlfunktion von elektrischen/elektronischen Systemen, und wobei der nichtflüchtige Speicher manipulationssicher ist, was ermöglicht, das die Daten forensisch untersucht und für Beweismittel verwendet werden können.
     
    10. Indikator nach einem vorherigen Anspruch, wobei der Schwellenwert unter Verwendung eines Algorithmus kalibriert wird, der aus einer Analyse einer Bedrohungsdatenbank und einer Wirkungsdatenbank erzeugt wird.
     
    11. Indikator nach Anspruch 10, wobei der Algorithmus unter Verwendung von drei Mechanismen implementiert ist:

    a) ein festes Hardware-Dämpfungsglied wird zwischen der Antenne und dem Empfänger verwendet, wobei der Wert des Dämpfungsglieds durch den Algorithmus definiert wird;

    b) ein softwaregesteuertes Potentiometer wird zur Feineinstellung des Schwellwerts verwendet, und

    c) die Ansprechzeit des Spitzenwertdetektors ist gegen die von dem Algorithmus angegebene Ansprechzeit kalibriert.


     
    12. Verfahren zum Identifizieren und/oder Schützen von elektrischen/elektronischen Geräten vor EMI, umfassend die Verwendung eines Indikators nach einem vorherigen Anspruch, wobei der Indikator zusätzlich oder alternativ mit einer automatisierten Abschaltsteuerung des elektrischen/elektronischen Geräts verbunden werden kann.
     


    Revendications

    1. Indicateur d'interférence électromagnétique (EMI) comprenant un détecteur à bande ultra large, le détecteur à bande ultra large comprenant :

    une antenne spirale inversée à large bande pour recevoir l'EMI, l'antenne possédant une protection de récepteur ;

    un récepteur logarithmique conçu pour convertir le signal EMI en une tension continue proportionnelle à l'amplitude du

    signal EMI ; et

    un détecteur et dispositif de commande de crête/moyenne connectés à la sortie du récepteur configuré pour générer un signal lorsque la tension continue développée dans le détecteur dépasse une tension seuil prédéfinie, ledit détecteur fournissant un moyen d'indiquer que des événements d'EMI ont été détectés.


     
    2. Indicateur selon la revendication 1, ladite antenne possédant une grande zone conductrice pour fournir un blindage et étant éventuellement imprimée sur une carte de circuit imprimé souple.
     
    3. Indicateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, ladite antenne étant une antenne spirale logarithmique inversée.
     
    4. Indicateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, ladite antenne possédant une forme incurvée ou hémisphérique selon l'azimut ou selon l'élévation.
     
    5. Indicateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, ladite protection du récepteur étant fournie par des atténuateurs, l'amplitude de l'atténuation étant éventuellement une composante faisant partie d'un algorithme de seuil de détection, ou par un élément avec un mode de défaillance sacrificiel destiné à fournir un circuit ouvert pour protéger le récepteur.
     
    6. Indicateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, ledit détecteur de crête/moyenne comprenant un potentiomètre variable programmé par logiciel pour commander la tension de référence prédéfinie (seuil) dérivée à partir de bases de données.
     
    7. Indicateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, ledit indicateur comprenant en outre un ou plusieurs ports de sortie destinés à émettre/recevoir des données en provenance d'un système informatique par l'intermédiaire de moyens filaires ou sans fil.
     
    8. Indicateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, une discrimination crête/moyenne étant obtenue, permettant la discrimination de signaux EMI avec une puissance de crête élevée (caractéristique des formes d'onde à bande ultra-large) et des signaux EMI de contenu de puissance moyenne instantanée élevé (caractéristique des formes d'onde à bande étroite et à onde continue (CW)).
     
    9. Indicateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant en outre un dispositif de stockage à mémoire non volatile permettant aux événements d'EMI enregistrés par le détecteur d'être corrélés dans le temps avec d'autres événements, tels que des perturbations/dysfonctionnements de systèmes électriques/électroniques, et ledit dispositif de stockage à mémoire non volatile étant inviolable permettant aux données d'être examinées judiciairement et utilisées à des fins de preuve.
     
    10. Indicateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, ledit seuil étant calibré à l'aide d'un algorithme produit à partir de l'analyse d'une base de données de menaces et d'une base de données d'effets.
     
    11. Indicateur selon la revendication 10, ledit algorithme étant mis en Ĺ“uvre à l'aide de trois mécanismes :

    a) un atténuateur de matériel fixe est utilisé entre l'antenne et le récepteur, la valeur de l'atténuateur étant définie par l'algorithme ;

    b) un potentiomètre commandé par logiciel est utilisé pour effectuer un réglage fin du seuil, et

    c) le temps de réponse du détecteur de crête est étalonné par rapport au temps de réponse indiqué par l'algorithme.


     
    12. Procédé d'identification et/ou de protection d'un équipement électrique/électronique contre les EMI, comprenant l'utilisation d'un indicateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, ledit indicateur pouvant être connecté de manière additionnelle ou de manière alternative à une commande de mise hors tension automatisée de l'équipement électrique/électronique.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description