(19)
(11)EP 3 406 998 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
04.11.2020 Bulletin 2020/45

(21)Application number: 17172695.3

(22)Date of filing:  24.05.2017
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F28D 21/00(2006.01)
F28D 7/06(2006.01)
F28F 9/22(2006.01)
F22B 1/00(2006.01)
F22B 17/02(2006.01)
F01K 25/00(2006.01)
F22B 1/06(2006.01)

(54)

HEAT EXCHANGER FOR MOLTEN SALT STEAM GENERATOR IN CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER PLANT

WÄRMETAUSCHER FÜR SALZSCHMELZEDAMPFERZEUGER IN KRAFTWERK MIT KONZENTRIERTER SOLARKRAFT

ÉCHANGEUR DE CHALEUR POUR GÉNÉRATEUR DE VAPEUR DE SEL FONDU DANS UNE CENTRALE À ÉNERGIE SOLAIRE CONCENTRÉE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Validation States:
MA

(43)Date of publication of application:
28.11.2018 Bulletin 2018/48

(73)Proprietor: Cockerill Maintenance & Ingenierie S.A.
4100 Seraing (BE)

(72)Inventors:
  • DETHIER, Alfred
    B-4140 SPRIMONT (BE)
  • WINAND, Stéphane
    4031 Angleur (BE)
  • LECLOUX, Yves
    4053 Embourg (BE)
  • HARZALLAH, Ridha
    4000 Liège (BE)
  • AGNETTI, Ildo
    4100 Seraing (BE)
  • BAUTHIER, Thomas
    4280 Hannut (BE)
  • DETAILLE, Christopher
    4184 Filot (BE)

(74)Representative: Pronovem 
Office Van Malderen Parc d'affaires Zénobe Gramme- bâtiment K Square des Conduites d'Eau 1-2
4020 Liège
4020 Liège (BE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 3 159 649
DD-A1- 276 521
JP-A- S 604 790
US-A1- 2008 190 593
WO-A2-2012/156350
DE-C- 839 945
US-A- 3 168 136
US-B1- 6 827 138
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Field of the Invention



    [0001] The present invention is related to the field of heat exchangers, in particular heat exchangers such as evaporators, superheaters, reheaters, and economizers intended to be used in thermal fluid steam generators such as Molten Salt Steam Generators (MSSG) of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP).

    Prior Art



    [0002] It is known that the CSP tower plants generally comprise one or more solar receivers which are situated at the apex of a central tower. These solar receivers are heated by concentrated incident solar rays and they generate a hot fluid that will be further used to produce high-pressure steam capable of driving a turbine and of producing electricity.

    [0003] More specifically the CSP tower plant has as main components, namely, at least a heliostat solar field, a solar receiver installed on the top of the tower, a steam generator, a steam turbine and a storage system. In molten salt technology, the molten salt is heated typically to 565 °C in the solar receiver and stored in the hot storage tank. When a production of electricity is required, the hot salt flows from the hot tank to the Molten Salt Steam Generator (MSSG) to generate steam which will be injected into the steam turbine.

    [0004] FIG. 1 diagrammatically shows the components of a typical so-called heat exchanger train for MSSG. The hot molten salt flows, from an inlet 100, through a reheater 101 and a superheater 104 to enter in an evaporator 102. Thereafter, the hot salt flows from the outlet of the evaporator 102 to the economizer 103 and further to the outlet 105.

    [0005] So-called "shell and tube" heat exchangers refer in prior art to a class of heat exchanger designs suitable for higher pressure applications. This type of heat exchanger is consisting of a large pressure vessel called a "shell" having a set of tubes, called "bundle", inside it. A first fluid runs through the tubes while a second fluid flows inside the shell over the tubes, the first and the second fluid having different temperatures, with the aim of transferring heat from the second fluid to the first fluid or vice versa.

    [0006] There are many variations on the shell and tube design. As an example, FIG. 2 diagrammatically shows a straight-tube heat exchanger (two pass tube-side). The ends of each tube 21 are connected to water boxes or plenums 29 through holes provided in separating plates called 'tube sheets" 27. The tubes 21 may be straight, as depicted in FIG. 2, or bent in "U" (U-tubes).

    [0007] To provide an improved heat exchange between the two fluids, the flow path of the second fluid is often determined by intermediate baffles 28 forming respective passages so that the second fluid flow changes its direction in passing from one passage to the next one. The baffles are usually under the form of partial circular segments or annular rings and disks, installed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the shell 22 to provide a zigzag flow of the second fluid.

    [0008] A prior art alternative of the above design, depicted in FIG. 3, is the horizontal hairpin heat exchanger. Hair pin heat exchanger 1 has two shells 22 containing the straight part of U-tubes. The head of the hairpin contains the 180° U-bent part of the tubes. A hair pin heat exchanger according to the preamble of claim 1 is known from JP S60 4790A. The advantages of this hairpin design are :
    • no need for a joint expansion system, as thermal expansion is naturally managed by the hairpin design ;
    • easier draining and venting of the exchanger owing to the straight tubes and to the horizontal position of the exchanger.


    [0009] Different concepts of steam generator are already known. A synthesis of these different concepts is reported in the Sandia report 93-7084 "Investigation of thermal storage and steam generator issues, Bechtel Corporation", in which are listed advantages and drawbacks of the existing steam generators.

    [0010] In order to improve efficiency of the heat transfer in the heat exchangers, it is known since the 1920s that baffles mounted in the shell can have a specific shape intended to guide the fluid in a helical path. Moreover, with a continuous helical baffle, the heat transfer rate increases of about 10% compared with that of conventional segmental baffles for the same shell-side pressure drop (J. Heat Transfer (2007), Vol. 129(10), 1425-1431). This pattern allows to reduce leakage streams occurring in segmental baffles and further to increase the heat transfer coefficient greatly (J. Heat Transfer (2010), Vol. 132(10), 101801). Also, the flow stratification and stagnant zone are avoided (according to calculations), which allows a complete draining and decreases fouling susceptibility (lower fouling resistance and lower heat transfer area).

    [0011] Document WO 2009/148822 discloses baffles mounted in the shell to guide the fluid into a helical flow pattern, with different helix angles when the baffle is proximate the inlet and the outlet respectively. Documents US 2,384,714, US 2,693,942, US 3,400,758, US 4,493,368 and WO 2005/019758 each disclose each different kinds of baffles, but with the same aim of providing a helical flow pattern of the fluid. Document US 1,782,409 discloses a continuous helical baffle.

    [0012] The current solutions are not satisfactory for example in terms of thermal gradient flexibility, efficiency (pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient), drainability, natural circulation, etc. and newly designed steam generator and/or individual heat exchangers thereof should meet technical requirements such as :
    • improved thermal efficiency by reducing internal leakages and bypass streams ;
    • improved pressure drop by reducing local stream obstacles ;
    • improved ramp-up capability ;
    • improved reliability ;
    • improved fouling behavior, etc.


    [0013] Moreover forced-recirculation evaporator material and manufacturing costs are higher than those for natural-circulation evaporators due to the recirculation pump capital cost.

    Aims of the Invention



    [0014] The present invention aims to overcome the drawbacks of the heat exchangers of prior art intended for steam generators.

    [0015] In particular, the invention aims to obtain a reduced-size evaporator presenting high flexibility in terms of thermal gradient as well as improved efficiency thanks to optimized hydrodynamic salt flow leading to lower pressure drop, lower internal leakage (by-pass), improved heat transfer coefficient, lower tendency to foul, easily drainable molten salt, natural circulation (i.e. without circulation pump), long lifetime, and competitive cost.

    [0016] Another purpose of the present invention is to avoid the utilization of thick components such as current tube sheets necessary in the shell-and-tube classical heat exchangers leading to the drawback that a high pressure zone is adjacent a low pressure zone.

    Summary of the Invention



    [0017] A first aspect of the present invention relates to a hairpin heat exchanger having a first straight section, a second straight section and a bent section linking the first straight section and the second straight section, each straight section comprising a part of a first cylindrical shell or internal cylindrical shell and of a second cylindrical shell or external cylindrical shell, said first cylindrical shell being located inside said second cylindrical shell, both forming an intershell space enclosing a bundle of parallel U-bent tubes having each a first and a second straight part respectively located in said first and second straight section of the exchanger and a 180°-bent part located in said bent section of the exchanger, wherein, in use, a first fluid to be heated and vaporized is flowing, said external cylindrical shell being provided respectively at one end with an inlet and at another end with an outlet for a second fluid which is a hot thermal fluid, so that, in use, said second fluid is flowing in the intershell space and cooling down by exchanging heat with the first fluid flowing in the straight tubes, said intershell space enclosing also baffles to guide the second fluid, wherein the bundle of parallel U-bent tubes is extended out of the exchanger and connected, via bent tubes, respectively beyond an end of the internal shell and of the external shell at the first straight section to a first header distributing the first fluid to the bundle of straight tubes and beyond an end of the internal shell and of the external shell at the second straight section to a second header collecting the first fluid under the form of liquid, vapor or a mixture liquid /vapor from the bundle of straight tubes.

    [0018] According to preferred embodiments of the invention, the hairpin heat exchanger also comprises one of the following characteristics or a suitable combination thereof:
    • the hairpin heat exchanger is horizontal and the flow of the second fluid with respect to the flow of the first fluid therein is either co-current or counter-current;
    • the first header and the second header are straight and cylindrical, or spherical ;
    • said first fluid is a fluid comprising feedwater or supercritical carbon dioxide;
    • said second fluid is a molten salt or a mixture of molten salts, a thermal oil or liquid sodium ;
    • the baffles are under the form of a continuous helical baffle ;
    • the baffles are assembled, preferably welded or bolted, to the internal cylindrical shell ;
    • a tube sheet is provided between the first header, the second header respectively, and the hairpin section of the exchanger containing the internal and external cylindrical shells ;
    • the tube sheet is of elliptical shape and is provided with passageways for allowing sealed passage of the U-bent tubes through the tube sheet;
    • a sealing means is provided between the external shell and the baffles ;
    • the hairpin exchanger is equipped with a distribution jacket for uniformly feeding the second fluid from the thermal fluid inlet to the heat exchanger;
    • the distribution jacket has a plurality of openings distributed at 360° over an internal face thereof, said openings preferably feeding the second fluid into a first turn of the helical baffle.


    [0019] A second aspect of the invention relates to the use of the hairpin heat exchanger as described above, as an evaporator.

    [0020] A third aspect of the invention relates to the use of the hairpin heat exchanger as described above, as a superheater.

    [0021] A fourth aspect of the invention relates to the use of the hairpin heat exchanger as described above, as a reheater or an economizer.

    [0022] A fifth aspect of the invention relates to the use of the evaporator, the superheater, the reheater and economizer as described above, making at least one heat exchanger train in a molten salt steam generator (MSSG). Advantageously, the superheater, the reheater and/or the economizer are running counter-current, while the evaporator is running co-current.

    [0023] Still under the scope of the present invention, the molten salt steam generator is a once-through or a forced circulation steam generator.

    Brief Description of the Drawings



    [0024] 

    FIG.1 diagrammatically represents the components of a typical heat exchanger train for a Molten Salt Steam Generator.

    FIG. 2 schematically represents an embodiment for a "shell-and-tube" straight tube heat exchanger according to prior art.

    FIG. 3 represents a perspective view of a horizontal haipin generator of prior art.

    FIG. 4A and 4B respectively show a plane view and an elevation view for a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger according to the present invention.

    FIG. 5 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of the heat exchanger according to the embodiment of FIG. 4.

    FIG. 6A and 6B respectively show views corresponding to FIG. 4 but with a supporting system of the heat exchanger.

    FIG. 7 is a longitudinal cross-sectional detailed view of the exchanger according to the invention, focusing on the elliptical tube sheet.

    FIG. 8A and 8B respectively show a perspective view and a cross sectional view of the above-mentioned elliptical tube sheet.


    Description of Preferred Embodiments of the Invention



    [0025] The present invention relates to a new design for a horizontal hairpin heat exchanger 1, as depicted in FIG. 4 to 8.

    [0026] The heat exchanger has a reciprocating flow between two fluids. A first fluid, generally a mixture of water and water steam, circulates through a first bundle of parallel horizontal straight tubes sections 2 located in the first straight part of the hairpin and further through a second bundle of parallel horizontal straight tubes sections 2 located in the second straight part of the hairpin. The tubes 2 of the first bundle are connected to the tubes 2 of the second bundle by 180° bent tube sections located in the head of the hairpin, forming thereby U-bent tube sections.

    [0027] Supercritical carbon dioxide is another example of usable first fluid in the present invention.

    [0028] According to one alternate embodiment, the straight tubes sections of the first bundle can discharge fluid into a bonnet through a thick(er) tube shell into which also end the straight tubes sections of the second bundle. Thus, according to this particular embodiment the tubes have no U-bent tube sections.

    [0029] According to the invention, the bundle of tubes 2 in each straight part is located between an internal cylindrical shell 3 and an external cylindrical shell 4, as represented in FIG. 5.

    [0030] The internal space 5 delimited by the two shells 3, 4 permits to hold a heat source, preferably a second fluid, within an annular flow path. This second fluid is a thermal fluid, for example molten salt(s) having been heated by the solar receivers at the apex of a CSP tower plant. The thermal fluid, by having its flow in contact with the bundle(s) of tubes 2, will transfer heat to the parallel-flowing first fluid running through the tubes 2. The first fluid and the second fluid can be co-current or counter-current, without departing from the scope of the present invention. Similarly the heat source or the second fluid can be any thermal fluid such as water, thermal oil, liquid sodium, fluidized bed, etc.

    [0031] As illustrated by FIG. 6, the external cylindrical shell 4, or a distribution jacket coupled therewith is provided at one end with an inlet nozzle 6, respectively an outlet nozzle 6, through which the thermal fluid enters into, respectively leaves the heat exchanger 1. Similarly, an outlet nozzle 7, respectively inlet nozzle 7, is provided at another end of the external cylindrical shell 4 in order to discharge the cooled thermal fluid, respectively admit the hot fluid.

    [0032] Advantageously, as mentioned above, the thermal fluid is uniformly distributed on the shell at 360° (inlet, circulation, fluid temperature) thanks to a distribution jacket located at the inlet nozzle of the heat exchanger (see below).

    [0033] In order to improve the efficiency of heat transfer, as shown in FIG. 6, space 5 is provided in the straight parts of the hairpin exchanger with an enclosed continuous helical baffle 8 allowing to guide the flow of the thermal fluid. The thermal fluid then helically flows in the heat exchanger, which is for example an evaporator running under natural circulation, between the internal and the external shell, according to an annular flow path. The continuous helical baffle configuration ensures a gentle flowing of the second fluid, without any sharp direction change or dead zones as in the exchangers having flow-perpendicular baffles. In this manner, the heat transfer rate is greatly increased and the pressure drop is greatly lowered compared with that of exchangers with conventional segment baffles (see above).

    [0034] According to one embodiment, the internal cylindrical shell 3 and the baffles 8 can be welded or bolted. Further a sealing means can be provided between the external shell 4 and the baffles 8 to avoid parasitic streams.

    [0035] As shown on FIG. 7, on each external end of the hairpin exchanger straight part, the annular bundle of parallel straight tubes 2 is connected, via suitably bent tubes 11, located outside the internal and the external shells 3, 4 to at least one cylindrical linear header 9, 10. The header axis is orthogonal to the hairpin exchanger axis.

    [0036] More specifically, as shown on FIG. 4 to FIG. 6, at a first end of the exchanger, the bundle of straight tubes 2 is connected to at least a first cylindrical linear header 9, or entry header 9, which feeds the straight tubes 2 with the first fluid, while, at a second end of the exchanger, the first fluid which is running inside the bundle of tubes 2 is collected by at least a second cylindrical linear header 10, or exit header 10, from the bundle of tubes 2. The need of more than one entry header 9 or exit header 10 may appear when there is a large number of tubes 2 in the bundle.

    [0037] Furthermore as shown on FIG. 7, the bundle of straight tubes 2 is connected, either to the entry header 9 or to the exit header 10 by suitably bent tubes 11, in an area which is outside the internal and external shells 3, 4 of the hairpin exchanger. In this way, the use of tube sheets and/or high pressure spherical collectors, bonnets and headers, as in the so-called "shell-and-tube" heat exchangers of prior art, is avoided in the present invention because it is simply replaced by the use of cylindrical headers moved outside of the hairpin heat exchanger.

    [0038] In the shell-and-tube configuration, the first fluid, usually water, is generally under high pressure in quasi-spherical vessels or plenums. On the other side of the tube sheet, the salt flowing around the tube bundles is maintained under much lower pressure, requiring very thick tube sheets to withstand the pressure difference. The invention configuration provides prolongated tubes connected to standard headers (cylindrical, spherical, etc.) at the ends of the exchanger, in which the high pressure fluid is circulating. This allows to reduce the thickness of the tube sheets, if any, the pressure being limited. More specifically, in the rectangular section on FIG.7, one sees that the pressure drop supported by the tube sheet 16 is governed by the difference of the external (air) pressure 12 and the internal thermal fluid pressure 13.

    [0039] According to one embodiment of the present invention shown on FIG. 7 and FIG. 8, a tube sheet is preferably used under the form of a elliptical tube sheet 16 or the like, having orifices or passages 17 for the parallel tubes 2. The tubes 2 are welded to the elliptical tube sheet 16 only with the sole purpose to ensure fluid tightness. These elliptical tube sheets 16 advantageously have lower thickness than prior art flat tube sheets for the reasons explained above.

    [0040] Today, increased speed for ramp-up and stop are often required by the client. Thick vessel walls or headers are not suited for accepting higher temperature gradients and are more subject to fatigue leading to shorter lifetime of the heat exchanger. In this context the present invention provides extended lifetime of the heat exchanger components.

    [0041] FIG. 7 also shows a detailed view for an embodiment of the entry/exit distribution jacket 30 from the fluid inlet/outlet 6, 7 into the hairpin heat exchanger. A uniform distribution of the second fluid at its entry/exit in the heat exchanger is ensured by a series of distribution openings 31 located at 360° over the internal side of the distribution jacket 30, preferably in a first turn 32 of the helical baffle 8.

    [0042] The present invention is flexible and intended to be applied to a series of heat exchanger design used in MSSG technology, such as reheater, superheater, preheater and evaporator devices, wherein all the common components are made according to the generic heat exchanger design of the invention.

    [0043] As mentioned above, a hot molten salt with decreasing temperature flows for example firstly in parallel through a reheater and a superheater to recombine and enter into the evaporator and further in the preheater/economizer in series.

    [0044] In current embodiments, hot molten salt is entering the system at high temperature, for example 563°C and certainly below 565°C which is the degradation temperature for the usal molten salts. However it is under the scope of the present invention that the thermal fluid can withstand a temperature up to 700°C. All metal parts are advantageously made of stainless steel or noble metals which can withstand temperatures up to 600°C and above.

    [0045] Cold salt leaves the preheater at a temperature typically in the range of 290-300°C, or above a minimum temperature which is either the solidification temperature of the heat transfer fluid (as low as 240°C for the molten salts such as sodium derivatives). Alternately any thermal fluid, e.g. thermal oil, can be used instead of molten salt with an operating temperature range in this case going for example from 80°C (condensation and/or cristallization temperature) to 380°C (example of degradation temperature).

    [0046] Water at high pressure flows in tubes or pipes not in the shell side which allows lower thickness for the tube sheets and headers/shells and consequently a higher thermal gradient capability.

    [0047] Although the design of the exchanger according to the present invention is optimized for natural circulation running, it could also be used in once-through or forced circulation steam generators.

    List of reference symbols



    [0048] 
    1
    Hairpin heat exchanger
    2
    Straight tube (section)
    3
    Internal cylindrical shell
    4
    External cylindrical shell
    5
    Intershell space
    6
    Thermal fluid inlet
    7
    Thermal fluid outlet
    8
    Helical baffle
    9
    Inlet straight header
    10
    Outlet straight header
    11
    Bent tube (section)
    12
    First low pressure fluid (air)
    13
    Second low pressure fluid (molten salt)
    14
    U-benttube
    15
    High pressure fluid (water/steam)
    16
    Elliptical tube sheet
    17
    Tube passageway
    18
    Front closure
    19
    Rear closure
    20
    Support
    21
    Straight tube
    22
    Shell
    23
    Shell-side fluid in
    24
    Tube-side fluid in
    25
    Tube-side fluid out
    26
    Shell-side fluid out
    27
    Tube sheet
    28
    Baffle
    29
    Water box or plenum or bonnet
    30
    Distribution jacket
    31
    Distribution openings to the first helical turn (or pitch) of the baffle
    32
    First helical turn of the baffle
    100
    Molten salt inlet of the MSSG
    101
    Reheater of the MSSG
    102
    Evaporator of the MSSG
    103
    Economizer of the MSSG
    104
    Superheater of the MSSG
    105
    Molten salt outlet of the MSSG



    Claims

    1. A hairpin heat exchanger (1) having a first straight section, a second straight section and a bent section linking the first straight section and the second straight section, characterized in that each straight section comprises a part of a first cylindrical shell or internal cylindrical shell (3) and of a second cylindrical shell or external cylindrical shell (4), said first cylindrical shell (3) being located inside said second cylindrical shell (4), both forming an intershell space (5) enclosing a bundle of parallel U-bent tubes (2) having each a first and a second straight part respectively located in said first and second straight section of the exchanger and a 180°-bent part located in said bent section of the exchanger, wherein, in use, a first fluid to be heated and vaporized is flowing, said external cylindrical shell (4) being provided respectively at one end with an inlet (6) and at another end with an outlet (7) for a second fluid which is a hot thermal fluid, so that, in use, said second fluid is flowing in the intershell space (5) and cooling down by exchanging heat with the first fluid flowing in the straight tubes (2), said intershell space (5) enclosing also baffles (8) to guide the second fluid, wherein the bundle of parallel U-bent tubes (2) is extended out of the exchanger and connected, via bent tubes (11), respectively beyond an end of the internal shell (3) and of the external shell (4) at the first straight section to a first header (9) distributing the first fluid to the bundle of straight tubes (2) and beyond an end of the internal shell (3) and of the external shell (4) at the second straight section to a second header (10) collecting the first fluid under the form of liquid, vapor or a mixture liquid /vapor from the bundle of straight tubes (2).
     
    2. The hairpin heat exchanger (1) according to claim 1, wherein it is horizontal and in which the flow of the second fluid with respect to the flow of the first fluid is either co-current or counter-current.
     
    3. The hairpin heat exchanger (1) according to claim 1, wherein the first header (9) and the second header (10) are straight and cylindrical, or spherical.
     
    4. Use of the hairpin heat exchanger (1) according to claim 1, wherein said first fluid is a fluid comprising feedwater or supercritical carbon dioxide.
     
    5. Use of the hairpin heat exchanger (1) according to claim 1, wherein said second fluid is a molten salt or a mixture of molten salts, a thermal oil or liquid sodium.
     
    6. The hairpin heat exchanger (1) according to claim 1, wherein the baffles (8) are under the form of a continuous helical baffle.
     
    7. The hairpin heat exchanger (1) according to claim 1, wherein the baffles (8) are assembled, preferably welded or bolted, to the internal cylindrical shell (3).
     
    8. The hairpin heat exchanger according to claim 1, wherein a tube sheet (16) is provided between the first header (9), the second header (10) respectively, and the hairpin section of the exchanger containing the internal and external cylindrical shells (3, 4).
     
    9. The hairpin heat exchanger according to claim 8, wherein the tube sheet (16) is of elliptical shape and is provided with passageways (17) for allowing sealed passage of the U-bent tubes (2) through the tube sheet (16).
     
    10. The hairpin heat exchanger according to claim 1, wherein a sealing means is provided between the external shell (4) and the baffles (8).
     
    11. The hairpin heat exchanger according to claim 1, wherein it is equipped with a distribution jacket (30) for uniformly feeding the second fluid from the thermal fluid inlet (6, 7) to the heat exchanger.
     
    12. The hairpin heat exchanger according to claim 11, wherein the distribution jacket (30) has a plurality of openings (31) distributed at 360° over an internal face thereof, said openings (31) preferably feeding the second fluid into a first turn (32) of the helical baffle (8).
     
    13. Use of the heat exchanger according to claim 1, as an evaporator.
     
    14. Use of the heat exchanger according to claim 1, as a superheater.
     
    15. Use of the heat exchanger according to claim 1, as a reheater or an economizer.
     
    16. Use of an evaporator according to claim 13, of a superheater according to claim 14, and of a reheater and/or economizer according to claim 15, making at least one heat exchanger train in a molten salt steam generator (MSSG).
     
    17. Use according to claim 16, wherein the superheater, the reheater and/or the economizer are running counter-current, while the evaporator is running co-current.
     
    18. Use according to claim 16, wherein the molten salt steam generator is a once-through or a forced circulation steam generator.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) mit einem ersten geraden Abschnitt, einem zweiten geraden Abschnitt und einem gebogenen Abschnitt, der den ersten geraden Abschnitt und den zweiten geraden Abschnitt verbindet, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass jeder gerade Abschnitt einen Teil einer ersten zylindrischen Hülse oder internen zylindrischen Hülse (3) und einer zweiten zylindrischen Hülse oder externen zylindrischen Hülse (4) umfasst, wobei sich die erste zylindrische Hülse (3) im Inneren der zweiten zylindrischen Hülse (4) befindet, wobei beide einen Hülsenzwischenraum (5) bilden, der ein Bündel paralleler, zum U gebogener Röhren (2) umschließt, die jeweils einen ersten und einen zweiten geraden Teil aufweisen, die sich in dem ersten beziehungsweise dem zweiten geraden Abschnitt des Tauschers befinden, und einen um 180° gebogenen Teil, der sich in dem gebogenen Abschnitt des Tauschers befindet, wobei im Gebrauch ein erstes zu erwärmendes und zu verdampfendes Fluid strömt, wobei die externe zylindrische Hülse (4) an einem Ende mit einem Einlass (6) beziehungsweise an einem anderen Ende mit einem Auslass (7) für ein zweites Fluid versehen ist, das ein heißes thermisches Fluid ist, sodass im Gebrauch das zweite Fluid in dem Hülsenzwischenraum (5) strömt und durch Austausch von Wärme mit dem ersten Fluid, das in den geraden Röhren (2) strömt, abkühlt, wobei der Hülsenzwischenraum (5) auch Ablenkplatten (8) zum Lenken des zweiten Fluids umschließt, wobei sich das Bündel paralleler, zum U gebogener Röhren (2) aus dem Tauscher hinaus erstreckt und über gebogene Röhren (11) über ein Ende der internen zylindrischen Hülse (3) und der externen zylindrischen Hülse (4) an dem ersten geraden Abschnitt hinaus mit einem ersten Kopfstück (9) verbunden ist, welches das erste Fluid zu dem Bündel gerader Röhren (2) verteilt, beziehungsweise über ein Ende der internen zylindrischen Hülse (3) und der externen zylindrischen Hülse (4) an dem zweiten geraden Abschnitt hinaus mit einem zweiten Kopfstück (10) verbunden ist, welches das erste Fluid in der Form von Flüssigkeit, Dampf oder einem Flüssigkeits-Dampf-Gemisch aus dem Bündel gerader Röhren (2) auffängt.
     
    2. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei er horizontal ist und in dem der Strom des zweiten Fluids in Bezug auf den Strom des ersten Fluids entweder ein Gleichstrom oder ein Gegenstrom ist.
     
    3. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das erste Kopfteil (9) und das zweite Kopfteil (10) gerade und zylindrisch oder kugelförmig sind.
     
    4. Verwendung des Haarnadel-Wärmetauschers (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das erste Fluid ein Fluid ist, das Speisewasser oder superkritisches Kohlenstoffdioxid ist.
     
    5. Verwendung des Haarnadel-Wärmetauschers (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das zweite Fluid ein Flüssigsalz oder ein Gemisch aus Flüssigsalzen, ein thermisches Öl oder flüssiges Natrium ist.
     
    6. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Ablenkplatten (8) die Form einer durchgehenden spiralförmigen Ablenkplatte aufweisen.
     
    7. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Ablenkplatten (8) an der internen zylindrischen Hülse (3) angebracht, vorzugsweise angeschweißt oder angeschraubt, sind.
     
    8. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei zwischen dem ersten Kopfstück (9) beziehungsweise dem zweiten Kopfstück (10) und dem Haarnadelabschnitt des Tauschers, der die interne und die externe zylindrische Hülse (3, 4) enthält, ein Rohrboden (16) bereitgestellt ist.
     
    9. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) nach Anspruch 8, wobei der Rohrboden (16) von elliptischer Form ist und mit Durchgängen (17) zum Ermöglichen eines abgedichteten Durchleitens der zum U gebogenen Röhren (2) durch den Rohrboden (16) versehen ist.
     
    10. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei ein Abdichtungsmittel zwischen der externen Hülse (4) und den Ablenkplatten (8) bereitgestellt ist.
     
    11. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei er mit einer Verteilungsbuchse (30) zum gleichmäßige Speisen des zweiten Fluids von dem Einlass für thermisches Fluid (6, 7) in den Wärmetauscher ausgestattet ist.
     
    12. Haarnadel-Wärmetauscher (1) nach Anspruch 11, wobei die Verteilungsbuchse (30) mehrere Öffnungen (31) aufweist, die 360° über ihre Außenfläche verteilt sind, wobei die Öffnungen (31) vorzugsweise das zweite Fluid in die ersten Wendung (32) der spiralförmigen Ablenkplatte (8) speisen.
     
    13. Verwendung des Haarnadel-Wärmetauschers (1) nach Anspruch 1 als Verdampfer.
     
    14. Verwendung des Haarnadel-Wärmetauschers (1) nach Anspruch 1 als Überhitzer.
     
    15. Verwendung des Haarnadel-Wärmetauschers (1) nach Anspruch 1 als Zwischenhitzer oder Vorwärmer.
     
    16. Verwendung des Verdampfers nach Anspruch 13, eines Überhitzers nach Anspruch 14 und eines Zwischenhitzers und/oder Vorwärmers nach Anspruch 15, die mindestens einen Wärmetauscherzug in einem Flüssigsalz-Dampferzeuger (Molten Salt Steam Generator, MSSG) bilden.
     
    17. Verwendung des Haarnadel-Wärmetauschers (1) nach Anspruch 16, wobei der Überhitzer, der Zwischenhitzer und/oder der Vorwärmer im Gegenstrom laufen, während der Verdampfer im Gleichstrom läuft.
     
    18. Verwendung des Haarnadel-Wärmetauschers (1) nach Anspruch 16, wobei der Flüssigsalz-Dampferzeuger ein Durchlaufdampferzeuger (OTSG) oder ein Zwanglaufdampferzeuger ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux (1) ayant une première section rectiligne, une seconde section rectiligne et une section courbée reliant la première section rectiligne et la seconde section rectiligne, caractérisé en ce que chaque section rectiligne comprend une partie d'une première enveloppe cylindrique ou enveloppe cylindrique interne (3) et d'une seconde enveloppe cylindrique ou enveloppe cylindrique externe (4), ladite première enveloppe cylindrique (3) étant située à l'intérieur de ladite seconde enveloppe cylindrique (4), les deux formant un espace entre enveloppes (5) enfermant un faisceau de tubes courbés en U parallèles (2) ayant chacun une première et une seconde partie rectiligne situées respectivement dans ladite première et ladite seconde section rectiligne de l'échangeur et une partie courbée à 180° située dans ladite section courbée de l'échangeur, dans lequel, en utilisation, s'écoule un premier fluide devant être chauffé et vaporisé, ladite enveloppe cylindrique externe (4) étant pourvue respectivement à une extrémité d'une entrée (6) et à une autre extrémité d'une sortie (7) pour un second fluide qui est un fluide thermique chaud, de sorte que, en utilisation, ledit second fluide s'écoule dans l'espace entre enveloppes (5) et est refroidi par échange de chaleur avec le premier fluide s'écoulant dans les tubes rectilignes (2), ledit espace entre enveloppes (5) enfermant également des déflecteurs (8) pour guider le second fluide, dans lequel le faisceau de tubes courbés en U parallèles (2) s'étend vers l'extérieur de l'échangeur et est raccordé, via des tubes courbés (11), respectivement au-delà d'une extrémité de l'enveloppe interne (3) et de l'enveloppe externe (4) au niveau de la première section rectiligne à un premier collecteur (9) distribuant le premier fluide au faisceau de tubes rectilignes (2) et au-delà d'une extrémité de l'enveloppe interne (3) et de l'enveloppe externe (4) au niveau de la seconde section rectiligne à un second collecteur (10) collectant le premier fluide sous la forme de liquide, de vapeur ou d'un mélange liquide/vapeur provenant du faisceau de tubes rectilignes (2).
     
    2. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux (1) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel il est horizontal et dans lequel l'écoulement du second fluide par rapport à l'écoulement du premier fluide est soit à co-courant, soit à contre-courant.
     
    3. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux (1) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le premier collecteur (9) et le second collecteur (10) sont rectilignes et cylindriques, ou sphériques.
     
    4. Utilisation de l'échangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux (1) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ledit premier fluide est un fluide comprenant de l'eau d'alimentation ou du dioxyde de carbone supercritique.
     
    5. Utilisation de l'échangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux (1) selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit second fluide est un sel fondu ou un mélange de sels fondus, d'une huile thermique ou de sodium liquide.
     
    6. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux (1) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les déflecteurs (8) sont sous la forme d'un déflecteur hélicoïdal continu.
     
    7. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux (1) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les déflecteurs (8) sont assemblés, de préférence soudés ou vissés, à l'enveloppe cylindrique interne (3).
     
    8. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux selon la revendication 1, dans lequel une plaque tubulaire (16) est prévue entre le premier collecteur (9), le second collecteur (10) respectivement, et la section en épingle à cheveux de l'échangeur contenant les enveloppes cylindriques interne et externe (3, 4).
     
    9. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux selon la revendication 8, dans lequel la plaque tubulaire (16) est de forme elliptique et est pourvue de passages (17) pour permettre un passage étanche des tubes courbés en U (2) à travers la plaque tubulaire (16).
     
    10. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux selon la revendication 1, dans lequel un moyen d'étanchéité est prévu entre l'enveloppe interne (4) et les déflecteurs (8).
     
    11. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux selon la revendication 1, dans lequel il est équipé d'une chemise de distribution (30) pour fournir uniformément le second fluide de l'entrée de fluide thermique (6, 7) à l'échangeur de chaleur.
     
    12. Echangeur de chaleur en épingle à cheveux selon la revendication 11, dans lequel la chemise de distribution (30) a une pluralité d'ouvertures (31) distribuées à 360° sur une face interne de celle-ci, lesdites ouvertures (31) fournissant de préférence le second fluide dans une un premier tour (32) du déflecteur hélicoïdal (8).
     
    13. Utilisation de l'échangeur de chaleur selon la revendication 1, comme un évaporateur.
     
    14. Utilisation de l'échangeur de chaleur selon la revendication 1, en tant que surchauffeur.
     
    15. Utilisation de l'échangeur de chaleur selon la revendication 1, en tant que réchauffeur ou économiseur.
     
    16. Utilisation d'un évaporateur selon la revendication 13, d'un surchauffeur selon la revendication 14 et d'un réchauffeur et/ou économiseur selon la revendication 15, constituant au moins un train d'échangeur de chaleur dans un générateur de vapeur à sels fondus (MSSG).
     
    17. Utilisation selon la revendication 16, dans laquelle le surchauffeur, le réchauffeur et/ou l'économiseur fonctionnent à contre-courant, alors que l'évaporateur fonctionne à co-courant.
     
    18. Utilisation selon la revendication 16, dans laquelle le générateur de vapeur à sels fondus est un générateur de vapeur à passage unique ou à circulation forcée.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description