(19)
(11)EP 3 408 398 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
27.11.2019 Bulletin 2019/48

(21)Application number: 17708002.5

(22)Date of filing:  30.01.2017
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C12N 15/86  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2017/015622
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/132666 (03.08.2017 Gazette  2017/31)

(54)

RECOMBINANT ADENOVIRUS VECTORED FMDV VACCINES AND USES THEREOF

REKOMBINANTE ADENOVIRUS-VEKTORISIERTE FMDV-IMPFSTOFFE UND DEREN VERWENDUNGEN

VACCINS VECTORISÉS À ADÉNOVIRUS RECOMBINANTS CONTRE LE VIRUS DE LA FIÈVRE APHTEUSE (FMDV) ET UTILISATIONS CORRESPONDANTES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 29.01.2016 US 201662288540 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
05.12.2018 Bulletin 2018/49

(73)Proprietors:
  • Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA Inc.
    Duluth, GA 30096 (US)
  • GenVec, Inc.
    Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (US)
  • The Government Of The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of Homeland Security
    Greenport, NY 11944 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • WIDENER, Justin
    Athens GA 30601 (US)
  • WOODYARD, Leszlie
    Hull GA 30646 (US)
  • SIGER, Leonardo
    Waltkinsville GA 30677 (US)
  • ETTYREDDY, Damodar
    Clarksburg MD 20871 (US)
  • GALL, Jason
    Germantown MD 20874 (US)
  • MCVEY, Duncan
    Derwood MD 20855 (US)
  • BURRAGE, Tom
    Topsham ME 04086 (US)
  • BROUGH, Douglas
    Gaithersburg MA 20879 (US)

(74)Representative: D Young & Co LLP 
120 Holborn
London EC1N 2DY
London EC1N 2DY (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-2007/059461
US-A1- 2005 287 672
WO-A2-2012/003129
  
  • DATABASE Geneseq [Online] 17 July 2014 (2014-07-17), "Foot-and-mouth disease virus derived protein, SEQ 107.", XP002769370, retrieved from EBI accession no. GSP:BBG42659 Database accession no. BBG42659
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] This invention was made with Government support. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS



[0002] This application claims priority to U.S. provisional application 62/288,540 filed on January 29, 2016.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0003] The present invention relates to compositions for combating Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) infection in animals. The present disclosure provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising an FMDV antigen, methods of vaccination against FMDV, and kits for use with such methods and compositions.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0004] Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most virulent and contagious diseases affecting farm animals. This disease is endemic in numerous countries in the world, especially in Africa, Asia and South America. In addition, epidemic outbreaks can occur periodically. The presence of this disease in a country may have very severe economic consequences resulting from loss of productivity, loss of weight and milk production in infected herds, and from trade embargoes imposed on these countries. The measures taken against this disease consist of strict application of import restrictions, hygiene controls and quarantine, slaughtering sick animals and vaccination programs using vaccines, either as a preventive measure at the national or regional level, or periodically when an epidemic outbreak occurs.

[0005] FMD is characterized by its short incubation period, its highly contagious nature, the formation of ulcers in the mouth and on the feet and sometimes, the death of young animals. FMD affects a number of animal species, in particular cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. The agent responsible for this disease is a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus belonging to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family (Cooper et al., Intervirology, 1978, 10, 165-180). At present, at least seven types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) are known: the European types (A, O and C), the African types (SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) and an Asiatic type (Asia 1). Numerous sub-types have also been distinguished (Kleid et al. Science (1981), 214, 1125-1129).

[0006] FMDV is a naked icosahedral virus of about 25 nm in diameter, containing a single-stranded RNA molecule consisting of about 8500 nucleotides, with a positive polarity. This RNA molecule comprises a single open reading frame (ORF), encoding a single polyprotein containing, inter alia, the capsid precursor also known as protein P1 or P88. Protein P1 is myristylated at its amino-terminal end. During the maturation process, protein P1 is cleaved by protease 3C into three proteins known as VP0, VP1 and VP3 (or 1AB, 1D and 1C respectively; Belsham G. J., Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 1993, 60, 241-261). In the virion, protein VP0 is then cleaved into two proteins, VP4 and VP2 (or 1A and 1B respectively). The mechanism for the conversion of proteins VP0 into VP4 and VP2, and for the formation of mature virions is not known. Proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 have a molecular weight of about 26,000 Da, while protein VP4 is smaller at about 8,000 Da.

[0007] The simple combination of the capsid proteins forms the protomer or 5S molecule, which is the elementary constituent of the FMDV capsid. This protomer is then complexed into a pentamer to form the 12S molecule. The virion results from the encapsidation of a genomic RNA molecule by assembly of twelve 12S pentamers, thus constituting the 146S particles. The viral capsid may also be formed without the presence of an RNA molecule inside it (hereinafter "empty capsid"). The empty capsid is also designated as particle 70S. The formation of empty capsids may occur naturally during viral replication or may be produced artificially by chemical treatment.

[0008] Some studies have been done on natural empty capsids. In particular, Rowlands et al. (Rowlands et al., J. Gen. Virol., 1975, 26, 227-238) have shown that the virions of A10 foot-and-mouth disease comprise mainly the four proteins VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4. By comparison, the natural empty capsids (not obtained by recombination but purified from cultures of A10 foot-and-mouth virus) essentially contain the uncleaved protein VP0; identical results with the A-Pando foot-and-mouth virus are described by Rweyemamu (Rweyemamu et al., Archives of Virology, 1979, 59, 69-79). The artificial empty capsids, obtained after dialysis in the presence of Tris-EDTA and after centrifuging, contain no protein VP4. These artificial capsids are slightly immunogenic according to Rowlands et al., and the natural empty capsids are only immunogenic after treatment with formaldehyde to stabilize them, while the antibody response induced by the natural empty capsids in the guinea-pig is nevertheless inconstant, as noted by the author. Moreover, Rowlands et al. and Rweyemamu et al. do not agree on the need to stabilize the natural empty capsids. For Rweyemamu et al., the absence of treatment with formaldehyde is not prejudicial to the level of antigenicity of the natural empty capsids. The immunogenicity is only tested by the induction of neutralizing antibodies in the guinea-pig.

[0009] The expression of the gene coding for the precursor P1 of the capsid proteins by means of a recombinant baculovirus in insect cells is compared with the expression of the gene coding for P1 associated with the protease 3C in E. coli (Grubman et al., Vaccine, 1993, 11, 825-829; Lewis et al., J. Virol., 1991, 65, 6572-6580). The co-expression of P1 and 3C in E. coli results in the assembling of empty capsids 70S. The expression product of these two constructions produces neutralizing antibodies in guinea-pigs and pigs. The titers obtained with the P1/baculovirus construction are low. These same expression products induce partial protection in pigs. However, some pigs protected against the disease are not protected against the replication of the challenge virus. However, the E. coli expression system does not myristylate the proteins and the protease 3C is toxic to this cell. Lewis et al. conclude that fundamental questions relating to the make-up of the virus and the structure of the capsid needed to obtain maximum protection in the animal have not been answered. Furthermore, Grubman et al. state that it would be necessary to stabilize the empty capsids before formulating the vaccine; on this point they agree about the problems encountered with the empty capsids obtained by extraction from viral cultures (see above).

[0010] Fusion proteins containing some or all of protein P1 have also been obtained by the use of viral vectors, namely a herpes virus or vaccinia virus. CA-A-2,047,585 in particular describes a bovine herpes virus used to produce fusion proteins containing a peptide sequence of the foot-and-mouth virus (amino acids 141 to 158 of P1 bound to amino acids 200 to 213 of P1) fused with the glycoprotein gpIII of this bovine herpes virus. Adenovirus vector has been used to express FMDV empty virus capsid (US 8,323,663). Viral vectors have also been used to express stabilized FMDV empty capsid (US 7,531,182, USSN14/863,181). Recently, plants and insect cells have been investigated as a source for the production of FMDV antigens (US 2011/0236416, USSN14/863,181).

[0011] It has been reported that maternally derived antibodies (MDA) are able to inhibit calves' (under 2 years of age cattle) response to vaccination against FMD (Graves, 1963, Journal of Immunology 91:251-256; Brun et al., 1977, Developments in Biological Standardisation, 25:117-122).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0012] Compositions or vaccines comprising recombinant viral vectors expressing FMDV polypeptide and fragments and variants thereof are provided. The FMDV antigens and fragments and variants thereof possess immunogenic and protective properties. The recombinant viral vectors may be adenovirus vectors expressing FMDV antigens.

[0013] The recombinant viral vectors can be formulated into vaccines and/or pharmaceutical compositions. Such vaccines or compositions can be used to vaccinate an animal and provide protection against homologous and heterologous FMDV strains.The vaccines or compositions formulated with pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle offer thermostability improvements and ability to handle temperature excursions.

[0014] Methods for enhanced protection in conventional animals and maternally derived antibody-positive (MDA-positive) animals against FMDV infections are provided. Kits comprising at least one antigenic polypeptide or fragment or variant thereof and instructions for use are also provided.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0015] The following detailed description, given by way of example, but not intended to limit the disclosure solely to the specific embodiments described, may best be understood in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 depicts a table summarizing the DNA and Protein sequences.

FIG. 2 depicts the genes for FMDV A24 strain and the A24 (p1-2AB') genes used in the chimeric A24-A12 construct.

FIG. 3 depicts the genes for FMDV A12 strain and the A12 (3B'/3C) genes used in the chimeric A24-A12 construct.

FIG. 4 depicts the genetic structural identity assay of recombinant advenovirus vectored A24-A12 FMDV vaccine by PCR.

FIG. 5 depicts the western blot of recombinant advenovirus vectored A24-A12 FMDV vaccine.

FIG. 6 depicts the genes for FMDV O1M strain used in the recombinant advenovirus vectored FMDV O1M vaccine.

FIG. 7 depicts the genes for FMDV Irn strain used in the recombinant advenovirus vectored FMDV Irn vaccine.

FIG. 8 depicts the genes for FMDV Asia strain used in the recombinant advenovirus vectored FMDV Asia vaccine.

FIG. 9 depicts the percentage protection by O serotype FMDV vaccine at different doses.

FIG. 10 depicts the serology of O serotype FMDV vaccine at different doses.

FIG. 11 depicts the viricidal activity of recombinant advenovirus vectored FMDV + adjuvants at 25°C.

FIG. 12 depicts the viricidal activity of recombinant advenovirus vectored FMDV + adjuvants at 4°C.

FIG. 13 depicts the geometric mean of FMDV VN titer.

FIG. 14 depicts the geometic mean of SAV titer.

FIG. 15 depicts the geometric mean of FMDV VN titer.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0016] Compositions or vaccines comprising recombinant viral vectors expressing FMDV antigens that elicit an immunogenic response in an animal are provided. The recombinant viral vectors may be adenovirus vectors expressing FMDV antigens. The recombinant viral vectors expressing the antigens may be formulated into vaccines or pharmaceutical compositions and used to elicit or stimulate a protective response in an animal. In one embodiment the polypeptide antigen is an FMDV structural protein P1 (VP4-VP2-Vp3-VP1), nonstructural protein P2 (2A, 2B, and 2C) or nonstructural protein P3 (3A, 3B, 3C and 3D) or active fragment or variant thereof.

[0017] It is recognized that the antigenic polypeptides of the disclosure may be full length polypeptides or active fragments or variants thereof. By "active fragments" or "active variants" is intended that the fragments or variants retain the antigenic nature of the polypeptide. Thus, the present disclosure encompasses any FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen that elicits an immunogenic response in an animal. The FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen may be any FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen, such as, but not limited to, a protein, peptide or fragment or variant thereof, that elicits, induces or stimulates a response in an animal, such as an ovine, bovine, caprine or porcine.

[0018] The simple combination of the capsid proteins forms the protomer or 5S molecule, which is the elementary constituent of the FMDV capsid. This protomer is then complexed into a pentamer to form the 12S molecule. The virion results from the encapsidation of a genomic RNA molecule by assembly of twelve 12S pentamers, thus constituting the 146S particles. The viral capsid may also be formed without the presence of an RNA molecule inside it (hereinafter "empty capsid"). The empty capsid is also designated as particle 70S. The formation of empty capsids may occur naturally during viral replication or may be produced artificially by chemical treatment.

[0019] The present disclosure relates to bovine, ovine, caprine, or swine vaccines or compositions which may comprise an effective amount of a recombinant FMDV antigen or a recombinant viral vector expressing FMDV antigen, and a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle.

[0020] In some embodiments, the vaccines further comprise adjuvants, such as the oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions described in U.S. Patent 7,371,395.

[0021] In still other embodiments, the adjuvants include TS6, TS7, TS8 and TS9 emulsions, LR3, LR4 and LR6 emulsions, LF2 emulsion, CARBIGEN™ adjuvant, ENABL® advjuant, polyacrylic acid, aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate, saponin, CpG, water-in-oil emultion, and oil-in-water emulsion, or combinations thereof.

[0022] In some embodiments, the response in the animal is a protective immune response.

[0023] By "animal" it is intended mammals, birds, and the like. Animal or host includes mammals and human. The animal may be selected from the group consisting of equine (e.g., horse), canine (e.g., dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, jackals), feline (e.g., lions, tigers, domestic cats, wild cats, other big cats, and other felines including cheetahs and lynx), ovine (e.g., sheep), bovine (e.g., cattle, cow), swine (e.g., pig), caprine (e.g., goat), avian (e.g., chicken, duck, goose, turkey, quail, pheasant, parrot, finches, hawk, crow, ostrich, emu and cassowary), primate (e.g., prosimian, tarsier, monkey, gibbon, ape), and fish. The term "animal" also includes an individual animal in all stages of development, including embryonic and fetal stages.

[0024] Unless otherwise explained, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. The singular terms "a", "an", and "the" include plural referents unless context clearly indicates otherwise. Similarly, the word "or" is intended to include "and" unless the context clearly indicate otherwise.

[0025] The antigenic polypeptides of the disclosure are capable of protecting against FMDV. That is, they are capable of stimulating an immune response in an animal. By "antigen" or "immunogen" means a substance that induces a specific immune response in a host animal. The antigen may comprise a whole organism, killed, attenuated or live; a subunit or portion of an organism; a recombinant vector containing an insert with immunogenic properties; a piece or fragment of DNA capable of inducing an immune response upon presentation to a host animal; a polypeptide, an epitope, a hapten, or any combination thereof. Alternatively, the immunogen or antigen may comprise a toxin or antitoxin.

[0026] The term "immunogenic protein, polypeptide, or peptide" as used herein includes polypeptides that are immunologically active in the sense that once administered to the host, it is able to evoke an immune response of the humoral and/or cellular type directed against the protein. In embodiments, the protein fragment has substantially the same immunological activity as the total protein. Thus, a protein fragment according to the disclosure can comprises or consists essentially of or consists of at least one epitope or antigenic determinant. An "immunogenic" protein or polypeptide, as used herein, includes the full-length sequence of the protein, analogs thereof, or immunogenic fragments thereof. By "immunogenic fragment" is meant a fragment of a protein which includes one or more epitopes and thus elicits the immunological response described above. Such fragments can be identified using any number of epitope mapping techniques. For example, linear epitopes may be determined by, e.g., concurrently synthesizing large numbers of peptides on solid supports, the peptides corresponding to portions of the protein molecule, and reacting the peptides with antibodies while the peptides are still attached to the supports. Such techniques are known in the art and described in, e.g., U.S. Patent 4,708,871; Geysen et al., 1984, PNAS USA, 81(13): 3998-400; Geysen et al., 1985, PNAS USA, 82(1): 178-82. Similarly, conformational epitopes are readily identified by determining spatial conformation of amino acids such as by, e.g., x-ray crystallography and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Methods especially applicable to the proteins of T. parva are described in PCT/US2004/022605.

[0027] As discussed the disclosure encompasses active fragments and variants of the antigenic polypeptide. Thus, the term "immunogenic protein, polypeptide, or peptide" further contemplates deletions, additions and substitutions to the sequence, so long as the polypeptide functions to produce an immunological response as defined herein. The term "conservative variation" denotes the replacement of an amino acid residue by another biologically similar residue, or the replacement of a nucleotide in a nucleic acid sequence so the encoded amino acid residue does not change or is another biologically similar residue. In this regard, some substitutions will generally be conservative in nature, i.e., those substitutions that take place within a family of amino acids. For example, amino acids are generally divided into four families: (1) acidic--aspartate and glutamate; (2) basic--lysine, arginine, histidine; (3) non-polar--alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan; and (4) uncharged polar--glycine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine, serine, threonine, tyrosine. Phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine are sometimes classified as aromatic amino acids. Examples of conservative variations include the substitution of one hydrophobic residue such as isoleucine, valine, leucine or methionine for another hydrophobic residue, or the substitution of one polar residue for another polar residue, such as the substitution of arginine for lysine, glutamic acid for aspartic acid, or glutamine for asparagine, and the like; or a similar conservative replacement of an amino acid with a structurally related amino acid that will not have a major effect on the biological activity. Proteins having substantially the same amino acid sequence as the reference molecule but possessing minor amino acid substitutions that do not substantially affect the immunogenicity of the protein are, therefore, within the definition of the reference polypeptide. All of the polypeptides produced by these modifications are included herein. The term "conservative variation" also includes the use of a substituted amino acid in place of an unsubstituted parent amino acid provided that antibodies raised to the substituted polypeptide also immunoreact with the unsubstituted polypeptide.

[0028] The term "epitope" refers to the site on an antigen or hapten to which specific B cells and/or T cells respond. The term is also used interchangeably with "antigenic determinant" or "antigenic determinant site". Antibodies that recognize the same epitope can be identified in a simple immunoassay showing the ability of one antibody to block the binding of another antibody to a target antigen.

[0029] An "immunological response" to a composition or vaccine is the development in the host of a cellular and/or antibody-mediated immune response to a composition or vaccine of interest. Usually, an "immunological response" includes but is not limited to one or more of the following effects: the production of antibodies, B cells, helper T cells, and/or cytotoxic T cells, directed specifically to an antigen or antigens included in the composition or vaccine of interest. Preferably, the host will display either a therapeutic or protective immunological response so resistance to new infection will be enhanced and/or the clinical severity of the disease reduced. Such protection will be demonstrated by either a reduction or lack of symptoms normally displayed by an infected host, a quicker recovery time and/or a lowered viral titer in the infected host.

[0030] Synthetic antigens are also included within the definition, for example, polyepitopes, flanking epitopes, and other recombinant or synthetically derived antigens. Immunogenic fragments for purposes of the disclosure will usually include at least about 3 amino acids, at least about 5 amino acids, at least about 10-15 amino acids, or about 15-25 amino acids or more amino acids, of the molecule. There is no critical upper limit to the length of the fragment, which could comprise nearly the full-length of the protein sequence, or even a fusion protein comprising at least one epitope of the protein.

[0031] Accordingly, a minimum structure of a polynucleotide expressing an epitope is that it comprises or consists essentially of or consists of nucleotides encoding an epitope or antigenic determinant of an FMDV polypeptide. A polynucleotide encoding a fragment of an FMDV polypeptide may comprise or consist essentially of or consist of a minimum of 15 nucleotides, about 30-45 nucleotides, about 45-75, or at least 57, 87 or 150 consecutive or contiguous nucleotides of the sequence encoding the polypeptide.

[0032] The term "nucleic acid" and "polynucleotide" refers to RNA or DNA that is linear or branched, single or double stranded, or a hybrid thereof. The term also encompasses RNA/DNA hybrids. The following are non-limiting examples of polynucleotides: a gene or gene fragment, exons, introns, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, ribozymes, cDNA, recombinant polynucleotides, branched polynucleotides, plasmids, vectors, isolated DNA of any sequence, isolated RNA of any sequence, nucleic acid probes and primers. A polynucleotide may comprise modified nucleotides, such as methylated nucleotides and nucleotide analogs, uracyl, other sugars and linking groups such as fluororibose and thiolate, and nucleotide branches. The sequence of nucleotides may be further modified after polymerization, such as by conjugation, with a labeling component. Other types of modifications included in this definition are caps, substitution of one or more of the naturally occurring nucleotides with an analog, and introduction of means for attaching the polynucleotide to proteins, metal ions, labeling components, other polynucleotides or solid support. The polynucleotides can be obtained by chemical synthesis or derived from a microorganism.

[0033] The term "gene" is used broadly to refer to any segment of polynucleotide associated with a biological function. Thus, genes include introns and exons as in genomic sequence, or just the coding sequences as in cDNAs and/or the regulatory sequences required for their expression. For example, gene also refers to a nucleic acid fragment that expresses mRNA or functional RNA, or encodes a specific protein, and which includes regulatory sequences.

[0034] The disclosure further comprises a complementary strand to a polynucleotide encoding an FMDV antigen, epitope or immunogen. The complementary strand can be polymeric and of any length, and can contain deoxyribonucleotides, ribonucleotides, and analogs in any combination.

[0035] The terms "protein", "peptide", "polypeptide" and "polypeptide fragment" are used interchangeably herein to refer to polymers of amino acid residues of any length. The polymer can be linear or branched, it may comprise modified amino acids or amino acid analogs, and it may be interrupted by chemical moieties other than amino acids. The terms also encompass an amino acid polymer that has been modified naturally or by intervention; for example disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, lipidation, acetylation, phosphorylation, or any other manipulation or modification, such as conjugation with a labeling or bioactive component.

[0036] An "isolated" biological component (such as a nucleic acid or protein or organelle) refers to a component that has been substantially separated or purified away from other biological components in the cell of the organism in which the component naturally occurs, for instance, other chromosomal and extra-chromosomal DNA and RNA, proteins, and organelles. Nucleic acids and proteins that have been "isolated" include nucleic acids and proteins purified by standard purification methods. The term also embraces nucleic acids and proteins prepared by recombinant technology as well as chemical synthesis.

[0037] The term "purified" as used herein does not require absolute purity; rather, it is intended as a relative term. Thus, for example, a purified polypeptide preparation is one in which the polypeptide is more enriched than the polypeptide is in its natural environment. In some instances the polypeptide is separated from cellular components. By "substantially purified" it is intended that so the polypeptide represents several embodiments at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 98%, or more of the cellular components or materials have been removed. Likewise, the polypeptide may be partially purified. By "partially purified" is intended that less than 60% of the cellular components or material is removed. The same applies to polynucleotides. The polypeptides disclosed herein can be purified by any of the means known in the art.

[0038] As noted above, the antigenic polypeptides or fragments or variants thereof are FMDV antigenic polypeptides that are produced by a viral vector in vivo. Fragments and variants of the disclosed polynucleotides and polypeptides encoded thereby are also encompassed by the present disclosure. By "fragment" is intended a portion of the polynucleotide or a portion of the antigenic amino acid sequence encoded thereby. Fragments of a polynucleotide may encode protein fragments that retain the biological activity of the native protein and hence have immunogenic activity as noted elsewhere herein. Fragments of the polypeptide sequence retain the ability to induce a protective immune response in an animal.

[0039] "Variants" is intended to mean substantially similar sequences. For polynucleotides, a variant comprises a deletion and/or addition of one or more nucleotides at one or more sites within the native polynucleotide and/or a substitution of one or more nucleotides at one or more sites in the native polynucleotide. As used herein, a "native" polynucleotide or polypeptide comprises a naturally occurring nucleotide sequence or amino acid sequence, respectively. Variants of a particular polynucleotide of the disclosure (e.g., the reference polynucleotide) can also be evaluated by comparison of the percent sequence identity between the polypeptide encoded by a variant polynucleotide and the polypeptide encoded by the reference polynucleotide. "Variant" protein is intended to mean a protein derived from the native protein by deletion or addition of one or more amino acids at one or more sites in the native protein and/or substitution of one or more amino acids at one or more sites in the native protein. Variant proteins encompassed by the present disclosure are biologically active, that is they the ability to elicit an immune response.

[0040] In one aspect, the present disclosure provides FMDV polypeptides from ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine FMDV isolates. In another aspect, the present disclosure provides a polypeptide having a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8, and variant or fragment thereof.

[0041] Moreover, homologs of FMDV polypeptides from ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine are intended to be within the scope of the present disclosure. As used herein, the term "homologs" includes orthologs, analogs and paralogs. The term "analogs" refers to two polynucleotides or polypeptides that have the same or similar function, but that have evolved separately in unrelated organisms. The term "orthologs" refers to two polynucleotides or polypeptides from different species, but that have evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation. Normally, orthologs encode polypeptides having the same or similar functions. The term "paralogs" refers to two polynucleotides or polypeptides that are related by duplication within a genome. Paralogs usually have different functions, but these functions may be related. Analogs, orthologs, and paralogs of a wild-type FMDV polypeptide can differ from the wild-type FMDV polypeptide by post-translational modifications, by amino acid sequence differences, or by both. In particular, homologs of the disclosure will generally exhibit at least 80-85%, 85-90%, 90-95%, or 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% , 99% sequence identity, with all or part of the wild-type FMDV polypepetide or polynucleotide sequences, and will exhibit a similar function. Variants include allelic variants. The term "allelic variant" refers to a polynucleotide or a polypeptide containing polymorphisms that lead to changes in the amino acid sequences of a protein and that exist within a natural population (e.g., a virus species or variety). Such natural allelic variations can typically result in 1- 5% variance in a polynucleotide or a polypeptide. Allelic variants can be identified by sequencing the nucleic acid sequence of interest in a number of different species, which can be readily carried out by using hybridization probes to identify the same gene genetic locus in those species. Any and all such nucleic acid variations and resulting amino acid polymorphisms or variations that are the result of natural allelic variation and that do not alter the functional activity of gene of interest, are intended to be within the scope of the disclosure.

[0042] As used herein, the term "derivative" or "variant" refers to a polypeptide, or a nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide, that has one or more conservative amino acid variations or other minor modifications so (1) the corresponding polypeptide has substantially equivalent function when compared to the wild type polypeptide or (2) an antibody raised against the polypeptide is immunoreactive with the wild-type polypeptide. These variants or derivatives include polypeptides having minor modifications of the FMDV polypeptide primary amino acid sequences that may result in peptides which have substantially equivalent activity as compared to the unmodified counterpart polypeptide. Such modifications may be deliberate, as by site-directed mutagenesis, or may be spontaneous. The term "variant" further contemplates deletions, additions and substitutions to the sequence, so long as the polypeptide functions to produce an immunological response as defined herein.

[0043] The term "conservative variation" denotes the replacement of an amino acid residue by another biologically similar residue, or the replacement of a nucleotide in a nucleic acid sequence so the encoded amino acid residue does not change or is another biologically similar residue. In this regard, particularly preferred substitutions will generally be conservative in nature, as described above.

[0044] The polynucleotides of the disclosure include sequences that are degenerate as a result of the genetic code, e.g., optimized codon usage for a specific host. As used herein, "optimized" refers to a polynucleotide that is genetically engineered to increase its expression in a given species. To provide optimized polynucleotides coding for FMDV polypeptides, the DNA sequence of the FMDV protein gene can be modified to 1) comprise codons preferred by highly expressed genes in a particular species; 2) comprise an A+T or G+C content in nucleotide base composition to that substantially found in said species; 3) form an initiation sequence of said species; or 4) eliminate sequences that cause destabilization, inappropriate polyadenylation, degradation and termination of RNA, or that form secondary structure hairpins or RNA splice sites. Increased expression of FMDV protein in said species can be achieved by utilizing the distribution frequency of codon usage in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, or in a particular species. The term "frequency of preferred codon usage" refers to the preference exhibited by a specific host cell in usage of nucleotide codons to specify a given amino acid. There are 20 natural amino acids, most of which are specified by more than one codon. Therefore, all degenerate nucleotide sequences are included in the disclosure as long as the amino acid sequence of the FMDV polypeptide encoded by the nucleotide sequence is functionally unchanged.

[0045] The sequence identity between two amino acid sequences may be established by the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) pairwise blast and the blosum62 matrix, using the standard parameters (see, e.g., the BLAST or BLASTX algorithm available on the "National Center for Biotechnology Information" (NCBI, Bethesda, Md., USA) server.

[0046] The "identity" with respect to sequences can refer to the number of positions with identical nucleotides or amino acids divided by the number of nucleotides or amino acids in the shorter of the two sequences wherein alignment of the two sequences can be determined in accordance with the Wilbur and Lipman algorithm (1983, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol 80, pp726-730). The sequence identity or sequence similarity of two amino acid sequences, or the sequence identity between two nucleotide sequences can be determined using Vector NTI software package (Invitrogen, 1600 Faraday Ave., Carlsbad, CA). When RNA sequences are said to be similar, or have a degree of sequence identity or homology with DNA sequences, thymidine (T) in the DNA sequence is considered equal to uracil (U) in the RNA sequence. Thus, RNA sequences are within the scope of the disclosure and can be derived from DNA sequences, by thymidine (T) in the DNA sequence being considered equal to uracil (U) in RNA sequences.

[0047] Hybridization reactions can be performed under conditions of different "stringency." See for example, "Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual", 4th edition (Sambrook et al., 2014).

[0048] The disclosure further encompasses the FMDV polynucleotides contained in a vector molecule or an expression vector and operably linked to a promoter element and optionally to an enhancer.

[0049] A "vector" refers to a recombinant DNA or RNA plasmid or virus that comprises a heterologous polynucleotide to be delivered to a target cell, either in vitro or in vivo. The heterologous polynucleotide may comprise a sequence of interest for purposes of prevention or therapy, and may optionally be in the form of an expression cassette. As used herein, a vector needs not be capable of replication in the ultimate target cell or subject. The term includes cloning vectors and viral vectors.

[0050] The term "recombinant" means a polynucleotide semisynthetic, or synthetic origin which either does not occur in nature or is linked to another polynucleotide in an arrangement not found in nature.

[0051] "Heterologous" means derived from a genetically distinct entity from the rest of the entity to which it is being compared. For example, a polynucleotide may be placed by genetic engineering techniques into a plasmid or vector derived from a different source, and is a heterologous polynucleotide. A promoter removed from its native coding sequence and operatively linked to a coding sequence other than the native sequence is a heterologous promoter.

[0052] The present disclosure relates to ovine, bovine, caprine and swine vaccines or pharmaceutical or immunological compositions which may comprise an effective amount of a recombinant FMDV antigens and a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, adjuvant, excipient, or vehicle.

[0053] The subject matter described herein is directed in part, to compositions and methods related to the FMDV antigen prepared in a baculovirus/insect cell expression system that is highly immunogenic and protects animals against challenge from homologous and heterologous FMDV strains.

Compositions



[0054] The present disclosure relates to FMDV vaccines or compositions which may comprise an effective amount of a recombinant FMDV antigen and a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle. In one embodiment, the FMDV vaccine or composition comprises a recombinant viral vector expressing FMDV antigens.

[0055] One embodiment of the disclosure relates to a vaccine or composition comprising a viral vector expressing FMDV antigens. The FMDV antigens are obtained by expression of the cDNA of regions P1 (VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1), 2A/2B'/3B' and 3C, or P1 (VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1), 2A/2B/2C and 3A/3B/3C/3D. The structural region P1 and the nonstructural regions P2 or P3 may derive from the same FMDV serotype or different serotype (chimeric antigens).

[0056] The present disclosure encompasses any FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen that elicits an immunogenic response in an animal, such as an ovine, bovine, caprine or swine. The FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen may be any FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen, such as, but not limited to, a protein, peptide or fragment thereof, that elicits, induces or stimulates a response in an animal, such as an ovine, bovine, caprine or swine.

[0057] In an embodiment wherein the FMDV immunological composition or vaccine is a recombinant immunological composition or vaccine, the composition or vaccine comprises a recombinant vector and a pharmaceutical or veterinary acceptable excipient, carrier, adjuvant or vehicle; the recombinant vector is a baculovirus expression vector which may comprise a polynucleotide encoding an FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen. The FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen, may be VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, or 3D, or any combination thereof.

[0058] In one embodiment, P1 (VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1)-2A/partial 2B/partial 3B and 3C polypeptides may be expressed in a viral vector and the expression may be regulated by one or more promoter sequences. In another embodiment, the FMDV antigen may be chimeric antigen comprising P1 (VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1)-2A-partial 2B from FMDV serotype A24 and partial 3B from FMDV serotype A12 and 3C antigen from FMDV serotype A24. In yet another embodiment, the FMDV antigen may be P1 (VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1)-2A-2B-partial 2C-partial 3A-3B-3C.

[0059] In another embodiment, the FMDV antigen may be derived from FMDV O1 Manisa, O1 BFS or Campos, A24 Cruzeiro, A12, Asia 1 Shamir, A Iran'96, Asia/IRN/05, A22 Iraq, SAT2 Saudi Arabia.

[0060] The present disclosure relates to an FMDV vaccine which may comprise an effective amount of a recombinant FMDV antigen or a recombinant viral vector expressing an FMDV antigen, and a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle.

[0061] In another embodiment, pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle may be a water-in-oil emulsion. In yet another embodiment, the pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle may be an oil-in-water emulsion.

[0062] The disclosure further encompasses the FMDV polynucleotides contained in a vector molecule or an expression vector and operably linked to a promoter element and optionally to an enhancer.

[0063] In one aspect, the present disclosure provides FMDV polypeptides, particularly ovine, bovine, caprine or swine polypeptides having a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8, and variants or fragments thereof.

[0064] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides a polypeptide having at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% sequence identity to an antigenic polypeptide of the disclosure, particularly to the polypeptides having a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8.

[0065] In yet another aspect, the present disclosure provides fragments and variants of the FMDV polypeptides identified above (SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8) which may readily be prepared by one of skill in the art using molecular biology techniques.

[0066] Variants are homologous polypeptides having an amino acid sequence at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identity to the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8.

[0067] An immunogenic fragment of an FMDV polypeptide includes at least 8, 10, 15, or 20 consecutive amino acids, at least 21 amino acids, at least 23 amino acids, at least 25 amino acids, or at least 30 amino acids of an FMDV polypeptide having a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8, or variants thereof. In another embodiment, a fragment of an FMDV polypeptide includes a specific antigenic epitope found on a full-length FMDV polypeptide.

[0068] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides a polynucleotide encoding an FMDV polypeptide, such as a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide having a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8. In yet another aspect, the present disclosure provides a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide having at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% sequence identity to a polypeptide having a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8, or a conservative variant, an allelic variant, a homolog or an immunogenic fragment comprising at least eight or at least ten consecutive amino acids of one of these polypeptides, or a combination of these polypeptides.

[0069] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides a polynucleotide having a nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO:1, 3, 5, or 7, or a variant thereof. In yet another aspect, the present disclosure provides a polynucleotide having at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% sequence identity to one of a polynucleotide having a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1, 3, 5, or 7, or a variant thereof.

[0070] The polynucleotides of the disclosure may comprise additional sequences, such as additional encoding sequences within the same transcription unit, controlling elements such as promoters, ribosome binding sites, enhancer, 5'UTR, 3'UTR, transcription terminators, polyadenylation sites, additional transcription units under control of the same or a different promoter, sequences that permit cloning, expression, homologous recombination, and transformation of a host cell, and any such construct as may be desirable to provide embodiments of this disclosure.

[0071] Elements for the expression of an FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen are advantageously present in an inventive vector. In minimum manner, this comprises, consists essentially of, or consists of an initiation codon (ATG), a stop codon and a promoter, and optionally also a polyadenylation sequence for certain vectors such as plasmid and certain viral vectors, e.g., viral vectors other than poxviruses. When the polynucleotide encodes a polyprotein fragment, e.g., an FMDV peptide, advantageously, in the vector, an ATG is placed at 5' of the reading frame and a stop codon is placed at 3'. Other elements for controlling expression may be present, such as enhancer sequences, stabilizing sequences, such as intron and signal sequences permitting the secretion of the protein.

[0072] The present disclosure also relates to preparations comprising vectors, such as expression vectors, e.g., therapeutic compositions. The preparations can comprise one or more vectors, e.g., expression vectors, such as in vivo expression vectors, comprising and expressing one or more FMDV polypeptides, antigens, epitopes or immunogens. In one embodiment, the vector contains and expresses a polynucleotide that comprises, consists essentially of, or consists of a polynucleotide coding for (and advantageously expressing) an FMDV antigen, epitope or immunogen, in a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient or vehicle. Thus, according to an embodiment of the disclosure, the other vector or vectors in the preparation comprises, consists essentially of or consists of a polynucleotide that encodes, and under appropriate circumstances the vector expresses one or more other proteins of an FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen, or a fragment thereof.

[0073] According to another embodiment, the vector or vectors in the preparation comprise, or consist essentially of, or consist of polynucleotide(s) encoding one or more proteins or fragment(s) thereof of an FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen, the vector or vectors expressing the polynucleotide(s). In another embodiment, the preparation comprises one, two, or more vectors comprising polynucleotides encoding and expressing, advantageously in vivo, an FMDV polypeptide, antigen, fusion protein or an epitope thereof. The disclosure is also directed at mixtures of vectors that comprise polynucleotides encoding and expressing different FMDV polypeptides, antigens, epitopes or immunogens, e.g., an FMDV polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen from different animal species such as, but not limited to, ovine, bovine, caprine or swine.

[0074] According to a yet further embodiment of the disclosure, the expression vector is a plasmid vector or a DNA plasmid vector, in particular an in vivo expression vector. In a specific, non-limiting example, the pVR1020 or 1012 plasmid (VICAL, Inc.; Luke et al., 1997; Hartikka et al., 1996, Hum Gene Ther, 7(10): 1205-17; see, e.g., U.S. Patents: 5,846,946 and 6,451,769) can be utilized as a vector for the insertion of a polynucleotide sequence. The pVR1020 plasmid is derived from pVR1012 and contains the human tPA signal sequence. In an embodiment, the human tPA signal comprises from amino acid M(1) to amino acid S(23) in Genbank under the accession number HUMTPA14. In another specific, non-limiting example, the plasmid utilized as a vector for the insertion of a polynucleotide sequence can contain the signal peptide sequence of equine IGF1 from amino acid M(24) to amino acid A(48) in Genbank under the accession number U28070. Additional information on DNA plasmids which may be consulted or employed in the practice are found, for example, in U.S. Patents 6,852,705; 6,818,628; 6,586,412; 6,576,243; 6,558,674; 6,464,984; 6,451,770; 6,376,473; and 6,221,362.

[0075] The term plasmid covers any DNA transcription unit comprising a polynucleotide according to the disclosure and the elements necessary for its in vivo expression in a cell or cells of the desired host or target; and, in this regard, it is noted that a supercoiled or non-supercoiled, circular plasmid, as well as a linear form, are intended to be within the scope of the disclosure.

[0076] A plasmid can comprises or contains or consists essentially of, in addition to the polynucleotide encoding an FMDV antigen, epitope or immunogen, optionally fused with a heterologous peptide sequence, variant, analog or fragment, operably linked to a promoter or under the control of a promoter or dependent upon a promoter. In general, it is advantageous to employ a strong promoter functional in eukaryotic cells. The strong promoter may be, but not limited to, the immediate early cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV-IE) of human or murine origin, or optionally having another origin such as the rat or guinea pig, the Super promoter (Ni, M. et al., Plant J. 7, 661-676, 1995.). The CMV-IE promoter can comprise the actual promoter part, which may or may not be associated with the enhancer part. Reference can be made to EP-A-260 148, EP-A-323 597, U.S. Patents: 5,168,062, 5,385,839, and 4,968,615, as well as to PCT Application No WO87/03905. In embodiments, the CMV-IE promoter is a human CMV-IE (Boshart et al., 1985, Cell, 41(2): 521-30) or murine CMV-IE.

[0077] In more general terms, the promoter is of a viral, a plant, or a cellular origin. A strong viral promoter other than CMV-IE that may be employed in the practice of the disclosure is the early/late promoter of the SV40 virus or the LTR promoter of the Rous sarcoma virus. A strong cellular promoter that may be usefully employed in the practice of the disclosure is the promoter of a gene of the cytoskeleton, such as, e.g., the desmin promoter (Kwissa et al., 2000, Vaccine, 18(22): 2337-44), or the actin promoter (Miyazaki et al., 1989, Gene, 79(2): 269-77).

[0078] The plasmids may comprise other expression control elements. It is particularly advantageous to incorporate stabilizing sequence(s), e.g., intron sequence(s), for example, maize alcohol dehydrogenase intron (Callis et al. Genes & Dev.1(10):1183-1200, Dec. 1987), the first intron of the hCMV-IE (PCT Application No. WO1989/01036), the intron II of the rabbit β-globin gene (van Ooyen et al., 1979, Science, 206(4416): 337-44). In another embodiment, the plasmids may comprise 3' UTR. The 3' UTR may be, but not limited to, agrobacterium nopaline synthase (Nos) 3' UTR (Nopaline synthase: transcript mapping and DNA sequence. Depicker, A. et al. J. Mol. Appl. Genet., 1982; Bevan, NAR, 1984, 12(22): 8711-8721).

[0079] As to the polyadenylation signal (poly A) for the plasmids and viral vectors other than poxviruses, use can more be made of the poly(A) signal of the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene (see U.S. 5,122,458), or the poly(A) signal of the rabbit β-globin gene or the poly(A) signal of the SV40 virus.

[0080] A "host cell" denotes a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell that has been genetically altered, or is capable of being genetically altered by administration of an exogenous polynucleotide, such as a recombinant plasmid or vector. When referring to genetically altered cells, the term refers both to the originally altered cell and to the progeny thereof.

[0081] In one embodiment, the recombinant FMDV antigen is expressed in insect cells.

Methods of Use



[0082] In an embodiment, the subject matter disclosed herein is directed to a method of vaccinating an ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine comprising administering to the ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine an effective amount of a vaccine which may comprise a recombinant viral vector expressing an FMDV antigen, and a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle.

[0083] In one embodiment of the present disclosure, the method comprises a single administration of a vaccine composition formulated with an emulsion according to the disclosure. For example, in one embodiment, the immunological or vaccine composition comprises a recombinant viral vector expressing an FMDV antigen.

[0084] In another embodiment of the present disclosure, the method comprises a single administration of two heterologous vaccine compositions. The heterologous vaccines or compositions may be different types of vaccines, such as FMDV VLPs vaccine or FMDV viral vector vaccines. The heterologous vaccines may also be the same type of vaccines expressing the capsids of different FMDV serotypes, such as A24, A12, O1 Manisa, Asia or Iraq strains.

[0085] In an embodiment, the subject matter disclosed herein is directed to a method of vaccinating an ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine comprising administering to the ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine a vaccine comprising a recombinant viral vector expressing an FMDV antigen in vivo.

[0086] In an embodiment, the subject matter disclosed herein is directed to a method of eliciting an immune response comprising administering to the ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine a vaccine comprising a recombinant viral vector expressing an FMDV antigen in vivo.

[0087] Both homologous and heterologous FMDV strains are used for challenge to test the efficacy of the vaccine. The administering may be subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The administering may be needle free (for example Pigjet or Bioject).

[0088] In one embodiment of the disclosure, a prime-boost regimen can be employed, which is comprised of at least one primary administration and at least one booster administration using at least one common polypeptide, antigen, epitope or immunogen. The immunological composition or vaccine used in primary administration is different in nature from those used as a booster. However, it is noted that the same composition can be used as the primary administration and the boost. This administration protocol is called "prime-boost".

[0089] A prime-boost according to the present disclosure can include a recombinant viral vector that is used to express an FMDV coding sequence or fragments thereof encoding an antigenic polypeptide or fragment or variant thereof. Specifically, the viral vector can express an FMDV gene or fragment thereof that encodes an antigenic polypeptide. Viral vector contemplated herein includes, but not limited to, poxvirus [e.g., vaccinia virus or attenuated vaccinia virus, avipox virus or attenuated avipox virus (e.g., canarypox, fowlpox, dovepox, pigeonpox, quailpox, ALVAC, TROVAC; see e.g., U.S. Patents: 5,505,941 and 5,494,807), raccoonpox virus, swinepox virus, etc.], adenovirus (e.g., human adenovirus, canine adenovirus), herpesvirus (e.g. canine herpesvirus, herpesvirus of turkey, Marek's disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, feline herpesvirus, laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), bovine herpesvirus, swine herpesvirus), baculovirus, retrovirus, etc. In another embodiment, the avipox expression vector may be a canarypox vector, such as, ALVAC. In yet another embodiment, the avipox expression vector may be a fowlpox vector, such as, TROVAC. The FMDV antigen of the disclosure to be expressed is inserted under the control of a specific poxvirus promoter, e.g., the entomopoxvirus Amsacta moorei 42K promoter (Barcena, Lorenzo et al., 2000, J Gen Virol., 81(4): 1073-85), the vaccinia promoter 7.5 kDa (Cochran et al., 1985, J Virol, 54(1): 30-7), the vaccinia promoter I3L (Riviere et al., 1992, J Virol, 66(6): 3424-34), the vaccinia promoter HA (Shida, 1986, Virology, 150(2): 451-62), the cowpox promoter ATI (Funahashi et al., 1988, J Gen Virol, 69 (1): 35-47), the vaccinia promoter H6 (Taylor et al., 1988, Vaccine, 6(6): 504-8; Guo et al., 1989, J Virol, 63(10): 4189-98; Perkus et al., 1989, J Virol, 63(9): 3829-36.), inter alia.

[0090] In another embodiment, the avipox expression vector may be a canarypox vector, such as, ALVAC. The FMDV antigen, epitope or immunogen may be FMDV P1-3C. The FMDV viral vector may be a canarypox virus such as vCP2186, vCP2181, or vCP2176, or a fowlpox virus such as vFP2215 (see U.S. Patent 7,527,960). In yet another embodiment, the FMDV antigen, epitope or immunogen may be produced in duckweed (U.S. Published Patent Application 2011/0236416).

[0091] In another aspect of the prime-boost protocol of the disclosure, a composition comprising the FMDV antigen of the disclosure is administered followed by the administration of vaccine or composition comprising a subunit vaccine comprising FMDV VLPs expressed by baculovirus in insect cells (see USSN14/863,181), or an inactivated viral vaccine or composition comprising the FMDV antigen, or a DNA plasmid vaccine or composition that contains or expresses the FMDV antigen. Likewise, a prime-boost protocol may comprise the administration of vaccine or composition comprising a subunit vaccine comprising FMDV VLPs expressed by baculovirus in insect cells, or an inactivated viral vaccine or composition comprising an FMDV antigen, or a DNA plasmid vaccine or composition that contains or expresses an FMDV antigen, followed by the administration of a composition comprising the FMDV antigen of the disclosure. It is further noted that both the primary and the secondary administrations may comprise the composition comprising the FMDV antigen of the disclosure.

[0092] A prime-boost protocol comprises at least one prime-administration and at least one boost administration using at least one common polypeptide and/or variants or fragments thereof. The vaccine used in prime-administration may be different in nature from those used as a later booster vaccine. The prime-administration may comprise one or more administrations. Similarly, the boost administration may comprise one or more administrations.

[0093] The dose volume of compositions for target species that are mammals, e.g., the dose volume of ovine, bovine, caprine or swine compositions, based on viral vectors, e.g., non-poxvirus-viral-vector-based compositions, is generally between about 0.1 to about 5.0 ml, between about 0.1 to about 3.0 ml, and between about 0.5 ml to about 2.5 ml.

[0094] The efficacy of the vaccines may be tested about 2 to 4 weeks after the last immunization by challenging animals, such as ovine, bovine, caprine or swine, with a virulent strain of FMDV, such as the FMDV O1 Manisa, O1 BFS or Campos, A24 Cruzeiro, A12, Asia 1 Shamir, A Iran '96, Asia/IRN/05, A22 Iraq, SAT2 Saudi Arabia strains.

[0095] Still other strains may include FMDV strains A10-61, A5, A12, A24/Cruzeiro, C3/Indaial, O1, C1-Santa Pau, C1-C5, A22/550/Azerbaijan/65, SAT1-SAT3, A, A/TNC/71/94, A/IND/2/68, A/IND/3/77, A/IND/5/68, A/IND/7/82, A/IND/16/82, A/IND/17/77, A/IND/17/82, A/IND/19/76, A/IND/20/82, A/IND/22/82, A/IND/25/81, A/IND/26/82, A/IND/54/79, A/IND/57/79, A/IND/73/79, A/IND/85/79, A/IND/86/79, A/APA/25/84, A/APN/41/84, A/APS/44/05, A/APS/50/05, A/APS/55/05, A/APS/66/05, A/APS/68/05, A/BIM/46/95, A/GUM/33/84, A/ORS/66/84, A/ORS/75/88, A/TNAn/60/947/Asia/1, A/IRN/05, Asia/IRN/05, O/HK/2001, O/UKG/3952/2001, O/UKG/4141/2001, Asia 1/HNK/CHA/05 (GenBank accession number EF149010, herein incorporated by reference), Asia I/XJ (Li, ZhiYong et al. Chin Sci Bull, 2007), HK/70 (Chin Sci Bull, 2006, 51(17): 2072-2078), O/UKG/7039/2001, O/UKG/9161/2001, O/UKG/7299/2001, O/UKG/4014/2001, O/UKG/4998/2001, O/UKG/9443/2001, O/UKG/5470/2001, O/UKG/5681/2001, O/ES/2001, HKN/2002, O5India, O/BKF/2/92, K/37/84/A, KEN/1/76/A, GAM/51/98/A, A10/Holland, O/KEN/1/91, O/IND49/97, O/IND65/98, O/IND64/98, O/IND48/98, O/IND47/98, O/IND82/97, O/IND81/99, O/IND81/98, O/IND79/97, O/IND78/97, O/IND75/97, O/IND74/97, O/IND70/97, O/IND66/98, O/IND63/97, O/IND61/97, O/IND57/98, O/IND56/98, O/IND55/98, O/IND54/98, O/IND469/98, O/IND465/97, O/IND464/97, O/IND424/97, O/IND423/97, O/IND420/97, O/IND414/97, O/IND411/97, O/IND410/97, O/IND409/97, O/IND407/97, O/IND399/97, O/IND39/97, O/IND391/97, O/IND38/97, O/IND384/97, O/IND380/97, O/IND37/97, O/IND352/97, O/IND33/97, O/IND31/97, O/IND296/97, O/IND23/99, O/IND463/97, O/IND461/97, O/IND427/98, O/IND28/97, O/IND287/99, O/IND285/99, O/IND282/99, O/IND281/97, O/IND27/97, O/IND278/97, O/IND256/99, O/IND249/99, O/IND210/99, O/IND208/99, O/IND207/99, O/IND205/99, O/IND185/99, O/IND175/99, O/IND170/97, O/IND164/99, O/IND160/99, O/IND153/99, O/IND148/99, O/IND146/99, O/SKR/2000, A22/India/17/77.

[0096] Further details of these FMDV strains may be found on the European Bioinformatics Information (EMBL-EBI) web pages, and all of the associated nucleotide sequences are herein incorporated by reference. The inventors contemplate that all FMDV strains, both herein listed, and those yet to be identified, could be expressed according to the teachings of the present disclosure to produce, for example, effective vaccine compositions. Both homologous and heterologous strains are used for challenge to test the efficacy of the vaccines. The animal may be challenged intradermally, subcutaneously, spray, intra-nasally, intra-ocularly, intra-tracheally, and/or orally.

[0097] The prime-boost administrations may be advantageously carried out 1 to 6 weeks apart, for example, about 3 weeks apart. According to one embodiment, a semi-annual booster or an annual booster, advantageously using the viral vector-based vaccine, is also envisaged. The animals are advantageously at least 6 to 8 weeks old or about 6 months old at the time of the first administration.

[0098] The compositions comprising the recombinant antigenic polypeptides of the disclosure used in the prime-boost protocols are contained in a pharmaceutically or veterinary acceptable vehicle, diluent, adjuvant, or excipient. The protocols of the disclosure protect the animal from ovine, bovine, caprine or porcine FMDV and/or prevent disease progression in an infected animal.

[0099] It should be understood by one of skill in the art that the disclosure herein is provided by way of example and the present disclosure is not limited thereto. From the disclosure herein and the knowledge in the art, the skilled artisan can determine the number of administrations, the administration route, and the doses to be used for each injection protocol, without any undue experimentation.

[0100] The present disclosure contemplates at least one administration to an animal of an efficient amount of the therapeutic composition made according to the disclosure. The animal may be male, female, pregnant female and newborn. This administration may be via various routes including, but not limited to, intramuscular (IM), intradermal (ID) or subcutaneous (SC) injection or via intranasal or oral administration. The therapeutic composition according to the disclosure can also be administered by a needleless apparatus (as, for example with a Pigjet, Dermojet, Biojector, Avijet (Merial, GA, USA), Vetjet or Vitajet apparatus (Bioject, Oregon, USA)). Another approach to administering plasmid compositions is to use electroporation (see, e.g. Tollefsen et al., 2002; Tollefsen et al., 2003; Babiuk et al., 2002; PCT Application No. WO99/01158). In another embodiment, the therapeutic composition is delivered to the animal by gene gun or gold particle bombardment.

[0101] In one embodiment, the disclosure provides for the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of a formulation for the delivery and expression of an FMDV antigen or epitope in a target cell. Determination of the therapeutically effective amount is routine experimentation for one of ordinary skill in the art. In one embodiment, the formulation comprises an expression vector comprising a polynucleotide that expresses an FMDV antigen or epitope and a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, vehicle or excipient. In another embodiment, the pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, vehicle or excipient facilitates transfection or other means of transfer of polynucleotides to a host animal and/or improves preservation of the vector or protein in a host.

[0102] In one embodiment, the subject matter disclosed herein provides a detection method for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA).

[0103] It is disclosed herein that the use of the vaccine or composition of the present disclosure allows the detection of FMDV infection in an animal. It is disclosed herein that the use of the vaccine or composition of the present disclosure allows the detection of the infection in animals by differentiating between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). Methods are disclosed herein for diagnosing the infection of FMDV in an animal using an FMDV non-structural protein (e.g., a FMDV 3ABC or 3D-specific ELISA).

Article of Manufacture



[0104] In an embodiment, the subject matter disclosed herein is directed to a kit for performing a method of eliciting or inducing an immune response which may comprise any one of the recombinant FMDV immunological compositions or vaccines, or inactivated FMDV immunological compositions or vaccines, recombinant FMDV viral compositions or vaccines, and instructions for performing the method.

[0105] Another embodiment of the disclosure is a kit for performing a method of inducing an immunological or protective response against FMDV in an animal comprising a composition or vaccine comprising an FMDV antigen of the disclosure and a recombinant FMDV viral immunological composition or vaccine, and instructions for performing the method of delivery in an effective amount for eliciting an immune response in the animal.

[0106] Another embodiment of the disclosure is a kit for performing a method of inducing an immunological or protective response against FMDV in an animal comprising a composition or vaccine comprising an FMDV antigen of the disclosure and an inactivated FMDV immunological composition or vaccine, and instructions for performing the method of delivery in an effective amount for eliciting an immune response in the animal.

[0107] Yet another aspect of the present disclosure relates to a kit for prime-boost vaccination according to the present disclosure as described above. The kit may comprise at least two vials: a first vial containing a vaccine or composition for the prime-vaccination according to the present disclosure, and a second vial containing a vaccine or composition for the boost-vaccination according to the present disclosure. The kit may contain additional first or second vials for additional prime-vaccinations or additional boost-vaccinations.

[0108] In an embodiment, a composition comprising an FMDV antigen or fragment or variant thereof and a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle is disclosed. In another embodiment, a composition comprising a recombinant viral vector expressing FMDV antigens and a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle is disclosed. In another embodiment, the composition described above wherein the FMDV antigen or fragment or variant thereof comprises an immunogenic fragment comprising at least 15 amino acids of an ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine FMDV antigen is disclosed. In an embodiment, the above compositions wherein the FMDV antigen or fragment or variant thereof is partially purified are disclosed. In an embodiment, the above compositions wherein the FMDV antigen or fragment or variant thereof is substantially purified are disclosed.

[0109] In an embodiment, the above compositions wherein the FMDV antigen or fragment or variant thereof is an ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine FMDV polypeptide are disclosed. In an embodiment, the above compositions wherein the FMDV polypeptide is a P1 polypeptide, VP0 polypeptide, VP1 polypeptide, VP3 polypeptide, VP2 polypeptide, VP4 polypeptide, 2A polypeptide, 2B polypeptide, 2C polypeptide, 3A polypeptide, 3B polypeptide, 3C polypeptide, or 3D polypeptide are disclosed. In an embodiment, the above compositions wherein the FMDV antigen or fragment or variant thereof has at least 80% sequence identity to the sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8 are disclosed. In one embodiment, the above compositions wherein the FMDV antigen is encoded by a polynucleotide having at least 70% sequence identity to the sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1, 3, 5, or 7 are disclosed. In an embodiment, the above compositions wherein the pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle is a water-in-oil emulsion or an oil-in-water emulsion are disclosed. In another embodiment, a method of vaccinating an animal susceptible to ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine FMDV comprising administering the compositions above to the animal is disclosed. In an embodiment, a method of vaccinating an animal susceptible to ovine, bovine, caprine, or swine FMDV comprising a prime-boost regimen is disclosed. In an embodiment, a substantially purified antigenic polypeptide expressed in insect cells, wherein the polypeptide comprises: an amino acid sequence having at least 80% sequence identity to a polypeptide having the sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, or 8 is disclosed. In any embodiment the animal is preferably an ovine, a bovine, a swine, or a caprine. In one embodiment, a method of diagnosing FMDV infection in an animal is disclosed. In yet another embodiment, a kit for prime-boost vaccination comprising at least two vials, wherein a first vial containing the composition comprising an FMDV antigen or fragment or variant thereof, and a second vial containing a recombinant viral vector that contains or expresses the FMDV antigen is disclosed.

[0110] The pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carriers or vehicles or adjuvants or excipients are well known to the one skilled in the art. For example, a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier or vehicle or excipient can be a 0.9% NaCl (e.g., saline) solution or a phosphate buffer. Other pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier or vehicle or excipients that can be used for methods of this disclosure include, but are not limited to, poly-(L-glutamate) or polyvinylpyrrolidone. The pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier or vehicle or adjuvants or excipients may be any compound or combination of compounds facilitating the administration of the vector (or protein expressed from an inventive vector in vitro); advantageously, the carrier, vehicle or excipient may facilitate transfection and/or improve preservation of the vector (or protein). Doses and dose volumes are herein discussed in the general description and can also be determined by the skilled artisan from this disclosure read in conjunction with the knowledge in the art, without any undue experimentation.

[0111] The cationic lipids containing a quaternary ammonium salt which are advantageously but not exclusively suitable for plasmids, are advantageously those having the following formula:

in which R1 is a saturated or unsaturated straight-chain aliphatic radical having 12 to 18 carbon atoms, R2 is another aliphatic radical containing 2 or 3 carbon atoms and X is an amine or hydroxyl group, e.g. the DMRIE. In another embodiment the cationic lipid can be associated with a neutral lipid, e.g. the DOPE.

[0112] Among these cationic lipids, preference is given to DMRIE (N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-2,3-bis(tetradecyloxy)-1-propane ammonium; WO96/34109), advantageously associated with a neutral lipid, advantageously DOPE (dioleoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanol amine; Behr, 1994), to form DMRIE-DOPE.

[0113] Advantageously, the plasmid mixture with the adjuvant is formed extemporaneously and advantageously contemporaneously with administration of the preparation or shortly before administration of the preparation; for instance, shortly before or prior to administration, the plasmid-adjuvant mixture is formed, advantageously so as to give enough time prior to administration for the mixture to form a complex, e.g. between about 10 and about 60 minutes prior to administration, such as approximately 30 minutes prior to administration.

[0114] When DOPE is present, the DMRIE:DOPE molar ratio is about 95: about 5 to about 5: about 95, more advantageously about 1: about 1, e.g., 1:1.

[0115] The DMRIE or DMRIE-DOPE adjuvant:plasmid weight ratio can be between about 50: about 1 and about 1: about 10, such as about 10: about 1 and about 1:about 5, and about 1: about 1 and about 1: about 2, e.g., 1:1 and 1:2.

[0116] In another embodiment, pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle may be a water-in-oil emulsion. Examples of suitable water-in-oil emulsions include oil-based water-in-oil vaccinal emulsions which are stable and fluid at 4°C containing: from 6 to 50 v/v% of an antigen-containing aqueous phase, preferably from 12 to 25 v/v%, from 50 to 94 v/v% of an oil phase containing in total or in part a non-metabolizable oil (e.g., mineral oil such as paraffin oil) and/or metabolizable oil (e.g., vegetable oil, or fatty acid, polyol or alcohol esters), from 0.2 to 20 p/v% of surfactants, preferably from 3 to 8 p/v%, the latter being in total or in part, or in a mixture either polyglycerol esters, said polyglycerol esters being preferably polyglycerol (poly)ricinoleates, or polyoxyethylene ricin oils or else hydrogenated polyoxyethylene ricin oils. Examples of surfactants that may be used in a water-in-oil emulsion include ethoxylated sorbitan esters (e.g., polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (TWEEN 80®), available from AppliChem, Inc., Cheshire, CT) and sorbitan esters (e.g., sorbitan monooleate (SPAN 80®), available from Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). In addition, with respect to a water-in-oil emulsion, see also U.S. Patent 6,919,084, e.g., Example 8 thereof, incorporated herein by reference. In some embodiments, the antigen-containing aqueous phase comprises a saline solution comprising one or more buffering agents. An example of a suitable buffering solution is phosphate buffered saline. In an advantageous embodiment, the water-in-oil emulsion may be a water/oil/water (W/O/W) triple emulsion (U.S. Patent 6,358,500). Examples of other suitable emulsions are described in U.S. Patent 7,371,395.

[0117] The immunological compositions and vaccines according to the disclosure may comprise or consist essentially of one or more adjuvants. Suitable adjuvants for use in the practice of the present disclosure are (1) polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid, maleic anhydride and alkenyl derivative polymers, (2) immunostimulating sequences (ISS), such as oligodeoxyribonucleotide sequences having one or more non-methylated CpG units (Klinman et al., 1996, PNAS USA, 93(7): 2879-83; WO98/16247), (3) an oil in water emulsion, such as the SPT emulsion described on page 147 of "Vaccine Design, The Subunit and Adjuvant Approach" published by M. Powell, M. Newman, Plenum Press 1995, 6: 147, 183, and the emulsion MF59 described on page 183 of the same work, (4) cation lipids containing a quaternary ammonium salt, e.g., DDA (5) cytokines, (6) aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate, (7) saponin or (8) other adjuvants discussed in any document cited and incorporated by reference into the instant application, or (9) any combinations or mixtures thereof.

[0118] The oil in water emulsion (3), which is especially appropriate for viral vectors, can be based on: light liquid paraffin oil (European pharmacopoeia type), isoprenoid oil such as squalane, squalene, oil resulting from the oligomerization of alkenes, e.g. isobutene or decene, esters of acids or alcohols having a straight-chain alkyl group, such as vegetable oils, ethyl oleate, propylene glycol, di(caprylate/caprate), glycerol tri(caprylate/caprate) and propylene glycol dioleate, or esters of branched, fatty alcohols or acids, especially isostearic acid esters.

[0119] The oil is used in combination with emulsifiers to form an emulsion. The emulsifiers may be nonionic surfactants, such as: esters of on the one hand sorbitan, mannide (e.g. anhydromannitol oleate), glycerol, polyglycerol or propylene glycol and on the other hand oleic, isostearic, ricinoleic or hydroxystearic acids, said esters being optionally ethoxylated, or polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene copolymer blocks, such as Pluronic, e.g., L121.

[0120] Among the type (1) adjuvant polymers, preference is given to polymers of crosslinked acrylic or methacrylic acid, especially crosslinked by polyalkenyl ethers of sugars or polyalcohols. These compounds are known under the name carbomer (Pharmeuropa, vol. 8, no. 2, June 1996). One skilled in the art can also refer to U.S. Patent 2,909,462, which provides such acrylic polymers crosslinked by a polyhydroxyl compound having at least three hydroxyl groups, preferably no more than eight such groups, the hydrogen atoms of at least three hydroxyl groups being replaced by unsaturated, aliphatic radicals having at least two carbon atoms. The preferred radicals are those containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms, e.g. vinyls, allyls and other ethylenically unsaturated groups. The unsaturated radicals can also contain other substituents, such as methyl. Products sold under the name CARBOPOL® (BF Goodrich, Ohio, USA) are especially suitable. They are crosslinked by allyl saccharose or by allyl pentaerythritol. Among them, reference is made to CARBOPOL® 1 974P, 934P and 971P.

[0121] As to the maleic anhydride-alkenyl derivative copolymers, preference is given to EMA® (Monsanto), which are straight-chain or crosslinked ethylene-maleic anhydride copolymers and they are, for example, crosslinked by divinyl ether.

[0122] With regard to structure, the acrylic or methacrylic acid polymers and EMA® are preferably formed by basic units having the following formula:

in which:
  • R1 and R2, which can be the same or different, represent H or CH3
  • x = 0 or 1, preferably x = 1
  • y = 1 or 2, with x + y = 2.


[0123] For EMA®, x = 0 and y = 2 and for carbomers x = y = 1.

[0124] These polymers are soluble in water or physiological salt solution (20 g/l NaCl) and the pH can be adjusted to 7.3 to 7.4, e.g., by soda (NaOH), to provide the adjuvant solution in which the expression vector(s) can be incorporated. The polymer concentration in the final immunological or vaccine composition can range between about 0.01 to about 1.5% w/v, about 0.05 to about 1% w/v, and about 0.1 to about 0.4% w/v.

[0125] The cytokine or cytokines (5) can be in protein form in the immunological or vaccine composition, or can be co-expressed in the host with the immunogen or immunogens or epitope(s) thereof. Preference is given to the co-expression of the cytokine or cytokines, either by the same vector as that expressing the immunogen or immunogens or epitope(s) thereof, or by a separate vector thereof.

[0126] The disclosure comprehends preparing such combination compositions; for instance by admixing the active components, advantageously together and with an adjuvant, carrier, cytokine, and/or diluent.

[0127] Cytokines that may be used in the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon α(IFNα), interferon β(IFNβ), interferon γ, (IFNγ), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-7 (IL-7), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-9 (IL-9), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-11 (IL-11), interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor α(TNFα), tumor necrosis factor β(TNFβ), polyinosinic and polycytidylic acid, cytidine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN), and transforming growth factor β(TGFβ). It is understood that cytokines can be co-administered and/or sequentially administered with the immunological or vaccine composition of the present disclosure. Thus, for instance, the vaccine of the instant disclosure can also contain an exogenous nucleic acid molecule that expresses in vivo a suitable cytokine, e.g., a cytokine matched to this host to be vaccinated or in which an immunological response is to be elicited (for instance, a bovine cytokine for preparations to be administered to bovines).

[0128] In a particular embodiment, the adjuvant may include TS6, TS7, TS8 and TS9 emulsions (U.S. Patent Number 7,371,395); LR3 and LR4 (US7,691,368); TSAP (U.S. Published Patent Application 20110129494); TRIGEN™ (Newport Labs); synthetic dsRNAs (e.g. poly-IC, poly-ICLC [HILTONOL®]); CARBIGEN™ adjuvant (MVP Laboratories, Inc.); ENABL® advjuant (VaxLiant); and MONTANIDE™ adjuvants (W/O, W/O/W, O/W, IMS and Gel) (SEPPIC). The adjuvant concentration in the final immunological composition or vaccine composition can range between 5% to 80% v/v.

[0129] In the case of immunological composition and/or vaccine based on a baculovirus/insect cell-expressed polypeptides, a dose may include, about 1 µg to about 2000 µg, about 50 µg to about 1000 µg, and from about 100 µg to about 500 µg of FMDV antigen, epitope or immunogen. The dose may include about 102 to about 1020, about 103 to about 1018, about 104 to about 1016, about 105 to about 1012 VLPs (viral like particles). In the case of immunological composition and/or vaccine based on a viral vector expressing FMDV antigens, a dose may include, about 103 viral particles to about 1015 viral particles, about 103 viral particles to about 1014 viral particles, about 103 viral particles to about 1013 viral particles, about 103 viral particles to about 1012 viral particles. The viral particles may be calculated based on any virus titration methods including, but not limited to, FFA (Focus Forming Assay) or FFU (Focus Forming Unit), TCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose), PFU (Plaque Forming Units), and FAID50 (50% Fluorescent Antibody Infectious Dose). The dose volumes can be between about 0.1 and about 10 ml, between about 0.2 and about 5 ml.

[0130] The disclosure will now be further described by way of the following non-limiting examples.

EXAMPLES



[0131] Construction of DNA inserts, plasmids and recombinant viral vectors was carried out using the standard molecular biology techniques described by J. Sambrook et al. (Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 4th edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 2014).

Example 1 Construction of recombinant human adenovirus 5 vectored FMDV antigens


Example 1.2 Construction of recombinant human adenovirus 5 vectored FMDV chimeric A24-A12 antigen



[0132] The Human Adenovirus C, serotype 5 (Ad5) vector (adenovirus vector) with deletions in the El, E3, and E4 regions of the genome (GV11 backbone, see U.S. Patent 8,323,663) was used to construct the recombinant FMDV vaccine expressing chimeric FMDV protein. The chimeric FMDV protein contains structural capsid gene of FMDV serotype A24 (A24 Pl) and nonstructural genes A24 (2A-partial 2B), nonstructural partial 3B gene and the protease gene of FMDV serotype A12 (partial 3B-C3) (SEQ ID NO:2).

[0133] The chimeric polynucleotide encoding FMDV A24 (P1-2A-partial 2B)-A12 (partial 3B-3C) was introduced into the shuttle plasmid (see Figures 2 and 3). After co-transformation of the linearized GV11 backbone plasmid (which carries a kanamycin resistance gene) and the linearized shuttle plasmid containing the chimeric FMDV polynucleotide into BJDE3 E. coli cells, kanamycin-resistant clones of E. coli were selected. Clones bearing recombinant plasmids were confirmed by RFLP. A single clone was selected, the plasmid linearized and transfected into M2A cells. The lysate from the M2Acell transfection was serially passaged to produce high-titered stock of recombinant adenovirus vectored chimeric FMDV vaccine.

[0134] The donor gene insertion site is between the CMV promoter and SV40 PolyA of an Ad5 E1 expression cassette, and the expression cassette is inserted into the BBA at the E1 region The A24-A12 expression cassette, located at the E 1 region deletion junction, reads right-to-left with respect to the viral genome RNA transcription. There are no known regulatory signals in the flanking nucleotide sequence of the insertion cassette. The CMV enhancer/promoter controls the initiation of transcription. Within this sequence are the viral enhancer CAAT box, TATA box, transcription start site, and 5' splice site sequences.

[0135] The CMV sequences are followed by an artificial untranslated region (UTR) containing a splice donor sequence. The open reading frame of the gene to be expressed follows the 3' splice site sequences and the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) early polyadenylation signal is positioned 3' of the open reading frame to terminate transcription.

[0136] Primer pairs were designed for the RBA Genetic Structural Identity (GSI) assay. The GSI assay uses PCR to identify the backbone biological agent and the expression cassette. The GSI blot (see Figure 4) showed the correct backbone and A24-A12 FMDV expression cassette. Sequence analysis of the A24-A12 expression cassette also confirmed the nucleotide sequence identity between the shuttle plasmid and the DNA extracted from the recombinant adenovirus vectored chimeric A24-A12 FMDV vaccine.

[0137] The recombinant adenovirus vectored chimeric A24-A12 FMDV vaccine was confirmed to express A24 protein in vitro in 293 cells by a western blot assay, yielding a reactive protein that migrated to the position of approximately 28 KDa (see Figure 5). The antibody used for detection in the Western Blot assay is a monoclonal antibody. The molecular weight of the A24 protein expressed from the recombinant adenovirus vectored chimeric A24-A12 FMDV vaccine was indistinguishable from that observed following transfection of the positive control shuttle plasmid into 293 cells (see Figure 5).

Example 1.2 Construction of recombinant human adenovirus 5 vectored FMDV O1M antigen



[0138] The Human Adenovirus C, serotype 5 (Ad5) vector (adenovirus vector) with deletions in the E1, E3, and E4 regions of the genome (GV11 backbone, see U.S. Patent 8,323,663) was used to construct the recombinant FMDV vaccine expressing FMDV protein. The FMDV protein contains structural capsid Pl (VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1) and the nonstructural proteins 2ABC and 3ABC including the full-length protease 3C (SEQ ID NO: 4) from FMDV Ol/Man/87 strain.

[0139] The synthetic polynucleotide (SEQ ID NO: 3) encoding FMDV O1M Pl (VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1-2ABC'3A'BC) was introduced into the shuttle plasmid (see Figure 6). The recombinant adenovirus vectored O1M FMDV vaccine was constructed following the procedure as described in Example 1.2.

[0140] The O1M87 FMDV expression cassette, located at the E1 region deletion junction, reads right-to left with respect to the viral genome RNA transcription. There are no known regulatory signals in the flanking nucleotide sequence of the insertion cassette. The CMV enhancer/promoter controls the initiation of transcription. Within this sequence are the viral enhancer CAAT box, TATA box, transcription start site, and 5' splice site sequences.

[0141] The CMV sequences are followed by an artificial untranslated region (UTR) containing a splice donor sequence. The open reading frame of the gene to be expressed follows the 3' splice site sequences and the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) early polyadenylation signal is positioned 3' of the open reading frame to terminate transcription.

[0142] The GSI blot showed the correct backbone and O1M87 FMDV expression cassette. Sequence analysis of the O1M87 FMDV expression cassette also confirmed the nucleotide sequence identity between the shuttle plasmid and the DNA extracted from the recombinant adenovirus vectored O1M87 FMDV vaccine. The recombinant adenovirus vectored O1M87 FMDV vaccine was confirmed to express O1M87 protein in vitro in 293 cells by a western blot assay.

Example 1.3 Construction of recombinant human adenovirus 5 vectored FMDV Irn antigen



[0143] The Human Adenovirus C, serotype 5 (Ad5) vector (adenovirus vector) with deletions in the El, E3, and E4 regions of the genome (GV11 backbone, see U.S. Patent 8,323,663) was used to construct the recombinant FMDV vaccine expressing FMDV protein. The synthetic FMDV capsid coding sequence of P1 and nonstructural genes 2A, 2B, partial 2C (2C'), partial 3A (3A'), 3B and the protease coding sequence of 3C of FMDV serotype A/Im/05 was introduced into a shuttle plasmid (see Figure 7). The recombinant adenovirus vectored Irn FMDV vaccine was constructed following the procedure as described in Example 1.2.

[0144] The Irn FMDV expression cassette, located at the E1 region deletion junction, reads right-to left with respect to the viral genome RNA transcription. There are no known regulatory signals in the flanking nucleotide sequence of the insertion cassette. The CMV enhancer/promoter controls the initiation of transcription. Within this sequence is the viral enhancer CAAT box, TATA box, transcription start site, and 5' splice site sequences.

[0145] The CMV sequences are followed by an artificial untranslated region (UTR) containing a splice donor sequence. The open reading frame of the gene to be expressed follows the 3' splice site sequences and the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) early polyadenylation signal is positioned 3' of the open reading frame to terminate transcription.

[0146] The recombinant adenovirus vectored Irn FMDV vaccine was identified using a PCR-based Genetic Structural Identity (GSI) assay and confirmed using protein expression by western blot technique.

Example 1.4 Construction of recombinant human adenovirus 5 vectored FMDV Asia antigen



[0147] The Human Adenovirus C, serotype 5 (Ad5) vector (adenovirus vector) with deletions in the E1, E3, and E4 regions of the genome (GV11 backbone, see U.S. Patent 8,323,663) was used to construct the recombinant FMDV vaccine expressing FMDV protein.The synthetic FMDV capsid coding sequence of P1 and nonstructural genes 2A, 2B, partial 2C (2C'), partial 3A (3A'), 3B and the protease coding sequence of 3C from FMDV strain Asia/Leb/89 was introduced into a shuttle plasmid (see Figure 8). The recombinant adenovirus vectored Asia FMDV vaccine was constructed following the procedure as described in Example 1.2.

[0148] The Asia FMDV expression cassette, located at the E1 region deletion junction, reads right-to left with respect to the viral genome RNA transcription. There are no known regulatory signals in the flanking nucleotide sequence of the insertion cassette. The CMV enhancer/promoter controls the initiation of transcription. Within this sequence are the viral enhancer CAAT box, TATA box, transcription start site, and 5' splice site sequences.

[0149] The CMV sequences are followed by an artificial untranslated region (UTR) containing a splice donor sequence. The open reading frame of the gene to be expressed follows the 3' splice site sequences and the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) early polyadenylation signal is positioned 3' of the open reading frame to terminate transcription.

[0150] The recombinant adenovirus vectored Asia FMDV vaccine was confirmed to express Asia protein in vitro in 293 cells by a western blot assay, yielding a reactive protein that migrated to the position of approximately 38 kDa.The antibody used for detection in the Western Blot assay is the FMD VP2 polyclonal. The molecular weight of the AsiaSS.2B protein expressed was indistinguishable from that observed following transfection of the positive control plasmid into 293 cells.

Example 2 Challenge study in cattles and pigs



[0151] Cattles and pigs were vaccinated with the A24-A12 FMDV vaccine or O1M87 FMDV vaccine once at Day 0 via IM and challenged at day 14 by many FMDV serotypes, such as A24, A12, O1, Asia, Irn, and Iraq strains.

[0152] Figure 9 shows the protection of O1 FMDV vaccine in animals against FMDV challenge at three different doses and control. In this dose titration study, the recombinant adeno-vectored O1M FMDV vaccine was evaluated for the ability to confer protection against FMD generalized disease (pedal lesions) following direct, IDL homologous challenge at 14 days post-vaccination (dpv). Healthy 6 month old female Holstein cattle were randomized to one of four treatment groups. Control, naive cattle (T01; n=4) were immunized intramuscularly with a single, 2 mL dose of final formulation buffer (FFB). Cattle in T02-T04 (n=7/group) were vaccinated with decreasing doses [Anti-adenovirus hexon focus forming units (FFU) or focus forming assay (FFA); log10] of active ingredient prepared from master seed virus passage 2 (MSV+2) formulated in ENABL™ C1 adjuvant. T02-T04 received 2.38x105, 5.94x104 FFU or 1.49 x104 FFU total dose, respectively. At 2 weeks post-vaccination (day of challenge), 100% of T02 and T03 vaccinates had FMDV O1 Manisa serum virus neutralizing (SVN) titers, versus 43% in the lowest vaccine dose treatment group (T04). Following intradermal lingual challenge with 1 x 104 bovine infectious dose units 50% (BID50) of FMDV O1 Manisa, 100% of T01 control, naive cattle exhibited generalized disease (pedal lesions). In contrast, the level of protection against generalized disease in vaccinated groups ranged from 86% (T04) to 100% (T02 and T03). All four control cattle (T01) were FMDV positive in plasma collected on 1-3 days post-challenge (dpc), whereas none of the twenty-one vaccinates had detectable plasma viremia on 1-5 dpc. In T01, 88% of the nasal samples collected 2-5 dpc were virus positive, compared to 25% (T03), 27% (T02) and 36% (T04) of the 2-5 dpc tested samples. Figure 10 shows the serology of O1 FMDV vaccine at three doses and control.

[0153] These results demonstrate that the a recombinant adenovector O1M FMDV vaccine active ingredient formulated in ENABL C1 adjuvant is highly immunogenic and efficacious against IDL, homologous FMDV challenge in cattle, and provides data on the estimated minimum protective dose.

[0154] Both A24-A12 and O1M87 vaccines were tested to be safe in calves and mice.

Example 3 Adjuvant serology immunogenicity and corresponding viricidal / stability study



[0155] Adjuvanting a vaccine can reduce the minimum protective dose (MPD) and result in a more effective vaccine. A reduced MPD may be balanced by the adjuvant cost and supply security. However, some adjuvants can reduce the vaccine effectiveness. The adjuvant may push the immune system towards an undesirable response or the adjuvant may be detrimental to the immunizing agent (lack of stability for example).

[0156] The objective of the study was to assess the adjuvant serology efficacy. An efficacy serology study was conducted in cattle, and in parallel a virucidal / stability study was performed to determine if any of the five adjuvants have detrimental effects on the adenovirus FMDV vaccines. Each dose consists of 200µl of final AI (Active Ingredient) per dose at a 2 ml dose with each of the adjuvants. The adjuvants are polyacrylic acid, LF2 emulsion, LR6 emulsion, CARBIGEN™ M and ENABL® C1 (see Table 1.1 below).
Table 1.1 Preparation of adenovirus FMDV vaccines
GroupAdjuvantVaccine formulation
G1 No adjuvant FMDV vaccine (105.7 per ml) + FFB (final formulation buffer) (50% v/v)
G2 Polyacrylic acid FMDV vaccine (105.7 per ml) + polyacrylic acid polymer (4mg/2ml dose)
G3 LF2 emulsion FMDV vaccine (105.7 per ml) + TS6* at 20% v/v of final serial
G4 LR6 emulsion FMDV vaccine (105.7 per ml) + LR4** at 25% v/v final serial
G5 CARBIGEN™ M FMDV vaccine (105.7 per ml) + CARBIGEN ™ M to 10% v/v final serial
G6 ENABL® C1 FMDV vaccine (105.7 per ml) + ENABL® C1 (20% in final serial)
TS6*: TS6 adjuvant/emulsion as described in US 7,608,279 and US 7,371,395
LR4**: LR4 adjuvant/emulsion as described in US7,691,368
CARBIGEN™: a carbomer-based (Carbopol 934P) adjuvant suspension, product of MVP Laboratories, Inc.
ENABL® C1: adjuvant product for cattle purchased commercially fromVaxLiant
Table 1.2 TS6 emulsion (premulsion described in US 7,608,279 and US 7,371,395)
Oily phase (120ml)
Sorbitan monooleate (SPAN 80®) 1.8% w/v
Sorbitan trioleate (20 OE) (TWEEN 85®) 10.2% w/v
Paraffin oil (MARCOL 82®) 88% v/v
Aqueous phase (120ml)
20% (w/v) solution of sorbitan monooleate (20 OE) (TWEEN 80®) 11.25% w/v
Phosphate disodic and monopotassic 0.02M isotonic buffer (pH7.8) 85.75% v/v
Sodium mercurothiolate (Thionersal®) 1% in water 1.5% v/v
Table 1.3 LR4 emulsion (premulsion described in US7,691,368)
Oily phase (72ml)
Oleth-2 (BRIJ® 92) 1.8% w/v
Oleth-5 (VOLPO® N5) 8.2%w/v
Paraffin oil (MARCOL 82®) 87.5% v/v
Preservative 2.5% v/v
Aqueous phase (108ml)
Poloxamer 407 (LUTROL® F127) 0.58% w/v
Isotonic buffer containing disodium and monopotassium phosphate 0.02M (pH7.8) Q.S. to 100.0% v/v


[0157] Vaccines were stored at 4°C and 25°C and tested over time. The viruses in each vaccine were titrated in accordance with the standard focus forming assay titration assay wherein the amount of virus detected is read by specific anti-adenovirus antibodies on the cell monolayer. The respective titers were compared. Data from the first 3 months is presented below, in Table 2 and in Figures 11 (25°C) and 12 (4°C). At 4°C, most antigens or viruses present in the formulated vaccines are stable out to 3 months. At 25°C, antigens or viruses formulated with adjuvants polyacrylic acid, LF2 and Carbigen M are relatively stable out to 7 weeks. The stability of these three formulations showed a slight decrease at 25°C at 3-months point. However, this drop is less when the recombinant viruse is combined with adjuvant confirming the protective effect of adjuvant. The antigens or viruses formulated with adjuvant LR6 experienced some advjuant assay interference as evidenced from the below detection level at both 4°C and 25°C. However, the formulation adjuvanted with LR6 generated specific virus titer at 3 months and is stable at 25°C.
Table 2 Viricidal and stability study of five adjuvants up to 3 months
AdjuvantT=0T=24hrT=1 weekT=2 weekT=4 weekT=7 weekT=3 months
G1 - 4°C 6.94 6.61 6.88 6.90 6.89 6.80 7.21
G1 - 25 °C 7.10 6.70 6.76 6.34 5.59 4.24 Below detection
G2 - 4°C 6.97 6.51 7.04 6.96 6.97 6.90 7.07
G2 - 25°C 6.91 6.40 6.94 6.93 6.69 6.56 5.85
G3 - 4°C 6.68 6.25 6.74 6.80 6.74 6.93 6.92
G3 - 25 °C 6.42 6.40 6.71 6.69 6.67 6.63 5.85
G4 - 4°C 6.51 Below Detection* 6.69 5.36 Below Detection* Below Detection* 6.78
G4 - 25 °C 6.52 Below Detection* 6.69 5.44 Below Detection* Below Detection* 6.21
G5 - 4°C 6.82 6.81 6.91 6.80 6.96 7.17 7.13
G5 - 25 °C 6.87 6.83 6.92 6.51 6.61 6.42 5.85
G6 - 4°C 6.84 6.79 6.95 6.77 6.73 7.11 7.16
G6 - 25°C 6.84 6.84 6.81 6.72 Below detection Below detection Below detection
Below Detection*: adjuvant assay interference


[0158] The corresponding serology study was conducted in cattle. Each group contained 10 animals per experimental group (5 in control) and was administered one 2ml dose at day zero followed by a boost at day 21. Blood samples were taken at several timepoints throughout the study and the serum samples were analyzed. Serology by Virus Neutralizing Titer was conducted. The initial data indicated serological responses at day 14 post first vaccination in several groups. Taken together, the data indicates that adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccines formulated in certain adjuvants may provide opportunities for thermostability improvements and ability to handle temperature excursions. When combined with these initial data, the immunological response is either maintained or potentially improved.

Example 4 Serology immunogenicity of two-dose vaccinatnion with multiple recombinant human adenovirus vectored FMDV O1M antigen in cattle



[0159] The goal of the study is to assess the serological antibody response in cattle following the administration of Adeno Vectored FMDV OlManisa formulated with and without different adjuvants.

[0160] Fifty-five conventionally reared calves (approximately 5 months of age) were each randomized to one of six treatment groups as presented in Table 4 below.
Table 4
GroupVaccineAdjuvantRoute of AdministrationFrequencey of AdministrationNo. of animals
1 Adt.O1/Manisa ENABL® C1 IM Twice 21;days apart 10
2 Adt.O1/Manisa LF IM Twice 21;days apart 10
3 Adt.O1/Manisa Polyacrylic acid IM Twice 21;days apart 10
4 Adt.O1/Manisa Carbigen M IM Twice 21;days apart 10
5 Adt.O1/Manisa None IM Twice 21;days apart 10
6 FFB Placebo None IM Twice 21;days apart 5


[0161] All calves except those from Group 6 (sentinels) were vaccinated with an Adenovirus vectored O1/Manisa construct with (Groups 1-4) or without an adjuvant (Groups 5), twice at a 21- day interval with 2 ml of the test vaccine. All injections were given via the intramuscular route (IM) over the shoulder alternately on the right and left sides. Table 4 above contains a summary of the treatment for each group.

[0162] Calves were intermittently observed for at least 1 hour following each vaccination for clinical signs of acute systemic adverse events. Blood samples were collected from all cattle on Days -1 (prior to vaccination), 7, 15, 21 (prior to vaccination), 28, and 35. Serum samples from all cattle were tested for FMDV antibodies by Serum Virus Neutralization (SVN). In addition, antibody responses to Adenovirus (SAV) were determined in all animals from all groups in samples collected on Day -1 and 35. The results for SVN and SAV were reported in Log10 and a value ≤ 0.6 Log10 was considered negative for serum antibody.

[0163] Post-vaccination safety assessments included rectal temperature, visual inspection and palpation of injection sites for at least 3 days following each vaccination. Cows with local injection site adverse events were observed intermittently until resolution of the abnormality. The study was terminated on D35 after the final blood collection.

[0164] Rersults of FMDV serological response using FMDV antibodies by Serum Virus Neutralization (SVN) Log10 are described below.

[0165] All calves from all Groups tested negative for FMDV antibodies prior to the start of the study. All sentinels were negative for FMDV antibodies throughout the study. Seroconversion following vaccination was defined as an increase Log10 titer > 0.9.
By Day 14 (2 weeks following the 1st vaccination), 5/10 calves (50%) in the ENABL® C1 (Group 1) had seroconverted. Those in the remaining vaccinated groups (2-5) had between 20-40% of the calves seroconvert. In addition, the mean antibody titer per group was slightly higher in group 1 (ENABL® C1) followed by Groups 2 (LF) and 3 (Polyacrylic acid) (Figure 13).

[0166] By Day 35 (2 weeks following the 2nd vaccination), all vaccinated animals (Groups 1 [ENABL®], group 2 [LF] and group 5 [no adjuvant]) had seroconverted followed by ninety and eighty percent of those in groups 3 (Polyacrylic acid) and 4 (Carbigen M) respectively. Animals vaccinated with the LF, adjuvant, followed by those vaccinated without adjuvant (Group 5) and by those vaccinated with the ENABL® C1 (Group 1) adjuvant had a higher antibody response following a two-dose vaccination regime (see Figure 13).

[0167] Rersults of FMDV serological response using Adenovirus antibodies_by Serum Virus Neutralization (SVN) Log10 are described below.

[0168] All sentinels and vaccinated calves were negative to Adenovirus by SN antibody titers on Day -1 (≤ 0.6 Log10). By day 35, all but one of the vaccinated calves (ID:134; Group 5) seroconverted with an overall higher geo mean titer by group in those vaccinated with a vaccine containing adjuvant (Groups 1-4) (see Figure 14).

[0169] The results indicated serological responses at day 14 post first vaccination in several groups. Two weeks after the second vaccination the higher antibody response was seen in vaccinated calves with the LF adjuvant followed by those vaccinated without adjuvant and with the Enable C1 adjuvant.

[0170] The results suggest that the antibody response following a single vaccination regardless of the presence or absence of adjuvant is small. However, using a two vaccination (prime-boost) regimen the antibody response is overall higher. There were no systemic adverse events observed when the vaccine construct was administered twice (3 weeks apart) intramuscularly.

Example 5 Serology Assessment of FMDV Vaccines Following Vaccination in Pigs



[0171] The goal of the study is to assess the antibody response in piglets following the administration of monovalent vaccine formulations containing Adeno 5 Vectored FMDV O1 Manisa) and/or FMDV baculovirus-expressed O1 Manisa recombinant Virus Like Particle (VLP).

[0172] Tweenty conventionally reared piglets (approximately 5 weeks of age) were randomized to two treatment groups, each containing 10 piglets. The group composition is presented in Table 5 below.
Table 5
GroupVaccinesdose per piglet; Adenovirus constructs (FAID50 /2ml (log10)FrequencyNo. of Animals
1 Adenovirus O1M No adjuvant Bac O1M+Adjuvant TS6 108 Adenovirus X+5 O1M (Day 0) and Bac O1M Adjuvant TS6 (Day 21) 10
2 Sentinel (N/A) N/A N/A 10


[0173] Piglets in group 1 were vaccinated with 2 ml of the vaccine. All injections were given via the intramuscular route (IM) over the shoulder alternately on the right and left sides. Piglets were observed prior to each vaccination for their overall health condition. Blood samples were collected from all piglets on Days 0 (prior to vaccination), 7, 14, 21 (prior to vaccination), 28 and 35. Day 35 serum samples from all piglets were tested for FMDV antibodies by Serum Virus Neutralization (SVN). Samples from those piglets in group 1 were subject to SVN assay on all collection days since they had an overall higher antibody response following on Day 35. The results were reported in Log10 and a value ≤ 0.75 Log10 was considered negative for serum antibody. Post-vaccination safety assessments included rectal temperature, visual inspection and palpation of injection sites for 3 days following each vaccination.

[0174] Rersults of FMDV serological response using FMDV antibodies by Serum Virus Neutralization (SVN) Log10 are described below.

[0175] All sentinels were negative for FMDV antibodies prior to and at the end of the study.
By Day 28 (1 week following the 2nd vaccination), all piglets from Group 1 seroconverted (titers ≥ 1.20 log10) (see FIG. 15). No systemic and/or local adverse events attributable to vaccination were observed. The results clearly showed that even though vaccinated group had a small antibody response following the first vaccination, the antibody response following the second (prime-boost) vaccination was high by the end of the study.

Example 6 Route of Administration



[0176] The goal of the study is to evaluate the serological response of two-dose vaccination in cattle or pigs when two recombinant Adenovirus vectored FMDV vaccines, one recombinant Adenovirus vectored FMDV vaccine and one baculovirus-expressed recombinant FMDV Virus like particle (VLP) vaccine, or two FMDV VLP vaccines are used, and when different routes of administration (transdermal, subcutaneous, or intradermal route of administration) are used. The study is also designed to address interference issue when multiple vaccines are administered.

[0177] The adjuvants are polyacrylic acid, LF2 emulsion, LR6 emulsion, CARBIGEN™ M and ENABL® C1. The treatment groups are represented in Table 6 below.
Table 6
GroupVaccinesAdministration routeFrequency of administration
1 Adeno FMDV IM or IM/TD or IM/SQ Twice, 21 days apart
2 Adeno FMDV TD or TD/IM or TD/SQ Twice, 21 days apart
3 Adeno FMDV SQ or SQ/TD or SQ/IM Twice, 21 days apart
4 Baculo FMDV VLP IM or IM/TD or IM/SQ Twice, 21 days apart
5 Baculo FMDV VLP TD or TD/IM or TD/SQ Twice, 21 days apart
6 Baculo FMDV VLP SQ or SQ/TD or SQ/IM Twice, 21 days apart
7 Adeno FMDV/Beculo FMDV VLP IM or IM/TD or IM/SQ Twice, 21 days apart
8 Adeno FMDV/Beculo FMDV VLP TD or TD/IM or TD/SQ Twice, 21 days apart
9 Adeno FMDV/Beculo FMDV VLP SQ or SQ/TD or SQ/IM Twice, 21 days apart


[0178] Calves are intermittently observed for at least 1 hour following each vaccination for clinical signs of acute systemic adverse events. Blood samples are collected from all cattle on Days -1 (prior to vaccination), 7, 15, 21 (prior to vaccination), 28, and 35. Serum samples from all cattle were tested for FMDV antibodies by Serum Virus Neutralization (SVN). In addition, antibody responses to Adenovirus (SAV) are determined in all animals from all groups in samples collected on Day -1 and 35.

[0179] Post-vaccination safety assessments include rectal temperature, visual inspection and palpation of injection sites for at least 3 days following each vaccination. Cows with local injection site adverse events are observed intermittently until resolution of the abnormality.

[0180] The results show a prime-boost affect for all groups but the prime-boost effect is greater in animals that received a prime with the adenovirus vaccine followed by a boost with the baculovirus-FMD construct. Furthermore, the route of administration has an impact on serological response and protection, as well as duration of immunity. Specific routes of administration and/or specific combination of adminstraion routes TD, IM and SQ appear to exacerabet the immune response, further applify protection, overcome interference, and protect Maternally Derived Antibody-positive (MDA-positive) animals.

Example 7 Efficacy in Swine



[0181] Pigs are vaccinated against FMDV (against several setotypes) twice with 21-days apart in a prime-boost regimen that looked at a heterologous prime-boost protocol (adeno prime followed by baculo boost) as well as homologous prime boost (adeno-adeno; baculo-baculo), and challenged 14 dpv by many FMDV serotypes, such as A24, A12, O1, Asia, Irn, and Iraq strains.

[0182] In the dose titration study, the recombinant adeno-vectored FMDV vaccine is evaluated for the ability to confer protection against FMD generalized disease (pedal lesions) following homologous and heterologous challenges at 14 days post-vaccination (dpv). The procedure described in Example 2 is used in this study to determine the minimum protective dose in the prime-boost administration regimen.

[0183] The results demonstrate that the recombinant adenovector FMDV vaccine used in primer-boost protocol is highly immunogenic and efficacious against homologous and heterologous FMDV challenges in pigs, overcomes interference and protects Maternally Derived Antibody-positive (MDA-positive) animals.

Example 8 Efficacy in Bovine



[0184] Cattles are vaccinated first with a recombinant Adenovirus vectored FMDV vaccine and bossted with a conventional killed FMD vaccine or a baculovirus-expressed FMDV VLP vaccine 21-day apart and challenged at day 14 post second vaccination by many FMDV serotypes, such as A24, A12, O1, Asia, Irn, and Iraq strains.

[0185] In the dose titration study, the recombinant adeno-vectored FMDV vaccine is evaluated for the ability to confer protection against FMD generalized disease (pedal lesions) following direct homologous and heterologous challenges at 14 days post-vaccination (dpv). The procedure described in Example 2 is used in this study to determine the minimum protective dose in the prime-boost administration regimen.

[0186] The results demonstrate that the the prime-boost administration regimen is highly immunogenic and efficacious against homologous and heterologous FMDV challenges in cattle, and provides protection in animals against FMDV infection, overcome interference, and protects Maternally Derived Antibody-positive (MDA-positive) animals.

SEQUENCE LISTING



[0187] 

<110> Merial, Inc.
Genvec Inc.
The Government of the United States of America, as
represented by the Secretary of Homeland Security
Widener, Justin
Woodyward , Leszlie
Siger , Leonardo
Brough , Douglas
Ettyreddy , Damodar
Gall , Jason
McVey , Duncan
Burrage , Tom

<120> RECOMBINANT ADENOVIRUS VECTORED FMDV VACCINES AND USES THEREOF

<130> MER 15-277.PCT

<150> 62/288,540
<151> 2016-01-29

<160> 8

<170> PatentIn version 3.5

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Claims

1. A composition or vaccine comprising a recombinant viral vector expressing a foot and mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) antigen, wherein the FMDV antigen comprises a polypeptide having the sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6 or 8 or a sequence having at least 80% sequence identity to the sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6 or 8.
 
2. The composition or vaccine of claim 1, wherein the viral vector is an adenovirus.
 
3. The composition or vaccine of claim 1 or 2, wherein the FMDV antigen is encoded by a polynucleotide having the sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1, 3, 5 or 7.
 
4. The composition or vaccine of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the composition or vaccine further comprises a pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle.
 
5. The composition or vaccine of claim 4, wherein the pharmaceutically or veterinarily acceptable carrier, excipient, adjuvant, or vehicle is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylic acid, LF2 emulsion, LR6 emulsion, TS6 emulsion, LR4 emulsion, carbomer, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, saponin, CpG, water-in-oil emulsion, oil-in-water emulsion and carbomer-based adjuvant.
 
6. A composition or vaccine according to any one of claims 1-5 for use in a method of vaccinating an animal susceptible to FMDV infection or eliciting an immune response in the animal against FMDV comprising at least one administration of the composition.
 
7. The composition or vaccine for use of claim 6, wherein the method comprises a prime-boost administration regimen.
 
8. The composition or vaccine for use of claim 7, wherein the prime-boost regimen comprises a prime-administration of a composition or vaccine according to any one of claims 1-5, and a boost administration of a composition comprising a recombinant viral vector comprising a polynucleotide for expressing, in vivo, an FMDV antigen, or a composition comprising an FMDV antigen, or an inactivated viral composition comprising an FMDV antigen, to protect the animal from FMDV and/or to prevent disease progression in infected animal.
 
9. The composition or vaccine for use of claim 7, wherein the prime-boost regimen comprises a prime-administration of a composition comprising a recombinant viral vector comprising a polynucleotide for expressing, in vivo, an FMDV antigen, or a composition comprising an FMDV antigen, or an inactivated viral composition comprising an FMDV antigen, and a boost administration of a composition or vaccine according to any one of claims 1-5 to protect the animal from FMDV and/or to prevent disease progression in infected animal.
 


Ansprüche

1. Zusammensetzung oder Impfstoff, umfassend einen rekombinanten viralen Vektor, der ein Maul-und-Klauenseuche-Virus (foot and mouth disease virus; MKS)-Antigen exprimiert, wobei das MKS-Antigen ein Polypeptid umfasst, das die wie in SEQ ID NO:2, 4, 6 oder 8 gezeigte Sequenz oder eine Sequenz aufweist, die mindestens 80% Sequenzidentität mit der in SEQ ID NO:2, 4, 6 oder 8 gezeigten Sequenz aufweist.
 
2. Zusammensetzung oder Impfstoff nach Anspruch 1, wobei der virale Vektor ein Adenovirus ist.
 
3. Zusammensetzung oder Impfstoff nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das MKS-Antigen von einem Polynucleotid codiert wird, das die wie in SEQ ID NO:1, 3, 5 oder 7 gezeigte Sequenz aufweist.
 
4. Zusammensetzung oder Impfstoff nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei die Zusammensetzung oder der Impfstoff des Weiteren einen pharmazeutisch oder veterinärmedizinisch verträglichen Träger, Exzipienten, ein pharmazeutisch oder veterinärmedizinisch verträgliches Adjuvans oder Vehikel umfasst.
 
5. Zusammensetzung oder Impfstoff nach Anspruch 4, wobei der pharmazeutisch oder veterinärmedizinisch verträgliche Träger, Exzipient, das pharmazeutisch oder veterinärmedizinisch verträgliche Adjuvans oder Vehikel ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Polyacrylsäure, LF2-Emulsion, LR6-Emulsion, TS6-Emulsion, LR4-Emulsion, Carbomer, Aluminiumhydroxid, Aluminiumphosphat, Saponin, CpG, Wasser-in-ÖI-Emulsion, Öl-in-Wasser-Emulsion und Carbomer-basiertem Adjuvans.
 
6. Zusammensetzung oder Impfstoff nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, zur Verwendung bei einem Verfahren zum Impfen eines Tieres, das für MKS-Infektion anfällig ist, oder zum Hervorrufen einer Immunantwort gegen MKS in dem Tier, umfassend mindestens eine Verabreichung der Zusammensetzung.
 
7. Zusammensetzung oder Impfstoff zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 6, wobei das Verfahren ein Prime-Boost-Verabreichungsschema umfasst.
 
8. Zusammensetzung oder Impfstoff zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 7, wobei das Prime-Boost-Verabreichungsschema eine Prime-Verabreichung einer Zusammensetzung oder eines Impfstoffs nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5 und eine Boost-Verabreichung einer Zusammensetzung umfasst, die einen rekombinanten viralen Vektor umfasst, der ein Polynucleotid zur in vivo-Expression eines MKS-Antigens umfasst, oder einer Zusammensetzung, die ein MKS-Antigen umfasst, oder einer inaktivierten viralen Zusammensetzung, die ein MKS-Antigen umfasst, um das Tier vor MKS zu schützen und/oder um ein Fortschreiten der Erkrankung in dem infizierten Tier zu verhindern.
 
9. Zusammensetzung oder Impfstoff zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 7, wobei das Prime-Boost-Verabreichungsschema eine Prime-Verabreichung einer Zusammensetzung umfasst, die einen rekombinanten viralen Vektor umfasst, der ein Polynucleotid zur in vivo-Expression eines MKS-Antigens umfasst, oder einer Zusammensetzung, die ein MKS-Antigen umfasst, oder einer inaktivierten viralen Zusammensetzung, die ein MKS-Antigen umfasst, und eine Boost-Verabreichung einer Zusammensetzung oder eines Impfstoffs nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, um das Tier vor MKS zu schützen und/oder ein Fortschreiten der Erkrankung in dem infizierten Tier zu verhindern.
 


Revendications

1. Composition ou vaccin comprenant un vecteur viral recombinant exprimant un antigène du virus de la fièvre aphteuse (FMDV), où l'antigène de FMDV comprend un polypeptide ayant la séquence présentée dans SEQ ID NO : 2, 4, 6 ou 8 ou une séquence ayant au moins 80 % d'identité de séquence avec la séquence présentée dans SEQ ID NO : 2, 4, 6 ou 8.
 
2. Composition ou vaccin selon la revendication 1, où le vecteur viral est un adénovirus.
 
3. Composition ou vaccin selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, où l'antigène de FMDV est codé par un polynucléotide ayant la séquence présentée dans SEQ ID NO : 1, 3, 5 ou 7.
 
4. Composition ou vaccin selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1-3, où la composition ou vaccin comprend en outre un vecteur, excipient, adjuvant ou véhicule acceptable du point de vue pharmaceutique ou vétérinaire.
 
5. Composition ou vaccin selon la revendication 4, où le vecteur, excipient, adjuvant ou véhicule acceptable du point de vue pharmaceutique ou vétérinaire est choisi dans le groupe consistant en le poly(acide acrylique), une émulsion LF2, une émulsion LR6, une émulsion TS6, une émulsion LR4, un carbomère, l'hydroxyde d'aluminium, le phosphate d'aluminium, la saponine, CpG, une émulsion eau dans huile, une émulsion huile dans eau et un adjuvant à base de carbomère.
 
6. Composition ou vaccin selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1-5 pour utilisation dans un procédé de vaccination d'un animal sensible à une infection par FMDV ou pour déclencher une réponse immunitaire contre FMDV chez l'animal comprenant au moins une administration de la composition.
 
7. Composition ou vaccin pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 6, où le procédé comprend un schéma d'administration primo-rappel.
 
8. Composition ou vaccin pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 7, où le schéma primo-rappel comprend une primo-administration d'une composition ou vaccin selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1-5, et une administration de rappel d'une composition comprenant un vecteur viral recombinant comprenant un polynucléotide pour exprimer, in vivo, un antigène de FMDV, ou d'une composition comprenant un antigène de FMDV, ou d'une composition virale inactivée comprenant un antigène de FMDV, pour protéger l'animal contre FMDV et/ou pour empêcher la progression de la maladie chez un animal infecté.
 
9. Composition ou vaccin pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 7, où le schéma primo-rappel comprend une primo-administration d'une composition comprenant un vecteur viral recombinant comprenant un polynucléotide pour exprimer, in vivo, un antigène de FMDV, ou d'une composition comprenant un antigène de FMDV, ou d'une composition virale inactivée comprenant un antigène de FMDV, et une administration de rappel d'une composition ou vaccin selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1-5 pour protéger l'animal contre FMDV et/ou pour empêcher la progression de la maladie chez un animal infecté.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description