(19)
(11)EP 3 409 276 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
30.12.2020 Bulletin 2020/53

(21)Application number: 18181955.8

(22)Date of filing:  05.04.2011
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61K 31/37  (2006.01)
A61K 45/06  (2006.01)
A61P 31/12  (2006.01)
C07D 311/18  (2006.01)
A61K 31/496  (2006.01)
A61P 35/00  (2006.01)
A61P 37/02  (2006.01)
C07D 405/06  (2006.01)

(54)

IRE-1A INHIBITORS

IRE-1A-INHIBITOREN

INHIBITEURS D'IRE-1A


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 05.04.2010 US 32097510 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
05.12.2018 Bulletin 2018/49

(60)Divisional application:
20209114.6

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
11715346.0 / 2555768

(73)Proprietor: Fosun Orinove Pharmatech, Inc.
Suzhou (CN)

(72)Inventors:
  • ZENG, Qingping
    SuZhou Industrial Park 215123 (CN)
  • TORO, Andras
    Valencia, CA 91355 (US)
  • PATTERSON, John Bruce
    Valencia, CA 91355 (US)
  • WADE, Warren Stanfield
    Valencia, CA 91355 (US)
  • ZUBOVICS, Zoltan
    Valencia, CA 91355 (US)
  • YANG, Yun
    Teda, Tianjin (CN)
  • WU, Zhipeng
    Teda, Tianjin (CN)

(74)Representative: Swan, Elizabeth Mary 
Withers & Rogers LLP 4 More London Riverside
London SE1 2AU
London SE1 2AU (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2008/154484
US-B1- 6 303 652
  
  • ZHANG N ET AL: "Docking and 3D-QSAR studies of 7-hydroxycoumarin derivatives as CK2 inhibitors", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUE ELSEVIER, PARIS, FR, vol. 45, no. 1, 1 January 2010 (2010-01-01), pages 292-297, XP026808498, ISSN: 0223-5234 [retrieved on 2009-10-13]
  • CHILIN ADRIANA ET AL: "Coumarin as attractive casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor scaffold: an integrate approach to elucidate the putative binding motif and explain structure-activity relationships.", JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 28 FEB 2008 LNKD- PUBMED:18251491, vol. 51, no. 4, 28 February 2008 (2008-02-28), pages 752-759, XP002656336, ISSN: 0022-2623
  • TANIGUCHI MASAHIKO ET AL: "Four coumarins from Heracleum yunngningense.", CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN JUN 2005 LNKD- PUBMED:15930788, vol. 53, no. 6, June 2005 (2005-06), pages 701-704, XP002656337, ISSN: 0009-2363
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The field of the invention includes IRE-1α inhibitors and their therapeutic uses.

BACKGROUND



[0002] Protein folding stress in the endoplasmic reticulum of a cell initiates a signal transduction cascade termed the unfolded protein response or UPR. A key enzyme, inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1α), relieves protein folding stress by enhancing molecular chaperone activity and therefore protects cells from stress induced apoptosis. Inhibitors of IRE-1α can be used in the treatment of at least B cell autoimmune diseases, certain cancers, and some viral infections.

[0003] Adriana Chilin et al. "Coumarin as attractive casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor scaffold: an integrate approach to elucidate the putative binding motif and explain structure-activity relationships.", JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 28 FEB 2008, vol. 51, no. 4, discloses several novel Casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitors. In particular, Adriana Chilin et al. synthetized and tested a small library of coumarins including two 7-hydroxy-8-formylcoumarin compounds (compound no. 14 and no. 64) with antitumor activity, wherein the 3-substituent on the coumarin core is bromine or hydrogen and differs significantly from the structures of the present invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0004] 

Figure 1 shows inhibition of endogenous XBP-1 splicing in RPMI 8226 cells using 10µM IRE-1α endoribonuclease inhibitor (Cmpd) and Thapsigargin (Tg) induced XBP-1s. PCR amplification products were run on a 4% agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide. The inverse image is shown.

Figure 2 shows inhibition of regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of Blos1 (Figure 2A) and CD59 (Figure 2B) in human RPMI 8226 cells using a selective IRE-1α endoribonuclease inhibitor. GAPDH (Figure 2C) is shown as a control. Cells were left untreated or treated with 10uM IRE-1α inhibitor or 300nM thapsigargin (Tg) or both or for 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 or 24 hours. Total RNA was harvested and RT-qPCR was performed using specific primers for each of the individual mRNAs. The expression levels are shown as Ct values where one PCR cycle correlates to a 2-fold change.

Figure 3A. (reference) Time course of experiment described in Example 44.

Figure 3B. (reference) Results of RT-PCR analysis performed using murine-specific XBP-1 primers from total RNA harvested from specified organs after intraperitoneal treatment with an IRE-1α inhibitor (Example 44).

Figure 4A. (reference) Results of RT-PCR analysis performed using murine-specific XBP-1 primers from total RNA harvested from specified organs after intravenous treatment with an IRE-1α inhibitor (Example 44).

Figure 4B. (reference) Results of RT-PCR analysis performed using murine-specific XBP-1 primers from total RNA harvested from specified organs after oral treatment with an IRE-1α inhibitor (Example 44).

Figure 5A. Time course of experiment described in Example 45.

Figure 5B. Results of RT-PCR amplification of XBP-1 using human specific primers.

Figure 6A. Time course of experiment described in Example 46.

Figure 6B. Results of RT-PCR amplification of XBP-1 using human specific primers.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0005] The present invention is defined in and by the appended claims.

[0006] Provided is a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, where the compound directly inhibits IRE-1α activity in vitro and is selected from
149

157

164

170

175

180

185

195

158

88



[0007] This specification describes IRE-1α inhibitor compounds and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof; purified preparations IRE-1α inhibitor compounds and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof; pharmaceutical compositions comprising IRE-1α inhibitor compounds and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof; which are IRE-1α inhibitor compounds, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, as defined in claim 1, for use in the treatment of disorders associated with the unfolded protein response. Patients who can be treated include those with B cell autoimmune diseases, certain cancers, and some viral infections. In other embodiments IRE-1α inhibitor compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, as defined in claim 1, can be administered in the treatment of disorders associated with regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD). Other disclosures are intermediates of IRE-1α inhibitor compounds and methods of synthesizing IRE-1α inhibitor compounds as set forth in the specific Examples, below.

Definitions



[0008] 

"Halogen" includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

Unless otherwise specified, the term "alkyl" as used herein means a saturated monovalent hydrocarbon radical having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 carbon atoms ("C1-C6 alkyl") and can be linear, branched, or a combination thereof. "C1-C6 alkyl" includes C1-C5 alkyl, C1-C4 alkyl, and C1-C3 alkyl. Examples of C1-C6 alkyls include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, n-butyl, 2-butyl, pentyl, and hexyl.

"Alkoxy" as used herein means -O-alkyl groups, where "alkyl" is as defined above, and can be linear, branched, or a combination thereof. Examples of C1-C6 alkoxys include, for example, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, 2-propoxy, butoxy, sec-butoxy, and tert-butoxy.

The term "perfluoroalkyl" means an alkyl group as defined above in which all of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by fluorine atoms. The term "perfluoroalkoxy" means an alkoxy group in which the alkyl moiety is a perfluoroalkyl group as defined above.

The term "hydroxylalkyl" as used herein means an alkyl group as defined above which is substituted with a hydroxyl group.

The term "alkoxylalkyl" means radicals of the formula CaH2a+1-O-(CH2)b-, in which a and b independently are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.

A "cycloalkyl" is a saturated or partially saturated 3- to 14-membered (i.e., a 3-, 4-, 5-, 6, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, 12-, 13-, or 14-membered) monocyclic or polycyclic ring, such as a 5-, 6-, or 7-membered monocyclic ring or a 10-membered bicyclic ring, in which all of the ring members are carbon atoms. Examples of cycloalkyls include cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, and cyclooctyl.

"Aryl," when used alone or as part of another term, means a carbocyclic aromatic ring containing 5 to 14 members (e.g., 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or 14 members) and can be monocyclic or polycyclic. Examples of aryls include phenyl, naphthyl, anthryl, and phenanthryl.

A "heterocycle," "heterocyclic group," and "heterocyclic ring" is a saturated or a partially saturated 4- to 14-membered (i.e., 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, 12-, 13-, or 14-membered) monocyclic or polycyclic (fused) ring, such as a 5-, 6-, or 7-membered monocyclic ring or a 10-membered bicyclic ring which has 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and sulfur (S). Any of the nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms optionally can be oxidized, and any nitrogen heteroatom optionally can be quaternized. A heterocyclic ring can be attached at any suitable heteroatom or carbon atom. Examples of heterocycles include azepinyl, furyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, pyridyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, triazolyl, isobenzofuranyl, furazanyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, oxazolyl, imidazolinyl, isoxazolyl, quinolyl, naphthyridinyl, phenoxazinyl, phenanthridinyl, chromenyl, triazinyl, purinyl, benzothienyl, benzimidazolyl, benzopyranyl, benzothiazolyl, benzoazolyl, benzo[b]thienyl, naphtho[2,3-b]-thienyl, isothiazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, isoquinolinyl, thiadiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, indolizinyl, isoindolyl, indazolyl, isoquinolyl, phthalazinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, and cinnolinyl.

A "heteroaryl" is a saturated 4- to 14-membered (i.e., 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, 12-, 13-, or 14-membered) monocyclic or polycyclic (fused) ring, such as a 5-, 6-, or 7-membered monocyclic ring or a 10-membered bicyclic ring which has 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and sulfur (S). Any of the nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms optionally can be oxidized, and any nitrogen heteroatom optionally can be quaternized. A heteroaryl can be attached at any suitable heteroatom or carbon atom. Examples of heteroaryls include pyridyl, imidazolyl, pyrrolyl, thienyl, furyl, pyranyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, indolyl, quinolyl, naphthyridinyl, and isoxazolyl.



[0009] IRE-1α Inhibitor Compounds

[0010] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds directly inhibit IRE-1α. The compounds are understood to act through inhibition of the RNAse activity of the enzyme. IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can form a complex with IRE-1α. This activity can be detected as cleavage of a human mini-XBP-1 mRNA stem-loop substrate 5'-CAGUCCGCAGGACUG-3' (SEQ ID NO:1) by IRE-1α in vitro by 10 to 100%. Other substrates also can be used to detect cleavage. See US 2007/0105123.

[0011] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can meet either or both of the following criteria:
  1. a. Some compounds inhibit IRE-1α in the in vitro assay with an IC50 of approximately 0.0005-20 µM. Some of these compounds have an IC50 in this assay of approximately 1-20 µM. Others have an IC50 in this assay of approximately 0.1-1 µM. Still others have an IC50 of approximately 0.0005-0.1 µM.
  2. b. Some compounds inhibit IRE-1α in an in vivo XBP-1 splicing assay (e.g., in myeloma cells) with an EC50 in the range of approximately 0.05-80 µM. Some of these compounds have an EC050 in this assay of approximately 10-80 µM. Others have an EC050 in this assay of approximately 1-10 µM. Still others have an EC050 in this assay of approximately 0.05-1 µM.


[0012] Compounds fall into one or more of the structural formulae described below. Non-limiting examples of compounds falling within the scope of these structural formulae are provided in Tables 1 and 2 and in the Examples.

[0013] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A):

wherein:

R3 and R4 independently are hydrogen; halogen; hydroxyl; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl; or optionally substituted alkylamino. Optional substituents for the alkyl or for the alkoxyl and alkylamino are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing an N or O atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl;

Q5, Q6, Q7 and Q8 (used throughout this specification interchangeably with Q5, Q6, Q7 and Q8), together with the benzene ring to which they are attached, form a benzofused ring. In some embodiments, Q7 is a bond which connects Q6 and Q8. The benzofused ring may or may not be fully aromatic.

Q5 is CR5, CR5R5', N, NR5, NC=OR5, O, S, or C=O;

Q6 is CR6, CR6R6', N, NR6, NC=OR6, O, S, or C=O;

Q7 is CR7, CR7R7, N, NR7, NC=OR7, O, S, C=O, or a bond; and

Q8 is CR8, CR8R8', N, NR8, NC=OR8, O, S, C=O,
PROVIDED THAT: at least one of Q5, Q6, Q7 (when not a bond), and Q8 must be a heteroatom selected from N, S, and O and Q5, Q6, Q7, and Q8 do not form O-O, O-N, O-S, or O=C-C=O bonds.

R5, R5', R6, R6', R7, R7', R8, and R8' are independently hydrogen; R21;



alkenyl, alkynyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, - CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,

a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,



wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

or R5 and R6, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a 5-membered cycloalkyl,
PROVIDED THAT:

  1. 1. R5, R5', R6, R6', R7, R7', R8, and R8' are not simultaneously hydrogen;
  2. 2. when R5, R5', R6, R6', R7, R7', R8, and R8' are independently

    none of Q5, Q6, Q7, and Q8 is N, O, or S; and
  3. 3. when R5, R5', R6, R6', R7, R7', R8, and R8' are independently a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from



    then the



    is linked to a carbon atom of the 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl;

R9 and R10 are independently hydrogen; alkyl; alkoxylalkyl; perfluoroalkoxylalkyl; aryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; or

wherein n is 0, 1, 2, or 3; or

R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11;

R11 is hydrogen; alkyl; aryl; heteroaryl containing 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S; arylalkyl; heteroarylalkyl in which the heteroaryl contains 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S;



R12 is amino; alkoxy; aryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11; a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S and optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11; or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S and optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11;

R13 is alkyl; alkoxylalkyl; perfluoroalkoxylalkyl; aryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; or

wherein n is 0, 1,2, or 3; and R14 is hydrogen or R13; or

R13 and R14, together with the nitrogen to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms selected independently from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R16;

R15 is amino; alkoxy; aryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R21; a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S and optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected from R21; or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S and optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected from R21;

R16 is hydrogen; alkyl; aryl; heteroaryl containing 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S; arylalkyl; heteroarylalkyl in which the heteroaryl contains 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S;



amino; or

R17 is alkyl; alkoxylalkyl; perfluoroalkoxylalkyl; aryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; or

wherein n is 0, 1, 2, or 3; and R18 is hydrogen or R17; or

R17 and R18, together with the nitrogen to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected independently from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R20;

R19 is alkoxy; aryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R21; a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21;

R20 is a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle having 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S and optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R21; a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R21; or R21; and

R21 is halogen, perfluoroalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy, -CN, -CONH2, -CON(CH3)2, alkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, or alkoxylalkyl,

with the exception of the compounds excluded from structural formulae (A-1), (A-2), (A-3), (A-4), (A-5), (A-6), and (A-7), below.



[0014] Non-limiting examples of

include the following, in which "X" is halogen, - CN, -CONH2, -CON(CH3)2, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, C1-C4 hydroxylalkyl, or C1-C4 alkoxylalkyl:

























[0015] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-1):

wherein R3, R4, R5, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A), PROVIDED THAT if R3 and R4 are both hydrogen and R5 is methyl, then R6 cannot be ethyl or unsubstituted phenyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0016] Structural formula (A-1a). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which R5 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or an optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing an N or O atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0017] Structural formula (A-1b). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which R6 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0018] Structural formula (A-1c). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which R6 is alkenyl, alkyne, phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

and
R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0019] Structural formula (A-1d). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which R4 is hydrogen, alkoxyl, or hydroxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0020] Structural formula (A-le). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen, alkoxyl, or hydroxyl, and
  2. b. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl.


[0021] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0022] Structural formula (A-1f). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen, alkoxyl, or hydroxyl and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen; alkenyl, alkyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,

    a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,



    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    or R5 and R6, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a 5-membered cycloalkyl.


[0023] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0024] Structural formula (A-lg). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0025] Structural formula (A-1h). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds include only compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen; alkenyl, alkyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,

    a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,



    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    or R5 and R6, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a 5-membered cycloalkyl.


[0026] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0027] Structural formula (A-li). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which R6 is independently hydrogen; alkenyl, alkyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, - CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,

a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

or R5 and R6, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a 5-membered cycloalkyl.

[0028] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0029] Structural formula (A-1j). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen, alkoxyl, or hydroxyl,
  2. b. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl, and
  3. c. R6 is hydrogen; alkenyl, alkyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,

    a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,



    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    or R5 and R6, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a 5-membered cycloalkyl.


[0030] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0031] Structural formula (A-lk). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen, alkoxyl, or hydroxyl,
  2. b. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl, and
  3. c. R6 is hydrogen; alkenyl, alkyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,



[0032] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0033] Structural formula (A-1l). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen, alkoxyl, or hydroxyl,
  2. b. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl, and
  3. c. R6 is a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, - CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,



[0034] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0035] Structural formula (A-1m). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen, alkoxyl, or hydroxyl,
  2. b. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl, and
  3. c. R6 is



[0036] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0037] Structural formula (A-1n). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen,
  2. b. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl, and
  3. c. R6 is hydrogen; alkenyl, alkyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,

    a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,



    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    or R5 and R6, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a 5-membered cycloalkyl.


[0038] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0039] Structural formula (A-1o). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is alkoxyl,
  2. b. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl, and
  3. c. R6 is hydrogen; alkenyl, alkyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,

    a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,



    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    or R5 and R6, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a 5-membered cycloalkyl.


[0040] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0041] Structural formula (A-lp). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydroxyl,
  2. b. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, CF3, or, together with R6 and the carbon atoms to which they are attached, forms a five-membered cycloalkyl, and
  3. c. R6 is hydrogen; alkenyl, alkyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,

    a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,



    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    or R5 and R6, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a 5-membered cycloalkyl.


[0042] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0043] Structural formula (A-1q). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-1) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen, alkoxyl, or hydroxyl,
  2. b. R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylamino, or CF3, and
  3. c. R6 is hydrogen; alkenyl, alkyl, or phenyl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy,

    a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl that is substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxyl,



    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    or R5 and R6, together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached, form a 5-membered cycloalkyl.


[0044] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0045] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1a) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0046] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1a) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0047] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1a) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0048] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1a) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0049] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1b) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0050] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1b) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0051] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1c) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0052] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1c) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0053] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1d) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0054] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1d) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0055] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-le) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0056] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-le) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0057] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1f) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0058] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1f) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0059] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lg) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0060] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lg) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0061] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lh) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0062] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lh) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0063] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-li) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0064] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-li) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0065] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lj) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0066] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lj) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0067] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lk) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0068] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lk) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0069] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1l) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0070] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1l) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0071] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lm) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0072] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lm) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1n), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0073] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-ln) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0074] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-ln) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1o), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0075] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lo) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0076] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lo) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1p), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0077] Some embodiments specifically include and some embodiments only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lp) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), and (A-1q). In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1). Each possible combination is specifically contemplated as if set forth explicitly herein.

[0078] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-lp) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), and (A-1q). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0079] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1q) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), and (A-1p). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0080] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-1q) and (2) compounds of up to 16 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16) of structural formulae (A-1a), (A-1b), (A-1c), (A-1d), (A-1e), (A-1f), (A-1g), (A-1h), (A-1i), (A-1j), (A-1k), (A-1l), (A-1m), (A-1n), (A-1o), and (A-1p). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-1).

[0081] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-2):

wherein R3, R4, R5, R5', R6, R7, R7', R8, and R8' are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0082] Structural formula (A-2a). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-2) in which R3, R4, R5, R5', R7, R7', R8, and R8' are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0083] Structural formula (A-2b). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-2) in which R6 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0084] Structural formula (A-2c). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-2) in which R7' is hydrogen and R7 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0085] Structural formula (A-2d). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-2) in which R6 is alkenyl, alkyne, phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

and
R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A).

[0086] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0087] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-2a) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-2b), (A-2c), and (A-2d). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0088] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-2a) and (2) compounds of up to 3 (e.g., 1, 2, or 3) of structural formulae (A-2b), (A-2c), and (A-2d). Such compounds May be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0089] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-2b) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-2a), (A-2c), and (A-2d). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0090] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-2b) and (2) compounds of up to 3 (e.g., 1, 2, or 3) of structural formulae (A-2a), (A-2c), and (A-2d). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0091] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-2c) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-2a), (A-2b), and (A-2d). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0092] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-2c) and (2) compounds of up to 3 (e.g., 1, 2, or 3) of structural formulae (A-2a), (A-2b), and (A-2d). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0093] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-2d) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-2a), (A-2b), and (A-2c). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0094] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-2d) and (2) compounds of up to 3 (e.g., 1, 2, or 3) of structural formulae (A-2a), (A-2b), and (A-2c). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-2).

[0095] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-3):

wherein:

R3, R4, R6, and R7 are as defined in structural formula (A), PROVIDED THAT:

  1. i. if R3 and R4 are hydrogen and R6 is optionally substituted phenyl, then R7 cannot be optionally substituted phenyl, hydrogen, methyl, or CH2O(CH2)2;
  2. ii. if R3 and R4 are hydrogen and R6 is methoxy, then R7 is not methyl or unsubstituted phenyl;
  3. iii. if R3 is ethyl, R4 is hydrogen, R7 is methyl, then R6 is not fluorophenyl;
  4. iv. if R3 is halogen and R4 and R7 are hydrogen, then R6 is not bromophenyl; and
  5. v. R6 and R7 cannot both be methyl if either:
    1. i. R3 is halogen and R4 is hydrogen; or
    2. ii. one of R3 and R4 is methyl and the other is hydrogen.



[0096] In other disclosures such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0097] Structural formula (A-3a). Some disclosures specifically include and some disclosures only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R6 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0098] Structural formula (A-3b). Some disclosures specifically include and some disclosures only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A). In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0099] Structural formula (A-3c). Some disclosures specifically include and some disclosures only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R7 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing an N or O atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl. In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0100] Structural formula (A-3d). Some disclosures specifically include and some disclosures only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R9 and R10 are independently hydrogen, C2-C6 alkyl, alkoxylalkyl, perfluoroalkoxylalkyl, aryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21. In other disclosures such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0101] Structural formula (A-3e). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R9 and R10 are independently a 5- or 6-membered heterocycle, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0102] Structural formula (A-3f). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R9 and R10 are independently a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from R21; or

wherein n is 0, 1, 2, or 3 and R12 is as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0103] Structural formula (A-3g). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11, wherein R11 is defined as in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0104] Structural formula (A-3h). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) which R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0105] Structural formula (A-3i). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R7 is alkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0106] Structural formula (A-3j). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R7 is methyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0107] Structural formula (A-3k). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R7 is alkyl.
  2. b. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0108] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0109] Structural formula (A-31). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A3) in which R3 is alkoxyl. Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R3 is methoxy. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0110] Structural formula (A-3m). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R7 is methyl and
  2. b. R3 is alkoxyl.


[0111] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0112] Structural formula (A-3n). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R7 is methyl;
  2. b. R3 is alkoxyl; and
  3. c. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which
    R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0113] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0114] Structural formula (A-3o). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R7 is methyl and
  2. b. R3 is methoxy.


[0115] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0116] Structural formula (A-3p). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R7 is methyl;
  2. b. R3 is methoxy; and
  3. c. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0117] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0118] Structural formula (A-3q). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R7 is alkyl and
  2. b. R3 is alkoxyl.


[0119] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0120] Structural formula (A-3r). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R7 is alkyl,
  2. b. R3 is alkoxyl, and
  3. c. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0121] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0122] Structural formula (A-3s). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R6 is

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2, and R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).

[0123] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0124] Structural formula (A-3t). Some specifically include and some only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0125] Structural formula (A-3u). Some specifically include and some only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0126] Structural formula (A-3v). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0127] Structural formula (A-3w). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R3 is methoxy and
  2. b. R4 is hydrogen.


[0128] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0129] Structural formula (A-3x). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which

a. R3 is methoxy,

b. R4 is hydrogen, and

c. R7 is methyl.



[0130] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0131] Structural formula (A-3y). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R4 is methoxy and
  2. b. R7 is methyl.


[0132] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0133] Structural formula (A-3z). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0134] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0135] Structural formula (A-3aa). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0136] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0137] Structural formula (A-3bb). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0138] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0139] Structural formula (A-3cc). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R3 is methoxy,
  2. b. R4 is hydrogen, and
  3. c. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0140] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0141] Structural formula (A-3dd). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R3 is methoxy,
  2. b. R4 is hydrogen,
  3. c. R7 is methyl, and
  4. d. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0142] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0143] Structural formula (A-3ee). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-3) in which
  1. a. R4 is methoxy,
  2. b. R7 is methyl, and
  3. c. R6 is alkenyl, or alkynyl, or phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

    in which R9 and R10 are defined as in structural formula (A).


[0144] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0145] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3a) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0146] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3a) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0147] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3b) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0148] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3b) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0149] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3c) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0150] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3c) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0151] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3d) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0152] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3d) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0153] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3e) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0154] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3e) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0155] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3f) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0156] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3f) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0157] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3g) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0158] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3g) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0159] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3h) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0160] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3h) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0161] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3i) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0162] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3i) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0163] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3j) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0164] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3j) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3)..

[0165] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3k) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0166] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3k) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0167] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3l) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3). Each possible combination is specifically contemplated as if set forth explicitly herein.

[0168] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3l) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0169] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3m) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0170] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3m) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0171] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3n) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0172] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3n) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0173] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3o) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0174] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3o) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0175] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3p) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0176] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3p) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0177] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3q) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0178] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3q) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0179] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3r) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0180] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3r) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0181] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3s) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0182] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3s) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0183] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3t) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0184] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3t) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0185] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3u) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0186] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3u) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0187] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3v) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0188] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3v) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0189] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3w) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0190] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3w) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0191] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3x) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0192] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3x) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0193] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3y) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0194] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3y) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0195] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3z) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0196] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3z) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3)..

[0197] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3aa) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0198] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3aa) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0199] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3bb) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0200] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3bb) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3cc), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0201] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3cc) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0202] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3cc) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3dd), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0203] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3dd) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0204] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3dd) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), and (A-3ee). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0205] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3ee) and (2) compounds of any of structural (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), and (A-3dd). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0206] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-3ee) and (2) compounds of up to 30 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-3a), (A-3b), (A-3c), (A-3d), (A-3e), (A-3f), (A-3g), (A-3h), (A-3i), (A-3j), (A-3k), (A-3l), (A-3m), (A-3n), (A-3o), (A-3p), (A-3q), (A-3r), (A-3s), (A-3t), (A-3u), (A-3v), (A-3w), (A-3x), (A-3y), (A-3z), (A-3aa), (A-3bb), (A-3cc), and (A-3dd). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-3).

[0207] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-4):

wherein R3, R4, R5, R5', R6, R6', R7, R8, and R8' are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0208] Structural formula (A-4a). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-4) in which R3, R4, R5, R5', R6, R6', R8, and R8' are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0209] Structural formula (A-4b). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-4) in which R7 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or an optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0210] Structural formula (A-4c). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-4) in which R7 is alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, or perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0211] Structural formula (A-4d). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-4) in which R7 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0212] Structural formula (A-4e). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-4) in which R7 is alkenyl, alkyne, phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

and
R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0213] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4a) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-4b), (A-4c), (A-4d), and (A-4e). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0214] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4a) and (2) compounds of up to 4 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, or 4) of structural formulae (A-4b), (A-4c), (A-4d), and (A-4e). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0215] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4b) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-4a), (A-4c), (A-4d), and (A-4e). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0216] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4b) and (2) compounds of up to 4 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, or 4) of structural formulae (A-4a), (A-4c), (A-4d), and (A-4e). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0217] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4c) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-4a), (A-4b), (A-4d), and (A-4e). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0218] Some specifically include and some only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4c) and (2) compounds of up to 4 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, or 4) of structural formulae (A-4a), (A-4b), (A-4d), and (A-4e). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0219] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4d) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-4a), (A-4b), (A-4c), and (A-4e). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0220] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4d) and (2) compounds of up to 4 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, or 4) of structural formulae (A-4a), (A-4b), (A-4c), and (A-4e). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0221] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4e) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-4a), (A-4b), (A-4c), and (A-4d). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0222] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-4e) and (2) compounds of up to 4 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, or 4) of structural formulae (A-4a), (A-4b), (A-4c), and (A-4d). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-4).

[0223] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-5):

wherein R3, R4, R6, R7, and R8 are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0224] Structural formula (A-5a). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-5) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-5).

[0225] Structural formula (A-5b). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-5) in which R6 is alkenyl, alkyne, phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

and
R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-5).

[0226] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-5a) and (2) compounds of structural formula (A-5b). In other embodiments, (1) compounds of structural formula (A-5a) and (2) compounds of structural formula (A-5b) compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-5).

[0227] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-6a):

wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0228] Structural formula (A-6a1). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0229] Structural formula (A-6a2). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0230] Structural formula (A-6a3). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0231] Structural formula (A-6a4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0232] Structural formula (A-6a5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-6a) in which R6 is C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxyl, C1-C6 hydroxylalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxylalkyl, or C1-C6 perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0233] Structural formula (A-6a6). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl.


[0234] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0235] Structural formula (A-6a7). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl.


[0236] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0237] Structural formula (A-6a8). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl.


[0238] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0239] Structural formula (A-6a9). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxyl, C1-C6 hydroxylalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxylalkyl, or C1-C6 perfluoroalkoxyl.


[0240] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0241] Structural formula (A-6a10). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxyl, C1-C6 hydroxylalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxylalkyl, or C1-C6 perfluoroalkoxyl.


[0242] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0243] Structural formula (A-6a11). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxyl, C1-C6 hydroxylalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxylalkyl, or C1-C6 perfluoroalkoxyl.


[0244] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0245] Structural formula (A-6a12). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-6a) in which R6 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0246] Structural formula (A-6a13). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-6a) in which R6 is alkenyl, alkyne, phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

and
R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0247] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0248] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a1) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0249] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0250] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a2) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0251] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0252] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a3) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a)..

[0253] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0254] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a4) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0255] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0256] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a5) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0257] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0258] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a6) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0259] Some specifically include and some only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0260] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a7) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0261] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0262] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a8) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0263] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0264] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a9) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0265] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0266] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a10) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a11), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0267] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0268] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a11) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a12), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a)..

[0269] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a12) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), and (A-6a13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0270] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a12) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), and (A-6a13). Such compounds specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0271] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a13) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), and (A-6a12). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0272] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6a13) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6a1), (A-6a2), (A-6a3), (A-6a4), (A-6a5), (A-6a6), (A-6a7), (A-6a8), (A-6a9), (A-6a10), (A-6a11), and (A-6a12). Such compounds such specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6a).

[0273] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-6b):

wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0274] Structural formula (A-6b1). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0275] Structural formula (A-6b2). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0276] Structural formula (A-6b3). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0277] Structural formula (A-6b4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl. In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0278] Structural formula (A-6b5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-6b) in which R6 is C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxyl, C1-C6 hydroxylalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxylalkyl, or C1-C6 perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0279] Structural formula (A-6b6). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl.


[0280] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0281] Structural formula (A-6b7). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl.


[0282] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0283] Structural formula (A-6b8). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl.


[0284] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0285] Structural formula (A-6b9). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxyl, C1-C6 hydroxylalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxylalkyl, or C1-C6 perfluoroalkoxyl.


[0286] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0287] Structural formula (A-6b10). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxyl, C1-C6 hydroxylalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxylalkyl, or C1-C6 perfluoroalkoxyl.


[0288] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0289] Structural formula (A-6b11). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-6b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxyl, C1-C6 hydroxylalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxylalkyl, or C1-C6 perfluoroalkoxyl.


[0290] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0291] Structural formula (A-6b12). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-6b) in which R6 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0292] Structural formula (A-6b13). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-6b) in which R6 is alkenyl, alkyne, phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

and
R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0293] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0294] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b1) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b)..

[0295] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0296] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b2) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0297] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0298] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b3) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0299] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0300] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b4) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0301] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0302] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b5) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0303] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0304] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b6) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0305] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0306] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b7) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0307] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0308] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b8) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0309] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0310] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b9) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0311] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0312] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b10) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b11), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0313] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0314] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b11) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b12), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0315] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b12) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0316] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b12) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), and (A-6b13). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0317] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b13) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), and (A-6b12). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0318] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b13) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), and (A-6b12). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0319] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b13) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-6bl), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), or (A-6b12). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0320] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-6b13) and (2) compounds of up to 12 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30) of structural formulae (A-6b1), (A-6b2), (A-6b3), (A-6b4), (A-6b5), (A-6b6), (A-6b7), (A-6b8), (A-6b9), (A-6b10), (A-6b11), or (A-6b12). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-6b).

[0321] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-7a), which can exist as a mixture of two tautomers:

wherein R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A). In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0322] Structural formula (A-7a1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7a) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0323] Structural formula (A-7a2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7a) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0324] Structural formula (A-7a3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7a) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0325] Structural formula (A-7a4). Some compounds include only those compounds of formula (A-7a) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0326] Structural formula (A-7a5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7a) in which R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0327] Structural formula (A-7a6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-7a) in which R6 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0328] Structural formula (A-7a7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-7a) in which R6 is alkenyl, alkyne, phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

and
R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A).

[0329] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0330] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0331] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a1) and (2) compounds of up to 6 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) of structural formulae (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0332] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0333] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a2) and (2) compounds of up to 6 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0334] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a2), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0335] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a3) and (2) compounds of up to 6 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a2), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0336] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a5), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0337] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a4) and (2) compounds of up to 6 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a5), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0338] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0339] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a5) and (2) compounds of up to 6 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a6), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0340] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0341] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a6) and (2) compounds of up to 6 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), and (A-7a7). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0342] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7al), (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), and (A-7a6). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0343] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7a7) and (2) compounds of up to 6 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) of structural formulae (A-7a1), (A-7a2), (A-7a3), (A-7a4), (A-7a5), and (A-7a6). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7a).

[0344] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-7b):

wherein R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A) and R7 is hydrogen or C1-C3 alkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0345] Structural formula (A-7b1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0346] Structural formula (A-7b2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0347] Structural formula (A-7b3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0348] Structural formula (A-7b4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which R7 is C1-C3 alkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0349] Structural formula (A-7b5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which R7 is methyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0350] Structural formula (A-7b6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0351] Structural formula (A-7b7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-7b) in which R6 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0352] Structural formula (A-7b8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-7b) in which R6 is alkenyl, alkyne, phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

and
R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0353] Structural formula (A-7b9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-7b) in which R6 is

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or

and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0354] Structural formula (A-7b10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A).


[0355] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0356] Structural formula (A-7b11). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R7 is C1-C3 alkyl.


[0357] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0358] Structural formula (A-7b12). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R7 is methyl.


[0359] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0360] Structural formula (A-7b13). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A).


[0361] In other compounds, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0362] Structural formula (A-7b14). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which

a. R4 is hydrogen; and

b. R6 is

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or

and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and

c. R7 is C1-C3 alkyl.



[0363] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0364] Structural formula (A-7b15). Some embodiments specifically include and some embodiments only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R7 is methyl.


[0365] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0366] Structural formula (A-7b16). Some embodiments specifically include and some embodiments only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A).


[0367] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0368] Structural formula (A-7b17). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R7 is C1-C3 alkyl.


[0369] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0370] Structural formula (A-7b18). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R7 is methyl.


[0371] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0372] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0373] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b1) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0374] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0375] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b2) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0376] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0377] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b3) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0378] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0379] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b4) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0380] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0381] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b5) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0382] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0383] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b6) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0384] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0385] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b7) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0386] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0387] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b8) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b9), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0388] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0389] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b9) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0390] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0391] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b10) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0392] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b)..

[0393] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b11) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0394] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b12) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0395] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b12) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0396] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b13) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0397] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b13) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0398] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b14) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0399] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b14) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0400] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b15) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0401] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b15) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b16), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0402] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b16) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0403] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b16) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b17), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0404] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b17) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7bl), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0405] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b17) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7a16), and (A-7b18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0406] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b18) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), and (A-7b17). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0407] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7b18) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7b1), (A-7b2), (A-7b3), (A-7b4), (A-7b5), (A-7b6), (A-7b7), (A-7b8), (A-7b9), (A-7b10), (A-7b11), (A-7b12), (A-7b13), (A-7b14), (A-7b15), (A-7b16), and (A-7b17). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7b).

[0408] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-7c):

wherein R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A) and R5 is hydrogen or C1-C3 alkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0409] Structural formula (A-7c1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0410] Structural formula (A-7c2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0411] Structural formula (A-7c3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0412] Structural formula (A-7c4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which R5 is C1-C3 alkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0413] Structural formula (A-7c5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which R5 is methyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0414] Structural formula (A-7c6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which R6 is hydrogen; halogen; -CN; optionally substituted alkyl; or optionally substituted alkoxyl. Optional substituents for the alkyl and for the alkoxyl are (1) a C1-C6 hydrocarbon chain containing a nitrogen or oxygen atom and optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl, and (2) a cycloalkyl which may contain 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, and which is optionally substituted with a C1-C3 perfluoroalkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0415] Structural formula (A-7c7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-7c) in which R6 is a side chain selected from the group consisting of alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxyl, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl, each optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from halogen, -CN, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxylalkyl, alkoxylalkyl, and perfluoroalkoxyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0416] Structural formula (A-7c8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-7c) in which R6 is alkenyl, alkyne, phenyl, or a 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2;

and
R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0417] Structural formula (A-7c9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compoundsof structural formula (A-7c) in which R6 is

wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0418] Structural formula (A-7c10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A).


[0419] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0420] Structural formula (A-7c11). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R5 is C1-C3 alkyl.


[0421] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0422] Structural formula (A-7c12). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which
  1. a. R3 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R5 is methyl.


[0423] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0424] Structural formula (A-7c13). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A).


[0425] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0426] Structural formula (A-7c14). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R5 is C1-C3 alkyl.


[0427] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0428] Structural formula (A-7c15). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which
  1. a. R4 is hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R5 is methyl.


[0429] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0430] Structural formula (A-7c16). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or ,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A).


[0431] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0432] Structural formula (A-7c17). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R5 is C1-C3 alkyl.


[0433] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0434] Structural formula (A-7c18). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-7c) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen; and
  2. b. R6 is

    wherein n is 0, 1, or 2; or,

    and R9 and R10 are as defined in connection with structural formula (A); and
  3. c. R5 is methyl.


[0435] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0436] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0437] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c1) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0438] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0439] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c2) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0440] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0441] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c3) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0442] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0443] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c4) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0444] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0445] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c5) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0446] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0447] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c6) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0448] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0449] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c7) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0450] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0451] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c8) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0452] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0453] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c9) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0454] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0455] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c10) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0456] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0457] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c11) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0458] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c12) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0459] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c12) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0460] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c13) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0461] Some compounds include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c13) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0462] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c14) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0463] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c14) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0464] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c15) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0465] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c15) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c16), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0466] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c16) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0467] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c16) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c17), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0468] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c17) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), and (A-7c18). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0469] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c17) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7a16), and (A-7cl 8). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0470] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c18) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), and (A-7c17). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0471] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-7c18) and (2) compounds of up to 17 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17) of structural formulae (A-7c1), (A-7c2), (A-7c3), (A-7c4), (A-7c5), (A-7c6), (A-7c7), (A-7c8), (A-7c9), (A-7c10), (A-7c11), (A-7c12), (A-7c13), (A-7c14), (A-7c15), (A-7c16), and (A-7c17). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-7c).

[0472] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-8a):

wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A). In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0473] Structural formula (A-8a1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0474] Structural formula (A-8a2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0475] Structural formula (A-8a3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0476] Structural formula (A-8a4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen, alkyl,



[0477] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0478] Structural formula (A-8a5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkyl.


[0479] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0480] Structural formula (A-8a6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0481] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0482] Structural formula (A-8a7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen,
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R10 is alkyl.


[0483] Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0484] Structural formula (A-8a8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0485] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0486] Structural formula (A-8a9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and n is 2.


[0487] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0488] Structural formula (A-8a10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11, wherein R11 is as defined in structural formula (A).


[0489] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0490] Structural formula (A-8a11). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

  3. c. R9 is alkyl or alkoxylalkyl, and
  4. d. R10 is hydrogen.


[0491] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0492] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0493] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a1) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0494] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0495] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a2) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0496] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0497] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a3) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0498] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0499] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a4) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0500] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0501] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a5) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0502] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0503] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a6) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0504] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0505] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a7) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0506] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0507] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a8) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a9), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0508] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0509] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a9) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a10), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0510] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), and (A-8al 1). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0511] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a10) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), and (A-8a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0512] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), and (A-8a10). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0513] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8a11) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8a1), (A-8a2), (A-8a3), (A-8a4), (A-8a5), (A-8a6), (A-8a7), (A-8a8), (A-8a9), and (A-8a10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8a).

[0514] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-8b):

wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0515] Structural formula (A-8b1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0516] Structural formula (A-8b2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0517] Structural formula (A-8b3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0518] Structural formula (A-8b4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen, alkyl,



[0519] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0520] Structural formula (A-8b5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkyl.


[0521] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0522] Structural formula (A-8b6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0523] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0524] Structural formula (A-8b7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen,
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R10 is alkyl.


[0525] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0526] Structural formula (A-8b8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0527] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0528] Structural formula (A-8b9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and n is 2.


[0529] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0530] Structural formula (A-8b10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11, wherein R11 is as defined in structural formula (A).


[0531] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0532] Structural formula (A-8b11). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-8b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

  3. c. R9 is alkyl or alkoxylalkyl, and
  4. d. R10 is hydrogen.


[0533] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0534] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0535] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b1) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0536] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0537] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b2) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0538] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0539] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b3) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0540] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0541] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b4) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b)..

[0542] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0543] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b5) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0544] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0545] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b6) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0546] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0547] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b7) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0548] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0549] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b8) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b9), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0550] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0551] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b9) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b10), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0552] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0553] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b10) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), and (A-8b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0554] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), and (A-8b10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0555] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-8b11) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-8b1), (A-8b2), (A-8b3), (A-8b4), (A-8b5), (A-8b6), (A-8b7), (A-8b8), (A-8b9), and (A-8b10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-8b).

[0556] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-9a):

wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0557] Structural formula (A-9a1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0558] Structural formula (A-9a2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0559] Structural formula (A-9a3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0560] Structural formula (A-9a4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen, alkyl,



[0561] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0562] Structural formula (A-9a5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkyl.


[0563] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0564] Structural formula (A-9a6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0565] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0566] Structural formula (A-9a7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen,
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R10 is alkyl.


[0567] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0568] Structural formula (A-9a8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0569] Such compounds may specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0570] Structural formula (A-9a9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and n is 2.


[0571] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0572] Structural formula (A-9a10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11, wherein R11 is as defined in structural formula (A).


[0573] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0574] Structural formula (A-9a11). Some compounds include only those compounds of structural formula (A-9a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

  3. c. R9 is alkyl or alkoxylalkyl, and
  4. d. R10 is hydrogen.


[0575] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0576] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0577] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a1) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0578] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0579] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a2) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0580] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0581] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a3) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0582] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0583] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a4) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0584] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0585] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a5) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0586] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0587] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a6) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0588] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0589] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a7) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0590] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0591] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a8) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a9), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0592] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0593] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a9) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a10), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0594] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), and (A-9al 1). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0595] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a10) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), and (A-9a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0596] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), and (A-9a10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0597] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9a11) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9a1), (A-9a2), (A-9a3), (A-9a4), (A-9a5), (A-9a6), (A-9a7), (A-9a8), (A-9a9), and (A-9a10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9a).

[0598] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-9b):

wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0599] Structural formula (A-9b1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0600] Structural formula (A-9b2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0601] Structural formula (A-9b3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0602] Structural formula (A-9b4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen, alkyl,



[0603] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0604] Structural formula (A-9b5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkyl.


[0605] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0606] Structural formula (A-9b6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0607] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0608] Structural formula (A-9b7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen,
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R10 is alkyl.


[0609] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0610] Structural formula (A-9b8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0611] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0612] Structural formula (A-9b9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and n is 2.


[0613] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0614] Structural formula (A-9b10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11, wherein R11 is as defined in structural formula (A).


[0615] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0616] Structural formula (A-9b11). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-9b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and R6 is

  2. b. R9 is alkyl or alkoxylalkyl, and
  3. c. R10 is hydrogen.


[0617] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0618] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b 10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0619] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b1) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0620] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0621] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b2) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0622] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0623] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b3) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0624] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0625] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b4) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0626] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0627] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b5) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0628] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0629] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b6) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0630] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0631] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b7) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0632] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0633] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b8) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b9), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0634] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0635] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b9) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b10), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0636] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0637] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b10) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), and (A-9b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0638] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), and (A-9b10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0639] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-9b11) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-9b1), (A-9b2), (A-9b3), (A-9b4), (A-9b5), (A-9b6), (A-9b7), (A-9b8), (A-9b9), and (A-9b10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-9b).

[0640] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-10a):

wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0641] Structural formula (A-10a1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0642] Structural formula (A-10a2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0643] Structural formula (A-10a3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0644] Structural formula (A-10a4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen, alkyl,



[0645] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0646] Structural formula (A-10a5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkyl.


[0647] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0648] Structural formula (A-10a6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0649] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0650] Structural formula (A-10a7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen,
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R10 is alkyl.


[0651] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0652] Structural formula (A-10a8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0653] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0654] Structural formula (A-10a9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and n is 2.


[0655] In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0656] Structural formula (A-10a10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11, wherein R11 is as defined in structural formula (A).


[0657] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0658] Structural formula (A-10a11). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

  3. c. R9 is alkyl or alkoxylalkyl, and
  4. d. R10 is hydrogen.


[0659] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0660] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0661] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a1) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0662] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0663] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a2) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0664] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0665] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a3) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0666] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-lOal 1). In other embodiments, such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-lOa).

[0667] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a4) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0668] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-lOa).

[0669] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a5) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0670] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-lOa).

[0671] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a6) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0672] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0673] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a7) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0674] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0675] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a8) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a9), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0676] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0677] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a9) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a10), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0678] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0679] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a10) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), and (A-10a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0680] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), and (A-10a10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0681] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10a11) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10a1), (A-10a2), (A-10a3), (A-10a4), (A-10a5), (A-10a6), (A-10a7), (A-10a8), (A-10a9), and (A-10a10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10a).

[0682] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-10b):

wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0683] Structural formula (A-10b1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0684] Structural formula (A-10b2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0685] Structural formula (A-10b3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0686] Structural formula (A-10b4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen, alkyl,



[0687] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0688] Structural formula (A-10b5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkyl.


[0689] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0690] Structural formula (A-10b6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0691] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0692] Structural formula (A-10b7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen,
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R10 is alkyl.


[0693] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0694] Structural formula (A-10b8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0695] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0696] Structural formula (A-10b9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and n is 2.


[0697] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0698] Structural formula (A-10b10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 arc hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11, wherein R11 is as defined in structural formula (A).


[0699] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0700] Structural formula (A-10b11). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-10b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and R6 is

  2. b. R9 is alkyl or alkoxylalkyl, and
  3. c. R10 is hydrogen.


[0701] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0702] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0703] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b1) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0704] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0705] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b2) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0706] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0707] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b3) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0708] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0709] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b4) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0710] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0711] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b5) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0712] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-lObl), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0713] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b6) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0714] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-lObl), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0715] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b7) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0716] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-lObl), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0717] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b8) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b9), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0718] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-lObl), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0719] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b9) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b10), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0720] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0721] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b10) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), and (A-10b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0722] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), and (A-10b10). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0723] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-10b11) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-10b1), (A-10b2), (A-10b3), (A-10b4), (A-10b5), (A-10b6), (A-10b7), (A-10b8), (A-10b9), and (A-10b10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-10b).

[0724] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-11a):

wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A); and R5 is hydrogen or C1-C3 alkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0725] Structural formula (A-11a1). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0726] Structural formula (A-11a2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0727] Structural formula (A-11a3). Some compounds specifically include and some embodiments only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0728] Structural formula (A-11a4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen, alkyl,



[0729] In other Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0730] Structural formula (A-11a5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkyl.


[0731] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0732] Structural formula (A-11a6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0733] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0734] Structural formula (A-11a7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen,
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R10 is alkyl.


[0735] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0736] Structural formula (A-11a8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0737] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0738] Structural formula (A-11a9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and n is 2.


[0739] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0740] Structural formula (A-11a10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11, wherein R11 is as defined in structural formula (A).


[0741] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0742] Structural formula (A-11a11). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11a) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

  3. c. R9 is alkyl or alkoxylalkyl, and
  4. d. R10 is hydrogen.


[0743] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0744] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0745] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a1) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0746] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0747] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a2) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0748] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0749] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a3) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0750] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0751] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a4) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0752] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0753] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a5) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0754] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0755] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a6) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0756] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0757] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a7) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0758] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0759] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a8) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a9), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0760] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0761] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a9) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a10), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0762] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0763] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a10) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), and (A-11a11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0764] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), and (A-11a10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0765] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11a11) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11a1), (A-11a2), (A-11a3), (A-11a4), (A-11a5), (A-11a6), (A-11a7), (A-11a8), (A-11a9), and (A-11a10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11a).

[0766] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds which have structural formula (A-11b):



wherein:
R3, R4, and R6 are as defined in structural formula (A) and R7 is hydrogen or C1-C3 alkyl. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formula (A).

[0767] Structural formula (A-11b1). Some compounds specifically include and some embodiments only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which R3 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0768] Structural formula (A-11b2). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which R4 is hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0769] Structural formula (A-11b3). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which R3 and R4 are hydrogen. Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0770] Structural formula (A-11b4). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is hydrogen, alkyl,



[0771] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0772] Structural formula (A-11b5). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is alkyl.


[0773] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0774] Structural formula (A-11b6). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0775] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0776] Structural formula (A-11b7). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen,
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R10 is alkyl.


[0777] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0778] Structural formula (A-11b8). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is



[0779] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0780] Structural formula (A-11b9). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and n is 2.


[0781] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0782] Structural formula (A-11b10). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

    and
  3. c. R9 and R10, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle containing 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3 substituents selected independently from R11, wherein R11 is as defined in structural formula (A).


[0783] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0784] Structural formula (A-11b11). Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include compounds of structural formula (A-11b) in which
  1. a. R3 and R4 are hydrogen and
  2. b. R6 is

  3. c. R9 is alkyl or alkoxylalkyl, and
  4. d. R10 is hydrogen.


[0785] Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0786] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b1) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0787] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b1) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0788] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b2) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0789] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b2) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-1 1b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0790] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b3) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0791] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b3) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-lIbl), (A-11b2), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b)..

[0792] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b4) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0793] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b4) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-1 1b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0794] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b5) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0795] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b5) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0796] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b6) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0797] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b6) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0798] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b7) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0799] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b7) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0800] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b8) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds are specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0801] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b8) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b9), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0802] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b9) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0803] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b9) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b10), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0804] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b10) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b)..

[0805] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b10) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), and (A-11b11). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0806] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b11) and (2) compounds of any of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), and (A-11b10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0807] Some compounds specifically include and some compounds only include (1) compounds of structural formula (A-11b11) and (2) compounds of up to 10 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10) of structural formulae (A-11b1), (A-11b2), (A-11b3), (A-11b4), (A-11b5), (A-11b6), (A-11b7), (A-11b8), (A-11b9), and (A-11b10). Such compounds may be specifically excluded from structural formulae (A) and/or (A-11b).

[0808] Table 1 provides examples of compounds encompassed by one or more of the structural formulae described above. The average IC50 and EC50 were determined as described in the Examples below. These and other compounds within the scope of the formulae described above can be synthesized according to general methods known in the art and as described in the specific Examples, below.
Table 1.
CompoundStructureIC50_av (µM)EC50_av (µm)
1

< 0.1 < 10
2

< 0.1 < 10
3

< 0.1 < 10
4

< 0.1 > 10
5

< 0.1 < 10
6

< 0.1 < 10
7

< 0.1 > 10
8

> 10 > 10
9

< 1 < 10
10

< 0.1 < 10
11

< 0.1 < 10
12

< 0.1 < 10
13

< 0.1 < 10
14

< 0.1 < 10
15

nd < 10
16

< 0.1 > 10
17

< 0.1 < 10
18

< 1 < 10
19

> 1 < 10
20

< 1 > 10
21

< 0.1 > 10
22

< 0.1 < 10
23

< 1 < 10
24

< 0.1 < 10
25

< 0.1 < 10
26

< 1 < 10
27

< 0.1 < 10
28

< 10 > 10
29

> 10 nd
30

> 10 nd
31

> 10 nd
32

< 10 nd
33

< 10 > 10
34

< 10 > 10
35

< 0.1 > 10
36

< 1 > 10
37

< 0.1 > 10
38

< 0.1 > 10
39

< 0.1 > 10
40

< 1 > 10
41

< 1 < 10
42

< 1 < 10
43

< 1 < 10
44

< 1 < 10
45

< 1 < 10
46

< 0.1 < 10
47

< 0.1 > 10
48

< 0.1 < 10
49

< 0.1 > 10
50

< 0.1 < 10
51

< 0.1 < 10
52

< 0.1 > 10
53

< 0.1 > 10
54

< 0.1 > 10
55

< 0.1 > 10
56

< 0.1 > 10
57

< 0.1 > 10
58

< 1 > 10
59

< 1 > 10
60

< 0.1 > 10
61

< 0.1 > 10
62

< 0.1 > 10
63

< 0.1 > 10
64

< 0.1 > 10
65

< 0.1 < 10
66

   
67

<1 > 10
68

<0.1 <10
69

<0.1 <10
70

<0.1 >10
71

   
72

   
73

   
74

   
75

   
76

   
77

   
78

   
79

   
80

   
81

   
82

   
83

   
84

   
85

   
86

   
87

   
88

  >10
89

   
90

   
91

   
92

   
93

  >10
94

  >10
95

   
96

   
97

   
98

   
99

   
100

   
101

   
102

   
103

   
104

   
105

   
106

<0.1 <10
107

<0.1 <10
108

<0.1 <10
109

<0.1 <10
110

<1 <10
111

<0.1 <10
112

<0.1 <10
113

<0.1 <10
114

<1 <10
115

<1 <10
116

<0.1 <10
117

<1 <10
118

<0.1 <10
119

<1 >10
120

<1 <10
121

<0.1 <10
122

ND <10
123

ND <10
124

ND <10
125

ND <10
126

ND <10
127

<0.1 <10
128

<1 >10
129

<0.1 <10
130

<0.1 <10
131

<0.1 <10
132

<0.1 <10
133

<0.1 <10
134

ND <10
135

ND <10
136

<1 <10
137

<0.1 <10
138

<1 >10
139

<0.1 <10
140

<1 >10
141

<0.1 <10
142

<0.1 <10
143

<1 <10
144

ND >10
145

ND <10
146

<0.1 <10
147

<0.1 >10
148

<0.1 >10
149

<1 <10
150

<1 >10
151

<1 >10
152

<1 <10
153

<0.1 <10
154

<0.1 <10
155

<1 <10
156

<1 >10
157

<1 >10
158

ND <10
159

ND <10
160

ND <10
161

ND <10
162

ND <10
163

ND <10
164

ND >10
165

ND <10
166

<1 <10
167

<0.1 <10
168

<0.1 <10
169

<0.1 <10
170

<1 <10
171

<0.1 <10
172

<0.1 <10
173

<0.1 <10
174

<0.1 <10
175

<1 >10
176

<0.1 <10
177

<0.1 <10
178

ND <10
179

<1 <10
180

<0.1 <10
181

<0.1 <10
182

<0.1 <10
183

ND <10
184

<0.1 <10
185

<0.1 >10
186

<1 >10
187

ND <10
188

ND <10
189

ND <10
190

ND <10
191

ND <10
192

<1 <10
193

<0.1 <10
194

<0.1 <10
195

ND <10
196

<0.1 <10
197

<1 <10
198

>1 <10
199

<0.1 >10
200

<0.1 >10
201

<0.1 <10
202

ND >10
203

ND <10
204

ND >10
205

ND 10
206

ND 10
207

  >10
208

  >10
209

  <10
210

  >10
211

  >10
212

  >10
213

  >10
214

  >10
215

  <10
216

  <10
217

  <10
218

  >10
219

  >10
220

  <10
221

  >10
222

  <10
223

  <10
224

  >10
225

  >10
226

  <10
227

  <10
228

  <10
229

  >10
230

  >10
231

  >10
232

  >10
233

  <10
234

  >10
235

  >10
236

  >10
237

  >10
238

  >10
239

  >10
240

  >10
241

  >10
242

  >10
243

  >10
244

  >10
245

  <10
246

  >10
247

  >10
248

  >10
249

  >10
250

  >10
251

  >10
252

  >10
253

  <10
254

  >10
255

  <10
256

  >10
257

  >10
258

  >10
259

  >10
260

  >10
261

  <10
262

  <10
263

  >10
264

  >10
265

  >10
266

  <10
267

  >10
268

  >10
269

  >10
270

  ND
271

  <10
272

  ND
273

  >10
274

  >10
275

  >10
276

  >10
277

  >10
278

  >10
279

  >10
280

  >10
281

  >10
282

  >10
283

  >10
284

  >10
285

  <10
286

  <10
287

  ND
288

  ND
289

  ND
290

  ND
291

  ND
292

   
293

   
294

   
295

   
296

   
297

   
298

   
299

   
300

   
301

   
302

   
303

   
304

   
305

   
306

   
307

   
308

   
309

   
310

   
311

   
312

   
313

   
314

   
315

   
316

   
317

   
318

   
319

   
320

   
321

   
322

   
323

   


[0809] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds include both the free forms and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of pharmaceutically usable stereoisomers, E/Z isomers, enantiomers, racemates, diastereomers, hydrates, and solvates. Some of the specific IRE-1α inhibitor compounds described herein are the protonated salts of amine compounds. The term "free form" refers to the amine compounds in non-salt form. The encompassed pharmaceutically acceptable salts not only include the salts described for the specific compounds disclosed herein, but also all the typical pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the free form of IRE-1α inhibitor compounds thereof.

[0810] The free form of the specific salt compounds described may be isolated using techniques known in the art. For example, the free form may be regenerated by treating the salt with a suitable dilute aqueous base solution such as dilute aqueous NaOH, potassium carbonate, ammonia and sodium bicarbonate. The free forms may differ from their respective salt forms somewhat in certain physical properties, such as solubility in polar solvents, but the acid and base salts are otherwise pharmaceutically equivalent to their respective free forms.

[0811] Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the disclosed IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can be synthesized which contain a basic or acidic moiety by conventional chemical methods. Generally, the salts of the basic compounds are prepared either by ion exchange chromatography or by reacting the free base with stoichiometric amounts or with an excess of the desired salt-forming inorganic or organic acid in a suitable solvent or various combinations of solvents. Similarly, the salts of the acidic compounds are formed by reactions with the appropriate inorganic or organic base.

[0812] Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of IRE-1α inhibitor compounds include the conventional non-toxic salts of the compounds as formed by reacting a basic compound with an inorganic or organic acid. For example, conventional non-toxic salts include those derived from inorganic acids such as hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, sulfamic, phosphoric and nitric, as well as salts prepared from organic acids such as acetic, propionic, succinic, glycolic, stearic, lactic, malic, tartaric, citric, ascorbic, pamoic, maleic, hydroxymaleic, phenylacetic, glutamic, benzoic, salicylic, sulfanilic, 2-acetoxy-benzoic, fumaric, toluenesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, methanesulfonic, ethane disulfonic, oxalic, isethionic and trifluoroacetic.

[0813] When an IRE-1α inhibitor compound is acidic, suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts include salts prepared form pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic bases including inorganic bases and organic bases. Salts derived from inorganic bases include, for example, aluminum, ammonium, calcium, copper, ferric, ferrous, lithium, magnesium, manganic salts, manganous, potassium, sodium and zinc. Particular salts are the ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium salts. Salts derived from pharmaceutically acceptable organic non-toxic bases include salts of primary, secondary and tertiary amines, substituted amines including naturally occurring substituted amines, cyclic amines and basic ion exchange resins, such as arginine, betaine, caffeine, choline, N,N1-dibenzylethylenediamine, diethylamine, 2-diethylaminoethanol, 2-dimethylaminoethanol, ethanolamine, ethylenediamine, N-ethylmorpholine, N-ethylpiperidine, glucamine, glucosamine, histidine, hydrabamine, isopropylamine, lysine, methylglucamine, morpholine, piperazine, piperidine, polyamine resins, procaine, purines, theobromine, triethylamine, trimethylamine tripropylamine and tromethamine. The preparation of the pharmaceutically acceptable salts described above and other typical pharmaceutically acceptable salts is more fully described by Berg et al., "Pharmaceutical Salts," J. Pharm. Sci., 1977:66:1-19.

[0814] Some IRE-1α compounds are potentially internal salts or zwitterions, because under physiological conditions a deprotonated acidic moiety in the compound, such as a carboxyl group, may be anionic, and this electronic charge might then be balanced off internally against the cationic charge of a protonated or alkylated basic moiety, such as a quaternary nitrogen atom.

[0815] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds may have asymmetric centers, chiral axes, and chiral planes (as described in: E. L. Eliel and S. H. Wilen, Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994, pages 1119-1190), and may occur as racemates, racemic mixtures, and as individual diastereomers, with all possible isomers and mixtures thereof, including optical isomers, being included.

[0816] An IRE-1α inhibitor compound may be of such a nature that its constituent atoms are capable of being arranged spatially in two or more ways, despite having identical bonds. As a consequence, this compound exists in the form of stereoisomers. Cis/trans isomerism is only one type of stereoisomerism. If the stereoisomers are image and mirror image which cannot be superimposed, they are enantiomers which have chirality or handedness since one or more asymmetric carbon atoms are present in the structure forming them. Enantiomers are optically active and therefore distinguishable since they rotate the plane of polarized light to an equal extent, but in opposite directions.

[0817] "Solvates" are adductions of inert solvent molecules onto the compounds which form owing to their mutual attractive force. Solvates are, for example, monohydrates, dihydrates or alcoholates.

[0818] If two or more asymmetric carbon atoms are present in an IRE-1α compound, two possible configurations exist at each of these carbon atoms. If two asymmetric carbon atoms are present, four possible stereoisomers exist, for example. Furthermore, these four possible stereoisomers can be divided into six possible pairs of stereoisomers that differ from each other. In order for a pair of molecules with more than one asymmetric carbon to be enantiomers, they must have different configurations at each asymmetric carbon. Those pairs that do not behave as enantiomers have a different stereochemical relationship, which is known as a diastereomeric relationship. Stereoisomers that are not enantiomers are known as diastereoisomers, or, more frequently, diastereomers.

[0819] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds thus include stereoisomers, and, if these are enantiomers, the individual enantiomers, racemic mixtures of these enantiomers, and artificial, i.e. synthetic, mixtures comprising proportions of these enantiomers which are different from the proportions of these enantiomers observed in a racemic mixture. If an IRE-1α inhibitor compound has stereoisomers that are diastereomers, this compound includes the individual diastereomers as well as mixtures of any two or more of these diastereomers in any desired proportions.

[0820] The specific biological effects and/or physical and chemical properties of a pair or set of enantiomers of an IRE-1α inhibitor compound-if present-may make it desirable to use these enantiomers in certain ratios, for example to form a final therapeutic product. The following is intended to serve for illustration: if a pair of enantiomers exists, the enantiomers can be used in ratios such as 90% (R)-10% (S), 80% (R)-20% (S), 70% (R)-30% (S), 60% (R)-40% (S), 50% (R)-50% (S), 40% (R)-60% (S), 30% (R)-70% (S), 20% (R)-80% (S), and 10% (R)-90% (S). After evaluation of the properties of the various enantiomers of an IRE-1α inhibitor compound-if they exist-the corresponding amount of one or more of these enantiomers having certain desired properties which form the final therapeutic product can be determined in a simple manner.

[0821] For IRE-1α inhibitor compounds disclosed herein which may exist as tautomers, both tautomeric forms are encompassed by a depicted structural formula, even though only one tautomeric structure is depicted. For example, a compound such as that below drawn as the keto tautomer includes the enol tautomer, and vice versa, as well as mixtures thereof.


Prodrugs



[0822] A "prodrug" as described herein is a compound that can be metabolized to active IRE-1α inhibitor compound after administration. For example, IRE-1α inhibitor compounds disclosed herein can be modified, e.g., with alkyl or acyl groups, sugars, or oligopeptides and which are rapidly cleaved in vivo to release the active IRE-1α inhibitor compounds.

[0823] Derivatives of the corresponding aromatic alcohols can serve as prodrugs for aromatic aldehydes because alcohols and aldehydes are metabolically interconvertible, according to the following general scheme:

Scheline, 1972, Xenobiotica, 2, 227-36 .

[0824] Examples of prodrugs of aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and other functional groups are described in Wermuth et al., 1996, Designing Prodrugs and Bioprecursors I: Carrier Prodrugs. In The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry, pp. 672-696; and in Wermuth, 1996, "Preparation of Water-Soluble Compounds by Covalent Attachment of Solubilizing Moieties," in Wermuth, ed., The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry, pp. 756-776. Other general aldehyde derivatives and alcohol derivatives that can perform prodrug functions as well as methods for their preparation are described in Cheronis et al., 1965, Semimicro Qualitative Organic Analysis, New York: Interscience, pp. 465-518.

Methods of Preparing IRE-1α Inhibitor Compounds and Prodrugs



[0825] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds and starting materials for their synthesis can be prepared by appropriate modification of methods known in the art as described in the literature, for example in standard works such as Houben-Weyl, Methoden der organischen Chemie, Georg-Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart. Methods may also be found by computer search in The MDL® CrossFire Beilstein database, in which the reaction domain details the preparation of substances. See also the specific Examples, below.

Pharmaceutical Preparations



[0826] Any of the IRE-1α inhibitor compounds disclosed herein can be formulated as pharmaceuticals using methods well known in the art. Pharmaceutical formulations typically comprise at least one IRE-1α inhibitor compound mixed with a carrier, diluted with a diluent, and/or enclosed or encapsulated by an ingestible carrier in the form of a capsule, sachet, cachet, paper, or other container, or by a disposable container such as an ampoule. Prodrugs can be formulated in the same way but are not according to the invention.

[0827] A carrier or diluent can be a solid, semi-solid, or liquid material. Some examples of diluents or carriers which can be employed in the pharmaceutical compositions are lactose, dextrose, sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol, propylene glycol, liquid paraffin, white soft paraffin, kaolin, microcrystalline cellulose, calcium silicate, silica polyvinylpyrrolidone, cetostearyl alcohol, starch, gum acacia, calcium phosphate, cocoa butter, oil of theobroma, arachis oil, alginates, tragacanth, gelatin, methyl cellulose, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, ethyl lactate, propylhydroxybenzoate, sorbitan trioleate, sorbitan sesquioleate, and oleyl alcohol.

[0828] Pharmaceutical compositions can be manufactured by methods well known in the art, including conventional mixing, dissolving, granulating, dragee-making, levigating, emulsifying, encapsulating, entrapping, or lyophilizing processes.

[0829] For injection, the IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can be formulated in aqueous solutions, preferably in physiologically compatible buffers such as Hanks's solution, Ringer's solution, or physiological saline buffer. For transmucosal administration, penetrants appropriate to the barrier to be permeated are used in the formulation. Such penetrants are generally known in the art. If desired, any of the IRE-1α inhibitor compounds disclosed herein can be provided in a pyrogen-free pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle.

[0830] For oral administration, an IRE-1α inhibitor compound can be combined with pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or vehicles which enable the IRE-1α inhibitor compound to be formulated as, for example, tablets, pills, dragees, capsules, liquids, gels, syrups, slurries or suspensions. Fillers can be used, such as gelatin, sugars (e.g., lactose, sucrose, mannitol, or sorbitol), cellulose preparations (e.g., maize starch, wheat starch, rice starch, potato starch, gum tragacanth, methyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose), and/or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). If desired, disintegrating agents can be added, such as the cross-linked polyvinyl pyrrolidone, agar, or alginic acid or a salt thereof, such as sodium alginate.

[0831] Dragee cores can be provided with suitable coatings. For this purpose, concentrated sugar solutions can be used, which can optionally contain gum arabic, talc, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, carbopol gel, polyethylene glycol, and/or titanium dioxide, lacquer solutions, and suitable organic solvents or solvent mixtures. Dyestuffs or pigments can be added to the tablets or dragee coatings for identification.

[0832] Pharmaceutical preparations which can be used orally include push-fit capsules made of gelatin, as well as soft, sealed capsules made of gelatin and a plasticizer, such as glycerol or sorbitol. The push-fit capsules can contain the active ingredients in admixture with a filler such as lactose, binders such as starches, and/or lubricants such as talc or magnesium stearate and, optionally, stabilizers. In soft capsules, an IRE-1α inhibitor compound can be dissolved or suspended in a suitable liquid, such as fatty oils, liquid paraffin, or liquid polyethylene glycols. In addition, stabilizers can be added. All formulations for oral administration preferably are in dosages suitable for such administration.

[0833] For buccal administration, the compositions can take the form of tablets or lozenges formulated in conventional manners.

[0834] For administration by inhalation, pharmaceutical preparations can be delivered in the form of an aerosol sprays from a pressurized pack or a nebulizer, with the use of a suitable propellant, e.g., dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane, carbon dioxide, or other suitable gas. If desired, a valve can be used to deliver a metered amount. Capsules and cartridges of, e.g., gelatin for use in an inhaler or insufflator, can be formulated containing a powder mix of an IRE-1α inhibitor compound and a suitable powder base, such as lactose or starch.

[0835] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can be formulated for parenteral administration by injection, e.g., by bolus injection or continuous infusion. Formulations for injection can be presented in unit dosage form, e.g., in ampoules or in multi-dose containers, with an added preservative. The compositions can take such forms as suspensions, solutions, or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, and can contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing, and/or dispersing agents.

[0836] Pharmaceutical formulations for parenteral administration include aqueous solutions of an IRE-1α inhibitor compound. Additionally, a suspension of an IRE-1α inhibitor compound can be prepared as an appropriate oily injection suspension. Suitable lipophilic solvents or vehicles include fatty oils such as sesame oil, synthetic fatty acid esters, such as ethyl oleate or triglycerides, or liposomes. Aqueous injection suspensions can contain substances which increase the viscosity of the suspension, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sorbitol, or dextran. Optionally, the suspension can also contain suitable stabilizers or agents which increase the solubility of an IRE-1α inhibitor compound to allow for the preparation of highly concentrated solutions.

[0837] Alternatively, an IRE-1α inhibitor compound can be in powder form for constitution with a suitable vehicle, e.g., sterile pyrogen-free water, before use.

[0838] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can also be formulated in rectal compositions such as suppositories or retention enemas, e.g., containing conventional suppository bases such as cocoa butter or other glycerides.

[0839] In addition to the formulations described previously, an IRE-1α inhibitor compound can also be formulated as a depot preparation. Such long-acting formulations can be administered by implantation (for example, subcutaneously or intramuscularly) or by intramuscular injection. Thus, for example, an IRE-1α inhibitor compound can be formulated with suitable polymeric or hydrophobic materials (for example as an emulsion in an acceptable oil) or ion exchange resins, or as sparingly soluble derivatives, for example, as a sparingly soluble salt.

[0840] The pharmaceutical compositions also can comprise suitable solid or gel phase carriers or excipients. Examples of such carriers or excipients include, for example, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, various sugars, starches, cellulose derivatives, gelatin, and polymers such as polyethylene glycols.

[0841] In addition to the common dosage forms set out above, an IRE-1α inhibitor compound can be administered by a controlled release means and/or delivery device, including ALZET® osmotic pumps (Alza Corporation). Suitable delivery devices are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,845,770; 3,916,899; 3,536,809; 3,598,123; 3,944,064; and 4,008,719.

Therapeutic uses



[0842] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can be used to inhibit IRE-1α activity (e.g., cleavage of RNA or mRNA, RNA or mRNA splicing). In some embodiments IRE-1α activity (e.g., cleavage of RNA or mRNA, RNA or mRNA splicing) is inhibited in vitro. In other embodiments IRE-1α activity (e.g., cleavage of RNA or mRNA, RNA or mRNA splicing) is inhibited in vivo.

[0843] IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can be used to prepare formulations or medicaments for inhibiting tumor cell growth and can be used in the treatment of the disorders disclosed below. IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can be administered to a patient, preferably a human patient, in pharmaceutical preparations as disclosed above, preferably with a pyrogen-free pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle, at doses effective for the treatment or amelioration of a symptom of a disorder associated with the unfolded protein response. IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can be used in the treatment of patient populations which are not entirely coincident with those most commonly receiving treatment for disorders associated with the unfolded protein response (e.g., cancer therapies or therapies for autoimmune disorders). For example, IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can be administered to patients at the earliest stages of these conditions, even those to whom traditional therapies are commonly not offered.

Disorders associated with UPR



[0844] A fine balance exists between a cell's life and death depending on how protein folding stress is managed by the cell (proteostasis). Imbalances in proteostasis lead to many metabolic, oncological, neurodegenerative, inflammatory, cardiovascular disorders and infectious disease (Balch et al., Science 319, 916, 2008). The UPR relates specifically to the proteostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum where all secreted and membrane proteins are translated, folded and processed for delivery to their individual site of action. Therefore, activation of the UPR enhances protein folding in the ER allowing the cell to survive. If protein folding stress is not managed in the ER, the cells will initiate apoptosis.

[0845] Protein folding stress may be a natural hallmark of the type of cell for example insulin secreting β-islet cells or antibody secreting plasma cells. In both cases, the cell has fine tuned the machinery to deal with the stress by activating the UPR. Depending on the disease type, it may be therapeutically beneficial to induce or inhibit the UPR. For example, in type II diabetes or Alzheimer's disease, it may be therapeutically beneficial to activate the UPR in such a way where β-islet cells survive the stress of over producing insulin or neurons survive the apoptotic effects due to unfolded aggregates of β-amyloid protein. Diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and viral infection may be therapeutically modulated by inhibition of the UPR. In these types of conditions, cellular survival due to corruption of the UPR may be impacted. Protein folding in the ER is negatively impacted by such conditions in the tumor microenvironment as hypoxia, glucose starvation, amino acid deprivation, acidosis and mutant malfolded and oncogenic proteins. Additionally chemo-, bio-, and radiotherapy can lead to protein folding stress. It may be possible to induce apoptosis in these conditions by inhibiting the anti-apoptotic effects of the UPR. Myeloma derived from neoplastic antibody secreting plasma cells provides an example of a condition in which this approach can be applied.

[0846] Lastly, enveloped viruses must use and corrupt this system to ensure production of progeny from infected cells. Viruses often produce vast quantities of viral membrane glycoproteins which are folded and modified in the ER. Therefore, activation of the UPR by the virus for this purpose as a survival mechanism is entirely conceivable. It is therefore logical that inhibition of the UPR during viral infection can impact the outcome of the disease in a beneficial way.

[0847] Only specialized secretory cells and diseased cells activate the UPR for their own benefit. Most cells are not under such protein folding stress and therefore would not be impacted by a UPR inhibitor. Thus, "disorders associated with the UPR" as used herein means conditions for which pathogenesis can be advantageously impacted by inhibition of the UPR. In various embodiments such inhibition of the UPR is accomplished through inhibition of IRE-1α.

[0848] The IRE-1α inhibitor compounds can be used in the treatment or amelioration of a B cell autoimmune disease, certain cancers, and infections of enveloped viruses that use the endoplasmic reticulum as a viral factory for expressing viral surface and spike proteins for budding and infection. IRE-1α inhibitors can be used as single agents or in combination therapies, as described below.

[0849] B cell autoimmune diseases which can be treated include,, for example, Addison's disease, antiphospholipid syndrome, aplastic anemia, autoimmune hemolytic anemias, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune hypophysitis, autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorders, autoimmune myocarditis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, giant cell arteritis, Goodpasture's syndrome, Graves' disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, IgA nephropathy, myasthenia gravis, pemphigus foliaceous, pemphigus vulgaris, polyarteritis nodosa, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, Takayasu's arteritis, and Wegener's granulomatosis.

[0850] Cancers which can be treated include solid tumors, such as tumors of the breast, bone, prostate, lung, adrenal gland (e.g., adrenocortical tumors), bile duct, bladder, bronchus, nervous tissue (including neuronal and glial tumors), gall bladder, stomach, salivary gland, esophagus, small intestine, cervix, colon, rectum, liver, ovary, pancreas, pituitary adenomas, and secretory adenomas. The present invention can be particularly used in the treatment of drug- or radiation-resistant solid tumors.

[0851] Cancers of the blood (e.g., lymphomas and leukemias) also can be treated including, , for example, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (e.g., cutaneous T cell lymphomas such as Sezary syndrome and Mycosis fungoides, diffuse large cell lymphoma, HTLV-1 associated T cell lymphoma, nodal peripheral T cell lymphoma, extranodal peripheral T cell lymphoma, central nervous system lymphoma, and AIDS-related lymphoma). Leukemias include acute and chronic types of both lymphocytic and myelogenous leukemia (e.g, acute lymphocytic or lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, T cell prolymphocytic leukemia, adult T cell leukemia, and hairy cell leukemia). Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor of myeloma, also can be treated.

[0852] Viral infections which can be treated include infections of enveloped viruses which use the unfolded protein response pathway when they replicate and form infectious progeny (e.g., measles, pox viruses, Ebola). Infections also include those of Epstein Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Flaviviruses (e.g., Japanese Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus), and Hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Combination therapies



[0853] Various types of physiological stress induce the unfolded protein response including, , for example, hypoxia, nutrient starvation, acidosis, and genetic damage resulting in mutant or over-expressed misfolded proteins (oncogenic stress). One or more of these conditions are manifest in cancer cells, which may in part be mediated by the microenviroment of the tumor. It is likely the cytoprotective arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) plays an anti-apoptotic role in tumor survival. In addition, bio- and chemotherapeutic drugs and thermal and radiation treatments may further impact the protein folding and degradation cycle in the ER thereby inducing the UPR as a protective resistance mechanism. Patients succumb to cancer because either the tumor is resistant to conventional therapies, or returns in a resistant form after an initial response to treatment and, therefore, new treatments and treatment combinations are needed.

[0854] Angiogenesis inhibitors block tumor growth by inhibiting new blood vessel formation, a process that would enhance the stress effects of the tumor microenvironment. A promising approach to further reduce tumor burden would be to administer anti-angiogenesis agents in combination with IRE-1α/XBP-1 inhibitors to obtain a similar effect as that demonstrated by RNAi knockdown of GRP78, the major chaperone of the ER and target of XBP-1s (Dong et al., Cancer Res. 2007 Jul 15;67(2):6700-7). In addition, IRE-1α itself regulates angiogensis by influencing the expression of VEGF.

[0855] An IRE-1α inhibitor compound may be administered in combination with a therapeutic agent that induces or up-regulates IRE-1α expression (e.g., Hsp90 and or HDAC inhibitors, both of which induce IRE-1α activation and XBP-1 splicing) or a therapeutic agent which is less effective when IRE-1α is expressed (e.g., 17-AAG (TANESPIMYCIN® and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)).

[0856] An IRE-1α inhibitor compound may be administered in combination with one or more cancer therapies. These therapies include treatments such as radiation therapy or thermal treatment (heat shock) as well as administration of therapeutic agents, such as chemotherapeutic agents and biotherapeutic agents, as described below. Such therapies can be administered separately or together with the IRE-1α inhibitor compound, e.g., the one or more treatments can independently be administered at essentially the same time as the IRE-1α inhibitor compound or can be administered either before or after the IRE-1α inhibitor compound.

[0857] Cancer therapeutic agents which can be used include, , for example, agents in the following categories (which may overlap):
  1. a. proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib ([(1R)-3-methyl-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-3-phenyl-2-[(pyrazinylcarbonyl) amino]propyl]amino]butyl] boronic acid; MG-341; VELCADE®), MG-132 (N-[(phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]-L-leucyl-N-[(1S)-1-formyl-3-methylbutyl]-L-leucinamide);
  2. b. cytotoxic anticancer therapeutics , such as:
    1. i. pyrimidine analogs (e.g., 5-fluorouracil, floxuridine, capecitabine, gemcitabine and cytarabine); and purine analogs,
    2. ii. alkylating agents such as nitrogen mustards (e.g., mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide and analogs, melphalan, chlorambucil), ethylenimines and methylmelamines (e.g., hexamethylmelamine and thiotepa), alkyl sulfonates-busulfan, nitrosoureas (e.g., carmustine (BCNU) and analogs, streptozocin), trazenes - dacarbazinine (DTIC);
    3. iii. microtubule disruptors such as taxane (paclitaxel, docetaxel), vincristin, vinblastin, nocodazole, epothilones and navelbine, and epidipodophyllotoxins (e.g., teniposide); natural products such as vinca alkaloids (e.g., vinblastine, vincristine, and vinorelbine);
    4. iv. DNA damaging agents, such as actinomycin, amsacrine, anthracyclines, bleomycin, busulfan, camptothecin, carboplatin, chlorambucil, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, Cytoxan, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, docetaxel, doxorubicin, epirubicin, hexamethylmelamineoxaliplatin, iphosphamide, melphalan, merchlorethamine, mitomycin, mitoxantrone, nitrosourea, paclitaxel, plicamycin, procarbazine, teniposide, triethylenethiophosphoramide and etoposide (VP 16); and platinum coordination complexes (e.g., cisplatin, carboplatin), procarbazine, hydroxyurea, mitotane, aminoglutethimide;
  3. c. antibiotics, such as dactinomycin (actinomycin D), daunorubicin, doxorubicin (adriamycin), idarubicin, anthracyclines, mitoxantrone, bleomycins, plicamycin (mithramycin) and mitomycin;
  4. d. folate antagonists and related inhibitors (e.g., mercaptopurine, thioguanine, pentostatin and 2- chlorodeoxyadenosine [cladribine]); folic acid analogs (e.g., methotrexate)
  5. e. hormones, hormone analogs (e.g., estrogen, tamoxifen, goserelin, bicalutamide, nilutamide);
  6. f. aromatase inhibitors (e.g., letrozole, anastrozole);
  7. g. fibrinolytic agents (such as tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase and urokinase), aspirin, COX-2 inhibitors, dipyridamole, ticlopidine, clopidogrel, abciximab;
  8. h. antimigratory agents;
  9. i. antisecretory agents (e.g., breveldin); immunosuppressives (e.g., cyclosporine, tacrolimus (FK-506), sirolimus (rapamycin), azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil);
  10. j. anti-angiogenic compounds (e.g., TNP -470, genistein, Sutent, Vatalinib) and growth factor inhibitors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) inhibitors, epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibitors); and multi-kinase inhibitors (e.g., lestaurtinib);
  11. k. antibodies (e.g., trastuzumab (HERCEPTIN®), AVASTIN®, ERBITUX®);
  12. l. cell cycle inhibitors and differentiation inducers (e.g., tretinoin);
  13. m. mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitors (e.g., everolimus, sirolimus);
  14. n. topoisomerase inhibitors (e.g., doxorubicin (adriamycin), amsacrine, camptothecin, daunorubicin, dactinomycin, eniposide, epirubicin, etoposide, idarubicin, irinotecan (CPT-11) and mitoxantrone, topotecan, irinotecan);
  15. o. corticosteroids (e.g., cortisone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylpednisolone, prednisone, and prenisolone);
  16. p. HSP90 inhibitors (e.g., 17-AAG)
  17. q. mitochondrial dysfunction inducers (e.g., 2-deoxyglucose, dichloroacetic acid);
  18. r. caspase activators; and
  19. s. chromatin disruptors.


[0858] The cancer therapeutic agent may be selected from the group consisting of alemtuzumab, aminoglutethimide, amsacrine, anastrozole, asparaginase, beg, bevacizumab, bicalutamide, bleomycin, bortezomib, buserelin, busulfan, campothecin, capecitabine, carboplatin, carmustine, CeaVac, cetuximab, chlorambucil, cisplatin, cladribine, clodronate, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, cyproterone, cytarabine, dacarbazine, daclizumab, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, dienestrol, diethylstilbestrol, docetaxel, doxorubicin, edrecolomab, epirubicin, epratuzumab, erlotinib, estradiol, estramustine, etoposide, exemestane, filgrastim, fludarabine, fludrocortisone, fluorouracil, fluoxymesterone, flutamide, gemcitabine, gemtuzumab, genistein, goserelin, huJ591, hydroxyurea, ibritumomab, idarubicin, ifosfamide, IGN-101, imatinib, interferon, irinotecan, ironotecan, letrozole, leucovorin, leuprolide, levamisole, lintuzumab, lomustine, MDX-210, mechlorethamine, medroxyprogesterone, megestrol, melphalan, mercaptopurine, mesna, methotrexate, mitomycin, mitotane, mitoxantrone, mitumomab, nilutamide, nocodazole, octreotide, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, pamidronate, pentostatin, pertuzumab, plicamycin, porfimer, procarbazine, raltitrexed, rituximab, streptozocin, sunitinib, suramin, tamoxifen, temozolomide, teniposide, testosterone, thalidomide, thioguanine, thiotepa, titanocene dichloride, topotecan, tositumomab, trastuzumab, tretinoin, vatalanib, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, and vinorelbine.

Inhibition of IRE-1α dependent decay of membrane associated mRNAs (RIDD) pathway using IRE-1α inhibitors



[0859] Inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1α) is the most highly conserved signaling node of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and represents a potential therapeutic target for a number of diseases associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. IRE-1α activates the XBP-1 transcription factor by site specific cleavage of two hairpin loops within its mRNA promoting its nonconventional splicing and alternative translation. In addition, the endoribonuclease of IRE-1α is required for the cleavage and degradation of certain mRNAs coding for primarily secreted and transmembrane proteins targeted to the ER called IRE-1α dependent mRNA decay (RIDD). However, it had not been known whether this is a direct activity or the subsequent activation of a second endoribonuclease. Using IRE-1α specific endoribonuclease inhibitors, Examples 43-46 below demonstrate that this activity is likely direct from the IRE-1α endoribonuclease and that inhibitors selectivity block down-regulation of known targets of the RIDD pathway including, for example, CD59 and Blos1. IRE-1α inhibitors therefore be used in the treatment or amelioration of a symptom of a neurological disorder, or disorders that involve overproduction of insulin or inflammation.

[0860] Protein folding perturbations resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases as diverse as neurodegeneration, diabetes and cancer. The unfolded protein response (UPR) coordinates the ability of a cell to respond to ER stress by altering protein translation, folding, and post translational modification of all secreted and membrane proteins. Terminally unfolded proteins are retro-transported to the cytosol by the ER associated degradation (ERAD) machinery for proteolysis by the proteasome. The ER is also the site of lipid biosynthesis and membrane expansion. These activities are linked physiologically to specialized secretory cells; however, depending on stress levels, the UPR can control cellular survival or death via autophagy and apoptosis (Ron & Walter, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 8(7), 519-29, 2007). Secretion and membrane composition are balanced by the high caloric demand of these activities against the energy homeostasis of the cell (Ron & Walter, 2007).

[0861] Inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1α) is the most highly conserved signaling node of the unfolded protein response (Ron & Walter, 2007). A unique ER resident transmembrane kinase with a novel C-terminal endoribonuclease domain, IRE-1α is activated in part by the disassociation of BiP/GRP78 in the presence of unfolded protein in the ER lumen (Ron & Walter, 2007). The signal is transduced to the cytosol by the sequential dimerization/multimerization, trans-autophosphorylation and activation of its endoribonuclease (Tirasophon et al., Genes Dev. 14 (21) 2725-36, 2000). The specific activity of the endoribonuclease is responsible for the unconventional cytosolic splicing of HAC1 in yeast and excision of the 26 nucleotide intron of the X-box binding protein (XBP-1) transcription factor in metazoan organisms (Ron & Walter, 2007). In mammalian cells IRE-1α acts in concert with companion UPR signaling molecules PKR-like ER resident kinase (PERK) and ATF6 (Ron & Walter, 2007).

[0862] XBP-1 mRNA, a major substrate of the IRE-1α endoribonuclease, is cleaved specifically at two conserved stem-loop sites. Each site is located 3' to a mirrored guanosine residue in the 7 base loop (Ron & Walter, 2007). The resulting internal fragment, a 26-nt intron, is removed and the two exon ends are ligated by and unknown mechanism in mammalian cells and by tRNA ligase in yeast (Ron & Walter, 2007). The rejoined mRNA shifts the Open Reading Frame (ORF) and extends the C-terminal domain of XBP-1 from amino acid 164 with an alternative 212 amino acid reading frame producing the active "spliced" transcription factor, XBP-1s, which regulates a broad range of ER resident chaperones, ER translocon channels, ERAD components and lipid metabolic enzymes (Ron & Walter, 2007). An emerging and important activity of IRE-1α is regulated Ire 1-dependent decay (RIDD) of mRNAs encoding ER targeted membrane and secreted proteins during stress analogous to the less discriminate but targeted activities of IRE-1α's evolutionary homologue, RNase L (Hollien & Weissman, Science 313(5783) 104-07, 2006). This activity in combination with XBP-ls expression has the potential to alter the surface composition of stressed cells and the extracellular proteome. In addition, it appears to selectively target different mRNAs in different types of cells. Substrates include, for example, insulin (Han et al., Cell 138(3) 562-75, 2009), CD59 (Oikawa et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 360(1) 122-127, 2007), Blos1(Hollien et al., J Cell Biol. 186(3) 323-31, 2009), DGAT2 (Thorpe & Schwarze, Cell Stress Chaperones. 15(5) 497-508, 2010) and IRE-1α's own mRNA (Tirasophon et al., 2000). IRE-1α endoribonuclease inhibitors selectively block mRNA degradation by IRE-1α including Blos1, DGAT2 and CD59 and IRE-1α itself.

[0863] Example 43 below demonstrates that selective and potent IRE-1α endoribonuclease inhibitors disclosed herein can block the RIDD of mRNA targets in both unstressed and ER stressed RPMI 8226 myeloma cells. Diseases linked to ER stress include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, inflammation and cancer. This has important implications for disease management.

[0864] For example, CD59 is a GPI linked cell surface glycoprotein which as member of the complement regulatory factor family which includes CD46 and CD55. Compliment regulatory factors inhibit complement mediated lysis of cells by preventing membrane attack complex formation. Down modulation of CD59 may play a role in many diseases with an immune component, such as Barraquer-Simons Syndrome, asthma, lupus erythematous, glomerulonephritis, various forms of arthritis, autoimmune heart disease, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and ischemia-reperfusion injuries, autoimmune hemocytopenias and rejection of transplanted organs (Song, Autoimmunity 39(5) 403-10, 2006; Ruiz-Argüelles & Llorente, Autoimmun Rev. 6(3):155-61, 2007; Arumugam et al., Shock 21(5) 401-06, 2004; Asgari et al., Curr Opin Organ Transplant 15(4):486-91, 2010).

[0865] Blos1 is a component of endosome-localized Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1). Alteration of components of this complex are associated with schizophrenia. It is conceivable that down modulation of Blosl (BLOC 1S1) due to IRE-1α activation by ER stress may impact normal synaptic transmission (Ryder & Faundez, Sci Signal. 2(93): 66, 2009).

[0866] IRE-1α inhibitors disclosed herein (or pharmaceutically acceptable salts of IRE-1α inhibitors) can be used to block degradation of Blos1 mRNA, DGAT2 mRNA, CD59 mRNA, and IRE-1α mRNA. A cell comprising an mRNA selected from the group consisting of Blos1 mRNA, DGAT2 mRNA, CD59 mRNA, and IRE-1α mRNA may be contacted with an IRE-1α inhibitor or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of an IRE-1α inhibitor. The cell may be in vitro or in vivo.

[0867] An IRE-1α inhibitor or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of an IRE-1α inhibitor may be administered in the treatment of Barraquer-Simons Syndrome, asthma, lupus erythematous, glomerulonephritis, various forms of arthritis, autoimmune heart disease, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and ischemia-reperfusion injuries, autoimmune hemocytopenias and rejection of transplanted organs.

[0868] An IRE-1α inhibitor or pharmaceutically acceptable salt of an IRE-1α inhibitor may be administered in the treatment of schizophrenia.

Routes of administration



[0869] Pharmaceutical preparations can be administered locally or systemically. Suitable routes of administration include oral, pulmonary, rectal, transmucosal, intestinal, parenteral (including intramuscular, subcutaneous, intramedullary routes), intranodal, intrathecal, direct intraventricular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intranasal, intraocular, transdermal, topical, and vaginal routes. As described in more detail above, dosage forms include, for example, tablets, troches, dispersions, suspensions, suppositories, solutions, capsules, creams, patches and minipumps. Targeted delivery systems also can be used (for example, a liposome coated with target-specific antibody).

Dosage



[0870] A pharmaceutical composition comprises at least one active ingredient (an IRE-1α inhibitor compound) in a therapeutically effective dose. A "therapeutically effective dose" is the amount of an IRE-1α inhibitor compound which, when administered to a patient over a treatment period, results in a measurable improvement in survival time and/or quality of life. Such improvements include, for example, a delay or halt in the progression of a cancer, partial or complete regression, reduced severity of one or more existing symptoms, delay or prevention of the development of one or more symptoms, and one or more improved laboratory values (including, , for example, a biological marker e.g., XBP-1 splicing and down stream targets such as EDEM, VEGF-A, ERdj4). Various methods and assays can be used to assess whether and to what extent an improvement occurs.

[0871] Determination of therapeutically effective doses is well within the capability of those skilled in the art. A therapeutically effective dose initially can be estimated from in vitro enzyme assays, cell culture assays, and/or animal models. For example, a dose can be formulated in an animal model to achieve a circulating concentration range at least as concentrated as the IC50 as determined in an in vitro enzyme assay or in a cell culture (i.e., the concentration of the test compound which achieves a half-maximal inhibition of IRE-1α activity). Such information can be used to more accurately determine useful doses in humans. See the FDA guidance document "Guidance for Industry and Reviewers Estimating the Safe Starting Dose in Clinical Trials for Therapeutics in Adult Healthy Volunteers" (HFA-305), which provides an equation for use in calculating a human equivalent dose (HED) based on in vivo animal studies.

[0872] Appropriate animal models for the relevant diseases are known in the art. See, e.g., Lupus. 1996 Oct;5(5b):451-5 (antiphospholipid syndrome); Blood. 1974 Jul;44(1):49-56 (aplastic anemia); Autoimmunity. 2001;33(5):265-74 (autoimmune hypophysitis); Methods. 2007 Jan;41(1):118-22 (autoimmune myocarditis); Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2003 Nov-Dec;21(6 Suppl 32):S55-63 (Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis); J Clin Invest. 2005 Apr;115(5):870-8 (epidermolysis bullosa acquisita); Circulation. 2005 Jun 14;111(23):3135-40. Epub 2005 Jun 6 (giant cell arteritis; Takayusu's arteritis); Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2005 Oct-Dec;18(5):701-8 (IgA nephropathy); Vet Rec. 1984 May 12;114(19):479 (pemphigus foliaceous); J. Neuroimmunol. 98, 130-35, 1999 (polymyositis); Am. J. Pathol. 120, 323-25, 1985 (dermatomyositis); Cell. Mol. Immunol. 2, 461-65, 2005 (myasthenia gravis); Arthritis Rheum. 50, 3250-59, 2004 (lupus erythymatosus); Clin. Exp. Immunol. 99, 294-302, 1995 (Grave's disease); J. Clin. Invest. 116, 961-973, 2006 (rheumatoid arthritis); Exp Mol Pathol. 77, 161-67, 2004 (Hashimoto's thyroiditis); Rheumatol. 32, 1071-75, 2005 (Sjögren's syndrome); Brain Pathol. 12, 420-29, 2002 (Guillain-Barré syndrome); Vet. Pathol. 32, 337-45, 1995 (polyarteritis nodosa); Immunol. Invest. 3,47-61, 2006 (pemphigus vulgaris); Arch. Dermatol. Res. 297, 333-44, 2006 (scleroderma); J. Exp. Med. 191, 899-906, 2000 (Goodpasture's syndrome); Clin. Exp. Immunol. 99, 294-302, 1995 (Grave's disease); J. Clin. Invest. 91, 1507-15, 1993 (membranous nephropathy); J. Immunol. 169, 4889-96, 2002 (autoimmune hepatitis); Surgery 128, 999-1006, 2000 (Addison's disease); Eur. J. Immunol. 32, 1147-56, 2002 (autoimmune hemolytic anemia); and Haematologica 88, 679-87, 2003 (autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura).

[0873] LD50 (the dose lethal to 50% of the population) and the ED50 (the dose therapeutically effective in 50% of the population) can be determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures in cell cultures and/or experimental animals. Data obtained from cell culture assays or animal studies can be used to determine initial human doses. As is known in the art, the dosage may vary depending upon the dosage form and route of administration used.

[0874] Usual dosages for systemic administration to a human patient range from 1 µg/kg to 100 mg/kg (e.g., 1-10 µg/kg, 20-80 µg/kg, 5-50 µg/kg, 75-150 µg/kg, 100-500 µg/kg, 250-750 µg/kg, 500-1000 µg/kg, 1 -10 mg/kg, 5-50 mg/kg, 25-75 mg/kg, 50-100 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg). The treatment schedule can require that a plasma concentration of an IRE-1α inhibitor compound be maintained for a period of time (e.g., several days or a week) and then allowed to decay by ceasing administration for a period of time (e.g., 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks). The amount of composition administered will, of course, be dependent on the subject being treated, on the subject's weight, the severity of the disorder, the manner of administration and the judgment of the prescribing physician.

[0875] The following specific examples are provided for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the subject matter described above. Some of the compounds in the examples are according to the invention, as defined in claim 1, and some are not according to the invention but are described herein, as is clear from the description above.

EXAMPLES



[0876] The analytical LC/MS method used in Examples 1-20 employed an Agilent 1200 with Variable Wavelength detector extracted at 220 nm and Agilent 6140 Single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The HPLC column was a Zorbax SB-C18, 3.5 µm, 2.1 mm x 30 mm, maintained at 40 °C. The HPLC Gradient was 0.4 mL/min, 95:5:0.1 water:acetonitrile:formic acid for 0.1 min then to 5:95:0.1 water:acetonitrile:formic acid in 3.9 min, maintaining for 0.5 min.

[0877] Examples which do not disclose the presently claimed compounds or their synthesis are considered to be reference examples.

EXAMPLE 1


7-Hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-6-carbaldehyde hydrobromide



[0878] 



[0879] To a stirred suspension of 7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-6-carbaldehyde hydrochloride (91 mg, 0.40 mmol) in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (5 mL) boron tribromide (0.42 g, 1.68 mmol) was added under argon at -78 °C. The reaction was stirred for 1 h, allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 2 h. After addition of isopropanol and diethyl ether the precipitated product was collected and washed with ether. In this manner the title compound (79 mg, 0.31 mmol, 77.5%) was obtained as a pink powder. LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 178, Rt: 1.331 min.

[0880] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.65 (s, 1H), 10.23 (s, 1H), 9.07 (br. s., 2H), 7.52 (s, 1H), 6.84 (s, 1H), 4.30 (s, 2H), 3.34 - 3.40 (m, 2H), 2.95 (t, J= 6.3 Hz, 2H).

[0881] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
1-1 5-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 178 1.331 99 98
1-2 5-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 178 0.389 100 95
1-3 5-2

BB_LCMS02(+) 178 1.228 96 96

EXAMPLE 2


6-Hydroxy-2-(pyridine-3-carbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde



[0882] 



[0883] To a solution of 6-methoxy-2-(pyridine-3-carbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde (62 mg, 0.21 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 mL) stirred under argon at -78 °C was added boron tribromide (0.12 mL, 0.31 g, 1.25 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 1 h, allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 2 h. The reaction was quenched by addition of methanol (2 mL) at -78 °C and the mixture was stirred for 1 h. After warming to room temperature, ethyl acetate (3 mL) and diethyl ether (30 mL) were added, upon scratching the product started to precipitate. The mixture was allowed to stand refrigerated overnight, the product was collected, washed with ethyl acetate and dried over P2O5 to give the title compound (48 mg, 0.13 mmol, 61.9%) as a beige powder.

[0884] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 283, Rt: 2.668 min.

[0885] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 11.16 (br. s., 1H), 10.42 (s, 1H), 8.97 (s, 1H), 8.91 (dd, J = 5.4, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 8.42 (br. s., 1H), 7.94 (dd, J = 7.9, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (br. s., 1H), 6.87 (br. s., 1H), 4.63 (br. s., 2H), 3.55 (br. s., 2H), 3.21 (br. s., 2H).

[0886] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
2-1 6-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 283 2.668 94 92
2-2 6-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 318 3.624 99 98
2-3 6-3

BB_ LCMS01(+) 318 3.572 89 + 9 = 98 98
2-4 6-4

BB_LCMS01(+) 283 2.613 94 95
2-5 6-5

BB_LCMS01(+) 318.1 3.595 100 98
2-6 6-6

BB_LCMS01(+) 283.1 2.643 96 96
2-7 7-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 332 1.189 99 98
2-8 7-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 318 1.967 95 95
2-9 7-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 318.1 1.917 97 98
2-10 7-4

BB_LCMS01(+) 332.2 1.176 96 98
2-11 8-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 334 2.185 96 93
2-12 8-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 304 2.202 94 93
2-13 8-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 334 2.188 99 98
2-14 8-4

BB_LCMS01(+) 304 2.117 96 92
2-15 9-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 268 2.326 100 98
2-16 9-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 268 2.333 93 90
2-17 9-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 268.1 2.317 96 98
2-18 10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 388 3.033 94 98
2-19 10-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 431 2.527 95 98
2-20 10-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 415 2.536 92 92
2-21* 10-4

BB_LCMS01(+) 401 2.514 91 95
2-22 10-5

BB_LCMS01(+) 401 2.465 92 95
2-23 10-6

BB_LCMS01(+) 387 2.516 94 95
2-24 10-7

BB_LCMS01(+) 401 2.440 94 95
2-25 10-8

BB_LCMS01(+) 387 2.476 91 92
2-26 11-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 297 3.075 99 95
2-27 12-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 387 2.441 91 90
*During O-demethylation the N-Boc protecting group of the precursor was also removed.

EXAMPLE 3


6-Hydroxy-2-(pyridine-3-carbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-7-carbaldehyde



[0887] 



[0888] To a stirred suspension of 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-7-carbaldehyde hydrobromide (129 mg, 0.5 mmol) and nicotinoyl chloride hydrochloride (107 mg, 0.6 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (6 mL), ethyldiisopropylamine (259 µL, 194 mg, 1.5 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. After dilution with 1,2-dichloroethane (30 mL) the mixture was washed with water (3 x 5 mL). After drying over MgSO4 and concentration the title compound (99 mg, 0.35 mmol, 70 %) was obtained.

[0889] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(-)/: M+1= 281, Rt: 2.592 min.

[0890] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ salt, 2 sets of signals A and B in ratio of 55:45 ppm 10.58 (br. s., 1H, A+B), 10.20 (br. s., 0.55H, A), 10.12 (br. s., 0.45H, B), 8.67 (br. s., 2H, A+B), 7.88 (br. s., 1H, A+B), 7.57 (br. s., 0.55H, A), 7.49 (dd, J=7.8, 4.8 Hz, 1H, A+B), 7.36 (br. s., 0.45H, B), 6.81 (s, 1H, A+B), 4.73 (br. s., 1.1H, A), 4.54 (br. s., 0.9H, B), 3.82 (br. s., 0.9H, B), 3.53 (br. s., 1.1H, A), 2.89 (br. s., 2H, A+B).
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
3-1 1-2

BB_LCMS01(-) 281 2.592 100 98

EXAMPLE 4


6-Hydroxy-2-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propionyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-7-carbaldehyde



[0891] 



[0892] To a stirred mixture of 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-7-carbaldehyde hydrobromide (82 mg, 0.46 mmol) and triethylamine (322 µL, 234 mg, 2.3 mmol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (2 mL), 3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propionic acid (80 mg, 0.46 mmol), (3-dimethylamino-propyl)-ethyl-carbodiimide hydrochloride (98 mg, 0.51 mmol) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (69 mg, 0.51 mmol) were added in the above order and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 7 h. After evaporation, the residue was taken up in chloroform (10 mL) and washed with sat NaHCO3 (2 x 5 mL) and brine (5 mL). The organic phase was dried over MgSO4 and evaporated. The obtained crude product (94 mg) was purified by column chromatography on silica gel, eluting with CHCl3/MeOH 94/6 mixture. In this manner the title compound (33 mg, 0.10 mmol, 21 %) was obtained.

[0893] LCMS /BB_LCMS02(+)/: M+1= 332, Rt: 1.86 min.

[0894] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.47 (br. s., 1 H), 10.18 (s, 1 H), 7.51 (s, 1 H), 6.85 (s, 1 H), 4.59 (s, 2 H), 3.67 (t, J=6.0 Hz, 2 H), 3.49 (s, 2 H), 2.87 (br. s., 10 H), 2.71 (s, 3 H).

[0895] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
4-1 1-2

BB_LCMS02(+) 332 1.860 97 98
4-2* 1-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 318 1.912 100 98
* isolated from EtOAc with HCl/EtOAc

EXAMPLE 5


6-Methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5- and 7-carbaldehydes



[0896] 


Step A


5-Formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester and 7-formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (HI-227d and HI-227i)



[0897] To dichloromethane (80 mL) at 0 °C, titanium tetrachloride (8.8 mL, 15.2 g, 80 mmol) and then dichloromethyl methyl ether (7.2 mL, 9.2 g, 80 mmol) were added dropwise followed by the addition of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline hydrochloride (4.0 g, 20 mmol) in small portions and the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 3 h. The reaction was quenched by slow addition of 2 N HCl (50 mL) and the layers were separated. The organic layer was extracted with 1 N HCl (2 x 10 mL) and the combined acidic aqueous layers were washed with dichloromethane (1 x 20 mL). Dichloromethane (100 mL) was added to the aqueous layers and the pH of the two-phase mixture was adjusted to 10 with 10 N NaOH (70 mL) under ice cooling. After addition of di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (4.8 g, 22 mmol) the mixture was stirred overnight. The reaction was diluted with dichloromethane (120 mL) and water (200 mL), the aqueous layer was separated and extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (3 x 150 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residual oil was chromatographed on silica (200 g), eluting first with a 8:1 mixture of n-hexane and ethyl acetate, followed by a 4:1 mixture and finally with a 2:1 mixture of the same solvents. By combining the appropriate fractions, concentration and trituration of the residues with n-hexane first 5-formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (1.72 g, 5.9 mmol, 29.5%) and then 7-formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (2.88 g, 9.9 mmol, 49.5%) were obtained as colorless solids.

5a-1: LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1 = 236, Rt: 3.955 min,

5a-2: LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/:M+1 = 236, Rt: 3.811 min,



[0898] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)
-

BB_LCMS01(+) 236 3.955 100 n/a
-

BB_LCMS01(+) 236 3.811 99.5 n/a
-

BB_LCMS01(+) 236 3.855 and 3.926 68.2 and 28.8 n/a
*Inseparable mixture

Step B


6-Hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde hydrochloride



[0899] To 5-formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (1.41 g, 4.84 mmol) in ethyl acetate (10 mL), a 3.3 M solution of anhydrous HCl in ethyl acetate was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h. The precipitated product was collected, washed with ethyl acetate and dried in air. In this manner the title compound (1.03 g, 4.52 mmol, 93.4%) was obtained as a white powder.

[0900] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1 = 192, Rt: 0.654 min,

[0901] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
5-1 5a-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 192 0.654 100 n/a
5-2 5a-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 192 0.562 96.4 n/a
5-3 5a-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 192 0.542 98.9 n/a
5-4 5a-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 192 0.745 87.7 n/a

EXAMPLE 6


6-Methoxy-2-(pyridine-3-carbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde



[0902] 



[0903] To a stirred suspension of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde hydrochloride (91 mg, 0.4 mmol) and nicotinoyl chloride hydrochloride (89 mg, 0.5 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (6 mL) diisopropylethylamine (261 µL, 194 mg, 1.5 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. After dilution with 1,2-dichloroethane (30 mL) the mixture was washed sequentially with water (5 mL), 1 N aqueous NaOH (5 mL) and again with water (3 x 5 mL). After drying over MgSO4 and concentration, the title compound (110 mg, 0.38 mmol, 95%) was obtained as a beige solid.

[0904] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 297, Rt: 2.792 min.

[0905] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
6-1 5-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 297 2.792 98.1 n/a
6-2 5-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 332 3.732 100 n/a
6-3 5-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 332 3.651 97.4 n/a
6-4 5-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 297 2.738 93 n/a
6-5 5-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 332 3.667 98.5 n/a
6-6 5-4

BB_LCMS01(+) 297 2.807 98.2 n/a

EXAMPLE 7


6-Methoxy-2-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propionyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde



[0906] 



[0907] To a stirred mixture of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde hydrochloride (153 mg, 0.67 mmol) and triethylamine (447 µL, 324 mg, 3.2 mmol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (8 mL) 3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propionic acid (172 mg, 1.0 mmol), (3-dimethylaminopropyl)-ethyl-carbodiimide hydrochloride (192 mg, 1.0 mmol) and 1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (135 mg, 1.0 mmol) were added in the above order and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. After dilution with ethyl acetate (20 mL) the mixture was washed with 1 N aqueous NaOH (3 x 5 mL) and water (3 x 5 mL) and then the product was extracted into 1 N HCl (3 x 5 mL). The aqueous acidic layer was rendered alkaline (pH = 10) with 10% aqueous NaOH and extracted with chloroform (3 x 10 mL). The combined chloroform layers were washed with water (3 x 5 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. In this manner the title compound (206 mg, 0.60 mmol, 89.6%) was obtained as a yellow oil.

[0908] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 346, Rt: 2.085 min.

[0909] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
7-1 5-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 346 2.085 96.4 n/a
7-2 5-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 332 2.293 97 n/a
7-3 5-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 332 2.165 98.6 n/a
7-4 5-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 346 1.996 96.7 n/a

EXAMPLE 8


5-Formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-amide



[0910] 


Step A


2-(Imidazole-1-carbonyl)-6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde



[0911] To a solution of freshly dried di-imidazol-1-yl-methanone (276 mg, 1.7 mmol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (20 mL) the solution of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde (325 mg, 1.7 mmol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (10 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at 80 °C oil bath for 14 h. The solution was concentrated and the residue was dissolved in dichloromethane, washed with water (2 x 10 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. In this manner the title compound (426 mg, 1.50 mmol, 88.2%) was obtained as a brownish yellow foam.

[0912] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 286, Rt: 2.524 min.

[0913] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
8a-1 5-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 286 2.524 93.5 n/a
8a-2 5-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 286 2.390 92.9 n/a

Step B


3-(5-Formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carbonyl)-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium iodide



[0914] A mixture of 2-(imidazole-1-carbonyl)-6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde (426 mg, 1.50 mmol) and methyl iodide (475 µL, 1.05 g, 7.6 mmol) in anhydrous acetonitrile (10 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 24 h. After evaporation of the solvent the title compound (640 mg, 1.50 mmol, 100%) was obtained as a brownish foam.

[0915] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 300, Rt: 2.251 min.

[0916] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
8b-1 8a-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 300 2.251 92.2 n/a
8b-2 8a-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 300 2.103 82.4 n/a

Step C


5-Formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-amide



[0917] A mixture of 3-(5-formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carbonyl)-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium iodide (321 mg, 0.75 mmol), 2-(morpholin-4-yl)-ethylamine (99.5 µL, 99.5 mg, 0.75 mmol) and triethylamine (106 µL, 76 mg, 0.75 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (10 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 24 h. After dilution with dichloromethane (10 mL), the solution was washed with brine (2 x 5 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography over silica, eluting with a 9:1 mixture of chloroform and methanol. In this manner the title compound (154 mg, 0.44 mmol, 58.7%) was obtained.

[0918] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 348, Rt: 2.343 min.

[0919] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
8-1 8b-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 348 2.343 98.7 n/a
8-2 8b-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 318 2.403 100 n/a
8-3 8b-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 348 2.336 96.1 n/a
8-4 8b-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 318 2.258 96 n/a

EXAMPLE 9


2-Benzyl-6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-7-carbaldehyde



[0920] 



[0921] To a mixture of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-7-carbaldehyde hydrochloride (114 mg, 0.5 mmol) and freshly dried K2CO3 (173 mg, 1.25 mmol) in anhydrous dimethylformamide (5 mL), benzyl chloride (69 µL, 76 mg, 0.6 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 h. The mixture was poured into water (25 mL) and extracted with diethyl ether (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (3 x 5 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The title compound (112 mg, 0.40 mmol, 80%) was obtained as a yellow oil.

[0922] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 282, Rt: 2.415 min.

[0923] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
9-1 5-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 282 2.430 95 n/a
9-2 5-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 282 2.538 67.3 n/a
9-3 5-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 282 2.436 82.9 n/a

EXAMPLE 10


6-Methoxy-2-[4-methyl-5-(morpholine-4-carbonyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde



[0924] 


Step A


(2-Chloro-4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl)-morpholin-4-yl-methanone



[0925] A mixture of 2-bromo-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (1.11 g, 5.0 mmol) and thionyl chloride (11 mL, 18.2 g, 0.153 mol) was heated under reflux for 30 min. After cooling, the volatiles were evaporated, followed by addition and evaporation of three 10 mL portions of toluene. A sample of the residue was treated with methanol and the obtained methyl ester was shown to be the 2-chlorothiazole compound [LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 192, Rt: 3.424 min] indicating that the product (0.91 g, 4.7 mmol, 95 %) was 2-chloro-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carbonyl chloride.

[0926] To a solution of the above acid chloride (200 mg, 1.02 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 mL) at 0 °C, a mixture of morpholine (88 µL, 89 mg, 1.02 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (148 µL, 124 mg, 1.03 mmol) in dichloromethane (3 mL) was added dropwise and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. After dilution with dichloromethane (20 mL) the solution was washed with water (2 x 5 mL), dried over MgSO4 and evaporated to yield the title compound (208 mg, 0.84 mmol, yield: 82% calculated from the starting acid chloride) as a yellow oil.

[0927] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 247, Rt: 2.534 min.

[0928] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
10a-1 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 247 2.534 1011 n/a
10a-2 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 290 0.777 100 n/a

Step A'


2-Bromo-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (1-methyl-piperidin-4-yl)-amide



[0929] To a stirred mixture of 1-methyl-4-aminopiperidine (125 µL, 114 mg, 1 mmol) and triethylamine (570 µL, 414 mg, 4.1 mmol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (10 mL), 2-bromo-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (266 mg, 1.2 mmol), (3-dimethylaminopropyl)-ethyl-carbodiimide hydrochloride (232 mg, 1.2 mmol) and 1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (164 mg, 1.2 mmol) were sequentially and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 22 h. After dilution with dichloromethane (20 mL), the mixture was washed with water (3 x 10 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. In this manner the title compound (277 mg, 0.87 mmol, 87%) was obtained as a yellow solid.

[0930] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 318, Rt: 1.102 min.

[0931] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
10a-3 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 318 1.102 96.8 n/a
10a4 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 348 3.620 93.8 n/a
10a-5 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 304 0.555 99.1 n/a
10a-6 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 290 0.492 100 n/a

Step B


6-Methoxy-2-[4-methyl-5-(morpholine-4-carbonyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde



[0932] A mixture of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde hydrochloride (82 mg, 0.36 mmol), anhydrous dimethylformamide (5 mL), (2-chloro-4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl)-morpholin-4-yl-methanone (89 mg, 0.36 mmol) and freshly dried potassium carbonate (149 mg, 1.08 mmol) was stirred under argon at 120 °C for 3.5 h and then at 150 °C for 1 h. Water (20 mL) was added and the separated solid product was filtered off. The filtrate was extracted with diethyl ether (5 x 10 mL) and the combined extracts were washed with water (2 x 10 mL), dried and concentrated. The residue and the above solid product were combined and triturated repeatedly with diisopropyl ether. In this manner the title compound (37 mg, 0.092 mmol, 26%) was obtained as a beige powder.

[0933] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 402, Rt: 3.129 min.

[0934] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
10-1 10a-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 402 3.129 88.9 n/a
10-2 10a-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 445 2.655 96.1 n/a
10-3 10a-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 429 2.624 91.3 n/a
10-4 10a-4

BB_LCMS01(+) 515 3.849 90.7 n/a
10-5 10a-5

        n/a
10-6 10a-6

        n/a
10-7 10a-5

BB_LCMS01(+) 415 2.470 96 n/a
10-8 10a-6

        n/a

EXAMPLE 11


4-(7-Formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-benzamide



[0935] 


Step A


4-(7-Formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-benzonitrile



[0936] A mixture of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-7-carbaldehyde hydrochloride (1.0 g, 4.39 mmol), 1-fluoro-4-methyl-benzene (2.42 g, 20.0 mmol) and freshly dried K2CO3 (3.0 g, 21.7 mmol) in anhydrous dimethylformamide (11 mL) was stirred under nitrogen at 130 °C for 6 h. The mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The organic extracts were dried over MgSO4 and evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography over silica by eluting with a 2:1 mixture of n-hexane and ethyl acetate. In this manner the title compound (0.45 g, 1.54 mmol, 35.1%) was obtained.
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
11a -

BB_LCMS01(+) 293 3.828 100 n/a

Step B


4-(5-Formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-benzamide



[0937] A mixture of 4-(7-formyl-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-benzonitrile (200 mg, 0.68 mmol) and 96% (w/w) sulfuric acid (3 mL) was stirred at room temperature overnight. The next day poured onto ice-water (10 mL), the pH was adjusted with K2CO3 to 9 and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The residue was purified by column chromatography over silica, eluting with a 95:5 mixture of chloroform and methanol. In this manner the title compound (85 mg, 0.27 mmol, 39.7%) was obtained as a solid.
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
11-1 11a

BB_LCMS01(+) 311 3.121 100 n/a

EXAMPLE 12


6-Methoxy-2-[2-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-thiazole-5-carbonyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde



[0938] 


Step A


2-(2-Bromo-thiazole-5-carbonyl)-6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde



[0939] To a mixture of dry tetrahydrofuran (20 mL) 6-Methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde hydrochloride (683 mg, 3.00 mmol), and triethylamine (2.1 mL, 1.52 g, 15 mmol), 2-bromothiazole-5-carboxylic acid (655 mg, 3.15 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (446 mg, 3.30 mmol) and 1-ethyl-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (634 mg, 3.30 mmol) were added sequentially. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h and the resulted yellow suspension was evaporated and partitioned between chloroform (30 mL) and 0.1N HCl (15 mL). The organic layer was separated and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (15 mL) and brine (15 mL). The organic phase was dried, evaporated and purified by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60), with chloroform as the eluent. The title compound (600 mg, 1.57 mmol, 53%) was isolated as a solid.
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
12a -

BB_LCMS01(+) 382 3.470 100 n/a

Step B


6-Methoxy-2-[2-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-thiazole-5-carbonyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde



[0940] To a solution of 2-(2-Bromo-thiazole-5-carbonyl)-6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-5-carbaldehyde (229 mg, 0.60 mg) in abs. N,N-dimethylformamide (4 mL), N-methyl piperazine (133 µL, 120 mg, 1.20 mmol) and dry potassium carbonate (248 mg, 1.80 mmol) was added. The resultant mixture was stirred under nitrogen at 100 °C for 2 h in a closed vial. The reaction was cooled, water (10 mL) was added, and the resultant solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 15 mL) The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and evaporated to afford title compound (92 mg, 0.23 mmol, 38%) as a pale yellow crystalline solid.
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
12-1 12a

BB_LCMS01(+) 401 2.550 93 n/a

EXAMPLE 13


7-Hydroxy-3-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde



[0941] 



[0942] A mixture of 7-hydroxy-3-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-chromen-2-one (156 mg, 0.40 mmol) and hexamethylenetetramine (224 mg, 1.6 mmol) in trifluoroacetic acid (4 mL) was stirred in a closed vial under argon at 110°C for 40 min. After cooling water (15 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 5 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with water (3 x 5 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The obtained crude product (83 mg) was purified by column chromatography over silica, eluting with a 9:1 mixture of chloroform and methanol. In this manner the title compound (30.5 mg, 0.074 mmol, 18.5%) was obtained as a yellow solid.

[0943] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 414, Rt: 3.085 min.

[0944] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.41 (s, 1H), 8.86 (s, 1H), 7.97 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.83 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.59 (br. s., 4H), 2.55 - 2.64 (m, 4H), 2.41 (s, 3H), 2.38 (s, 3H).

[0945] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
13-1 20-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 414 3.085 100 98
13-2 6093-68-1

BB_LCMS01(-) 189 2.621 100 98
13-3 23251-28-7

BB_LCMS01(-) 231 3.505 98 95
13-4 20052-60-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 235 3.709 96 97
13-5 56437-16-2

BB_LCMS01(-) 233 2.496 95 98
13-6 Indofine 19-244

BB_LCMS01(-) 345 4.068 100 98
13-7 Princeton PBMR-019293

BB_LCMS01(+) 355 3.495 100 98
13-8 Princeton PBMR-015251

BB_LCMS01(+) 311 3.467 94 95
13-9 Princeton PBMR-001612

BB_LCMS01(+) 316 4.081 97 98
13-10 61034-11-5

BB_LCMS01(+) 333 3.785 100 98
13-11 19492-02-5

BB_LCMS01(-) 237 3.453 98 98
13-12 219965-92-1

BB_LCMS01(-) 221 3.177 93 98
13-13 5852-03-9

BB_LCMS01(-) 261 3.224 88 90
13-14 90-33-5

BB_LCMS01(+) 205 3.278 100 98
13-15 6100-60-3

BB_LCMS07(+) 321 1.401 98 98
13-16 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(-) 281 3.453 95 n/a
13-17 19a-1

BB_LCMS01(-) 344 3.844 90 95
13-18 19a-2

BB_LCMS01(-) 358 3.948 97 96
13-19 20-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 444 3.124 100 98
13-20 20-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 428 3.033 100 94
13-21 20-5

BB_LCMS07(+) 400 1.276 99 98
13-22 21-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 401 3.359 96 95
13-23 22-1

BB_LCMS01(-) 311 3.290 100 98
13-24 22-2

BB_LCMS01(-) 299 3.419 99 98
13-25 22-3

BB_LCMS01(-) 315 3.229 79 n/a

EXAMPLE 14


[4-(6-Hydroxy-benzothiazol-2-yl)-phenyl]-(4-methyl-piperidin-1-yl)-methanone



[0946] 



[0947] 3-Bromo-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde (142 mg, 0.50 mmol), 4-(4-morpholine-4-carbonyl)phenylboronic acid pinacol ester (175 mg, 0.55 mmol), potassium phosphate (424 mg, 2.00 mmol) and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (17 mg, 0.015 mmol) were dissolved in a degassed mixture of 4.5 mL 2-ethoxyethanol and 0.5 mL water. The mixture was stirred at 115 °C under argon for 2 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to reach room temperature, then activated-carbon (40 mg) was added and was stirred for 20 min. The solid was filtered off, washed with ethanol and the combined filtrates were evaporated. The residue was suspended in saturated sodium bicarbonate (20 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (3x20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The solid residue was purified by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60) with chloroform - methanol 98:2 as the eluent. The crude product was triturated with Et2O, filtered off and air dried, affording the title compound (31 mg, 0.08 mmol, 16%) as a white powder.

[0948] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
14-1 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 394 3.175 100 98
14-2 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 407 2.596 99 98
14-3 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 437 2.714 100 98
14-4 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 394 3.199 99 98
14-5 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 380 2.574 97 98
14-6 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 352 3.233 96 98
14-7 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 378 3.416 99 98
14-8 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 406 3.815 94 98
14-9 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 352 3.292 98 98
14-10 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 378 3.439 95 98
14-11 13-23

BB_LCMS01(+) 409 2.929 100 95
14-12 13-23

BB_LCMS01(+) 424 3.196 96 95
14-13 13-23

BB_LCMS01(+) 437 3.020 100 98
14-14 13-24

BB_LCMS01(+) 397 3.017 92 95
14-15 13-25

BB_LCMS01(+) 428 3.550 94 98

EXAMPLE 15


7-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-(3-morpholin-4-yl-3-oxo-propyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde



[0949] 


Step A


3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-propionic acid



[0950] A mixture of 3-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-propionic acid ethyl ester (100 mg, 0.36 mmol) and hexamethylenetetramine (203 mg, 1.44 mmol) in trifluoroacetic acid (3.6 mL) was stirred in a closed vial under argon at 110°C for 2 h. The reaction was poured onto crushed ice (15 mL), warmed to room temperature, and the solid precipitate was filtered off. This mixture of formylated ester and corresponding carboxylic acid was dissolved in dioxane - IN NaOH (1:1) and was stirred at room temperature. After 2 h, 15 mL of dichloromethane was added. The aqueous layer was separated and acidified by portionwise addition of IN HCl. The precipitate was collected, washed with water, and dried to afford title compound (15 mg, 0.043 mmol, 13%) as a light brown powder.
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
15a-1 5969-19-7

BB_LCMS01(+) 277 3.268 90 n/a
15a-2 6100-60-3

BB_LCMS07(+) 307 1.386 79 n/a

Step B


7-Hydroxy-4-methyl-3-(3-morpholin-4-yl-3-oxo-propyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde



[0951] To a mixture of dry tetrahydrofuran (8.5 mL) and N,N-dimethylformamide (2 mL), morpholine (93 µL, 94 mg, 1.08 mmol), triethylamine (340 µl, 247 mg, 2.45 mmol) 3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-propionic acid (148 mg, 0.49 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (146 mg, 1.08 mmol) and 1-ethyl-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (205 mg, 1.08 mmol) were added in order. The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight, then 5 mL of 2N HCl was added and the stirring was continued for 2 h. The resultant solution was extracted with dichloromethane (2x10 mL), the combined organic layers were washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (10 mL) and brine (10 mL), the organic phase was dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The title compound (399 mg, 1.070 mmol, 57%) was isolated by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60), with chloroform - methanol 20:1 as eluent, as a white powder.

[0952] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 11.74 (br. s., 1H), 10.45 (s, 1H), 7.98 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.96 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.49 - 3.60 (m, 4H), 3.39 - 3.45 (m, 4H), 2.75 - 2.81 (m, 2H), 2.47 - 2.53 (m, 2H), 2.41 (s, 3H).

[0953] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS onLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
15-1 15a-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 346 3.286 99 98
15-2 15a-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 359 2.945 100 98
15-3 15a-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 389 2.928 98 97
15-4 15a-2

BB_LCMS07(+) 376 1.199 100 98
15-5 5852-10-8

BB_LCMS07(+) 332 1.404 100 98
15-6 5852-10-8

BB_LCMS07(+) 345 1.307 99 98

EXAMPLE 16


7-Hydroxy-4-methyl-3-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-3-oxo-propenyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde



[0954] 



[0955] 3-Bromo-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde (142 mg, 0.50 mmol), 1-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propenone (93 mg, 0.60 mmol), palladium acetate (4 mg, 15 µmol), tri-o-tolyl-phosphane (9 mg, 30 µmol) and silver acetate (167 mg, 1.0 mmol) were dissolved in abs. N,N-dimethylformamide (4mL). The mixture was irradiated in a microwave reactor for 1 h at 120 °C under inert atmosphere. The reaction mixture was poured into water (10mL) and extracted with chloroform (3x15 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The title compound (15 mg, 0.042 mmol, 8%) was isolated by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60), with chloroform as eluent, as a yellow powder.

[0956] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.43 (s, 1H), 8.05 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (d, J= 15.1 Hz, 1H), 7.50 (d, J= 15.1 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.56 - 3.66 (m, 4H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 2.38 (br. s., 4H), 2.27 (s, 3H).
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
16-1 55977-10-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 357 3.011 99 94

EXAMPLE 17


7-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbothioic acid amide



[0957] 



[0958] To a solution of 7-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (7.50 g, 37.31 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (150 mL), ammonium sulfide (40-48 wt% solution in water; 38 mL, 560 mmol) was added, and the resulted mixture was stirred at room temperature for a week. An additional portion of ammonium sulfide (38 mL) was added on every second day. The solution was evaporated and the solid residue was triturated with water, filtered and dried. The obtained crude product was purified by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60), with chloroform - methanol (1:1) as eluent. The title compound (3.20 g, 13.6 mmol, 36%) was isolated as a yellow powder.
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
17-1 2829-46-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 236 2.554 99 n/a

EXAMPLE 18


7-methoxy-3-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-chromen-2-one



[0959] 


Step A


2-(7-Hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester



[0960] To a suspension of 7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbothioic acid amide (221 mg, 1.0 mmol) in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide (5 mL) stirred at 0 °C, sodium hydride (60% in oil, 44 mg, 1.1 mmol) was added portionwise. During addition a clear solution was formed with moderate effervescence. After 10 min, a solution of 2-bromo-3-oxo-butyric acid tert-butyl ester (474 mg, 2.0 mmol) in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide (2 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h. The reaction was poured into water (20 mL) and extracted with chloroform (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with water (3 x 5 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was triturated with diethyl ether, the solid product was collected and washed with diethyl ether. The title compound (224 mg, 0.623 mmol, 62.3%) was obtained as a yellow solid.

[0961] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
18a-1 69015-66-3

BB_LCMS07(+) 360 3.928 97.1 n/a
18a-2 17-1

BB_LCMS07(+) 374 3.913 96.3 n/a

Step B


2-(7-Hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid



[0962] To a suspension of 2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (387 mg, 1.08 mmol) and anisole (117 µL, 117 mg, 1.08 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (5 mL)was added trifluoroacetic acid (5 mL) and the obtained solution was stirred at room temperature for 6 h. Diethyl ether (30 mL) was added, the precipitate was collected, washed with diethyl ether and dried in air. In this manner the title compound (285 mg, 0.94 mmol, 87%) was obtained as a light brown solid.

[0963] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 304, Rt: 3.297 min.

[0964] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
18-1 18a-1

BB_LCMS07(+) BB_LCMS07(+) 304 3.297 99.3
18-2 18a-2

BB_LCMS07(+) BB_LCMS07(+) 318 3.293 99.7

EXAMPLE 19



[0965] 


Step A


2-(7-Hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester



[0966] To a solution of 7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbothioic acid amide (66 mg, 0.3 mmol) in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide (5 mL), freshly dried K2CO3 (263 mg, 1,9 mmol) was added followed by 2-chloro-3-oxo-butyric acid ethyl ester (79 µL, 94 mg, 0.54 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 19 h. The mixture was poured into water (25 mL) and extracted first with chloroform (3 x 10 mL) and, after saturation with NaCl, with tetrahydrofuran (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in chloroform (8 mL), pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (7.5 mg, 0.03 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 4.5 h. After cooling, the solution was washed with brine (3 x 5 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica, eluting with a 9:1:0.1 mixture of chloroform, methanol and cc. NH4OH. The title compound (14.5 mg, 0.044 mmol, 14.7%) was obtained as a yellow solid.

[0967] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 332, Rt: 3.748 min.

[0968] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
19a-1 69015-66-3

BB_LCMS07(+) 318 3.643 98.9 n/a
19a-2 69015-66-3

BB_LCMS07(+) 332 3.748 90.4 n/a

Step B


2-(7-Hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid)



[0969] A suspension of 2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (50 mg, 0.16 mmol) in 70% (w/w) sulfuric acid (3 mL) was stirred at 100°C for 1 h. During heating the solids dissolved and a solid precipitated after 1 h. The precipitate was collected, washed with water and dried in air. In this manner the title compound (30.5 mg, 0.10 mmol, 62.5%) was obtained as a pale brown solid.
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
19-1 19a-1

BB_LCMS07(+) 290 3.181 98 n/a

EXAMPLE 20


7-Hydroxy-4-methyl-3-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-chromen-2-one



[0970] 



[0971] To dry tetrahydrofuran (12 mL) at 0 °C, 1-methylpiperazine (61 µL, 55 mg, 0.55 mmol), triethylamine (210 µL, 152 mg, 1.5 mmol), 2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (156 mg, 0.49 mmol), (3-dimethylaminopropyl)-ethyl-carbodiimid hydrochloride (105 mg, 0.55 mmol) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole monohydrate (84 mg, 0.55 mmol) were added sequentially, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h. After addition of water (30 mL) the pH was adjusted to 8 by addition of a 5% aqueous solution of NaHCO3 and the mixture was extracted with tetrahydrofuran (3 x 15 mL). After drying (MgSO4) and evaporation, the residue was purified by column chromatography over silica (Kieselgel 60) using chloroform - methanol 9:1 as eluent. The title compound (156 mg, 0.41 mmol, 81%) was obtained as a yellow solid.

[0972] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
20-1 18-1

BB_LCMS07(+) 386 2.955 100 n/a
20-2 18-1

BB_LCMS07(+) 416 2.966 100 n/a
20-3 18-2

BB_LCMS07(+) 400 2.949 100 n/a
20-4 18-2

BB_LCMS07(+) 430 3.001 100 n/a
20-5 19-1

BB_LCMS07(+) 372 1.215 95.8 n/a

EXAMPLE 21


7-Hydroxy-3-[4-methyl-5-(morpholine-4-carbonyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-chromen-2-one



[0973] 



[0974] To a solution of 1-morpholin-4-yl-butane-1,3-dione (0.53 g, 3.1 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (30 mL) stirred at 0 °C, N-bromosuccinimide (0.55 mg, 3.1 mmol) was added in small portions and the mixture was stirred for 1 h. The solution was washed with brine (3 x 5 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated below 30 °C. 2-Bromo-1-morpholin-4-yl-butane-1,3-dione 0.76 g, 3.04 mmol, 98.1%, LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1=250, 252, Rt: 1.831 min] was obtained as a yellowish oil.

[0975] To a stirred suspension of 7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbothioic acid amide (354 mg, 1.6 mmol) in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide (7 mL), 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (480 µL, 490 mg, 3.2 mmol) was added followed by a solution of 2-bromo-1-morpholin-4-yl-butane-1,3-dione (750 mg, 3.0 mmol) in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide (15 mL) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 h. The reaction mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted first with chloroform (3 x 30 mL) then after saturation with NaCl, with tetrahydrofuran (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in chloroform (16 mL), pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (40.2 mg, 0.16 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at 60°C for 4.5 h. The reaction mixture was washed with a mixture of brine (10 mL) and 5% NaHCO3 solution (5 mL) and then with brine (2 x 15 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica, eluting with a 9:1:0.1 mixture of chloroform, methanol and cc. NH4OH. The title compound (34.6 mg, 0.093 mmol, 5.8%) was obtained as a yellow solid.
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
21-1 69015-66-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 373 3.040 100 n/a

EXAMPLE 22


3-Bromo- 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-chromen-2-one



[0976] 



[0977] A bromine (2.55 g, 15.96 mmol) solution in acetic acid (8 mL) was added dropwise to a stirred suspension of 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-chromen-2-one (3.20 g, 15.5 mmol) in glacial acetic acid (31 mL) at room temperature. The mixture was stirred for 10 min, then poured onto crushed ice (400 mL). To the resultant light yellow suspension, 1 mL of saturated sodium bisulphite solution was added and the mixture was allowed to reach room temperature. The precipitated solids were filtered off, washed with water, dried and recrystallized from glacial acetic acid. The obtained white powder (3.39 g, 11.88 mmol, 76%) was used without further purification.

[0978] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
ExMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
22-1 3374-03-6

BB_LCMS01(+) 286 3.316 78 n/a
22-2 219965-92-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 274 3.390 92 n/a
22-3 19492-02-5

BB_LCMS01(+) 289 3.589 92 n/a

EXAMPLE 23



[0979] 


Step A


7-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-(4-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (3)



[0980] A mixture of 3-bromo-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) (7.66 g, 30 mmol), 4-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)phenylboronic acid hydrochloride (2) (10.24 g, 36 mmol), Na3PO4 (22.14 g, 135 mmol), ethoxyethanol (140 g) and water (14 g) was purged with Argon for five minutes in a 250 mL pressure vessel. Ligand Sphos (obtained from Aldrich, Cat No. 638072) (739 mg, 1.8 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (202 mg, 0.90 mmol) were added under an Argon atmosphere then the vessel was sealed and heated for 60 min in a 150 °C oil bath with strong stirring. This process was repeated once. Upon cooling, the reaction mixtures were filtered through a silica plug using CH2Cl2 and MeOH wash. The unified solutions were evaporated to 100 mL slowly diluted with water (100 mL) and crystallized at 0 °C. The product was filtered, washed with 50% MeOH (2x30 mL) and dried to afford 18.52 g (81%) of the title compound. MS (ESI): 379 (M+H)+. 1H NMR (δ, DMSO (2.5 ppm)): 10.57 (s, br, 1H), 7.69 (d, 1H), 7.44 (d, 2H), 7.36 (d, 2H), 6.84 (dd, 1H), 6.76 (d, 1H), 3.65-3.30 (m, 8H), 2.23 (s, 3H), 2.20 (s, 3H).

Step B


7-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-(4-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde hydrochloride (4)



[0981] A mixture of 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-(4-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (3) (9.11 g, 24.0 mmol) and hexamethylenetetramine (13.46 g, 96.0 mmol) in TFA (283 g) was heated in a pressure flask in a 120 °C oil bath for 40 minutes. This process was repeated once. Upon cooling, the unified solutions were evaporated to 182 g weight and, after addition of CH2Cl2 (500 mL) and water (100 mL) it was cooled to 0 °C. The mixture was neutralized with NaOH (2N, 400 mL) and then close to the end point with NaHCO3 (10%) with cooling and stirring. The product was extracted with CH2Cl2 (5x100 mL), washed with water (backextracted), dried on MgSO4 and evaporated to afford 23.5 g crude product. The crude product was loaded on 33 g silica and purified by medium pressure chromatography (4x100g columns + 4x100g reruns) using 2-3% MeOH in CH2Cl2 by collecting the front fractions to afford 7.00 g of free base This product was dissolved in EtOH (130 mL) and HCl (8 mL, 6N) with heating. Upon cooling to 20 °C the salt crystallized. It was filtered and washed with abs EtOH (2x20 mL), dried on air then at 50 °C under 5 Hgmm vacuum to afford 6.65 g (34%) of the title compound.

[0982] MS (ESI): 407 (M+H)+.

[0983] 1H NMR (δ, DMSO (2.5 ppm)): 11.93 (s, br, 1H), 10.90 (s, br, 1H), 10.50 (s, 1H), 8.04 (d, 1H), 7.55 (d, 2H), 7.43 (d, 2H), 7.04 (d, 1H), 4.4-3.3 (m, br, 8H), 2.79 (s, 3H), 2.28 (s, 3H).

[0984] Elemental analysis of a previous air dried sample corresponds well to 2 crystal water:
 MeasuredCalculated
%Air driedaDeep driedb44 + H2O4 + 2H2O
C 57.66 60.91 62.37 59.94 57.68
H 5.61 5.75 5.23 5.47 5.68
N 5.78 6.11 6.33 6.08 5.85
Cl 7.47 7.75 8.00 7.69 7.40
Pd <10ppm <10ppm      
aAir dried: equilibrated at 22 °C.
bDeep dried: equilibrated at 50 °C under 1 Hgmm for 24 hours.

EXAMPLE 24



[0985] 


Step A


4-(7-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)benzamide (6)



[0986] A mixture of 3-bromo-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) (7.66 g, 30 mmol), 4-(2-morpholinoethylcarbamoyl)phenylboronic acid (2) (10.02 g, 36 mmol), Na3PO4 (17.21 g, 105 mmol) in a mixture of ethoxyethanol (140 g) and water (14 g) was purged with Argon for five minutes in a 250 mL pressure vessel. Ligand Sphos (738 mg, 1.8 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (206 mg, 0.90 mmol) were added under an Argon atmosphere then the vessel was sealed and heated for 60 min in a 150 oC oil bath with strong stirring. This process was repeated once. Upon cooling, the reaction mixtures were filtered through a silica plug using CH2Cl2 and MeOH wash. The unified solutions were evaporated to 100 mL slowly diluted with water (100 mL) and crystallized at 0 °C. The product was filtered, washed with 50% MeOH (2x50 mL) and dried to afford 22.33 g (91%) of the title compound. MS (ESI): 409 (M+H)+. 1H NMR (δ, DMSO (2.5 ppm)): 10.57 (s, br, 1H), 8.46 (t, 1H), 7.88 (d, 2H), 7.69 (d, 1H), 7.39 (d, 2H), 6.84 (dd, 1H), 6.76 (d, 1H), 3.57 (m, 4H), 3.40 and 2.48 (2q, 2x2H), 2.43 (m, 4H), 2.22 (s, 3H).

Step B


4-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl) benzamide (4)



[0987] A mixture of 4-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl) benzamide (3) (8.17 g, 20.0 mmol) and hexamethylenetetramine (11.22 g, 80.0 mmol) in TFA (200 mL) was heated in a pressure flask in a 115 °C oil bath for 40 minutes. This process was repeated once. Upon cooling, the unified solutions were evaporated to 158 g weight and, after addition of CH2Cl2 (500 mL) and water (100 mL) it was cooled to 0 °C. The mixture was neutralized with NaOH (2N, 350 mL) and then close to the end point with NaHCO3 (10%) with cooling and stirring. The product was extracted with CH2Cl2 (5x100 mL), washed with water (backextracted), dried on MgSO4 and evaporated to afford 17.2 g crude product. The crude product was loaded on 40 g silica and purified by medium pressure chromatography (4x100g columns) using 1-3% MeOH in CH2Cl2 by collecting the front fractions to afford 6.2 g (31%) of the title compound. This product can be turned into its HCl salt by dissolving it in EtOH (100 mL) and adding 6N HCl (10 mL). The salt was filtered and washed with 70% EtOH (2x20 mL), dried on air then at 50 °C under 5 Hgmm vacuum to afford 6.0 g HCl salt of the title compound.

[0988] MS (ESI): 437 (M+H)+.

[0989] 1H NMR (δ, DMSO (2.5 ppm)): 10.50 (s, 1H), 8.48 (t, 1H), 8.02 (d, 1H), 7.89 (d, 2H), 7.42 (d, 2H), 7.00 (d, 1H), 3.58 (t, 4H), 3.41 and 2.50 (2q, 2x2H), 2.48 (m, 4H), 2.25 (s, 3H). HCl-salt: 11.93 (s, br, 1H),10.62 (s, br, 1H), 10.50 (s, 1H), 8.96 (t, 1H), 8.04 (d, 1H), 8.00 (d, 2H), 7.45 (d, 2H), 7.04 (d, 1H), 3.98, 3.79, 3.71, 3.55, 3.34, 3.14 (6m, 6x2H), 2.26 (s, 3H).

[0990] Elemental analysis of a previous air dried sample corresponds well to one crystal water which is lost on further drying:
 MeasuredCalculated
%Air driedaDeep driedb77 + H2O7 + 2H2O
C 60.46 58.64 60.95 58.72 56.64
H 5.56 5.64 5.33 5.54 5.74
N 5.82 5.61 5.92 5.71 5.50
Cl 7.46 7.28 7.50 7.22 6.97
Pd <10ppm <10ppm      
aAir dried: equilibrated at 22 °C.
bDeep dried: equilibrated at 50 °C under 1 Hgmm for 24 hours.

EXAMPLE 25



[0991] 


3-(2-(Diethylamino)ethyl)-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde hydrochloride (2)



[0992] A mixture of 3-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1 (312 mg, 1.0 mmol) and hexamethylenetetramine (280 mg, 2.0 mmol) in trifluoroacetic acid (5 mL) was microwave irradiated for 20 min at 110 °C. Upon cooling, the reaction mixture was evaporated. The residue was diluted with water (10 mL) and CH2Cl2 (30 mL), cooled to 0 °C, neutralized with NaHCO3 solution and extracted with CH2Cl2. The organic phase was dried and HCl (1 mL, 2M in ether) was added to it. Evaporation and crystallization from a CH2Cl2/hexane mixture afforded the title product. MS (ESI): 304 (M+H)+. 1H NMR (δ, DMSO (2.5 ppm)): 10.45 (s, 1H), 8.02 (d, 1H), 7.00 (d, 1H), 3.22 (q, 4H), 3.11 (m, 2H), 2.94 (m, 2H), 2.46 (s, 3H), 1.24 (t, 6H).

EXAMPLE 26



[0993] 


Step A


6-Hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-5-carbaldehyde (2)



[0994] A mixture of 6-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one (1) (TCI: 2,6-dihydroxyquinoline) (806 mg, 5.0 mmol) and hexamethylenetetramine (1.40 g, 10.0 mmol) in trifluoroacetic acid (6 mL) was microwave irradiated for 20 min at 100 °C. The reaction was run twice with two parallels on a 5 mmol scale. Upon cooling, the two reaction mixtures were washed into a 100 mL flask with MeOH (40 mL). The mixture was evaporated to ∼10 mL and diluted with water (70 mL) with vigorous stirring. The precipitated product was filtered, washed with water and dried on air to afford 1.85 g (97%) title compound. MS (ESI): 190 (M+H)+. 1H NMR (δ, DMSO (2.5 ppm)): 11.84 (s, 1H, OH), 11.07 (s, 1H, NH), 10.61 (s, 1H, CHO), 8.86, 7.51, 7.24 and 6.63 (4d, 4x1H).

Step B


2-Chloro-6-hydroxyquinoline-5-carbaldehyde (3)



[0995] POCl3 (973 µL, 10.4 mmol) was added dropwise to a DMF (5 mL) solution of 6-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-5-carbaldehyde (658 mg, 3.48 mmol) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred for 20 hours at 20 °C then cooled to 0 °C. Upon addition of ice water the product precipitated. It was filtered, washed with water and dried on air to afford 580 mg (88%) of the title compound. MS (ESI): 208 (M+H)+. 1H NMR (δ, DMSO (2.5 ppm)): 11.95 (s, 1H, OH), 10.70 (s, 1H, CHO), 9.38, 8.10, 7.67 and 7.55 (4d, 4x1H).

Step C


6-Hydroxy-2-(4-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl)quinotine-5-carbaldehyde (5)



[0996] A mixture of 2-chloro-6-hydroxyquinolin-5-carbaldehyde (3) (104 mg, 0.5 mmol), 4-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)phenylboronic acid (4) (198 mg, 0.7 mmol) and K2CO3 (174 mg, 1.25 mmol) in a mixture of i-PrOH and water (6 mL 10:1) was purged with Argon for five minutes in a microwave vessel. A tablet of PdOAc2(Sphos)4 (Aldrich, Cat. No. 694088) was added under an Argon atmosphere then the vessel was sealed and irradiated for 45 min at 165 °C. Upon cooling, the reaction mixture was filtered through a silica plug using MeOH. The solution was evaporated and purified by Flash chromatography using 0-5% MeOH in CH2Cl2. The product was recrystallized from CH2Cl2/hexanes to afford the title compound. MS (ESI): 376 (M+H)+. 1H NMR (δ, DMSO (2.5 ppm)): 10.74 (s, 1H), 9.44 8.25, 7.21 and 7.49 (4d, 4x1H), 8.29 and 7.54 (2d, 2x2H), 3.64, 3.38, 2.41 and 2.33 (4 broad s, 4x2H), 2.23 (s, 3H).

EXAMPLE 27



[0997] 


6-hydroxy-2-(3-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-5-carbaldehyde (7)



[0998] A mixture of 2-chloro-6-hydroxyquinolin-5-carbaldehyde (3) (104 mg, 0.5 mmol), 3-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)phenylboronic acid (6) (198 mg, 0.7 mmol) and K2CO3 (174 mg, 1.25 mmol) in a mixture of i-PrOH and water (6 mL 10:1) was purged with Argon for five minutes in a microwave vessel. A tablet of PdOAc2(Sphos)4 (Aldrich, Cat. No. 694088) was added under an Argon atmosphere then the vessel was sealed and irradiated for 45 min at 165 °C. Upon cooling, the reaction mixture was filtered through a silica plug using MeOH. The solution was evaporated and purified by Flash chromatography using 0-5% MeOH in CH2Cl2. The product was recrystallized from CH2Cl2/hexanes to afford the title compound. MS (ESI): 376 (M+H)+. 1H NMR (δ, DMSO (2.5 ppm)): 10.74 (s, 1H), 9.44 (d, 1H), 8.30 (dd, 1H), 8.27 (d, 1H), 8.24 (s, 1H), 8.23 (d,1H), 7.61 (t, 1H), 7.49 (d, 1H), 7.47 (dd, 1H), 3.60, 3.40, 2.40 and 2.30 (4 broad s, 4x2H), 2.23 (s, 3H).

EXAMPLE 28


6-Hydroxy-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperidine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]-benzothiazole-7-carbaldehyde



[0999] 


Step A


[4-(6-Hydroxy-benzothiazol-2-yl)-phenyl]-(4-methyl-piperidin-1-yl)-methanone



[1000] 2-Bromo-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (400 mg, 1.74 mmol), 4-(4-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)phenylboronic acid (472 mg, 1.91 mmol), potassium phosphate (848 mg, 6.96 mmol) and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (60 mg, 0.05 mmol) were dissolved in a mixture of 13.5 mL 2-ethoxyethanol and 1.5 mL water. The mixture was stirred at 115 °C under argon for 2 h. The reaction mixture was let to reach room temperature then activated-carbon was added and stirred for 20 min. The mixture was filtered, the solid was washed with ethanol and the combined filtrates were evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60) with chloroform as the eluent. The crude product was triturated with Et2O, collected and air dried, affording the title compound (122 mg, 0.35 mmol, 20%).

[1001] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
28a-1 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 353 3.598 100 n/a
28a-2 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 354 2.375 99 n/a

Step B


6-Hydroxy-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperidine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]-benzothiazole-7-carbaldehyde



[1002] A mixture of [4-(6-Hydroxy-benzothiazol-2-yl)-phenyl]-(4-methyl-piperidin-1-yl)-methanone (120 mg, 0.34 mmol), hexamethylenetetramine (190 mg, 1.36 mmol) and trifluoroacetic acid (2 mL) was stirred in a closed vessel under argon atmosphere at 120 °C for 1 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and 10 mL of water was added. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to 8 by dropwise addition of saturated NaHCO3 solution, and extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 15 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica (Kieselgel 60), eluting with chloroform - methanol 99:1. The title compound (34 mg, 0.089 mmol, 26%) was obtained as pale yellow crystals.

[1003] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 11.20 (s, 1H), 10.35 (s, 1H), 8.13 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.52 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.13 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (br. s., 1H), 3.76 (br. s., 1H), 3.03 (br. s., 1H), 2.80 (br. s., 1H), 1.81 (br. s., 1H), 1.57 - 1.72 (m, 2H), 1.07 - 1.35 (m, 2H), 1.00 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H).

[1004] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
28-1 28a-1

BB_LCMS01(-) 381 3.645 100 98
28-2 28a-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 382 2.479 97 95

EXAMPLE 29


6-Hydroxy-2-[5-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-thiophen-2-yl]-benzothiazole-7-carbaldehyde



[1005] 


Step A


5-(6-Methoxy-benzothiazol-2-yl)-thiophene-2-carboxylic acid



[1006] 2-Bromo-6-methoxy-benzothiazole (1.22 g, 5.00 mmol), 2-carboxythiophene-5-boronic acid (860 mg, 5.00 mmol), sodium carbonate (2.65 g, 25.00 mmol) and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (300 mg, 0.25 mmol) were dissolved in a mixture of 80 mL N,N-dimethylformamide and 80 mL water. The mixture was stirred at 120 °C under argon for 2 h. The reaction mixture was evaporated and the residue was partitioned between 100 mL of water and 100 mL of dichloromethane. A considerable amount of white solid precipitated between the layers and was filtered off and triturated with diethyl ether, affording the title compound (550 mg, 1.89 mmol, 38%) as a white powder.
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
29a -

BB_LCMS01(+) 292 3.490 94 n/a

Step B


5-(6-Hydroxy-benzothiazol-2-yl)-thiophene-2-carboxylic acid



[1007] To dry tetrahydrofuran (30 mL), 1-methylpiperazine (834 µL, 756 mg, 7.56 mmol), triethylamine (1.05 mL, 762 mg, 7.56 mmol) 5-(6-Methoxy-benzothiazol-2-yl)-thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (550 mg, 1.89 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (510 mg, 3.78 mmol) and 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimid hydrochloride (726 mg, 3.78) were added sequentially. The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight then was evaporated. The residue was suspended in saturated sodium bicarbonate (20 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 20mL). The combined organic layers were dried (Na2SO4), evaporated and recrystallized from toluene. The title compound (399 mg, 1.070 mmol, 57%) was isolated as a white powder.
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
29b 29a

BB_LCMS01(+) 374 2.708 94 n/a

Step C


[5-(6-Hydroxy-benzothiazol-2-yl)-thiophen-2-yl]-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-methanone



[1008] To a solution of 5-(6-Hydroxy-benzothiazol-2-yl)-thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (375 mg, 1.00 mmol) in abs. dichloromethane (3 mL) stirred under argon at -78 °C, boron tribromide (769 µl, 2.00 g, 8.00 mmol) was added via syringe and the mixture was stirred for 1 h and then allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 12 h. The reaction was quenched at -78 °C by addition of methanol (0.50 mL) and the mixture was for 1 h and allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 1 h. The volatiles were removed and the solid residue was recrystallized with ethanol, filtered, washed with diethyl-ether and dried to give the title compound (295 mg, 0.82 mmol, 82%) as a gray solid.
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
29c 29b

BB_LCMS01(+) 360 2.346 95 n/a

Step D


6-Hydroxy-2-[5-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-thiophen-2-yl]-benzothiazole-7-carbaldehyde



[1009] A mixture of [5-(6-Hydroxy-benzothiazol-2-yl)-thiophen-2-yl]-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-methanone (290 mg, 0.81 mmol), hexamethylenetetramine (453 mg, 3.23 mmol) and trifluoroacetic acid (3 mL) was stirred in a closed vessel under argon atmosphere at 120 °C for 1 h. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and 10 mL of water was added. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to 8 by slow addition of a saturated NaHCO3 solution, then extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 20 mL). After drying (MgSO4), filtration and evaporation of the solvent, the residue was purified by column chromatography by ISCO on silica (Kieselgel 60) using a chloroform - methanol gradient followed by trituration with diethyl ether. The title compound (23 mg, 0.059 mmol, 10%) was obtained as an orange solid.

[1010] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.50 (s, 1H), 8.16 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.81 (d, J = 3.8 Hz, 1H), 7.46 (d, J = 3.8 Hz, 1H), 7.21 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.63 - 3.70 (m, 4H), 2.34 - 2.43 (m, 4H), 2.23 (s, 3H).
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
29-1 29c

BB_LCMS01(+) 388 2.465 97 98

EXAMPLE 30


6-Hydroxy-2-(4-isopropyl-piperazin-1-yl)-benzothiazole-7-carbaldehyde



[1011] 


Step A


2-(4-Isopropyl-piperazin-1-yl)-benzothiazol-6-ol



[1012] 2-Bromo-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (345 mg, 1.5 mmol), 1-isopropyl-piperazine hydrochloride (271 mg, 1.65 mmol) and dry potassium carbonate (828 mg, 6.00 mmol), were dissolved in 6 mL of dry N,N-dimethylformamide. The resulted pale brown solution was stirred at 100 °C for 18 h in a closed vial. The reaction mixture was evaporated, suspended in 20 mL of water and extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 15 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and brine, then dried over MgSO4. After evaporation the residue was purified by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60) using chloroform - methanol 49:1 as the eluent. The title compound (76 mg, 0.27 mmol, 18%) was obtained as a white solid.

[1013] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
30a-1 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 278 1.345 87 n/a
30a-2 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 278 1.141 87 n/a
30a-3 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 318 0.452 93 n/a

Step B


6-Hydroxy-2-(4-isopropyl-piperazin-1-yl)-benzothiazole-7-carbaldehyde



[1014] A mixture of 2-(4-Isopropyl-piperazin-1-yl)-benzothiazol-6-ol (76 mg, 0.027 mmol), hexamethylenetetramine (153 mg, 1.10 mmol) and trifluoroacetic acid (2 mL) was stirred in a closed vessel under argon atmosphere at 120 °C for 1 h. The mixture was cooled to room temperature then 10 mL of water was added. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to 8 by portionwise addition of saturated NaHCO3 solution, and extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 15 mL). After drying (MgSO4), filtration and evaporation of the solvent, the residue was purified by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60) using chloroform - methanol 49:1 as eluent followed by trituration with diethyl ether and n-hexane. The title compound (14 mg, 0.040 mmol, 14%) was obtained as a yellow solid.

[1015] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.66 (br. s., 1H), 10.44 (s, 1H), 7.62 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 6.97 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 3.48 - 3.55 (m, 4H), 2.66 - 2.79 (m, 1H), 2.53 - 2.59 (m, 4H), 0.99 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 6H).

[1016] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
30-1 30a-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 306 2.228 90 90
30-2 30a-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 306 2.629 95 95
30-3 30a-3

BB_LCMS01(+) 347 1.969 95 93

EXAMPLE 31


4-(7-Formyl-6-hydroxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-benzoic acid methyl ester



[1017] 


Step A


4-(6-Methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-benzoic acid methyl ester



[1018] 4-Methoxybenzene-1,2-diamine (1.96 g, 14.2 mmol), 4-formylbenzoic acid methyl ester (2.33 g, 14.2 mmol) and sodium bisulphite (1.55 g, 14.9 mmol) were refluxed in methanol (50mL) for 3 h, then evaporated to dryness. The solid residue was partitioned between dichloromethane and water. The organic layer was dried, evaporated and purified by column chromatography, eluting with. The title compound (2.65 g, 9.40 mmol, 66%) was obtained as a dark solid.

[1019] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
31a-1 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 283 2.698 99 n/a
31a-2 -

BB_LCMS01(+) 283 2.693 100 n/a

Step B


4-(7-Formyl-6-methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-benzoic acid methyl ester



[1020] A mixture of 4-(6-Methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-benzoic acid methyl ester (1.50 g, 5.3 mmol), hexamethylenetetramine (1.50 mg, 10.60 mmol) and trifluoroacetic acid (12 mL) was stirred in a closed vessel under an argon atmosphere at 130 °C for 3 h. The resultant brown solution was poured onto 250 mL of crushed ice. The mixture was extracted with chloroform - ethanol 95:5 (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. The solid residue was purified by column chromatography over silica (Kieselgel 60) using chloroform as the eluent to give title compound (350 mg, 1.13 mmol, 21%) yellow crystals.

[1021] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
31b-1 31a-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 311 3.287 100 n/a
31b-2 31a-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 311 3.218 60 n/a

Step C


4-(7-Formyl-6-hydroxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-benzoic acid methyl ester



[1022] To a solution of 4-(7-Formyl-6-methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-benzoic acid methyl ester (650 mg, 2.1 mmol) in abs. dichloromethane (30 mL) at -78 °C, boron tribromide (1.20 mL, 3.20 g, 12.60 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture was stirred for 1 h, then overnight at room temperature. The yellow suspension was cooled to -78 °C and quenched with methanol (30 mL) followed by evaporation. The residue was partitioned between saturated sodium bicarbonate (30 mL) and chloroform (30 mL). The organic phase was dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The title compound (360 mg, 1.22 mmol, 58%) was isolated as a light green solid.

[1023] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.69 (br. s., 1H), 10.54 (s, 1H), 8.38 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 8.09 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.84 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (s, 3H).

[1024] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
31-1 31b-1

BB_LCMS01(- ) 295 3.100 98 98
31-2 31b-2

BB_LCMS01(- ) 295 3.054 100 98

EXAMPLE 32


4-(7-Formyl-6-hydroxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-benzoic acid



[1025] 



[1026] 4-(7-Formyl-6-hydroxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-benzoic acid methyl ester (360mg, 1.22 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of dioxane (6 mL) and IN NaOH (6 mL) and was stirred at 50 °C for 1 h. The mixture was evaporated to half volume and acidified with glacial acetic acid. The precipitate was collected, washed with acetone and dried. The title compound (305 mg, 1.08 mmol, 89%) was isolated as a brown solid.

[1027] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.75 (br. s., 1H), 10.57 (s, 1H), 8.33 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 8.07 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.85 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H).

[1028] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
32-1 31-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 283 2.636 100 98
32-2 31-2

BB_LCMS01(+) 283 2.609 100 95

EXAMPLE 33


5-Hydroxy-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]-3H-benzoimidazole-4-carbaldehyde



[1029] 



[1030] To dry tetrahydrofuran (5 mL), 1-methylpiperazine (69 µL, 63 mg, 0.62 mmol), triethylamine (196 µL, 142 mg, 1.40 mmol), 4-(7-Formyl-6-hydroxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-benzoic acid (80 mg, 0.28 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (84 mg, 0.62 mmol) and 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (120 mg, 0.62) were added in the above order. The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The resulted brown solution was suspended in saturated sodium bicarbonate (60 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (Na2SO4), evaporated and purified by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60), eluting with chloroform - methanol 9:1. The title compound (35 mg, 0.096 mmol, 34%) was isolated as a white powder.

[1031] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.71 (br. s., 1H), 10.51 (br. s., 1H), 8.28 (br. s., 2H), 7.83 (br. s., 1H), 7.53 (br. s., 2H), 6.87 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.50 (br. s., 4H), 2.33 (br. s., 4H), 2.21 (s, 3H).

[1032] The following compounds (includes title compound) were made by the above procedure:
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
33-1 32-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 365 2.057 100 90
33-2 32-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 395 2.261 100 80
33-3 32-1

BB_LCMS01(+) 352 2.587 100 95

EXAMPLE 34


(7-Formyl-6-hydroxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-acetic acid



[1033] 


Step A


(6-Methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester



[1034] 6-Methoxy-1H-benzoimidazole-2-thiol (10.00 g, 55.56 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (300 mL). NaH (2.44 g, 60 w/w% in mineral oil, 61.11 mmol) was added in small portions at room temperature. The resulted mixture was stirred for one h then bromoacetic acid ethyl ester (10.21g, 61.11 mmol) was added. After 12 h the mixture was evaporated and the resulted slurry was diluted with HCl (340 mL, 2N) and was stirred for a 0.5 h at room temperature then was filtered, washed with water and n-hexane respectively. The title compound (14.70 g, 99%) was isolated as a pale yellow powder.

[1035] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 267, Rt: 2.586 min, pur: 99%
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
34a -

BB_LCMS01(+) 267 2.586 99 n/a

Step B


(7-Formyl-6-methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester



[1036] A mixture of (6-methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester (14.70 g, 55.26 mmol), hexamethylenetetramine (15.47 g, 100.53 mmol) and trifluoroacetic acid (61 mL) was stirred under argon atmosphere at 120 °C for 1 h. The solution was cooled to room temperature and water (950 mL) was added. This aqueous mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 200 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over Na2SO4 and evaporated. The title compound (1.432 g, 4.87 mmol, 9%) was obtained by column chromatography in 2 consecutive steps followed by trituration with diethyl ether.

[1037] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(+)/: M+1= 295, Rt: 3.084 min, pur: 97%
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
34b 34a

BB_LCMS01(+) 295 3.084 97 n/a

Step C


(7-Formyl-6-methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-acetic acid



[1038] (7-Formyl-6-methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester (1.432 g, 4.87 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of 19.5 mL of IN sodium hydroxide and 15 mL of dioxane. The solution was stirred at 50 °C for 2 h, cooled to 0 °C, and the pH was adjusted to 3.5 by dropwise addition of 6N HCl, keeping the temperature at 0°C. The precipitated yellow solid was filtered, washed with ice cold water and dried. The title compound (1.10g, 4.15 mmol, 85%) was isolated as a yellow powder.

[1039] LCMS /BB_LCMS01(-)/: M+1= 265, Rt:2.390 min, pur: 100%
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
34c 34b

BB_LCMS01(+) 267 2.384 100 n/a

Step D


(7-Formyl-6-hydroxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-acetic acid



[1040] To a solution of (7-Formyl-6-methoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-ylsulfanyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester (500 mg, 1.88 mmol) in abs. dichloromethane (40 mL) stirred under argon at -78 °C, boron tribromide (723 µl, 1.88 g, 7.52 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 2 h. An additional portion of boron tribromide (723 µl, 1.88 g, 7.52 mmol) was added at -78°C and stirred for 2 h at room temperature. The mixture was quenched by slow addition of 120 mL of water. The mixture was evaporated to dryness, suspended in boiling ethyl acetate, and the solid was filtered off. The filtrate was evaporated and triturated with diethyl ether. The title compound (220 mg, 0.87 mmol, 46%) was obtained as a light orange powder.

[1041] 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.64 (br. s., 1H), 10.41 (s, 1H), 7.64 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 6.78 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (s, 2H).
EXAMPLEMade FromStructureLCMS methodLCMS IonLCMS Rt (min)LCMS purity (%)NMR purity (%)
34-1 34c

BB_LCMS01(+) 253 1.977 92 95

EXAMPLE 35


IRE-1α assay



[1042] A fusion protein comprising glutathione S transferase (GST) and human IRE-1α (GST- IRE-1α) obtained from a 500 ml baculovirus-infected insect cell culture can be used to measure IRE-1α activity in vitro.

[1043] Five µl of a reaction mixture comprising IX reaction buffer (5X reaction buffer is 100 mM Hepes pH 7.5, 250 mM KOAc, 2.5 mM MgCl2), 3mM DTT, and 0.4% polyethylene glycol water is added to each well of 384 well plates. Twenty-five nanoliters of a 1 mM test compound solution are added to test wells. Three µl of a 128 ng/ml IRE-1α preparation are added to each test well and to positive control wells (final concentration 5.82 ng/well). Negative control wells contain only reaction mixture and test compound.

[1044] After spinning the plates at 1200 rpm for 30 seconds, 3 µl of an IRE-1α human mini-XBP-1 mRNA stem-loop substrate 5'-CAGUCCGCAGCACUG-3' (SEQ ID NO:1), labeled with the fluorescent dye Cy5 at the 5' end and Black Hole Quencher 2 (BH2) at the 3' end, are added to each well of a control plate. The plates are again spun at 1200 rpm for 30 seconds. Final concentrations for the assay are: 63 nM IRE-1α substrate, 5.82 ng IRE-1α protein, and 2.5 µM test compound.

[1045] The plates are covered with lids and incubated for one hour at 30 °C. The plates are then transferred to an ACQUEST™ microplate reader. Data is analyzed using data analysis software, and the percent activity of IRE-1α is calculated.

EXAMPLE 36


Determination of IC50 for inhibition of IRE-1α



[1046] IC50 for inhibition of IRE-1α of compounds identified in Table 1 was measured as described in EXAMPLE 35.

EXAMPLE 37


Kinase selectivity assays



[1047] Compounds are assayed for their ability to inhibit 86 different kinases at a concentration of 10 µM. The results of the assays demonstrate that these compounds are selective for IRE-1α.

EXAMPLE 38


Cell-based assays



[1048] Human myeloma MM.1s cells are incubated with a compound for 1.25 hours before stressing the cells with 2mM dithiothreitol (DTT). After an additional 45 minutes (2 hours total) with compound and DTT, the cells are harvested with TRIZOL® (a monophasic solution of phenol and guanidine isothiocyanate), and total RNA is prepared as directed by the manufacturer (Invitrogen). Human XBP-1 is amplified by RT-PCR with the following primers, which flank the 26 base unconventional intron excised by IRE-1α:

CCTGGTTGCTGAAGAGGAGG (SEQ ID NO:2) (forward) and

CCATGGGGAGATGTTCTGGAG (SEQ ID NO:3) (reverse).



[1049] In unstressed cells, IRE-1α is inactive and hence, the 26 base intron is left in the XBP-1 mRNA. RT-PCR of unstressed (U) cells then generates the upper band. When cells are stressed (S) with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressing agent DTT, IRE-1α is activated due to accumulating unfolded protein and the resulting RT-PCR product is 26 base pairs shorter. Increasing amounts of the compound block IRE-1α-mediated XBP-1 splicing as demonstrated by a shift from a lower band to an upper band. Compound potency reflects SAR in the in vitro enzyme assay.

Determination of cellular EC50 for IRE-1α inhibitors



[1050] Compounds which pass specificity assays are assayed for cellular EC50 using endogenous XBP-1 splicing in myeloma cells. XBP-1 is regulated through the excision of a 26 nucleotide intron from the XBP-1 mRNA by the highly specific endoribonuclease activity of IRE-1α. This splicing event induces a frame shift in the ORF of the C-terminus of XBP-1 leading to the translation of the larger 54kD active transcription factor rather than the inactive 33kD form. This splicing event is used to measure IRE-1α activity on XBP-1 mRNA in cells and tissues.

[1051] Briefly, compounds are incubated in the presence or absence of an ER stress agent (e.g., DTT), and the ratio of XBP-1u (unspliced) to XBP-1s (spliced) is quantified by RT-PCR. The ED50 is determined as the 50% XBP-1s to total XPB-1 levels. Compounds which have ECsos equal to or below 10 µM are used in standard apoptosis assays, including Annexin V staining and CASPASE-GLO®.

[1052] Proliferation assays using myeloma cell lines (U266, RPMI8226 and MM.1s) are used to determine ED50. Compounds are used as single agents and in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs. IRE-1α inhibitor compounds inhibit the proliferation of RPMI8226 myeloma cells, which have endogenous activation of the pathway and are further induced by the addition of bortezomib. When an IRE-1α inhibitor compound is used in combination with MG-132, increased apoptosis is observed with U266 myeloma cells.

EXAMPLE 39


Animal Model/Preclinical Validation Studies



[1053] The preclinical validation strategy employs a set of animal models representing normal tissues under chemical stress and multiple myeloma xenographs. The normal animal model is employed as a surrogate model where dose-related on-target activity of compounds can be confirmed in tissues sensitive to standard UPR inducing agents such as tunicamycin (Wu et al., Dev Cell. 2007 Sep;13(1d):351-64). Normal mouse tissues are not under ER stress, and therefore the XBP-1 mRNA remains as the inactive, unspliced form. Upon induction with tunicamycin, tissues induce active XBP-1 mRNA splicing, and this activity is suppressed by IRE-1α inhibitors. This on-target ER stress animal model is a useful screening and early pharmacokinetic tool.

[1054] Antibody production is evaluated in a second surrogate model. However, in cell-based models, IRE-1α inhibitors have been shown to potently inhibit antibody production.

[1055] Final efficacy studies are performed in myeloma xenograft models, as described below.

EXAMPLE 40


RPMI8226 xenograft efficacy model



[1056] SCID mice are evaluated for their ability to support implantation of desired tumor cells in support of model development and characterization. Mice are injected intravenously (5) or implanted either subcutaneously (SC) or intraperitoneally (IP). To generate a relevant animal model mimicking human disease, it is desirable that all three approaches are evaluated for improved implantation rates and relevant disease progression, as is well known in the art. SC injections provide an easy way to measure tumor growth and efficacy, and IV and IP injections represent a more physiologically relevant model of human tumor spread. SC injections are given primarily in the flank, while IV injections are administered in the tail vein. Mice are manually restrained for SC and IP injections, and a Broome mouse restrainer is used for IV injections.

EXAMPLE 41


Evaluation of IRE-1α inhibitor compounds in a xenograft efficacy model



[1057] SCID mice are implanted with tumor cells (human RPMI8226 myeloma cells) via IP, IV or SC routes based on the results from the xenograft model development studies (above). Mice are treated with compound or mock treated (vehicle) for a period of up to 4-5 weeks. Compound administration can be via IV, IP, PO or SC routes. In some cases, tunicamycin is administered via IP injection in order to stimulate stress in the animal. This stress mimics the stress an animal may undergo during times of tumor growth. The tunicaymycin injection mimics tumor growth during times of stress and permits evaluation of biomarkers which indicate the effectiveness of a compound (such as XBP-1 splicing) by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, or Western blots.

[1058] Mice are monitored for tumor growth, regression and general health. Tumors are collected and characterized by immunohistochemistry and/or FACS analysis. Tumor growth is measured by calipers, ultrasound, or by abdominal lavage. Biomarkers in the blood or tumor can evaluated (primarily XBP-1 splicing).

[1059] In some experiments, blood samples are collected at various time points during the dosing (i.e., for example, day 1 or week 4) to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile. The time points of blood collection vary depending on the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug being tested. The volume of blood sample is 100 microliters/per time point, and mice are bled twice after drug administration within a 24 hour period via retro-orbital sinus. If the same mouse is used, blood samples are collected once from each eye during 24 hours.

[1060] Tumor cells are cultured and injected IP, IV (tail vein) or SC (flank) in the mouse using a 21G needle in a volume of approx 100 µL. Mice are treated with compounds or vehicle alone as a control by IV, IP, SC or PO routes 5 days per week for up to 4-5 weeks. Blood is collected via retroorbital bleed (100 µl) at 2 time points (different eyes). The endpoint of the study depends on the overall health of the mice: while mice are euthanized at the end of 4-5 weeks in most studies, mice are maintained until day 40 in a few studies if their general health will allow. The reason for maintaining studies for 40 days is to determine if the tested compounds have a long term effect on inhibiting tumor growth. Euthanization of mice in which tumor regression is observed will depend on the experimental design. In screening mode, the experiment will end with tumors in the control/untreated group reach 1.5 cm, are ulcerated or when loss of motility is observed in that group. In follow up experiments, mice in which tumor regression is observed may be maintained longer, until they show signs of tumor growth of ill health.

[1061] Therapeutic dosing with bortezomib 0.75mg/ kg IV twice weekly of SCID mice bearing human myeloma RPMI8226 tumor xenografts resulted in suppression of tumor growth. However, after cessation of bortezomib therapy, tumors often recurred and grew into large masses. Therefore, mice will be treated in combination as with both bortezomib (as indicated) and twice daily with 10-60mg/kg IRE-1α/XBP-1 inhibitors such as compound 17-1 by oral, IP or IV administration. Compounds which reduce the incidence of tumor recurrence are identified.

EXAMPLE 42


Combination therapies



[1062] The spliced form of XBP-1, as a homodimer and heterodimer with ATF-6, transcriptionally regulates genes involved in adapting to ER stress (Wu et al., Dev Cell. 2007 Sep;13(1d):351-64). Many of these downstream targets are major chaperones, co-chaperones and ERAD components of the ER. Chaperones such as GRP78 and GRP94 are stable and long lived proteins with half lives on the order of days (Wu et al., Dev Cell. 2007 Sep;13(1d):351-64). Therefore, treatment of cancer with an IRE-1α/XBP-1 inhibitor may require up to 5 to 6 days of treatment in each cycle.

[1063] In some embodiments, combination therapy given in cycles such as with proteasome inhibitors involves giving the patient 2 days of pretreatment with IRE-1α/XBP-1 inhibitor and then simultaneously with the chemotherapeutic agent until a pharmacodynamic effect is achieved (typically 24 hours post bortezomib infusion). Bortezomib is typically administered on three week cycles, every 1, 4, 8 and 11 days (of 21). Dosing is 1.3mg/m2 by IV administration. IRE-1α/XBP-1 inhibitors can be administered 2 day prior and 24 hours post infusion of bortezomib at 10 to 100 mg/kg by the IV or oral route once, twice or three times daily depending on the PK/PD relationship.

[1064] A similar protocol can be employed with Hsp90 and or HDAC inhibitors. Alternatively, both agents are administered simultaneously for the duration of each cycle depending on the PK/PD relation of the inhibitor. 1RE-1α/XBP-1 inhibitors can be given to breast cancer patients in combination with Tamoxifen (Gomez et al., FASEB J. 2007 Dec;21(2):4013-27) or in combination with Sorafinib to various other cancers including kidney carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (Rahmani et al., Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Aug;27(15):5499-513).

[1065] In general, because many kinase inhibitors often are not selective on their targeted kinase and often affect many additional kinases; they may cause non-specific cellular stress which may activate the UPR. Therefore, combination approaches may be useful using IRE-1α/XBP-1 inhibitors as sensitizing agents.

EXAMPLE 43


Inhibition of RIDD-targeted degradation


a. Experimental procedures



[1066] Cell culture. RPMI 8226 cells were grown in monolayer culture using Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) at 37°C and 5% CO2. Compounds were kept as 10mM stock in DMSO at -20°C and diluted in medium to 10µM. Thapsigargin (Tg) was resuspended in DMSO and diluted in medium.

[1067] RT-qPCR. Procedures for measuring XBP-1s and XBP-1u mRNAs have been described previously (Volkmann et al., J. Biol. Chem. 286, 12743-55, 2011). Briefly, total RNA was harvested from cells or tissue using TRIZOL® (Invitrogen) according to the manufacture's procedures. After ethanol precipitation and resuspension of the RNA, RIBOGREEN® (Invitrogen) was used to quantify the yield-and normalize the RNA concentration in the source tube containing isolated RNA. RT-PCR was performed by oligo dT priming, SUPERSCRIPT® II (Invitrogen) and reverse transcription using the AMPLITAQ GOLD® Kit (Applied Biosystems) according to the manufacturer's protocols. Primers for human XBP-1 were 5'-CCTGGTTGCTGAAGAGGAGG-3' (forward, SEQ ID NO:2 ) and 5'-CCATGGGGAGATGTTCTGGAG-3' (reverse, SEQ ID NO:3).

[1068] All DNA oligos were purchased from IDT DNA Technologies. PCR reactions were run on a Bio-Rad PTC-100® 96-well thermocycler; heating at 94°C for 30 seconds, annealing at 58°C for 30 seconds polymerizing at 72°C for 30 seconds for 35 cycles.

[1069] The same RNA preparations were used to evaluate levels of CD59 and Blos1 by RT-qPCR. CD59 primers were and the probe and primer sequences were

CD59 224s: CCAGTTGGTGTAGGAGTTGAGACC (SEQ ID NO:4);

CD59 354a: AGGCTATGACCTGAATGGCAGA (SEQ ID NO:5); and

CD59ap: CAGCCAGGACGAGCAGCAGCCCG (SEQ ID NO:6).



[1070] Blos1 probes were commercially available from Applied Biosciences (Hs00155241_m1).

b. Results



[1071] Low levels of IRE-1α activation where observed in unstressed human RPMI 8226 plasmacytoma cells as demonstrated small amounts of XBP-1s relative to XBP-1u (Fig. 1). Treatment of RPMI cells for 2 hours with 300nM Thapsigargin (Tg) induced near complete conversion of XBP-1u to XBP-1s and 10uM compound inhibited this completely (Fig. 1). When compound B was added in combination with Tg for the 2 ,4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 hours, complete inhibition of XBP-1s with repopulation of XBP-1u was observed. RNA samples from this experiment were subjected RT-qPCR using specific primers for CD59 and Blos1. Inhibition of RIDD targeted degradation of Blos1 (Hollien, 2009) and CD59 (Oikawa, 2007) was observed by RT-qPCR. (Fig. 2).

EXAMPLE 44


Measurement of XBP-1 slicing inhibition in the livers and kidneys of CB17 SCID mice in response to tunicamycin and subsequent treatment with an IRE-1α inhibitor



[1072] CB17 SCID mice were treated with 1mg/kg tunicamycin by intraperitoneal (IP) injection at time 0 (T=0). Two hours later, compound A formulated in 10% hydroxy beta propyl cyclo dextran HBPCD was administered by IP injection. Doses were 50mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 10mg/kg (4 mice in each group). Mice were sacrificed two hours later (4 hours from T=0), and the designated organs were harvested (Figure 3A).

[1073] RT-PCR analysis was performed using murine-specific XBP-1 primers from total RNA harvested from specified organs. The results are shown in Figure 4B. Tunicamycin alone induces XBP-1 spliced (XBP-1s) relative to PBS treated mice. Dose response for target inhibition (XBP-1s) can be observed with increasing doses of compound A administered IP in both the liver and kidney. Each lane represents an individual mouse where RNA was harvested and RT-PCR was performed. Method of RNA extraction and RT-PCR analysis is described in Volkmann et al., J. Biol. Chem. 286, 12743-55, 2011.

[1074] The experiment was repeated using intravenous (IV) administration of compound A (50mg/kg, 25mg/kg and 10mg/kg) and oral administration of compound A (100mg/kg, 50mg/kg or 25mg/kg). The results are shown in Figures 4A and 4B, respectively.

EXAMPLE 45


Inhibition of XBP-1 splicing in the tumors of RPMI 8226 human myeloma cells in tumor bearing SCID mice by intraperitoneal administration of an IRE-1α inhibitor



[1075] Mice were implanted subcutaneously with 107 RPMI8226 cells on day 0. After 32 days of tumor growth, mice were treated with 100mg/kg compound B by IP administration. After 3, 6 and 24 hours of exposure, tumors were harvested and RNA was prepared (Figure 5A). RT-PCR amplification of XBP-1 was performed using human specific primers (Volkmann et al., J. Biol. Chem. 286, 12743-55, 2011) and splicing was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Three tumors for each of the time points were analyzed against untreated, 3 tumors, and 2 vehicle treated tumors (Figure 5B). Target inhibition was observed for all 3 time points up to 24 hours when compared to endogenous splicing levels in control groups.

EXAMPLE 46


Inhibition of XBP-1 splicing in the tumors of RPMI 8226 human myeloma cells in tumor- bearing SCID mice by oral dosing with an IRE-1α inhibitor



[1076] Mice were implanted with 107 RPMI8226 cells subcutaneously on day 0. After 28 days of tumor growth, mice were treated with 200mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 50mg/kg and 25mg/kg compound Y by oral dosing. After 4 hours of exposure, tumors were harvested and RNA was prepared (Figure 6A). RT-PCR amplification of XBP-1 was performed using human specific primers (Volkmann et al., J. Biol. Chem. 286, 12743-55, 2011) and splicing was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Four tumors for each dose group were analyzed against 4 untreated control tumors (Figure 6B). Target inhibition was observed for the 3 higher dose groups: 200, 100 and 50mg/kg while the lowest dose group, 25mg/kg was comparable to endogenous splicing levels in the control group.

EXAMPLE 47



[1077] 


Synthesis of ethyl 4-bromo-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate



[1078] 



[1079] The solution of Br2 (58.0 g, 364.5 mmol) in CHCl3 (50 mL) was added dropwise to the solution of compound 1 (50.0 g, 347.2 mmol) in CHCl3 (320 mL) at 0 °C. Then the reaction mixture was allowed to warm slowly to RT and stirred for 16 h. Air was bubbled to the reaction mixture at RT for 2 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM (300 mL), washed with sat. Na2SO3 (150 mL) and brine (100 mL x 2). The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated, afforded crude compound 2 (50 g) as light yellow oil without further purification. The crude product was stored in frige below 0 °C.

Synthesis of 4-(bromomethyl)-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one



[1080] 



[1081] Compound 2 (19.0 g, 85.71 mmol) and compound 3 (10.0 g, 71.42 mmol) were added to CH3SO3H (80 mL) at RT. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h, then poured into ice-water (300 mL), extracted with EA (100 mL x 3). The combined EA was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated, purified by silica gel column (PE: EA = 2: 1), afforded 5.6 g of the crude compound 4. Then the crude product was triturated with EA, afforded compound 4 (2.5 g, 9.7%) as white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 5



[1082] 



[1083] Compound 4 (1 eq) was added to MeCN. The solution of amine (2.5 eq) in MeCN was added dropwise at RT and stirred for 16 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated. The residue was diluted with H2O, extracted with DCM. The combined DCM was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated, afforded crude compound 5 without further purification.

Synthesis of Compound 6



[1084] 



[1085] Compound 5 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) were added to TFA. The mixture was heated to 90 °C for 2.5 h. After cooled to RT, the reaction mixture was concentrated, purified by prep-HPLC afforded compound 6.



[1086] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-4-(morpholinomethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure at 45.7% yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.43 (s, 1H, OH), 10.59 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.75 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.93 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.68-3.66 (m, 6H), 2.56-2.53 (m, 4H), 2.26 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 334.1



[1087] 4-((Dimethylamino)methyl)-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde hydrochloride was obtained by the above procedure at 22% yield. 1HNMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 10.45 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.58 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.68 (s, 2H, NCH2), 4.00 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.86 (s, 6H, 2CH3), 2.25 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 292.1

EXAMPLE 48



[1088] 


Synthesis of 4-(bromomethyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one



[1089] 



[1090] Compound 2 (38.0 g, 171.1 mmol) was added dropwise to the solution of compound 7 (20.0 g, 142.8 mmol) in H3PO4 (200 mL) at 0°C. The reaction mixture was warmed slowly to RT and stirred for 16 h, then poured into ice-water (500 mL), extracted with EA (200 mL x 3). The combined EA was washed with sat. NaHCO3, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated. The crude product was purified by silica gel column (PE: EA = 3: 1), then washed with DCM, afforded crude 4-(bromomethyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (8 g, 55% purity) without further purification.

Synthesis of Compound 9



[1091] 



[1092] Compound 8 (1 eq) was added to MeCN. The solution of amine (2.5 eq) in MeCN was added dropwise at RT and stirred for 16 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated. IN HCl was added to the residue, stirred for 15 min. The undissolved material was removed by filtration. The filter was washed with DCM, then basified by saturated NaHCO3, extracted with DCM. The combined DCM was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated, afforded compound 9 as light green solid.

Synthesis of Compound 10:



[1093] 



[1094] Compound 9 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) were added to AcOH. The mixture was heated to 120 °C for 2 h. After cooled to RT, the reaction mixture was concentrated, purified by prep-HPLC and prep-TLC, afforded compound 10 as yellow solid.



[1095] 7-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methyl-4-(morpholinomethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure at 19.6 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.57 (s, 1H, OH), 10.41 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.30 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.94 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.83 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.61 (br, 4H, 2CH2), 2.48 (br, 4H, 2CH2), 2.24 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 334.1.



[1096] 4-((Dimethylamino)methyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure at 20 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.54 (br, 1H, OH), 10.40 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.30 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.99 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.78 (s, 2H, CH2), 2.29 (s, 6H, 2CH3), 2.24 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 292.1.

EXAMPLE 49



[1097] 


Synthesis of ethyl 4-methoxy-3-oxobutanoate



[1098] 



[1099] NaH (7.71 g, 192.7 mmol) was suspended in DMF (110 mL). The solution of MeOH (2.64 g, 82.5 mmol) in DMF (55 mL) was added dropwise at 0 °C. After that, the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min. The solution of compound 1 (9.54 g, 57.9 mmol) in DMF (55 mL) was added dropwise at 0 °C, then the reaction mixture was allowed to warm slowly to RT and stirred for 16 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with IN HCl (400 mL), extracted with MTBE (250 mL x 3). The combined organic layer was washed with H2O (200 mL x 5), dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated, purified by silica gel column (PE: EA = 10: 1) afforded ethyl 4-methoxy-3-oxobutanoate (1.4 g, 15.1%) as light yellow oil.

Synthesis of 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one



[1100] 



[1101] Compound 2 (1.50 g, 3.61 mmol) and compound 3 (1.24 g, 8.85 mmol) were added to CH3SO3H (15 mL) at RT. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h, then poured into ice-water (100 mL), extracted with EA (30 mL x 3). The combined EA was washed with sat. NaHCO3, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated, purified by silica gel column (PE: EA = 3: 1) 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (620 mg, 27.9%) as white solid.

Synthesis of 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde



[1102] 



[1103] Compound 4 (520 mg, 2.21 mmol) and HMTA (1230 mg, 8.78 mmol) were added to TFA (30 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux for 3 h. After cooled to RT, the reaction mixture was concentrated, purified by pre-HPLC, afforded 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde (200 mg, 34.2%) as yellow solid. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.55 (s, 1H, OH), 10.61 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.20 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.43 (s, 1H, =CH), 4.57 (s, 2H, OCH2), 3.95 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.50 (s, 3H, OCH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 265.2.

EXAMPLE 50



[1104] 


Synthesis of Compound 6:


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[1105] EtONa (1.48 g, 21.87 mmol) was suspended in EtOH (35 mL). The solution of compound 2 (3.50 g, 21.87 mmol) in EtOH (15 mL) was added dropwise at RT and stirred for 30 min. The solution of Br(CH2)2COOEt (3.93 g, 21.87 mmol) in EtOH (15 mL) was added dropwise and stirred at RT for 16 h. The reaction was quenched with 2 N HCl (10 mL), concentrated. The residue was diluted with H2O (50 mL), extracted with DCM (25 mL x 3). The combined DCM was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated, afforded crude compound 6. (5.4 g) as yellow oil, without further purification.

Synthesis of Compound 7:



[1106] 



[1107] Compound 6 (5.4 g, 20.76 mmol) and compound 3 (2.32 g, 8.85 mmol) were added to CH3SO3H (55 mL) at RT. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h, then poured into ice-water (300 mL), extracted with EA (100 mL x 3). The combined EA was washed with sat. NaHCO3, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated, purified by silica gel column (PE: EA = 3: 1), afforded compound 7 (3.0 g, 42.9%) as white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 8:



[1108] 



[1109] Compound 7 was added to amine and the reaction mixture was stirred at 120 °C for 16 h. LC-MS showed that the starting material was almost consumed completely. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel column, afforded compound 8.

Synthesis of Compound 9:



[1110] 



[1111] Compound 8 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) were added to TFA. The mixture was heated to reflux for 2 h. After cooled to RT, the reaction mixture was concentrated, purified by prep-HPLC, afforded compound 9 as yellow solid.



[1112] 3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 26.7% yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ12.47 (s, 1H, OH), 10.58 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.44 (s, 1H, ArH), 5.84(br, 1H, NH), 4.72 (s, 2H, OCH2), 3.94 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.46 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.40-3.39 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.29 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.03 (t, J =7.2 Hz, 2H), 2.51 (t, J =7.2 Hz, 2H). MS [ESI, MH+]: 394.2.



[1113] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-3-(3-morpholino-3-oxopropyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 12.7% yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.44 (s, 1H, OH), 10.58 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.44 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.76 (s, 2H, OCH2), 3.94 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.66-3.63 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.59-3.58 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.50-3.49 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.49 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.02 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 Hz, CH2), 2.65 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 Hz, CH2). MS [ESI, MH+]: 406.2



[1114] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)propanamide as obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 37.9% yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ10.58 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.44 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.72 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.94 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.73 (br, 4H, 2CH2), 3.46 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.35 (br, 2H, CH2), 3.04 (t, J =7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.53-2.50 (m, 8H); MS [ESI, MH+]: 449.2

EXAMPLE 51



[1115] 


Synthesis of 5-(7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl) thiophene-2-carboxylic acid



[1116] 



[1117] Compound 1 (15 g, 46 mmol), the boric acid (8.7 g, 50.6 mmol), Pd(PPh3)4 (1.88 g, 2.3 mmol), Na2CO3 (12.1 g, 115 mmol) were added to DMF (250 mL). The reaction mixture was degassed with N2 for three times, and then heated to 90 °C for 16 h. After cooled to RT, the solvent was concentrated, the residue was dissoloved in sat Na2CO3 (150 mL). The aqueous was washed with DCM (100 mL x 4), and then acidified by con.HCl to pH to ∼ 4. The result precipitate was collected by filtration, triturated with hot EA (50 mL), afforded compound 2 (6.5 g, 42%) as yellow solid. 1HNMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 10.55 (s, 1H), 7.71(d, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 7.24(s, 1H), 7.19 (d, J =4.0 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (s, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 2.45 (s, 3H).

Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1118] 



[1119] Compound 2 (1 eq), HATU (1.5 eq) and Et3N (2.5 eq) were added to dry DMF.The mixture was stirred at RT for 30 min, then amine (1.5 eq) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT overnight. 2N HCl was added, later extracted with DCM. The combined DCM was washed with satturated NaHCO3, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated, purified by silica gel column, afforded compound 3.

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1120] 



[1121] Compound 3 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) were added to TFA. The mixture was heated to reflux for 30 min. After cooled to RT, the reaction mixture was concentrated, purified by prep-HPLC, afforded compound 4.



[1122] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(5-(morpholine-4-carbonyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 31% yield. 1HNMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 10.46 (s, 1H), 10.38 (s, 1H), 7.53 (s, 1H), 7.44 (d, J =3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.17 (d, J =3.6 Hz, 1H), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.67-3.64 (m, 8H), 2.48 (s, 3H). 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ12.57 (s, 1H), 10.63 (s, 1H),7.31 (d, J =3.6 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (s, 1H), 7.06 (d, J =3.6 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (s, 3H), 3.81-3.74 (m, 8H), 2.48 (s,3H). MS [ESI, MH+]: 430.1.



[1123] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(5-(4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde hydrochloride was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 34% yield. 1HNMR (MeOD, 400 MHz): δ 7.48 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H),7.23 (s, 1H), 7.13 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 6.02 (s, 1H), 4.66-4.62 (m, 2H), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.61-3.52 (m, 4H), 3.25-3.19 (m, 2H), 2.97(s, 3H), 2.50 (s, 3H).



[1124] 5-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide hydrochloride was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 22% yield. 1HNMR (MeOD, 400 MHz): δ7.73 (d, J = 4Hz, 1H),7.27 (s, 1H), 7.14 (d, 4Hz, 1H), 6.03 (s, 1H),4.11-4.07 (m, 2H),3.95 (s, 3H),3.82-3.76 (m, 4H),3.70-3.67 (m, 2H), 3.43-3.40 (m, 2H),3.25-3.21 (m, 2H), 2.50 (s, 3H). 1HNMR (DMSO, 400 MHz, T = 273 + 80K): δ10.49 (s, 1H), 8.88 (t, J =6.0Hz, 1H),7.90 (d, J = 4Hz, 1H),7.55(s, 1H),7.18(d, J = 4Hz, 1H),3.95 (s, 3H), 3.94-3.92 (m, 4H),3.74-3.69 (m, 2H),3.34-3.31(m, 4H), 3.31-3.10(m, 2H),2.48 (s, 3H). MS [ESI, MH+]: 473.2.

EXAMPLE 52



[1125] 


Synthesis of N-(2, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide



[1126] 



[1127] Compound 1 (38 g, 249.6 mmol) and pyridine (21.7 g, 275.0 mmol) were dissolved in DCM (750 mL). (CF3CO)2O (57.7 g, 275.0 mmol) was added dropwise at 0 °C. After that the reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM (500 mL), washed with IN HCl, concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column (PE: EA = 10: 1), afforded compound 2 (45 g, 72%) as white solid.

Synthesis of N-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methylacetamide



[1128] 



[1129] NaH (2.2 g, 90.3 mmol) was suspended in DMF (25 mL), cooled to -20 °C. The solution of compound 2 (15 g, 60.2 mmol) in DMF (50 mL) was added dropwise and stirred 0 °C for 1 h. MeI (17.1 g, 120.4 mmol) was added dropwise at -20 °C., then stirred at RT for another 1 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with H2O, extracted with EA, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column (PE: EA = 3: 1), afforded compound 3 (14 g, 88%) as white solid.

Synthesis ofN-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methylacetamide



[1130] 



[1131] Compound 3 (8 g, 30.4 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (80 mL), cooled to -60°C. The solution of BBr3 (30.4 g, 121.6 mmol) in DCM (40 mL) was added at -60 °C. After that, the reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 1 h. Then the reaction was quenched with H2O, extracted with DCM. The combined DCM was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column (PE: EA = 1: 1), afforded compound 4 (6.1 g, 85.9%) as white solid.

Synthesis of ethyl 3-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl-6- (methylamino) -2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanoate



[1132] 



[1133] Compound 4 (5 g, 21.2 mmol) and compound 5 (5.6 g, 24.3 mmol) were stirred at 0 °C. CH3SO3H (50 mL) was added dropwise. Then the mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h. The reaction mixture was poured into crush ice, extracted by DCM. The DCM layer was washed with sat.Na2HPO4, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column (DCM: EtOH = 50: 1), afforded compound 6 (1.2 g , 18%) as light yellow solid.

Synthesis of ethyl 3-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-(N-methylacetamido) -2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl) propanoate



[1134] 



[1135] Compound 6 (0.7 g, 2.2 mmol) and pyridine (0.18 g, 2.3 mmol) were dissolved in DCM (10 mL). CH3COCl (0.2 g, 2.5 mmol) was added dropwise at 0 °C. After that the reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 2 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM (10 mL), washed with IN HCl, concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column (DCM: EtOH = 100: 1), afforded compound 7 (0.56 g, 70%) as light yellow solid. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 7.38 (s, 1H, ArH), 7.00 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.13 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.46 (s, 3H, NCH3), 2.96 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.61 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.43 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.90 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.24 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3).

Synthesis of ethyl 3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-(N-methylacetamido) -2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanoate



[1136] 



[1137] Compound 7 (516 mg, 1.48 mmol) and HMTA (832.8 mg, 5.94 mmol) were added to AcOH (13 mL). The reaction mixture was heated to 120 °C for 5 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC and prep-TLC successively, afforded Synthesis of ethyl 3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-(N-methylacetamido)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanoate (65 mg, 11.7%) as yellow solid. MS [ESI, MH+]: 376.1. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.42 (s, 1H, OH), 10.63 (s, 1H, CHO),7.67 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.13 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.21 (s, 3H, NCH3), 2.98 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.63 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.46 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.86 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.24 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3).

EXAMPLE 53



[1138] 


Synthesis of 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-4- methyl-2H-chromen-2-one



[1139] 



[1140] Compound 1 (0.67 g, 4.8 mmol) and compound 2 (1.13 g, 4.8 mmol) were stirred at 0 °C. H3PO4 (15 mL) was added dropwise. Then the mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h. The reaction mixture was poured into crush ice, extracted by EA. The EA layer was concentrated; DCM (15 mL) was added, stirred for 15 min. The undissolved material was removed by filtration. The filter was concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC, afforded crude compound 3 (687 mg, 60% purity) without further purification.

Synthesis of 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl) -4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde



[1141] 



[1142] Compound 3 (0.58 g, 1.88 mmol) and HMTA (1.05 g, 7.5 mmol) were added to AcOH (25 mL). The reaction mixture was heated to 100 °C under N2 for 3 h. The solvent was removed under vacuum, diluted with H2O, extracted by EA, concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC, afforded 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde (60 mg, 15.8%) as yellow solid. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.58 (s, 1H, OH), 10.38 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.26 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.93 (s, 3H, ArOCH3) 3.63-3.60 (m, 4H), 3.53-3.50 (m, 2H), 3.36 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.95 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2 H), 2.56 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 337.0

EXAMPLE 54



[1143] 


Synthesis of compound 2:



[1144] 



[1145] The solution of NaOH (2.38 g, 0.0595 mol) in H2O (125 mL) was mixed together with the solution of compound 1 (5 g, 0.042 mol) in THF (200 mL). Then the mixture was cooled to 0°C, a solution of TsCl (7.38 g, 0.0388 mol) in THF (200 mL) was added dropwise while keeping the inner temperature below 5°C. After that, the reaction mixture was stirred at 0°C ∼ 5°C while monitoring the reaction progress with TLC. After the reaction was completed (∼2 h), the mixture was poured into ice-water (500 mL), extracted with DCM (150 mL x 3). The combined DCM was washed with water and brine, dried over Na2SO4, concentrated to afford compound 2 (9.50 g, yield: 89%) as light yellow needle solid without further purification. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.79 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, ArH), 7.33(d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, ArH), 4.16 (t, J= 4.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.68 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.58-3.56 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.48-3.47 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.34 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.44 (s, 3H, ArCH3).

Synthesis of compound 3:



[1146] 



[1147] To the suspension of NaH (0.992 g, 0.0248 mol) in DME (25 mL) was added dropwise the solution of CH3COCH2COOEt (3.07 g, 0.0236 mol) in DME (550 mL) at 0°C. After that, the mixture was stirred at RT for 30 min. The solution of compound 2 (6.79 g, 0.0247 mmol) in DME (100 mL) and NaI (3.72 g, 0.0248 mol) were added to the reaction mixture successively at RT. The result mixture was stirred at RT for 2h until some precipitate was formed. Then the mixture was heated to 80°C overnight under N2. Progress of this reaction was monitored by LCMS. After the reaction was completed (∼16 h), the undisclosed material was removed by filtration. The filtrate was concentrated, diluted by H2O, acidified by 2N HCl to pH = ∼3, extracted by DCM (100 mL x3). The combined DCM was concentrated, purified by silica gel column (PE: EA = 6:1) to afford compound 3 as light yellow oil (1.8 g, 32% yield). HNMR indicated few EA entrained that didn't make influence on the next step.

[1148] 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 4.19-4.16 (m, 2H, CH2), 4.12-4.10 (m, 1H, CH), 3.66 (m, 1H, CH), 3.52-3.48 (m, 6H, 3CH2), 3.36 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.25 (s, 3H, COCH3), 2.17-2.11 (m, 2H, CH2), 1.49 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3).

Synthesis of compound 5:



[1149] 



[1150] Compound 3 (2.25 g, 0.0097 mol) and 2-hydroxyl-3-methoxyl-phenol (1.30 g, 0.0093 mol) were added to H3PO4 (200 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 45°C for 2 days. Progress of this reaction was monitored by LCMS. After the reaction was completed (∼ 48 h), the mixture was diluted with EA (100 mL), poured into ice-water (1 L) and stirred for 15 min. Then the solid was collected by filtration, washed with cold sat NaHCO3, brine and H2O successively. The solid was dried by azeotropy with toluene to afford compound 4 as light yellow solid (1.25 g, 41% yield). 1H NMR ( 400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.14 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.74 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.85 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.49-3.47 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.41-3.33 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.20 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.78 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.40 (s, 3H, CH3).



[1151] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde: Compound 5 (2.0 g, 0.0064 mol) and HMTA (3.65 g, 0.026 mol) were added to TFA (85 mL). The reaction mixture was heated to 95°C for 2h. Progress of this reaction was monitored by LCMS. After the reaction was completed, the reaction mixture was concentrated. The residue was diluted with H2O, extracted by DCM (100 mL x 3), the combined DCM was washed with cold sat.NaHCO3, brine, dried over Na2SO4, concentrated. The crude product was purified by silica gel column (DCM: MeOH = 100:1) to afforded 1.3 g of desired product (94.7% purity on 220 nm). The product was further purification by recrystallization from EA to afford 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde (0.8 g, 37% yield) as yellow solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 12.46 (s, 1H, OH), 10.66 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.30 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.01 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.72 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.65-3.64 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.56-3.55 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.40 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.02 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.49 (s, 3H, CH3);
LCMS [M+H]+ = 337.2.

EXAMPLE 55



[1152] 



[1153] 7-Hydroxy-4-methyl-3- [3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-3-oxo-propenyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde: 3-Bromo-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde (142 mg, 0.50 mmol), 1-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propenone (93 mg, 0.60 mmol), palladium acetate (4 mg, 15 µmol), tri-o-tolyl-phosphane (9 mg, 30 µmol) and silver acetate (167 mg, 1.0 mmol) were dissolved in abs. N,N-dimethylformamide (4mL). The mixture was irradiated in a microwave reactor for 1 h at 120 °C under inert atmosphere. The reaction mixture was poured into water (10mL) and extracted with chloroform (3x15 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The title compound (15 mg, 0.042 mmol, 8%) was isolated by column chromatography (Kieselgel 60), with chloroform as eluent, as a yellow powder. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.43 (s, 1H), 8.05 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (d, J = 15.1 Hz, 1H), 7.50 (d, J = 15.1 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.56 - 3.66 (m, 4H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 2.38 (br. s., 4H), 2.27 (s, 3H).

EXAMPLE 56



[1154] 


Synthesis of Compound 2:



[1155] 



[1156] To the mixture of compound 1 (3.0 g, 21.0 mmol) and compound 2 (4.0 g, 25.0 mmol), H2SO4 (9 mL) was added slowly at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at RT overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into H2O (10 mL) and stirred for 30 mins, the formed precipitate was filtered and washed with water, dried to give compound 3 (2.0 g, 41% yield) as light yellow solid.

Synthesis of Compound 7-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-6-methoxy-2-oxo-2H- chromene-8-carbaldehyde:



[1157] 



[1158] A mixture of compound 3 (500 mg, 2.1 mmol) and HMTA (1.1 g, 9.4 mmol) in TFA (50 mL) was heated to 90 °C under N2 for 2 h. LC-MS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooling to RT, the solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC, afforded 7-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-6-methoxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde (150 mg, 26%). 1HNMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 11.91 (s, 1H, OH), 10.42 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.50 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.23 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.90 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.29 (s, 1H, CH), 1.24 (d, 6H, J=6.8 Hz, 2CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 263.1.

EXAMPLE 57



[1159] 


Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1160] 



[1161] A suspension of compound 2 (11 g, 105 mmol) and compound 1 (2 g, 6.8 mmol) was heated to 120 °C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM (300 mL), washed with 1 N aq.HCl (20 mL×3), sat. NaHCO3 (50 mL), brine (50 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to give the residue, then recrstallized in MeOH to give compound 6 (1.5 g, 63.0%) as white solid.



[1162] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-(methoxymethoxy)ethyl)acetamide: A solution of compound 3 (750 mg, 1.98 mmol) and HMTA (1.11 g, 7.92 mmol) in AcOH (50 mL) was heated to 100 °C for 2 h. After cooling to RT, the reaction mixture was concentrated to give the residue, and then diluted with DCM (200 mL), washed with water (20 mL), brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4 concentrated to give 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-(methoxymethoxy)ethyl)acetamide (200 mg, 26.7 %). 1H NMR: (DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 11.78 (s, 1H, OH), 10.41 (s,1H, CHO), 7.88 (s, 1H, ArH), 7.45 (br, 1H, NH), 3.90 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.46 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.37-3.33 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.08 (d, J = 6.0, 2H, CH2), 2.36 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]:336.2.



[1163] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)acetamide: A solution of 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-(methoxymethoxy)ethyl)acetamide (400 mg, 1.06 mmol) in CHCl3 (40 mL) and conc.HCl (20 mL) was heated to reflux for 1 h, and then concentrated to give the residue and purified by prep.HPLC to give 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)acetamide (40 mg, 11.3 %)as yellow solid. 1H NMR: (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ 12.47 (d, J = 0.4 Hz, 1H, OH), 10.02 (s,1H, CHO), 7.22 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.60 (br, 1H, NH), 4.63 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.97(s, 3H, OCH3), 3.60 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 4H, CH2), 3.45 (m, 2 H, CH2), 3.36 (d, J = 0.4 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.57 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 380.2.

EXAMPLE 58



[1164] 


Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1165] 



[1166] To a suspension of compound 1 (30 g, 0.209 mol) and compound 2 (41 g, 0.313 mol) was added CH3SO3H (200 mL) while keeping inner temperature below 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h and then poured in to ice water, filtered and the filter cake was washed with water (50 mL×3), dried in vacuum to give compound 3 (30 g, 68 %) as white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1167] 



[1168] To a suspension of compound 3 (30 g, 0.143 mol) in AcOH (300 mL) was added Br2 (22.7 g, 0.143 mol) dropwise at 60 °C for 30 min. After cooling to RT, the reaction mixture was filtered and the filter cake was washed with water (50 mL×4), dried in vacuum to give compound 4 (30 g, 73 %) as white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1169] 



[1170] A suspension of compound 4 (30 g, 0.104 mol) in Ac2O (200 mL) was heated to 130 °C for 2 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered and the filter cake was washed with water (50 mL×3), dried in vacuum to give compound 5 as white solid (28 g, 81.1 %).

Synthesis of Compound 7:



[1171] 



[1172] A suspension of compound 5 (1 g, 3.0 mmol), compound 6 (1.41 g, 6.0 mmol), Pd (dppf)2Cl2 (110 mg, 0.15 mmol) and Na2CO3 (0.636 g, 6.0 mmol) in DMF (50mL) and water (5 mL) was heated to 100 °C for 10 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and then purified by column chromatography on silica gel to give compound 7 (600 mg, 50 %) as yellow solid.

Synthesis of Compound 9:



[1173] 



[1174] A solution of compound 7 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) in TFA was heated to 70 °C for 16 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to give the residue, and then purified by prep.HPLC to give compound 9.



[1175] 4-(6-Chloro-8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)benzamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1 7.0 % yield 1H NMR (CDCl3 400 MHz): δ 12.74 (s, 1H, OH), 10.65 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.89 (d, J = 8 Hz, 3H, ArH), 7.38 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H, ArH), 6.55 (br, 1H, NH), 3.68 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.58 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.40 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.30 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 416.2.



[1176] 6-Chloro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-(4-(morpholine-4-carbonyl)phenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 9.4 % yield 1H NMR: (CDCl3 400 MHz) δ 12.7 (s, 1H, OH), 10.66 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.90 (s, 1H, ArH), 7.53 (t, J = 8 Hz, 2H, ArH), 7.37 (t, J = 12 Hz, 2H, ArH) 3.77-3.55 (m, 8H), 2.30 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 428.2



[1177] 4-(6-Chloro-8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)benzamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5 9.5 % yield 1H NMR (DMSO 400 MHz) δ 10.46 (s, 1H, CHO), 8.78 (br, 1H. NH), 8.23 (s, 1H, ArH), 7.94 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, ArH), 7.45 (d, J = 8.4 Hz 2H, ArH) 3.82 (s, 4H, 2CH2), 3.65 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.53 (d, J = 4.0 Hz 2H, CH2), 2.26 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 471.3.



[1178] To a suspension of compound 8 1.0 eq) and DMF (5 mL) in DCM (1 L) was added (COCl)2 (2 eq) dropwise at 0 °C in 1 h. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and then removed the solvent to give the chloride acid. To a solution of the chloride acid in DCM (1 L) was added morpholine (1.0 eq) and TEA (2.0 eq) dropwise at 0 °C. After 2 h, the solvent was removed to give compound 6.

EXAMPLE 59



[1179] 


Synthesis of Compound 2:



[1180] 



[1181] To a solution of compound 1 (50 g, 0.4 mol) and 2-Methoxy-ethanol (200 mL) in dioxane (800 mL) and MeOH (200 mL) was bubbled HCl gas at 0 °C over 20 min, and then heated to 90 °C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to removed dioxane, and then the residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel to give compound 2 (30 g, 40.8 %) as waxy solid.

[1182] MS [ESI, MH+]: 185.2

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1183] 



[1184] To a mixtrue of compound 2 (15.5 g, 0.084 mol) and compound 2 (23.5 g, 0.101 mol) was added H3PO4 (100 mL) dropwise at 0 °C over 30 min, and then warmed to RT for 16 h. The reaction mixture was poured into ice water and the precipitate was filtered and recrystallized from EtOAc to give compound 4 as (9.5 g, 32.3 %) white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1185] 



[1186] A mixtrue of compound 4 1 eq) and amine was heated to 120 °C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to give the residue, and then purified by column chromatography on silica gel to give the crude product, and then recrystallized from MeOH to give compound 5

Synthesis of Compound 6:



[1187] 



[1188] A solution of compound 5 (1 eq) and HMTA (4.0 eq) in TFA was heated to 100 °C for 3 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to give the residue, and then purified by Prep-HPLC to give compound 6



[1189] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 15 % yield. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz):δ 12.58 (s, 1H, OH), 10.40 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, CHO), 6.25 (d, J = 2.4, 1H, ArH), 6.04 (br, 1H, NH), 4.21 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, ArOCH2), 3.79 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, OCH2), 3.44 (s, 7H), 3.33 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.97 (s, 2H, CH2), 2.64 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.44 (s, 2H, CH2); MS [ESI, MH+]: 408.3.



[1190] 7-Hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-3-(3-morpholino-3-oxopropyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 52.2 % yield 1H NMR (CDCl3 400 MHz):δ 12.55 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, OH), 10.37 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H, CHO), 6.23 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H, ArH), 4.20 (t, J = 3.0 Hz, 2 H, ArOCH2), 3.81-3.79 (m, 2 H, OCH2), 3.66 (s, 4H, 2CH2), 3.62 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.54 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.43 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 3H, OCH3), 2.96-2.92 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.63 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 3H, CH3), 2.56-2.51 (m, 2H, CH2). MS [ESI, MH+]: 420.2.



[1191] 7-Hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-oxopropyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 28 % yield. 1H NMR (D2O, 400 MHz):δ 9.69 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.01 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.42 (s, 1H, CH2), 4.12 (s, 1H, CH2), 3.98 (s, 1H, ArOCH2), 3.72 (s, 2H, OCH2), 3.50-3.32 (m, 3H, CH2), 3.31 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.07-2.93 (m, 3H, CH2), 2.81 (s, 3H, NCH3), 2.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.45 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.23 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 433.2.



[1192] N-Ethyl-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 9.3 % yield. 1H NMR (CDCl3 400 MHz):δ 12.59 (s, 1H, OH), 10.40 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.26 (s, 1H, ArH), 5.71 (s, 1H, CONH), 4.23-4.21 (m, 2H, ArOCH2), 3.82-3.79 (m, 2H, OCH2), 3.45 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 3H, OCH3), 3.29 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H, CH2),2.98 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.65 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.41 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 1.15-1.12 (m, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 378.1



[1193] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 23 % yield. 1H NMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ 9.74 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.06 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.01 (s, 2H, ArOCH2), 3.97 (s, 2H, OCH2), 3.75-3.69 (m, 4H, CH2), 3.49 (s, 4H, CH2), 3.32 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.19 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, CH2), 3.12-3.08 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.63(d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.26 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 463.2.



[1194] N-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6. 9.5 % yield 1H NMR (D2O 400 MHz):δ 9.95 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.25 (s, 1H, ArH) , 4.20 (s, 2H, ArOCH2), 3.91 (s, 2H, OCH2), 3.59 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.48 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.32 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.95 (s, 6H, 2NCH3), 2.81 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 2.45 (s, 5H); MS [ESI, MH+]: 421.2

EXAMPLE 60



[1195] 


Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1196] 



[1197] To a mixtrue of compound 1 (15.5 g, 0.084 mol) and compound 2 (21.8 g, 0.101 mol) was added H3PO4 (100 mL) dropwise at 0 °C over 30 min, and then warmed to RT for 16 h. The reaction mixture was poured into ice water and the precipitate was filtered and recrystallized from EtOAc to give compound 3 (5.5 g, 19.5 %) as white solid.

[1198] MS [ESI, MH+]: 337.1

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1199] 



[1200] A mixtrue of compound 4 (2.0 g, 6.0 mmol) and amine (20 mL) was heated to 120 °C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to give the residue, and then purified by column chromatography on silica gel to give the crude product, and then recrystallized in MeCN to give compound 5 (0.4 g, 18.4%) as white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1201] 



[1202] A solution of compound 4 (1 eq) and HMTA (4.0 eq) in AcOH was heated to 100 °C for 3 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to give the residue, and then purified by Prep-HPLC to give compound 5



[1203] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 3.5 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz):δ 12.61 (s, 1H, OH), 10.40 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.43 (br, 1H, NH), 6.27 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.22 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H, ArOCH2), 3.79 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H, OCH2), 3.58 (s, 3H, CH2), 3.43 (m, 7H), 3.35 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 3H, OCH3), 2.72 (s, 3H, CH3) .MS [ESI, MH+]: 394.1



[1204] 7-Hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-3-(2-morpholino-2-oxoethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 14 % yield.1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz):δ 12.62 (s, 1H, OH), 10.41 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.27 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.22 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H, ArOCH2), 3.81-3.76 (m, 4H, OCH2 and CH2), 3.70 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 6H, CH2), 3.65 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.43 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.61 (s, 3H, CH3) MS [ESI, MH+]: 406.1



[1205] 7-Hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-3-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 3.9 % yield.1H NMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ 9.89 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.18 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.60 (d, J = 12.4 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 14.8 Hz, 1H), 4.14 (s, 2H, ArOCH2), 3.88-3.62 (m, 8H), 3.45 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.33 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 3.19 (d, J= 12.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.01 (s, 3H, NCH3), 2.37 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 419.3.



[1206] N-Ethyl-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 9.6 % yield.1HNMR (MeOD, 400 MHz):δ 10.35 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.46 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.30-4.28 (m, 2H, ArOCH2), 3.82-3.80 (m, 2H, OCH2), 3.59 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.41 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.22-3.20 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.59 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.12 (t, J = 4.0 Hz, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 364.1



[1207] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 5.0 % yield.1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz):δ 10.40 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.83 (br, 1H, NH), 6.27 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.22 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H, ArOCH2), 3.79 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H, OCH2), 3.74 (s, 4H, CH2), 3.63 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.43 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.38 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.71 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.56 (s, 6H, CH2) .MS [ESI, MH+]:449.1



[1208] N-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6. 10 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz):δ 10.12 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.40 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.29 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 2H, ArOCH2), 3.96 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 2H, OCH2), 3.70-3.65 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.50 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.36 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H, CH2) 2.97 (s, 6H, 2NCH3), 2.54 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 407.1



[1209] Ethyl 2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy) -4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl) acetate: 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz):δ 12.62 (s, 1H, OH), 10.41 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.27 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.23-4.18 (m, 4H), 3.80 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 2H, OCH2), 3.72 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.44 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.56 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.27 (t, J = 4.0 Hz, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]:365.2.

EXAMPLE 61



[1210] 


Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1211] 



[1212] To a mixtrue of compound 1 (1.0 g, 5.43 mmol) and compound 2 (0.94 g, 6.52 mmol) was added MeSO3H (20 mL) dropwise at 0 °C over 30 min, and then warmed to RT for 16 h. The reaction mixture was poured into ice water and the precipitate was filtered and recrystallized from EtOAc to give compound 3 (830 mg, 55.8 %) as white solid.



[1213] 7-Hydroxy-5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-3,4-dimethyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde: A solution of compound 3 (800 mg, 3.14 mmol) and HMTA (1.76 g, 12.6 mmol) in AcOH (50 mL) was heated to 100 °C for 2 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to give the residue, and then purified by Prep-HPLC to give the target compound (32 mg, 3.5%). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz):δ 12.57 (s, 1H, OH), 10.41 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.24 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.23-4.21 (m, 2H, Ar OCH2), 3.82-3.80 (m, 2H, OCH2), 3.44 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.57 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 3H, CH3), 2.17 (d, J = 0.8 Hz 3H, CH3) .LC-MS MS [ESI, MH+]: 293.0.

EXAMPLE 62



[1214] 


Synthesis of Compound 1:



[1215] 



[1216] To a solution of compound a (300 g, 1.98 mol) and SeO2 (17.4 g, 0.156 mol) in DCM (4 L) was added H2O2 (512 mL) dropwise at ice-bath. The mixture solution was stirred at RT for 16 h. The reaction mixture turned to dark-brown in the period. The reaction was monitored by TLC (PE:EA=1:1). After the material was consumed completely (∼12 h), the organic phase was separated and washed with 10% NaHSO3 (1 L), followed by Na2CO3 (1 L) and brine (1 L), then dried on NaSO4, the solvent was removed to get the crude compound 2 and use at the next step directly.

[1217] The crude compound b was hydrolyzed in a mixture of MeOH (3 L) and 10%KOH (2 L) at RT over night. After MeOH was removed, the mixture was acidified by 6M HCl to PH=3 and extracted with DCM (2 L x 8). The combined organic phase was washed with brine and dried on NaSO4. After the solvent was removed, the residue was purified by chromatography (EA:PE=6:1 to EA:PE=4:1) to give compound 3 (140 g, 50.5%) as light-yellow solid.1HNMR (MeOD, 400MHz): δ 6.70 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H, ArH), 6.29 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H, ArH), 6.18 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.8 Hz, 1H, ArH), 3.73 (s, 3H, CH3).

Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1218] 



[1219] To a suspension of compound 1 (120 g, 0.86 mol) in diethyl acetylsuccinate (220 g, 1.03 mol), CH3SO3H (1200 mL) was added in one portion. The mixture was stirred at RT overnight. LC-MS showed that starting material was consumed completely. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (1000 ml) and stirred for 30 min. The formed precipitate was filtered and washed with water and EA, dried to afford the crude product (150 g, 60 %) as white solid.1HNMR (MeOD, 400MHz): δ 7.15 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.75 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.18-4.12 (q, 2H, CH2), 3.93 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.41 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.25 (t, 3H, CH3).

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1220] 



[1221] Compound 3 (180 g, 0.6 mol) was added into 4M NaOH (500 mL) in one portion and stirred at RT overnight. TLC (EA/MeOH=10/1) indicated that the reaction was complete.The reaction mixture was acidified with 5M HCl to PH=3. The formed precipitate was filtered, which was washed with EA and dried in vacuo to give compound 4 as white solid (140 g, 67 %)

Synthesis of Compound 5a:



[1222] 



[1223] To a suspension of compound 4(1 eq) in DMF, amine and PyBOP (1.2 eq) was added sequentially. The mixture was cooled to 0 °C, DIPEA (1.2 eq) was then added dropwise while controlling the temperature below 10 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT overnight. LCMS showed that starting material was consumed completed, the precipitate was filtered and washed with water and EA, dried in vacuo to give compound 5a as a white solid. 5A2,5A3 used the method

Synthesis of Compound 5b:



[1224] 



[1225] Compound 3 (1.0 eq) was added to amine. The reaction mixture was stirred at 120 °C for 48 h. LC-MS showed that the starting material was almost consumed completely. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was washed with DCM (3 x 5 mL) and concentrated under vacuum, afforded compound 5b, 5A1,5A4,5A5 used the method

Synthesis of Compound 6:



[1226] 



[1227] A mixture of compound 5 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) in HOAc was heated at 120°C under nitrogen for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture turned to dark-yellow in the period. LCMS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure, the product was purified by Prep-HPLC to give compound 6.



[1228] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)acetamidewas obtained by the above procedure from amine A1.18 % yield
1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.48 (s, 1H, OH), 10.61 (s, 1H, CHO),7.22 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.61(br,1H,NH),3.97 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.61 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.46-341 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.36(s,3H,CH3),2.55 (s, 3H, CH3), MS [ESI, MH+]: 350.1



[1229] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(2-morpholino-2-oxoethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2.46 % yield
1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.45 (s, 1H, OH), 10.59 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.24 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.95 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.78-3.62 (m, 10H) 2.46 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 362.2.



[1230] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3.7.7 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400MHz) δ 10.10 (s, 1H,CHO), 7.11 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.44(d,1H,J=12.0 HZ,CH), 4.29 (d, 1H, J=14.4 HZ,CH), 3.74-2.98(m,11H), 2.85(s,3H,OCH3), 2.19(s,3H,CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 375.1.



[1231] N-Ethyl-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4.18 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) δ 12.49 (s, 1H,OH), 10.61 (s, 1H,CHO), 7.22(s,1H,ArH),6.48(br,1H,NH),3.97(s,3H,OCH3),3.60(s,2H,CH2),3.28-3.23(m, 2H,CH2),2.57(s, 3H,CH3), 1.13 (t, 3H, J=7.2 HZ,CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 320.2.



[1232] N-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6.9.2 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): 10.61 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.26 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.90 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.69-3.64 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.56 (t, 2H, J=6.0 HZ, CH2), 2.95(s,6H,2NCH3),2.39 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 363.3.

EXAMPLE 63



[1233] 


Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1234] 



[1235] To a suspension of compound 1 (8.8 g, 0.063 mol) in compound 2 (18 g,0.078 mol), CH3SO3H (144 mL) was added in one portion. The mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. LC-MS showed that starting material was consumed completely. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (300 mL) and stirred for 30 min. The formed precipitate was filtered and washed with water and EA, dried to afford the crude Compound 3 (11.2 g, 59 %) as white solid; MS [ESI, MH+]: 306.9.

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1236] 



[1237] Compound 3 (1.0 eq) was added to amine, The reaction mixture was stirred at 120 °C for 48 h.LC-MS showed that the starting material was almost consumed completely. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was washed with DCM and concentrated under vacuum to afforded compound 4.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1238] 



[1239] A mixture of compound 4 (1.0 eq) and HMTA (4.0 eq) in TFA was heated to 90 °C under nitrogen for 2 h. LC-MS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by Prep-HPLC, afforded compound 5.



[1240] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1.23.5 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.42 (s, 1H,OH), 10.61 (s, 1H, CHO),7.20 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.41 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.30 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.99 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 Hz, CH2), 2.52-2.48 (m, 5H); MS [ESI, MH+]: 364.2.



[1241] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(3-morpholino-3-oxopropyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2.39.6 % yield
1HNMR (MeOD, 400 MHz): δ 7.20 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.01 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.93 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.63-3.60 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.58-3.55 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 2.92 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz ,CH2), 2.61 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz, CH2), 2.48 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 376.2.



[1242] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-oxopropyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3.4.6 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 10.61 (s, 1H, CHO),7.21(s, 1H, ArH), 3.96 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.60-3.59 (m, 3H, OCH3), 2.97 (t, 2H, J = 7.6. Hz, CH2), 2.64 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.50-2.34 (m, 11H); MS [ESI, MH+]:389.2.



[1243] N-Ethyl-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 1.2 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.39 (s, 1H, OH), 10.58 (s, 1H, CHO),7.20 (s, 1H, ArH), 5.71 (s, 1H, NH), 3.95 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.25 (t, 2H, J = 5.6 Hz, CH2), 2.98 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz, CH2), 2.47 (s, 5H,), 1.11-1.07 (m, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]:334.1



[1244] N-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6.16 % yield. 1HNMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): 10.44 (s, 1H, CHO), 8.24 (s, 1H, OH),7.46 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.92 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.41-3.36 (m, 2H, CH2),2.83-2.79 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.76-2.74 (m, 6H),2.49 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.45-2.30 (m, 2H, CH2); 1HNMR (MeOD, 400 MHz):7.20 (d, 1H, J = 12.8 Hz ,ArH), 5.99 (s, 1H, CHO),3.93 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.53-3.50 (m, 2H, CH2),3.26-3.23 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.99-2.96 (m, 8H),2.47 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.45-2.43 (m, 2H, CH2).

EXAMPLE 64



[1245] 


Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1246] 



[1247] To a solution of compound 1 (1000 g, 7.93 mol) in 1,4-Dixone (2 L) was added HCl/MeOH (8 L, saturated with dry HCl at 0°C) in one portion with stirring at RT. The result solution was stirred at 80°C overnight. The reaction was monitored by TLC (PE:EA = 1:1) and HPLC. After ∼16 h (Note 1), the solvent was removed and the residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel (PE:EA = 12:1-8:1) to give compound 2 (514 g,46 %) as white solid.

[1248] Note 1: HPLC indicated that the material was not consumed. However, the disubstituted by-product would increase if the reaction was prolonged.

Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1249] 



[1250] To a suspension of compound 2 (112 g, 0.8 mol) in diethyl acetylsuccinate (208 g, 0.96 mol) was added ZnCl2 (112 g, 0.82 mol) in one portion with stirring at RT. The mixture solution stirred at 100°C overnight. LC-MS showed that starting material was consumed completely. Then ice-water (400 ml) was added followed by MeOH (1000 ml) and the result mixture was stirred for 30mins. The precipitate was filtered and washed with EA and MeOH (1:1, 800 mL) to afford the desired product (35 g, 15 %, containing ∼10% isomer) as white solid. MS [ESI, MH+]: 293

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1251] 



[1252] The compound 3 (100 g, 0.34 mol) was added into 4 N NaOH (256 mL, 1.03 mol) in portions with stirring at RT overnight. TLC showed that starting material was consumed completely 5N HCl was added until PH = 2. The precipitate was filtered and washed with EA, dried in vacuo to give compound 4 as white solid (60 g, 67 %)

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1253] 



[1254] To a solution of compound 4 (1 eq) in DMF was added CDI (1.4 eq) in one portion. The solution was stirred at RT for 3 h. TLC showed that starting material was consumed completely. amine (1.4 eq) was added into the solution in one portion. The mixture solution was stirred at RT overnight. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was treated with EA and DCM to give a suspension. The precipitate was filtered to give the product as solid.

Synthesis of Compound 6:



[1255] 



[1256] A mixture of compound 5 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) in TFA was heated at 90°C under nitrogen for 1.5h. The reaction mixture turned to dark-yellow in the period. LCMS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure, the product was purified by Prep-HPLC to give compound 6.



[1257] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 12 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.56 (s, 1H, OH), 10.34 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.23 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.88 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.51 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.37-3.33(m,4H,CH2),3.28 (s, 3H, CH3),2.61(s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 350.1



[1258] 7-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(2-morpholino-2-oxoethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 46 % yield.

[1259] 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.60 (s, 1H, OH), 10.38 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.27 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.92 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.75-3.62 (m, 10H), 2.53 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 362.2



[1260] 7-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 9.2 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ 9.65 (s, 1H, CHO), 5.99 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.41 (d, 1H, J = 12.4 Hz CH2), 4.22(d, 1H, J = 14.4 Hz, CH2), 3.65(s, 3H, CH3), 3.59-3.15 (m, 8H), 2.83 (s, 3H, CH3),2.15 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 375.1.



[1261] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6. 9.3 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ 9.89 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.23 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.16-3.23 (m, 17H),2.41(s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 405.3



[1262] N-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 11 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 10.42 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.75 (br, 1H, NH), 6.31 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.97 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.61 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.37(t,2H, J = 3.2 HZ,CH2),3.28 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.52 (t,2H, J = 3.2 HZ,CH2)2.33(s, 6H, 2NCH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 363.2.

EXAMPLE 65



[1263] 


Synthesis of Compound 1:



[1264] 



[1265] A mixture of compound A (200 g,1.44 mol),BnBr (345 mL,2.88 mol) and K2CO3 (300 g,2.16 mol) in acetone was refluxed over night .The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to give compound B (421 g,91.5%).85% meta-perchlorobenzoic acid (348 g,1.72 mol) was added ,with stirring ,at ambient temperature to a solution of compound B (421 g,1.32 mol) in 4000 mL anhydrous methylene chloride.After stirring for 30 minutes ,the mixture was filtered and the filtrate was washed with a solution of sodium bicarbonate ,then with a solution of NaHSO3 and finally with water.After drying on sodium sulphate ,the solvent was evaporated ,the residue were taken up in methanol (2000 mL)and water (2000 mL), NaOH (263.8 g,6.60 mol) was added and stirring was carried out for 30 minutes after which the mixture was acidified with concentrated HCl. One extracts with methylene chloride and then washed with water until neutral. After drying on sodium sulphate, the solvent was evaporated ,compound C (300 g,74%) was obtained. A mixture of compound C(22 g,71.89 mmol),1-bromo-2-methoxyethane(13.4 mL,14.38 mmol) and K2CO3(30 g,21.57 mmol) in DMF was stirred at 80°C over night. The reaction mixture was filtered and filtrate was concentrated to give compound D(20 g, 84%).A slurry of compound D (20 g,54.94 mmol) and Pd/C (4.0 g) in methanol (500 mL) was stirred at ambient temperature for 4 hours under 2 atm H2 (30 PSI).The mixture was filtered and filtrate was concentrated ,the residue was purified by column chromatogram to give compound 1(9.7 g,95%).

Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1266] 



[1267] Compound 1 (9.7 g, 52.7 mmol) and compound 2 (12.1 g, 52.7 mmol) were added to CH3SO3H (500 mL) at RT. The mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. LC-MS showed that starting material was consumed completely. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (300 mL) and stirred for 30 min. The formed precipitate was filtered and washed with water and EA, dried, afforded the crude compound 3 (19.5 g, 100 %) as white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1268] 



[1269] Compound 3 (1.0 eq) was added to amine The reaction mixture was stirred at 120 °C for 48 h. LC-MS showed that the starting material was almost consumed completely. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was washed with DCM and concentrated under vacuum, afforded compound 4.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1270] 



[1271] A mixture of compound 4 (1.0 eq) and HMTA (4.0 eq) in TFA (100 mL) was heated to 90°C under nitrogen for 2 h. LC-MS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by Prep-HPLC, afforded compound 5.



[1272] 7-Hydroxy-6-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-3-(3-morpholino-3-oxopropyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 40 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3,400MHz) δ 10.56 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.36 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.24-4.21(m, 2H, CH2), 3.83 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.76-3.66 (m, 8H), 3.47 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.95-2.91 (m, 2H,, CH2), 2.69-2.65(m, 2H, CH2), 2.43 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 420.1.



[1273] 7-Hydroxy-6-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-oxopropyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 20 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O,400MHz) δ 10.06 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.12 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.57 (d, J = 10.4 Hz, 1H), 4.26 (d, J = 14.0 Hz, 1H), 4.14 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.85 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.67-3.54 (m, 3H), 3.45 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.24-3.18 (m, 1H), 3.14-3.07 (m, 5H), 2.97-2.94 (m, 2H), 2.76-2.74 (m, 2H), 2.28 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 433.2.



[1274] N-Ethyl-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 12 % yield.

[1275] 1HNMR (CDCl3,400MHz) δ 12.36 (s, 1H, OH),10.58 (s, 1H, CHO) 7.38 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.25-4.22 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.79-3.77 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.44 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.26-3.23 (m, 2H,, CH2), 2.96(t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.48-2.42 (m, 5H), 1.08 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 378.1.



[1276] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 12 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3,400MHz) δ 12.41 (d, J = 16.8 Hz, 1H, OH), 10.59 (s, 1H, CHO) 7.38 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.24 (t, J = 4.6 Hz 2H, CH2), 3.79 (t, J = 4.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.45 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.41 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 4H, 2CH2), 3.30 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.97 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.43 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.26 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 408.1.



[1277] N-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6. 9 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O,400MHz) δ 9.66 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.76 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.89 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.70 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.50 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.35 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.24 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.86 (s, 6H, 2NCH3), 2.58 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.32 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.05 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 421.2.



[1278] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-(2-methoxyethoxy)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 13 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O,400MHz) δ 9.64 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.75 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.09 (d, J = 12.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.88 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.83 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.77 (s, 4H, CH2), 3.70 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.36 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 3H, OCH3), 3.30 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.15 (t, J = 11.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.58 (s, 2H, CH2), 2.32 (s, 2H, CH2), 2.05 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 463.2.

EXAMPLE 66



[1279] 


Synthesis of Compound 1:



[1280] 



[1281] The solution of compound (50 g, 396.82 mmol) in solvent (methanol:1,2-dioxane= 4:1,1000 mL) was stirred at 0°C under HCl (gas) for 1 hour ,then the mixture was refluxed for 24 hours. The mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatogram to give Compound 1 (33 g, 58.9%).

Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1282] 



[1283] Compound 1 (25 g, 0.178 mol) and compound 2 (40.7 g, 0.178 mol) were added to CH3SO3H (500 mL) at RT. The mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. LC-MS showed that starting material was consumed completely. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (300 mL) and stirred for 30 min. The formed precipitate was filtered and washed with water and EA, dried, afforded the crude compound 3 (10.2 g, 18.6 %) as white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1284] 



[1285] Compound 3 (1 eq) was added to amine (20 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 120 °C for 48 h. LC-MS showed that the starting material was almost consumed completely. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was washed with DCM and concentrated under vacuum, afforded compound 4.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1286] 



[1287] A mixture of compound 4 (1.0 eq) and HMTA (4.0 eq) in TFA (100 mL) was heated to 90°C under nitrogen for 2 h. LC-MS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by Prep-HPLC, afforded compound 5.



[1288] 7-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(3-morpholino-3-oxopropyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 15 % yield.

[1289] 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 10.38 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.27 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.93 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.70-3.56 (m, 8H, CH2), 2.94-2.90 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.58 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.58-2.53 (m, 2H, CH2); MS [ESI, MH+]: 376.2.



[1290] 7-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-oxopropyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 9.2 % yield. 1HNMR (MeOD, 400 MHz): δ 10.30 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.44(s, 1H, ArH), 3.97 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.29-3.27 (m, 5H, CH2), 2.93 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.92-2.87 (m, 4H, CH2), 2.596-2.593 (m, 6H, CH2); MS [ESI, MH+]: 389.2.



[1291] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 13 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) : δ10.36 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.30(s, 1 H, -NH),6.26 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.93 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.44-3.43 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.31 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.95 (t, 2H, J = 8 Hz, CH2), 2.56(s, 3H, CH3),2.47(t,2 H, J = 8.0 Hz, CH2). MS [ESI, MH+]: 364.1.



[1292] N-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 10% yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz) : δ9.72 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.10(s, 1 H, ArH),6.26 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.81 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.59(t, 2H, J = 6.0 Hz CH2), 3.32(t, 2H, J = 6.0 Hz CH2), 2.95 (s, 6H, 2CH3), 2.72(t,2 H, J = 7.6 Hz, CH2). 2.39(t,2 H, J = 7.6 Hz, CH2),2.37(s,3H,CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 377.1.



[1293] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 7.8 % yield. 1HNMR (MeOD, 400 MHz) : δ 10.26 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.42 (s, 1H, - NH), 5.89 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.05(s, 2H, CH2), 3.96 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.87-3.51 (m, 8H, CH2), 3.14 (s, 2H, CH2), 2.93(t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz,CH2), 2.56 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.43-2.36 (m, 2H, CH2). MS [ESI, MH+]: 419.2.

EXAMPLE 67



[1294] 


Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1295] 



[1296] To a suspension of compound 1 (1 eq), compound 2 (1.2 eq),CH3SO3H was added in one portion. The mixture was stirred at RT 12 h. LC-MS showed that starting material was consumed completely. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (100 mL) and stirred for 30 min. The formed precipitate was filtered and washed with water and EA, dried to afford the crude compound 3 and use at the next step directly.

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1297] 



[1298] A mixture of compound 3 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) in TFA was heated at 100°C under nitrogen for 1.5h. The reaction mixture turned to dark-yellow in the period. LCMS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure, the product was purified by Prep-HPLC to give compound 4.



[1299] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from media A1. 39.6 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.69 (s, 1H, OH), 10.59 (s, 1H, CHO),7.23(s, 1H, ArH),6.72 (s, 1H, CH), 3.96 (s, 3H, OCH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 289.0.



[1300] 7-Hydroxy-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]chromene-6-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from media A3. 8.9 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.47 (s, 1H, OH), 10.63 (s, 1H, CHO),7.01(s,1H,ArH),3.95(s,3H,OCH3),3.08-3.04(m,2H,CH2),2.96-2.92(m,2H,CH2),
2.25-2.22 (m,2H,CH2); MS [ESI, MH+]: 261.1.



[1301] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,4-dimethyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from media A3.1.2 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.38 (s, 1H, OH), 10.61 (s, 1H, CHO),7.18(s, 1H, ArH),3.95 (s, 3H, OCH3),2.38(d,3H, J=8.0 HZ CH3),2.20(d, 3H, J=8.0 HZ CH2); MS [ESI, MH+]: 249.1.



[1302] 7-Hydroxy-3-isopropyl-6-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from media A4.5 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.38 (s, 1H, OH), 10.61 (s, 1H, CHO),7.24 (d, 1H, J=14.8 HZ,ArH),3.96 (s, 3H, OCH3),2.38(m,1H,CH),2.41(s, 3H, CH3),1.37-1.35(m,6H).

EXAMPLE 68



[1303] 


Synthesis of Compound 1:



[1304] 



[1305] To a solution of compound A(55 g,179.74 mmol),2-morpholinoethanol(23.5 g,179.74 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (56.5 g,215.69 mmol) in THF, DIAD (43.5 g,215.69 mmol) was added in portions .The solution was stirred at ambient temperature over night. The reaction mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatogram to give compound B (52.6 g, 69.8 %). A slurry of compound B (52.6g, 125.54 mmol), CH3COOH (100 mL) and Pd/C (14.0 g) in methanol (800 mL) was stirred at ambient temperature for 4 hours under 2 atm H2 (30 PSI).The mixture was filtered and filtrate was concentrated, the residue was purified by column chromatogram y to give compound 1(30 g, 98 %).

Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1306] 



[1307] A mixture of compound 1(6.7 g, 28.0 mmol) and compound 2(7.06 g, 28.0 mmol) in methane sulfonic acid was stirred at ambient temperature over night. The reaction mixture was poured into ice-water and stirred for 30 minutes .The formed precipitate was filtered and washed with water and EA, dried to afford the compound 3(5.0g, 44%).

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1308] 



[1309] Compound 3 (1.0 eq) was added to Amine (20 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 120 °C for 48 h. LC-MS showed that the starting material was almost consumed completely. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was washed with DCM (3 x 5 mL) and concentrated under vacuum, afforded compound 4.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1310] 



[1311] A mixture of compound 4 (1.0 eq) and HMTA (4.0 eq) in TFA (100 mL) was heated to 90°C under nitrogen for 2 h. LC-MS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was purified by Prep-HPLC, afforded Compound 5.



[1312] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-(2-morpholinoethoxy)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 10% yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ10.11 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.31 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.39 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H, CH2),4.06 (d, J = 12.4 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.79 (t, J = 12.4 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.64-3.58 (m, 4H, CH2), 3.32-3.25 (m, 4H, CH2), 3.16 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.07 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.73 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.32 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.24 (s, 3H, CH3); MS [ESI, MH+]: 462.23.



[1313] N-Ethyl-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-(2-morpholinoethoxy)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 7.4 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ9.97 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.25 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.35 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H, CH2),4.03 (d, J = 12.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.79 (t, J = 12.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.61-3.55 (m, 4H, CH2), 3.26-3.23 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.95-2.64(m, 4H),2.21-2.18(m, 5H) , 0.82 (t, J = 7.2Hz, CH3; MS [ESI, MH+]: 433.2.

EXAMPLE 69



[1314] 




Synthesis of 4-methoxybenzene-1,3-diol



[1315] 



[1316] To a solution of compound 1 (300 g, 1.98 mol) and SeO2 (17.4 g, 0.15 mol) in DCM (4 L) was added H2O2 (512 mL) dropwise at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h. The reaction was monitored by TLC. After the STM was consumed completely, the reaction mixture washed with aq.10% NaHSO3 (1 L), followed by Na2CO3 (1 L) and brine (1 L) successively, dried over Na2SO4, concentrated to get the crude compound 2 without further purification. The crude compound 2 was dissolved in a mixture of MeOH (3 L) and aq.10% KOH (2 L) and stirred at RT overnight. After MeOH was removed, the mixture was acidified by 6M HCl to pH=3 and extracted with DCM (2 L × 8). The combined DCM phase was washed with brine and dried over NaSO4, concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column (EA:PE = 6:1 to EA:PE = 4:1) to give 4-methoxybenzene-1,3-diol (140 g, 50.5% yield) as light-yellow solid. 1HNMR (MeOD, 400MHz): δ 6.70 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H, ArH), 6.29 (d, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H, ArH), 6.18 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.8 Hz, 1H, ArH), 3.73 (s, 3H, CH3).

Synthesis of ethyl 4-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanoate:



[1317] 



[1318] To a suspension of compound 3 (15 g, 0.11 mol) and compound 4 (21 g, 0.13 mol) in Dichloroethane (300 mL) was added BF3 C2H6O (15 g, 0.11 mol) in one portion. The mixture was stirred at RT for 4 h. After standing overnight, the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 4 h, then cooled to RT. The formed precipitate was filtered and washed with water and EA, dried to afford the crude ethyl 4-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanoate (20 g, 69% yield) as yellow oil. MS [ESI, MH+]: 268.1.

Synthesis of ethyl 2-(7-acetoxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl) acetate:



[1319] 



[1320] The mixture of compound 5 (20 g, 0.07 mol), Ac2O (31 g, 0.29 mol) and DBU (9 g, 0.55 mol) was heated to reflux for 6 h. After cooling to RT, the reaction mixture was dissolved in DCM (400 mL), then the solution was washed with water, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to give the ethyl 2-(7-acetoxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)acetate (12 g, 48% yield). MS [ESI, MNa+]: 356.9.

Synthesis of 2-(7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl) acetic acid



[1321] 



[1322] The suspension of compound 6 (12.0 g, 0.036 mol) in 20% H2SO4 (80 mL) was heated to reflux for 4 h. After cooling to RT, the formed precipitate was filtered, washed with water and EA, dried to give 2-(7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)acetic acid (8 g, 85%). MS [ESI, MNa+]: 286.8.

Synthesis of Compound 8:



[1323] 



[1324] To the suspention of compound 7 (1 eq) and HATU (1 eq) in DMF was added Et3N (2 eq) dropwise at RT. The mixture was stirred at RT for 1h. Then amine (1.5 eq) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for another 10 h. DMF was removed under vacuum, the residue was diluted with MeOH, the formed precipitate was filtered and washed with EA, dried to give compound 8.

Synthesis of Compound 9:



[1325] 



[1326] A mixture of compound 8 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) in HOAc was heated to 90 °C under N2 for 1.5 h. The reaction was monitored by LCMS. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under vacuum; the residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give compound 9.



[1327] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-morpholino-2-oxoethyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 12% yield.

[1328] 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.80 (s, 1H, OH), 10.53 (d, 1H, J =1.2 Hz, CHO), 7.68 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.97 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.77-3.61 (m, 10H), 2.53 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 362.0.



[1329] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde hydrochloride was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 8% yield. 1HNMR (MeOD, 400 MHz): δ 7.47 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.02 (s, 1H, CHO), 3.93(s, 3H, CH3), 3.58-3.54 (m, 10H), 2.95 (s, 3H, CH3), 2.45 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 375.1.



[1330] N-Ethyl-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 9% yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 10.53 (d, 1H, J = 0.8 Hz, CHO), 7.69 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.50 (br, 1H, NH), 3.99 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.42 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.22-3.18 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.62(s, 3H, CH3), 1.09 (t, 3H, J =0.8 Hz, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 320.1.



[1331] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 9% yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ 10.21 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.26 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.14(d, 2H, J = 12.4 Hz, CH2), 3.88-3.82 (m, 6H, 3CH2), 3.67 (t, 4H, J = 6.0 Hz, 2CH2), 3.53 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.40 (d, 2H, J = 6.0 Hz, CH2), 3.29-3.22 (m, 1H), 2.47 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 405.1.



[1332] N-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6. 8% yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ 10.26 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.32 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.88 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.66 (t, 2H, J = 5.6 Hz, CH2), 3.56 (s, 2H, CH2), 3.37 (t, 2H, J = 5.6 Hz, CH2), 2.97 (s, 6H, 2CH3), 2.50 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 363.1.

EXAMPLE 70



[1333] 




Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1334] 



[1335] To a suspension of compound 1 (15 g, 0.11 mol) and compound 2 (21 g, 0.13 mol) in Dichloroethane (300 ml), BF3 C2H6O (15 g, 0.11 mol) was added in one portion. The mixture was first stirred at RT for 4 h, then heated to reflux for 4 h. After cooling to RT, the formed precipitate was filtered and washed with water and EA, dried to afford the crude compound 3 (20 g, 69% yield) as yellow oil.

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1336] 



[1337] To a suspension of compound 3 (38 g, 0.15 mol) in EtOH (300 mL) was added H2SO4 (1 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux for 4 h. After cooling to RT, the reaction mixture was concentrated and purified by silica gel column to give compound 4 (30 g, 75% yield) as yellow oil.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1338] 



[1339] The mixture of compound 4 (30 g, 0.11mol, Ac2O (43.4 g, 0.42mol) and DBU (15 g, 0.10 mol) was heated to reflux for 6 h. After cooled to RT, the reaction mixture was dissolved in DCM (400 mL), then the solution was washed with water, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to give the compound 5 (19 g, 50% yield). 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 7.62 (s, 1H, ArH), 7.14 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.10 (q, 2H, J= 7.2 Hz, CH2), 3.91(s, 3H, CH3), 2.84 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz, CH2), 2.60 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz, CH2), 2.46 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.57 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.22 (t, 3H, J = 7.2 Hz, CH3).

Synthesis of Compound 6:



[1340] 



[1341] The suspension of compound 5 (19 g, 0.054 mol) in 20% H2SO4 (160 mL) was heated to reflux for 4 h, after cooling to RT, the formed precipitate was filtered, washed water and EA, dried to give compound 6 (12 g, 80%). 1HNMR (MeOD, 400 MHz): δ 7.43 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.84 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.93 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 2.81 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz, CH2), 2.53 (q, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz, CH2), 2.47 (s, 3H, CH3).

Synthesis of Compound 7:



[1342] 



[1343] To the suspension of compound 6 (1 eq) and HATU (1.05 eq) in DMF was added Et3N (1.1 eq) dropwise at RT. Then the mixture was stirred at RT for 1 h. Amine (1.1 eq) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for another 10 h. DMF was removed under vacuum. The residue was diluted with MeOH, the formed precipitate was filtered and washed with EA, dried to give compound 7.

Synthesis of Compound 8:



[1344] 



[1345] A mixture of compound 7 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) in HOAc was heated at 120 °C under N2 for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was monitored by LCMS. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under vacuum; the residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give compound 8.



[1346] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 9% yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.78 (s, 1H, OH), 10.54 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.72 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.03 (br, 1H, NH), 4.00 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.42 (s, 4H, 2CH2), 3.31 (s, 3H, OCH3), 2.89 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.55-2.51 (m, 5H). MS [ESI, MH+]: 364.0.



[1347] 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-oxopropyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde hydrochloride was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 13% yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ 10.12 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.15 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.62 (m, 1H), 4.28 (m, 1H), 3.82 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.63 (m, 3H), 3.24 (m, 1H), 3.12 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.98 (s, 3H, NCH3), 2.66 (m, 4H), 2.43 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 389.3



[1348] N-Ethyl-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 9 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.78 (s, 1H, OH), 10.51 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.67 (s, 1H, ArH), 6.21 (br, 1H, NH), 3.97 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.25 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH2), 2.86 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 Hz, CH2), 2.53 (m, 5H), 1.08 (t, 3H, J = 7.2 Hz, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 334.1.



[1349] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)propanamide hydrochloride was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 12% yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ 10.07 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.10 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.13 (d, 2H, J = 12.0 Hz, CH2), 3.86 (d, 2H, J = 12.0 Hz, CH2), 3.78(s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.62 (m, 4H, 2CH2), 3.34 (t, 2H, J = 6.0 Hz, CH2), 3.23 (q, 2H, J = 12.0 Hz, CH2), 2.68 (t, 2H, J = 8.0 Hz, CH2), 2.43(m, 5H). MS [ESI, MH+]: 419.2



[1350] N-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide hydrochloride was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6. 11% yield. 1HNMR (D2O, 400 MHz): δ 10.10 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.15 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.80 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 3.58 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.30 (t, 2H, J = 6.0 Hz, CH2), 2.94 (s, 6H, 2CH3), 2.70 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz, CH2), 2.41(m, 5H). MS [ESI, MH+]: 377.1.

EXAMPLE 71



[1351] 


Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1352] 



[1353] Glutaric anhydride dissolved in 3000 ml 1.2-DCE,the reaction mixture cooled to 0 °C,AlCl3 (138.3 g, 1.04 mol) added dropwise with stirring at 0 °C, the above suspension added a solution of compound 1 (110.4 g ,0.8 mol) in 600 ml of 1,2-DCE from the dropping funnel over a period of 30min.the mixture solution stirred at RT for 30 min, TLC(PE:EA= 1:1) showed the starting material was consumed completely. The above solution poured into 1000 ml ice-water,the organic layers separated,the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (5003), the combined organic layers were washed with sat NaCl(500 ml2), dried over Na2SO4, the solvent was removed to get the crude compound 2 and use at the next step directly.

[1354] The solution of the crude compound 2 in EtOH (1000 ml) and H2SO4(10 ml) was heated to refluxed for 2 h , LC-MS showed the starting material was consumed completely. after cooled ,the solvent was removed ,the solids was filtrated, washed with PE (300 ml) to give (160 g ,65 %) compound 3 as white solid.

[1355] MS [ESI, MH+]: 280.

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1356] 



[1357] To a solution of compound 3(160 g, 0.57 mol) in dry DCM (1900 ml) was added BBr3 (1142 g , 3.42 mol) in portions with stirring at -70 °C, the reaction solution stirred at RT for 3 h, The reaction was quenched by addition of 1000 ml of ethanol at -70 °C, the solvent was removed ,the residue was chromatographed on silica gel (PE:EA=5:1) to give compound 4(80 g, 56 %) as white solid. MS [ESI, MH+]: 253.0.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1358] 



[1359] To a suspension of compound 4 (42.8 g, 0.17 mol) in AC2O(69 g,0.68 mol) was added DBU(20.7 g,0.14 mol) in one portion .The solution stirred at 120 °C for 16h, TLC(PE:EA=5:1) showed the starting material was consumed completely.After cooled, the residue poured into 500 ml ice-water ,the reaction mixture was extracted with DCM(1503), The combined organic layers dried, concentrated and chromatographed on silica gel (PE:EA=5:1) to give compound 5(40 g, 76 %) as white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 6 :



[1360] 



[1361] The compound 5 (33 g, 0.103 mol) in 20 % H2SO4(500 ml) were heated to 100 °C overnight, after cooled, the solids was filtrated, washed with DCM three times to give(20 g , 78 %) compound 6 as white solid

Synthesis of Compound 7:



[1362] 



[1363] To the suspention of Compound 6 (1 eq) and HATU(1.05 eq) in DMF was added Et3N(1.1 eq) dropwise at RT, after the mixture was stirred at this temperature for 1 h, amine (1.1 eq) was added, the reaction mixture was stirred at RT for another 10 h, after DMF was eliminated, diluted with MeOH, the formed solid was filtered and washed with EA, dried to give Compound 7.

Synthesis of Compound 8:



[1364] 



[1365] A mixture of compound 7 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) in HOAc was heated at 120 °C under nitrogen for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture turned to dark-yellow in the period. LCMS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure, the product was purified by Prep-HPLC to give compound 8.



[1366] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 4.1 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3,400MHz) δ 12.40 (s, 1H, OH), 10.51 (s, 1H,CHO),8.26(d, 1H, J = 9.2 HZ, ArH), 6.93 (d, 1H, J = 9.2 HZ, ArH), 5.95 (s, 1H, OH),3.38.3.37 (m, 4H), 3.26 (s, 3H, CH3),2.83 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 HZ, CH2),2.51(s, 3H, CH3),2.47 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 HZ, CH2) MS [ESI, MH+]: 334.0



[1367] 7-Hydroxy-2-methyl-3-(3-morpholino-3-oxopropyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 3.6 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3,400MHz): δ 12.35 (s, 1H, OH), 10.46 (s, 1H,CHO),8.20(d, 1H, J = 8.8 HZ, ArH), 6.89 (d, 1H, J = 9.2 HZ, ArH), 3.60-3.47 (m, 8H), 2.76 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 HZ,CH2),2.58 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 HZ, CH2), 2.50 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 346.0



[1368] 7-Hydroxy-2-methyl-3-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-oxopropyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 9.2 % yield. 1HNMR (MeOD,400MHz): δ 7.95 (d, 1H, J = 8.8 HZ, ArH),6.89 (d, 1H, J = 8.8 HZ, ArH), 6.06 (s, 1H,CHO),3.61 (br, 6H), 3.01 (s,3H ,CH3),2.81 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 HZ, CH2), 2.56 (t, 2H, J = 3.2 HZ, CH2), 2.51 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 359.2



[1369] N_Ethyl-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 4.5 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3,400MHz) δ 12.36 (s, 1H, OH), 10.46 (s, 1H,CHO),8.21(d, 1H, J = 9.2 HZ, ArH), 6.88 (d, 1H, J =9.2 HZ, ArH), 5.67 (d,1H, J = 10 HZ, OH),3.17 (t, 2H, J = 5.6 HZ ,CH2), 2.78 (t, 2H, J = 5.6 HZ, CH2),2.47-2.39 (m, 5H), 1.03-0.99 (m, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 304.0



[1370] N-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-3-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 5.4 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O,400MHz) δ 10.06 (s, 1H,CHO),7.78 (d, 1H, J = 8.8 HZ, ArH), 6.74 (d, 1H, J =8.8 HZ, ArH), 3.56 (t, 2H, J = 6.0 HZ ,CH2), 3.29 (t, 2H, J = 6.0 HZ ,CH2), 2.91 (s, 6H). 2.64 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 HZ, CH2), 2.40 (t, 2H, J = 7.2 HZ, CH2),2.37 (s, 3H, CH3,). MS [ESI, MH+]: 347.0



[1371] 3-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)propanamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6. 9.2 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O,400MHz) δ 9.78 (s, 1H,CHO),7.50 (d, 2H, J = 8.8 HZ, ArH), 6.78 (d, 1H, J =9.2 HZ, ArH), 3.91 (d, 1H, J = 13.2 HZ ,CH2), 3.62 (t, 2H, J = 13.2 HZ ,CH2),3.38 (t, 2H, J = 14.4 HZ, CH2), 3.12 (t, 4H, J = 6.0 HZ, CH2),3.04-2.97 (m, 4H),2.41-2.13(m, 7H) MS [ESI, MH+]: 389.1.

EXAMPLE 72



[1372] 


Synthesis of Compound 2:



[1373] 



[1374] Ethyl succinyl chloride(18 g,0.11 mol) dissolved in 1.2-DCE (1000 ml), the reaction mixture cooled to 0 °C,AlCl3 (17.3 g, 0.13 mol) added dropwise with stirring at 0 °C, the above suspension added a solution of compound 1 (13.8 g ,0.1 mol) in 200 ml of 1,2-DCE from the dropping funnel over a period of 30min, the mixture solution stirred at RT for 30min ,TLC(PE:EA=1:1) showed the starting material was consumed completely. The above solution poured into 1000 ml ice-water ,the organic layers separated ,the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (5003) ,the combined organic layers were washed with sat NaCl(500 ml2),dried over Na2SO4,the solvent was removed to get the crude compound 2(16 g, 60 %) and use at the next step directly. MS [ESI, MH+]: 267.

Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1375] 



[1376] To a solution of compound 3(23 g, 0.086 mol) in dry DCM (1345 ml) was added BBr3 (173 g ,0.692 mol) in portions with stirring at -70 °C, the reaction solution stirred at RT for 3h, The reaction was quenched by addition of 1000 ml of ethanol, the solvent was removed ,the residue was chromatographed on silica gel (PE:EA=5:1) to give compound 4(12.2 g ,60 %)) as white solid.

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1377] 



[1378] To a suspension of compound 3 (7.5 g, 0.032 mol) in Ac2O(13 g,0.13 mol) was added DBU(3.8 g,0.025 mol) in one portion .The solution stirred at 120 °C for 16h, TLC(PE:EA=1:1) showed the starting material was consumed completely.After cooled, the residue poured into 300 ml ice-water ,the reaction mixture was extracted with DCM(1503),The combined organic layers dried, concentrated and chromatographed on silica gel (PE:EA=5:1) to give compound 4(9 g, 92 %) as white solid. MS [ESI, MH+]: 305.2

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1379] 



[1380] The compound 4 (9 g , 0.030 mol) in 20% H2SO4(200 ml) were heated to 100 °C overnight, after cooled, the solids was filtrated, washed with DCM three times to give(5 g, 70 %) compound 5 and use at the next step directly. MS [ESI, MH+]: 234.8

Synthesis of Compound 6:



[1381] 



[1382] To the suspention of Compound 5 (1 eq) and HATU(1.05 eq) in DMF was added Et3N(1.1 eq) dropwise at RT, after the mixture was stirred at this temperature for 1 h, amine (1.1 eq) was added, the reaction mixture was stirred at RT for another 10 h, after DMF was eliminated, diluted with MeOH, the formed solid was filtered and washed with EA, dried to give Compound 6.

Synthesis of Compound 7:



[1383] 



[1384] A mixture of compound 6 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) in HOAc was heated at 120°C under nitrogen for 1.5h. The reaction mixture turned to dark-yellow in the period. LCMS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; the product was purified by Prep-HPLC to give compound 7.



[1385] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 9.12 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz): δ 12.38 (s, 1H, OH), 10.47 (s, 1H,CHO),8.23 (d, 1H, J = 9.2 Hz, ArH), 6.91(d, 1H, J = 9.2 Hz ArH), 3.38-3.29 (m, 6H), 3.26 (s, 3H, CH3),2.54 (s, 3H, CH3) MS [ESI, MH+]: 320.0



[1386] 7-Hydroxy-2-methyl-3-(2-morpholino-2-oxoethyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 10 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz): δ 12.42 (br, 1H, OH), 10.54 (s, 1H,CHO),8.28-8.25(m, 1H, ArH), 6.97-6.94 (m, 1H, ArH), 3.74-3.58 (m, 10H), 2.54 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 332.1



[1387] 7-Hydroxy-2-methyl-3-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A3. 7.3 % yield. 1HNMR (MeOD,400MHz): δ 7.96 (d, 1H, J = 8.8 Hz, ArH),6.92 (d, 1H, J = 8.8 Hz, ArH), 6.08 (s, 1H,CHO),4.70-4.40 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.79-3.30 (m,8H), 2.96 (s, 3H, CH3),2.47 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 345.1



[1388] N-Ethyl-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 9.05 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3,400MHz): δ 12.40 (br, 1H, OH), 10.48 (s, 1H,CHO),8.22 (d, 1H, J = 9.2 Hz, ArH), 6.92(d, 1H, J = 9.2 HZ, ArH), 6.43-6.36 (br, 1H, NH), 3.35 (s, 2H, CH3),3.16-313 (q, 2H, J = 7.2 HZ, CH2), 2.56(s, 3H, CH3),1.03(t, 3H, J = 7.2 HZ CH3), MS [ESI, MH+]: 290.0.



[1389] N-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide hydrochloride was obtained by the above procedure from amine A5. 9.2 % yield. 1HNMR (D2O,400MHz): δ 10.02 (s, 1H, CHO), 7.72 (d, 1H, J = 8.8 Hz ArH), 6.66 (d, 1H, J = 8.8 Hz, ArH), 3.47 (m, 2H,CH2), 3.26(m, 2H,CH2),3.18(m, 2H,CH2),2.79(s, 6H),2.28(s, 3H, CH3) MS [ESI, MH+]: 333.1



[1390] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A6. 18.6 % yield 1HNMR (D2O,400MHz): δ 10.32 (s, 1H, CHO), 8.00 (d, 1H, J = 9.2 HZ ,ArH), 6.90 (d, 1H, J = 9.2 HZ, ArH), 4.10 (m, 2H,CH2), 3.72(m, 2H,CH2)3.55-3.09(m,8H),2.40 (s, 3H, CH3), MS [ESI, MH+]:375.

EXAMPLE 73



[1391] 


Synthesis of Compound 2:



[1392] 



[1393] Ethyl succinyl chloride(13.2 g,0.08 mol) dissolved in 1.2-DCE(270 ml),the reaction mixture cooled to 0 °C,AlCl3 (10.7 g, 0.08 mol) was added dropwise with stirring at 0 °C, the above suspension added to a solution of compound 1 (9 g ,0.054 mol) in 1,2-DCE (30 ml)from the dropping funnel over a period of 30min, the mixture solution stirred at RT for 30min, TLC(PE:EA=1:1) showed the starting material was consumed completely. The above solution poured into ice-water (200 ml), the organic layers separated, the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (5003), the combined organic layers were washed with sat NaCl (500 ml2), dried over Na2SO4 the solvent was removed to get the crude compound 2 and use at the next step directly. MS [ESI, MH+]: 297.2.

Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1394] 



[1395] The compound 2 (46 g, 0.145 mol), AlCl3 (43 g, 0.324 mol) in dry DCM (240 ml) was was heated to 60 °C for 15 min and additional AlCl3 (43 g ,0.324 mol) was added followed by an additional 15 min. The reaction mixture heating at 60 °C for 2 h, LC-MS detected the starting material was consumed completely. The above suspension poured into ice-water(1000 ml), the organic layers separated, the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (500mLX3), The combined organic layers dried, concentrated and chromatographed on silica gel (PE:EA=5:1) to give compound 3(8 g, 21 %) as white solid. MS [ESI, MH+]: 269.2

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1396] 



[1397] To a suspension of compound 3 (17 g, 0.063 mol) in Ac2O (25.5 g, 0.25 mol) was added DBU(8.5 g, 0.056 mol) in one portion. The solution stirred at 120 °C for 16h, TLC (PE:EA=1:1) showed the starting material was consumed completely. After cooled to RT, the residue poured into 300 ml ice-water, the reaction mixture was extracted withDCM(1503), The combined organic layers dried, concentrated and chromatographed on silica gel (PE:EA=5:1) to give compound 4 (10 g, 47.5 %) as white solid. MS [ESI, MH+]: 334.8.

Synthesis of Compound 5:



[1398] 



[1399] The compound 4 (10 g , 0.030 mol) in 20 % H2SO4(200 ml) were heated to 100 °C overnight, after cooled, the solid was filtered, washed with DCM three times to give(5 g, 63 %) compound 5 and use at the next step directly. MS [ESI, MH+]: 265.2.

Synthesis of Compound 6:



[1400] 



[1401] To the suspention of Compound 5 (1 eq) and HATU (1.05 eq) in DMF was added Et3N(1.1 eq) dropwise at RT, after the mixture was stirred at this temperature for 1 h, amine (1.1 eq) was added, the reaction mixture was stirred at RT for another 10 h, after DMF was eliminated, diluted with MeOH, the formed solid was filtered and washed with EA, dried to give Compound 6.

Synthesis of Compound 7:



[1402] 



[1403] A mixture of compound 5 (1 eq) and HMTA (4 eq) in HOAc was heated at 120 °C under nitrogen for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture turned to dark-yellow in the period. LCMS indicated that the reaction was completed. After cooled to RT, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; the product was purified by Prep-HPLC to give compound 6.



[1404] 2-(8-Formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-N-(2-methoxyethyl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A1. 1.55 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.80 (s, 1H, OH), 10.29 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.68(br, 1H, NH), 6.29 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.00 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.40-3.30 (m, 9H), 2.53 (s, 3H, CH3), MS [ESI, MH+]: 350.2.



[1405] 7-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-morpholino-2-oxoethyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-8-carbaldehyde was obtained by the above procedure from amine A2. 3.95 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.85 (br, 1H, OH), 10.29 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.29 (s, 1H, ArH), 3.94 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.75-3.63 (m, 8H), 3.53 (s, 2H, CH2), 2.47 (s, 3H, CH3). MS [ESI, MH+]: 362.2.



[1406] N-Ethyl-2-(8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)acetamide was obtained by the above procedure from amine A4. 9.2 % yield. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 12.83 (br, 1H, OH), 10.29 (s, 1H, CHO), 6.88(br, 1H, NH),6.31 (s, 1H, ArH), 4.00 (s, 3H, OCH3), 3.37 (s, 2H, CH2),3.18 (q, 2H, J=7.2 Hz,CH2), 2.55 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.07 (t, 3H, J=7.2 Hz,CH3), MS [ESI, MH+]: 320.2.

EXAMPLE 74



[1407] 




Synthesis of Compound 2:



[1408] 



[1409] A mixture of compound 1 (1 eq) and amine was heated to 90 °C for 16 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to give compound 2

Synthesis of Compound 3:



[1410] 



[1411] To a solution of compound 1(1.0 eq) in DMF / water (4 : 1) was added NaOH (2.0 eq) and MeI (1.2 eq) in turn. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 3 h, and then diluted with EtOAc (200 mL) and water (500 mL), extracted with EtOAc (200 mL × 2), washed with brine (200 mL), dried over Na2SO4, concentrated to give the residue, and then purified by chromatography on silica gel to give compound 3

Synthesis of Compound 4:



[1412] 



[1413] To a solution of compound 3 (1.0 eq) in DCM was added BBr3 (2.0 eq) in DCM dropwise at -78 °C in 10 min and then warmed to RT and stirred for 1 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with MeOH at -78 °C, concentrated to give the residue, and diluted with water (100 mL), washed with DCM. The aqueous layer was neutralized by 10 % NaOH solution to pH= 8-9, then extracted with EtOAc (200 mL×3), dried over Na2SO4